Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine or hard liquor.

People have various misconceptions of what of alcohol and what Alcoholism is about. Where some believe anything that is extracted from fruits is wine and therefore anything wine is alcohol. There are 2 types of production of alcohol. One is the commercial production of Alcoholic beverages, this is Ethyl alcohol and is used in the production of alcoholic beverages, consists of C2H5OH; a clear liquid with a burning taste and a pleasant smell. Anonther is the Non commercial alcohol which is also defined as traditional beverages and this is produced for home consumption or limited local trade and counterfeit or unregistered products in Ghana. The legal age a person can consume alcohol is age eighteen and above. In addition some believe that when we drink and fall in the gutter is when we can be refered to as an alcoholic but to the contrary according to http://www.medicinenet.com, alcoholism also known as "alcohol dependence," is a disease that includes four symptoms which are Craving: A strong need or compulsion to drink. Loss of control: The inability to limit one's drinking on any given occasion. Physical dependence: Withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety, occur when alcohol use is stopped after a period of heavy drinking. Tolerance: The need to drink greater amounts of alcohol in order to "get high." We see that all the symptoms highlight someone that take the small amount of alcohol and not neccessarily a person that drinks to stupor.

The common traditional alcohol beverage in Ghana is called “Akpeteshie” and she has been listed among countries where alcohol consumption is high. The alcohol consumed is mostly illicit, this is according to reports that was released by the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) 2008. Furthermore, existing literature on alcohol consumption among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa suggests that a greater proportion of adolescents have consumed or currently consume alcohol. Two Ghanaian studies conducted among secondary school students and among nationally representative samples of in and out-of-school youth found that the prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was approximately 25%. According to the 2003 World Health Survey, the proportion of 18-24 year old males reporting heavy drinking (defined as consuming five or more standard drinks in one sitting at least once a week) was estimated at 1% in Ghana. The alcohol beverages sector in Ghana is booming as 30 million litres of alcohol are consumed yearly and more and more youths are getting involved in th use of this drug. A survey conducted by Ghana Organization on Foetal Alcohol Syndrome estimated that the per capita consumption of alcohol is 1.5 litres - about 7 million gallons of alcohol consumed annually. Doubtlessly, this amount translates to serious economic losses to the individual as well as the nation at large.

Children whose parents tell them to avoid alcohol are less likely to drink alcohol. students who reported easy access to alcohol in the home were more likely to drink alcohol. which in turn are associated with greater future intentions to drink alcohol among children and adolescents. The Add Health study also found parents play a significant role in protecting children from alcohol use. In contrast. In addition. However. A growing body of research indicates a positive association between alcohol advertising and alcohol use among young people.The exposure of Alcohol to the youths by parental relationships and family life strongly impact whether or not a youth will be involved in alcohol use. although to a lesser degree. of those students who reported their parents forbid them to drink (88 percent). children of parents who have favorable attitudes about drinking are more likely to initiate and continue to drink. 69 percent had never tried alcoholic beverages (Krouse 1997).” which was defined by researchers as a sense of closeness to parents and feeling loved and cared for by parents. For example. affective responses toward beer advertising are positively related to current and later alcohol use among children and adolescents. For instance. Parental presence was found to be another protective factor against alcohol use. in a poll of high-achieving high school students. Students were protected against alcohol use if they felt “parental connectedness. Grube and Wallack (1994) showed that greater recall of alcohol advertising is significantly related to more positive beliefs about alcohol use. The relationships between responses toward alcohol advertising .

