Abstract—Permanent magnet synchronous machines are known

as a good candidate for hybrid electric vehicles due to their unique
merits. However they have two major drawbacks i.e. high cost and
small speed range. In this paper an optimal design of a permanent
magnet machine is presented. A reduction of permanent magnet
material for a constant torque and an extension in speed and torque
ranges are chosen as the optimization aims. For this purpose the
analytical model of the permanent magnet synchronous machine is
derived and the appropriate design algorithm is devised. The genetic
algorithm is then employed to optimize some machine specifications.
Finally the finite element method is used to validate the designed
machine.
Keywords—Design, Finite Element, Hybrid electric vehicle,
Optimization, Permanent magnet synchronous machine.
I. INTRODUCTION
ELECTION of traction machines for hybrid electric
vehicles (HEVs) is important and needs to get enough
attention. The major requirements of HEVs electric machines
are as follows [1]:
1- High instant power and high power density
2- High torque at low speed and a high power at high speed
3- Wide speed range
4- Fast torque response
5- High efficiency over the wide speed and torque ranges
6- High efficiency for regenerative breaking
7- Reliability and robustness
8- Reasonable cost
Different machines have been used in HEVs so far.
Induction machines, permanent magnet machines, DC
machines and switch reluctance machines are the most
applicable machines [1, 2]. Induction machines are the most
interesting machines for HEVs up to now. Whereas,
permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) are the
most capable competing with induction machines for the
electric machines of HEVs. This is due to their many
advantages including high efficiency, compactness, high
power density, fast dynamics and high torque to inertia ratio.
Interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines with extra features
Manuscript received December 19, 2007.
A. Hassanpour Isfahani is with the Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad
University, Khomeinishahr Branch, Isfahan, Iran. He is also a PhD student of
University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. ( Phone: +98-913-3175753; e-mail:
ahassanpour@ieee.org).
S. Sadeghi is with the Islamic Azad University, Natanz Branch, Isfahan, Iran.
(email:sadeghiaut@yahoo.com).
of mechanical robustness, capability of flux weakening and
high speed operation are particularly suitable as electric
machines of HEVs.
Different topologies of PM machines are available e.g.
radial flux machines, axial flux machines and transversal flux
machines. The transversal flux machine is a relatively recent
developed machine type particularly suited for direct drive i.e.
high torque and relatively low speed [3]. Axial flux machines
have been used in the both low speed direct drive and high
speed flywheel applications. Radial flux machines have been
also considered for HEVs.
Proper performance of PMSMs are greatly depends on their
optimal design and control. Optimal design of PMSMs for
HEV application has been considered in many researches so
far. Consumed magnet material, back EMF shape,
compactness, torque and efficiency are the major aims of
optimizations [4-8].
In spite of benefits and well suited characteristics of
PMSMs for HEV application, they suffer from two major
drawbacks i.e. high cost and small constant power region.
High price of these machines is mainly due to the cost of
permanent magnets. The maximum speed of PMSMs is
usually limited by out put power. This feature may be a
problem in HEVs in high speed operations. In this paper an
interior type PMSM is optimized from mentioned points of
views i.e. cost and maximum speed. To do this, analytical
model of PMSM is employed and constant power region
width and the cost of motor are evaluated and then are
optimized using genetic algorithm method. Finally time
stepping finite element method is employed to check the
validity of proposed method.
II. MACHINE MODEL
Interior typed permanent magnet (IPM) machines are
proposed in different configurations; among them the machine
with tangential magnet poles enjoys many features including
structural simplicity, mechanical robustness, good flux
weakening capability and wide speed range. These features
made it a preferred choice for many researchers and
manufacturers. Therefore this configuration of IPM machines
is also chosen in this paper for design optimization. A one
pole pitch cross sectional view of a 6-pole IPM machine with
tangential magnet configuration is shown in Fig.1. The figure
mainly details the rotor configuration and dimensions as the
stator is usually the same as stator of an induction machine
Design of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Machine for the Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Arash Hassanpour Isfahani, and Siavash Sadeghi
S
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 45 2008
566
and is not the focus of the present design optimization.