young children tend to respond morally and literally to alcohol advertisements because of the products promoted. ammonia. liver damage can be very severe. Withdrawal from alcohol.525 with a population of 24 million compared to Nigeria with a case of 26. The liver is the largest internal organ in the body. People with alcoholism should be immunized against hepatitis Band they may need a larger . being predisposed to drinking may make young people respond more favorably toward alcohol advertisements. The liver is particularly harmed by alcohol. Aitken and his colleagues found that descriptions of advertisements and the imagery portrayed in advertisements become more differentiated for youth of 10 to 14. nicotine. and blackouts: which can be fatal if not properly treated. are complex. Alcohol can have major effects on major organ systems. including alcohol. leading to cirrhosis in about 10% to 20% of cases. whereas older youth are able to comprehend the more subtle implications suggested by the images shown as most adults do. & Scott. For example. cholesterol. According to a statistic by the rightdiagnosis. It also makes potentially toxic substances. can cause shaking limbs. Understanding of the complexity of alcohol advertisements also increases with age. In a healthy adult. including proteins. glucose. The blood is then pumped back to the heart. Not eating when drinking and consuming a variety of alcoholic beverages are also factors that increase the risk for liver damage.and The relationships between responses toward alcohol advertising and drinking behaviors. in severe cases. the occurrence of Liver cirrhosis in countries such as Ghana has reported cases of 30. It processes all of the nutrients that the body requires. Conversely. People with alcoholism are also at higher risk for hepatitis B and C. and fats. In the body. and cirrhosis of the liver. and harmful by-products of digestion nontoxic. The liver performs over 500 vital functions. drugs. hallucinations. Children are aware of alcohol advertisements and this awareness increases with age (Aitken. Leathar. it weighs about 3 pounds and holds about thirteen percent of the body's blood supply. About 10% to 35% of heavy drinkers develop alcoholic hepatitis. Austin and Knaus (2000) further demonstrated that youths’ appreciation of portrayals in alcohol advertising is positively related to their desire to emulate the people and lifestyle featured in the advertisements.com. 1989. In addition. it can cause ulcers. vitamins. inflammation or the pancreas. It can permanently damage the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. It is probable that alcohol advertising may predispose young people to drinking. alcohol breaks down into various chemicals which are very toxic in the liver. Aitken. however. Specifically. After years of drinking.103 and a population is 170 million. 1988). Blood flowing from the stomach and intestines goes into the liver where it extracts nutrients and toxins.

Because of increasing demands on their time and attention. it may cause physical or mental retardation. small. facial abnormalities (small head. discipline methods. 1996. Even though the rate of Alcohol use in Ghana is high amongst youths all is not lost. such as parent-child relationships. Several sources have recommended family involvement as important for the success of alcohol prevention strategies. fetal alcohol syndrome. monitoring and supervision. and limb abnormalities. Some of these abnormalities include: growth deficiencies (head. P. drugs. pg 53-65. narrow unusual-looking eyes). we should do all in our power to regulate the time the youths in our care spend outside school and be reminded that every action of alcohol use by us as parents in the presence of the youths will result in them copying these behaviours. The solutions to prevent youth alcoholism should be multifaceted. Family factors. Twenty-eighth annual survey of high achievers’ views on education. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse. communication. can significantly influence alcohol use or non use among youths. parents are spending less time with their children and therefore need strategies and ideas to help them effectively parent their children (Kumpfer 2000). The Youths are the future of tomorrow the cost of medicare is increasing and the limited resources the nation would have used in building schools and roads would be spent on psychological and other health related issues as a result of alcohol drinking.dose of the vaccine for it to be effective. length etc. and in some cases. 1997. "The Prevalence of Alcohol. Richardson et al. weight. and parental involvement. Lake Forest (IL): Who’s who among American high school students. heart disease.). Several studies have found that young adolescents who are more likely to be without adult supervision after school have significantly higher rates of alcohol. social and sexual issues. and Marijuana Use Among Ghanaian Senior Secondary Students in an Urban Setting" Vol 2 No1. and marijuana use than do adolescents receiving more adult supervision (Mulhall et al. Fetal alcohol syndrome is caused by alcohol consumption of pregnant women. The consumption of alcohol greatly increases the risk of abnormalities for the unborn child. 1993). 2003 . small jaw. Cigarette. however. Recent evidence shows that even moderate drinking in young girls(due to premarital sex) during pregnancy can result in serious damage to the child. Krouse. tobacco. For example.

P..Aitken. G. (1988). and STONE. P.. Vol 58 No4. L. DUSENBURY. "Home alone: Is it a risk factor for middle school youth and drug use?" MULHALL.. "Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study" BOTVIN. B. Ten. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. D. STONE. 1996. 23. S.J. BAKER. C. Alcohol and Alcoholism. pg 437–466.F. D. & Scott.. A. P. Journal of Drug Education.. 491–500.. 1990 . Vol 26 No1 pg39–48. Leathar. E.to sixteen-year-olds’ perceptions of advertisements for alcoholic drinks. et al.

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