Fig. 1 One pole pitch cross section of IPM Machine
Fig. 2 Magnetic equivalent circuit of PMSM
A pair of half magnet poles, two flux barriers, stator and
rotor cores and air gap can be seen in Fig. 1. A magnetic
model and an electrical model of the machine are recalled in
this section to calculate parameters and variables of the
machine needed for a design optimization.
A. Magnetic Model
Magnetic equivalent circuit of one pole pitch of IPM
machine is shown in Fig. 2.
A detailed magnetic equivalent circuit of the motor in Fig. 1
can be used to obtain an average air gap flux density as [9]:
( )
r g
B
C
B
Ȝ 4 Ș 2 1 1 + + +
=
u
|
(1)
where B
r
is remanence of the magnet, C
u
=A
m
/A
g
is the flux
concentration factor and A
g
and A
m
are the cross-sectional
areas per pole of the air gap and magnet respectively.
The magnetic reluctances of stator and rotor cores are
ignored for the sake of simplicity. The values of parameters in
(1) are given by:
m
C
w
gC K
u
=
rec
ȝ
| (2)
( )
m
l d
h h w
rec
2 1 1
ȝ 4
+
= q (3)
4 2
Ș 2
ȕ
1
1
Ȝ
÷
+ +
~
s
r
mm
m
B
B
A
A
(4)
where g is the air gap length, K
C
is the Carter coefficient, ȝ
rec
is relative recoil permeability and A
mm
=t.l represents the cross-
sectional area of the iron bridge above the nonmagnetic
barriers with t and l being the bridge width and motor stack
length, respectively. Also l
m
and wm denote the magnet length
and width; and h
1
and h
2
represent the inner and the outer flux
barrier heights respectively, while B
s
is a limit of the leakage
flux density in the bridge due to saturation.
Using B
g
from (1) in connection with (2)-(4), the maximum
value of first harmonic of PM flux linkage is obtained as [9]:
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
Įʌ
sin
ʌ
4
ȥ
1
g
ph w
M
B
P
N K
Dl
(5)
where K
w1
is the winding factor, N
ph
is the winding turns per
phase and P is the number of pole pairs and Į is a pole-arc to
pole pitch ratio. Also D is the inner diameter of the stator. The
d-axis and q-axis inductances are given by:
d
ph w
d
K
P
N K
g
Dl
L
8
ʌ ȝ 3
2
1
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
= (6)
q
ph w
q
K
P
N K
g
Dl
L
8
ʌ ȝ 3
2
1
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
= (7)
where K
d
and K
q
are defined as:
( ) ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ + |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
ʌ
Įʌ sin
Į 1
ʌ
Įʌ sin
Į
e
d
g
g
K (8)
( ) ( )
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ + |
.
|

\
|
+ =
ʌ
Įʌ sin
Į 1
ʌ
Įʌ sin
Į
e
q
g
g
K (9)
and g
e
denotes an effective air gap and is given by:
e C
g K g = (10)
with ȝ
r
being the relative permeability of PM.
B. Electrical Model
A conventional d-q electrical model of the machine in a
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 45 2008
567
synchronously rotating reference frame can be used in design
optimization and evaluation. In this model the flux distribution
in the air gap is assumed to be sinusoidal and the iron loss and
magnetic saturation are not considered.
The motor vector diagram is shown in Fig. 3. Voltage
equations are expressed as follows:
( )
q q d
L i R i V Ȧ į sin
1
+ = (11)
( )
f d d q
E L i R i V + = Ȧ - į cos
1
(12)
The motor torque is then obtained as:
( ) ( )
q d q d M
i i L L
P
T ÷ + = ȥ
2
3
(13)
where i
d
and i
q
are the d-axis and q-axis components of the
stator current vector I
s
.
Thus the magnitude of I
s
is given by:
2 2
q d s
i i I + = (14)
Since an IPM motor torque depends on the stator current
vector components as well as the motor parameters, the design
optimization is carried out under the condition of maximum
torque per Ampere control. This condition can be as obtained
from (11) and (12) as follows [10]:
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ I ÷ I =
2
2
2 s
d
I
i (15)
2 2
d s q
i I i ÷ = (16)
Where
( ) 1 ȡ
4
ȥ
÷ = I
d
M
L
(17)
d
q
L
L
= µ (18)
Flux linkage and inductances can be normalized as follows:
( ) ( )
max
*
*
2
*
2
* *
ȥ
, ȥ ȥ
I
L i L i L
M
d d M q q M
= + + = (19)
* * *
, ,
M
M
Mn
q
qn
d
dn
L
L
L
L
L
L
¢
¢
¢ = = = (20)
d
q
E
f
R
1
i
q
R
1
i
d
i
q
L
q
i
d
L
d
V
I
s
Fig. 3 Vector diagram of PMSM
III. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
As mentioned above, maximum speed and cost of motor is
chosen for optimization. The price of permanent magnet is
very high in comparison with other material of PMSM.
Therefore we can approximately use consumed magnet
volume instead of motor cost.
The variation of normalized power as the term of
normalized angular speed is depicted in Fig. 4 for different
conditions of motor. These conditions are as follows [11]:
1 ) , 1 ) , 1 ) < = >
dn
Mn
dn
Mn
dn
Mn
L
c
L
b
L
a
¢ ¢ ¢
(21)
For HEV applications the case of b is the best case.
Therefore in the optimization we should keep normalized flux
linkage to normalized direct inductance close to one.
To obtain optimal design considering both power factor and
efficiency, the objective function is defined as follows:
( )
n
PM
m
dn
Mn
V
L

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = 1
¢
t (22)
As seen in (22), the importance of both objectives are
adjusted by power coefficient respect to desirable
performance. This importance can be supposed to be equal by
using the same value for power coefficient.
Minimization of IJ fulfils simultaneously both objectives of
the optimization. Such an objective function provides a higher
degree of freedom in selecting appropriate design variables.
Genetic algorithm is employed to search for minimum value
of IJ.
Genetic algorithm provides a random search technique to
find a global optimal solution in a complex multidimensional
search space [12]. The algorithm consists of three basic
operators i.e. selection, crossover and mutation. First an initial
population is produced randomly.
Then genetic operators are applied to the population to
improve their fitness gradually. The procedure yields in new
population at each iteration.
Fig. 4 The variation of normalized power with normalized angular
speed [11]
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 45 2008
568
Fig. 5 shows the flow chart of genetic algorithm. In this
paper Roulette wheel method is used for selection and at each
step elite individual is sent directly to the next population.
A PMSM is chosen as the basis of design optimization. The
specification of this motor are listed in Table I.
Some of the PMSM parameters and dimensions are selected
as design variables. Design variables are determined through a
design optimization procedure.
In this paper, design variables are magnet dimensions,
motor stack length, flux barrier dimensions and number of
phase winding turns.
The rated torque, the input voltage, the input frequency, and
the pole pitch are main constant specifications in the design
procedure.
Optimization is done using n=m=1. Dimensions of
optimized motor are listed in Table II.
The results of optimization are also seen in Table III.
It is seen that the magnet volume reduces 8.8% and
dn Mn
L ȥ is closer to unit that typical machine.
Fig. 5 The flowchart of genetic algorithm method
IV. FINITE ELEMENT EVALUATION
The design optimization in this work is carried out based on
the analytical magnetic and electrical models of machine
presented in section 2. Therefore, the validity of the design
optimization depends on the accuracy of the models. The
models accuracy is evaluated in the present section by a FEM
analysis.
The evaluation is carried out by a comparison of the
optimized motor parameters obtained by the analytical models
and the FEM analysis. A 2-D FEM analysis is carried out and
the numerical and graphical results are obtained. Fig. 6 shows
the flux lines due to the PM rotor poles. The corresponding
FEM numerical results are used to calculate the motor
parameters and torque. These are shown in Table IV.
It is seen that the error is less than 5% in the motor torque.
The torque error can also be due to ignoring iron loss in
electrical model. Therefore, it can be concluded that the
analytical models are reasonably adequate to prove the
effectiveness of the design optimization.
However, to achieve a more accurate design optimization, a
more detailed magnetic and electrical model of IPM machines
is required. Such models may consider magnetic saturation in
other parts of the machine, flux harmonics and iron loss.
TABLE IV
FEM AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS COMPARISON
Specification Analytical FEM
Torque 6.38 Nm 6.24 Nm
d
L 0.08 mH 0.07 mH
q
L
0.12 mH 0.11 mH
TABLE III
COMPARISON OF TYPICAL AND OPTIMIZED MACHINE
Specification Typical machine Optimized machine
Torque 6.41 Nm 6.38 Nm
Magnet volume 20.2 cm
3
18.4 cm
3
ȥ
Mn
dn
L
0.84 0.98
TABLE II
SPECIFICATION OF OPTIMIZED MACHINE
Symbol Quantity Value
h
1
Flux barrier height 13.1 mm
h
2
Flux barrier height 7.2 mm
w
m
Magnet width 7.1mm
l
m
Magnet length 23.8 mm
N
ph
Series turns per phase 34
l Machine stack length 109 mm
.
TABLE I
SPECIFICATION OF TYPICAL MACHINE
Symbol Quantity Value
r
1
Stator bore radius 47.5 mm
g Air gap length 1.00 mm
t Bridge width 1.50 mm
d Flux barrier width 4.00 mm
h
1
Flux barrier height 15.9 mm
h
2
Flux barrier height 8.9 mm
w
m
Magnet width 8.1 mm
l
m
Magnet length 27.7 mm
B
r
Remanence 1.05 T
B
s
Saturation flux density 1.88 T
ȝ
rec
Recoil permeability 1.05
P Number of pole pairs 3
f Frequency 360 Hz
I
N
Rated current 19 A
N
ph
Series turns per phase 30
K
w1
Winding factor 0.644
l Machine stack length 90 mm
.
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 45 2008
569
Fig. 6 Flux lines at no-load condition
V. CONCLUSION
In this paper an optimal design of a permanent magnet
machine has been presented.
A reduction in the permanent magnet material for a constant
torque and an extension in the constant power region have
been chosen as the optimization aims. For this purpose the
analytical model of the permanent magnet synchronous
machine has been derived.
The genetic algorithm was then employed to optimize some
machine specifications. It was seen that with the same
developed torque the magnet volume decrease about 9% and
also the power speed characteristic was going to be better that
typical machine.
Finally the finite element method was used to validate the
optimized machine. Comparison of results shows the validity
of analytical design.
REFERENCES
[1] M. Zeraoulia, and et al, “Electric motor drive selection issues for HEV
propulsion systems: A comparative study,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular
Tech., vol. 55, pp.1756-1763, Nov. 2006.
[2] L. Chang, "Comparison of ac drives for electric vehicles- A report on
experts' opinion survey," IEEE AES Systems Magz. pp.7-10, Aug. 1994.
[3] T. Backstrom, Integrated energy transducer drive for hybrid electric
vehicles, PhD Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, 2000.
[4] C. Mi, "Analytical design of permanent-magnet traction-drive motors,"
IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 42,pp. 1861-1866, July, 2006.
[5] Y. Fujishima, S. Vakao, M. Kondo, and N. Terauchi, "An optimal design
of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor for the next generation
commuter train," IEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity, vol. 14, pp.
1902-1905, June 2004.
[6] F. Magnussen, P. Thelin, and C. Sadarangani, “Design of compact
permanent magnet machines for a novel HEV propulsion system,” in
Proc. 20
th
Int. Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exposition, Long beach,
California, USA, 15-19 Nov., 2003, pp. 181-191.
[7] S. Wu, L. Song, and S. Cui, "Study on improving the performance of
permanent magnet wheel motor for the electric vehicle application,"
IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 43, pp. 438-442, Jan 2007.
[8] Y. K. Chin, J. Soulard, “A permanent magnet synchronous motor for
traction applications of electric vehicles," Royal Institute of Tech.,
available online.
[9] C.C. Hwang, S.M. Chang, C.T. Pan, T.Y. Chang, "Estimation of
Parameters of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors," J.
Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, pp. 600–603, 2002.
[10] S. Vaez-Zadeh, A.R. Ghasemi, "Design Optimization of Permanent
magnet Synchronous Motors for High Torque Capability and Low
Magnet Volume," Electric Power Systems Research, Vol.74, pp. 307-
313, Mar. 2005.
[11] S. Vaez-Zadeh, M. Tavakkoli, 'Optimal design of permanent magnet
synchronous motor from two points of view: Infinite maximum speed
and extended constant torque region," in Proc. 11
th
Iranian electrical
engineering conf., ICEE, Shiraz, May 2003, vol. 4, pp. 231-239. (in
Persian).
[12] D. E. Goldenberg, Genetic algorithm in search, optimization and
machine, Massachusetts, Addison Wesley 1989.
Aarsh Hassanpour Isfahani was born in Isfahan, Iran, in 1980. He received
a B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from Isfahan University of
Technology, Isfahan, Iran in 2002 and a M.Sc. degree in electric power
engineering (electrical machines) from university of Tehran, Tehran, Iran in
2005 where he is a PhD student now. His research interests include design,
modeling and control of electrical machines.
Siavash Sadeghi was born in Isfahan, Iran, in 1980. He received a B.Sc.
degree in electrical engineering from Isfahan University of Technology,
Isfahan, Iran in 2003 and a M.Sc. degree in electric power engineering
(electrical machines) from Amirkabir university of Technology, Tehran, Iran
in 2006. He is with Islamic Azad univesity, Natanz Branch, as a lecturer now.
His research interests include control of electrical machines, hybrid electric
vehicles and gas insulated lines.
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 45 2008
570

A magnetic model and an electrical model of the machine are recalled in this section to calculate parameters and variables of the machine needed for a design optimization. The d-axis and q-axis inductances are given by: 2 Fig. KC is the Carter coefficient. Nph is the winding turns per phase and P is the number of pole pairs and is a pole-arc to pole pitch ratio. A. while Bs is a limit of the leakage flux density in the bridge due to saturation. The magnetic reluctances of stator and rotor cores are ignored for the sake of simplicity. Engineering and Technology 45 2008 and is not the focus of the present design optimization. stator and rotor cores and air gap can be seen in Fig. two flux barriers. rec is relative recoil permeability and Amm=t. 1. C =Am/Ag is the flux concentration factor and Ag and Am are the cross-sectional areas per pole of the air gap and magnet respectively. Using Bg from (1) in connection with (2)-(4). and h1 and h2 represent the inner and the outer flux barrier heights respectively. Electrical Model A conventional d-q electrical model of the machine in a 567 . respectively. A detailed magnetic equivalent circuit of the motor in Fig.World Academy of Science. Magnetic Model Magnetic equivalent circuit of one pole pitch of IPM machine is shown in Fig. 2 Magnetic equivalent circuit of PMSM Ld 3 0 Dl K w1 N ph P K w1 N ph P g 3 0 Dl 8 2 Kd (6) A pair of half magnet poles. 1 One pole pitch cross section of IPM Machine where g is the air gap length. Also D is the inner diameter of the stator. (1) are given by: rec K C gC wm w1 h1 h2 4d recl m 1 2 1 2 (2) (3) Am Br Amm Bs (4) 4 Fig.l represents the crosssectional area of the iron bridge above the nonmagnetic barriers with t and l being the bridge width and motor stack length. The values of parameters in with being the relative permeability of PM. 1 can be used to obtain an average air gap flux density as [9]: Bg C 1 1 2 4 Br Lq g 8 Kq (7) where Kd and Kq are defined as: sin g 1 ge sin Kd (8) Kq sin g 1 ge sin (9) and ge denotes an effective air gap and is given by: (1) ge KC g r (10) where Br is remanence of the magnet. the maximum value of first harmonic of PM flux linkage is obtained as [9]: 4 Dl K w1 N ph B g sin 2 P M (5) where Kw1 is the winding factor. Also lm and wm denote the magnet length and width. 2. B.

4 The variation of normalized power with normalized angular speed [11] i q Lq R 1i q Ef 568 . Genetic algorithm is employed to search for minimum value of . The procedure yields in new population at each iteration. Minimization of fulfils simultaneously both objectives of the optimization. 3 Vector diagram of PMSM Fig. Voltage equations are expressed as follows: V sin V cos III. 4 for different conditions of motor. Engineering and Technology 45 2008 synchronously rotating reference frame can be used in design optimization and evaluation. First an initial population is produced randomly. Lqn Lq L* . maximum speed and cost of motor is chosen for optimization.id Ld The motor torque is then obtained as: 3P T Ld Lq id iq (13) M 2 where id and iq are the d-axis and q-axis components of the stator current vector Is. Mn As seen in (22). In this model the flux distribution in the air gap is assumed to be sinusoidal and the iron loss and magnetic saturation are not considered. The algorithm consists of three basic operators i. b) Mn Ldn 1. the design optimization is carried out under the condition of maximum torque per Ampere control. 3. The motor vector diagram is shown in Fig. Such an objective function provides a higher degree of freedom in selecting appropriate design variables.World Academy of Science. To obtain optimal design considering both power factor and efficiency. the importance of both objectives are adjusted by power coefficient respect to desirable performance. c) Mn Ldn 1 (21) (14) Since an IPM motor torque depends on the stator current vector components as well as the motor parameters. L* M * M * M I max (19) (20) Ldn Ld L * . Genetic algorithm provides a random search technique to find a global optimal solution in a complex multidimensional search space [12]. This importance can be supposed to be equal by using the same value for power coefficient. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM As mentioned above. Then genetic operators are applied to the population to improve their fitness gradually. This condition can be as obtained from (11) and (12) as follows [10]: id 2 2 Is 2 For HEV applications the case of b is the best case. selection. Therefore in the optimization we should keep normalized flux linkage to normalized direct inductance close to one. The variation of normalized power as the term of normalized angular speed is depicted in Fig. Therefore we can approximately use consumed magnet volume instead of motor cost. crossover and mutation. These conditions are as follows [11]: id R1 iq Lq Ef (11) (12) iq R1 . q R 1i d id Ld Is V d Fig. Thus the magnitude of Is is given by: Is 2 id 2 iq a) Mn Ldn 1.e. the objective function is defined as follows: m Mn Ldn 1 VPM n (22) (15) (16) iq I s 2 id 2 Where M 4 Ld 1 (17) (18) Lq Ld Flux linkage and inductances can be normalized as follows: * M * Lq iq 2 M * Ld id 2 . The price of permanent magnet is very high in comparison with other material of PMSM.

00 mm 1.8% and Mn Ldn is closer to unit that typical machine. Design variables are determined through a design optimization procedure. Torque Ld Lq 6.1mm 23. However.9 mm 8.24 Nm 0. The corresponding FEM numerical results are used to calculate the motor parameters and torque.98 Ldn Fig. 5 shows the flow chart of genetic algorithm. Engineering and Technology 45 2008 Fig. A PMSM is chosen as the basis of design optimization. 569 . It is seen that the magnet volume reduces 8. the input voltage. The models accuracy is evaluated in the present section by a FEM analysis.644 90 mm . Therefore.05 T 1. Dimensions of optimized motor are listed in Table II. 5 The flowchart of genetic algorithm method TABLE IV FEM AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS COMPARISON Specification Analytical FEM IV. flux harmonics and iron loss. 6 shows the flux lines due to the PM rotor poles.7 mm 1. and the pole pitch are main constant specifications in the design procedure. The evaluation is carried out by a comparison of the optimized motor parameters obtained by the analytical models and the FEM analysis. flux barrier dimensions and number of phase winding turns. Therefore. TABLE I SPECIFICATION OF TYPICAL MACHINE Symbol r1 g t d h1 h2 wm lm Br Bs rec Quantity Value P f IN Nph Kw1 l Stator bore radius Air gap length Bridge width Flux barrier width Flux barrier height Flux barrier height Magnet width Magnet length Remanence Saturation flux density Recoil permeability Number of pole pairs Frequency Rated current Series turns per phase Winding factor Machine stack length 47. Some of the PMSM parameters and dimensions are selected as design variables.12 mH 6. Fig. The specification of this motor are listed in Table I.88 T 1.1 mm 7.9 mm 8. Such models may consider magnetic saturation in other parts of the machine. In this paper. TABLE III COMPARISON OF TYPICAL AND OPTIMIZED MACHINE Specification Typical machine Optimized machine Torque Magnet volume Mn 6. to achieve a more accurate design optimization.38 Nm 0. The results of optimization are also seen in Table III. design variables are magnet dimensions. The torque error can also be due to ignoring iron loss in electrical model.07 mH 0.4 cm3 0. These are shown in Table IV.05 3 360 Hz 19 A 30 0.08 mH 0.00 mm 15. a more detailed magnetic and electrical model of IPM machines is required.1 mm 27. it can be concluded that the analytical models are reasonably adequate to prove the effectiveness of the design optimization. The rated torque. Optimization is done using n=m=1. In this paper Roulette wheel method is used for selection and at each step elite individual is sent directly to the next population.84 6. the validity of the design optimization depends on the accuracy of the models.2 cm3 0.50 mm 4.5 mm 1. FINITE ELEMENT EVALUATION The design optimization in this work is carried out based on the analytical magnetic and electrical models of machine presented in section 2. the input frequency.41 Nm 20.8 mm 34 109 mm .38 Nm 18.11 mH It is seen that the error is less than 5% in the motor torque.2 mm 7.World Academy of Science. TABLE II SPECIFICATION OF OPTIMIZED MACHINE Symbol h1 h2 wm lm Nph l Quantity Value Flux barrier height Flux barrier height Magnet width Magnet length Series turns per phase Machine stack length 13. motor stack length. A 2-D FEM analysis is carried out and the numerical and graphical results are obtained.

2005.Y. Tehran. S.M. Terauchi." Royal Institute of Tech.Sc. 1902-1905. 20th Int. Mar. pp. degree in electrical engineering from Isfahan University of Technology. Iran. Comparison of results shows the validity of analytical design. in 1980. and et al. hybrid electric vehicles and gas insulated lines. Song. Backstrom." J. J. vol. 307313. pp. "Design Optimization of Permanent magnet Synchronous Motors for High Torque Capability and Low Magnet Volume.” in Proc.A report on experts' opinion survey. Addison Wesley 1989. 2002. vol. Isfahan. C. 2000. M. Chang.Sc. 438-442. Tavakkoli. modeling and control of electrical machines. L. It was seen that with the same developed torque the magnet volume decrease about 9% and also the power speed characteristic was going to be better that typical machine.R. pp. 231-239. S. ICEE. [9] C. 11th Iranian electrical engineering conf. pp. His research interests include control of electrical machines.C. His research interests include design. He is with Islamic Azad univesity. Kondo. (in Persian). May 2003.Sc. He received a B. Fujishima. USA. M.. optimization and machine. Sweden. Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. Y.Sc. A.. Massachusetts. 14. Goldenberg. “Design of compact permanent magnet machines for a novel HEV propulsion system. Shiraz. Magnussen. Iran in 2006. July. "Analytical design of permanent-magnet traction-drive motors. Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exposition. Iran. degree in electrical engineering from Isfahan University of Technology.. 'Optimal design of permanent magnet synchronous motor from two points of view: Infinite maximum speed and extended constant torque region. pp.T. Iran in 2005 where he is a PhD student now. Siavash Sadeghi was born in Isfahan. "Study on improving the performance of permanent magnet wheel motor for the electric vehicle application. Tehran..1756-1763. degree in electric power engineering (electrical machines) from Amirkabir university of Technology. T. 600–603. Jan 2007. Pan. vol. [11] S. A reduction in the permanent magnet material for a constant torque and an extension in the constant power region have been chosen as the optimization aims." Electric Power Systems Research. Ghasemi. "An optimal design of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor for the next generation commuter train. 1861-1866. and C. Soulard. and S. and N.” IEEE Trans. in 1980. pp. T. as a lecturer now. “Electric motor drive selection issues for HEV propulsion systems: A comparative study.pp. 55.. Engineering and Technology 45 2008 [8] Y. Vol. 2006. For this purpose the analytical model of the permanent magnet synchronous machine has been derived. Wu. Magn. K. Cui." IEEE Trans. The genetic algorithm was then employed to optimize some machine specifications. “A permanent magnet synchronous motor for traction applications of electric vehicles. C. Hwang. [12] D. "Comparison of ac drives for electric vehicles. "Estimation of Parameters of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors. [10] S." IEEE AES Systems Magz. Vaez-Zadeh. 42. Chang. Vakao. California. pp. 2006. F. 6 Flux lines at no-load condition Aarsh Hassanpour Isfahani was born in Isfahan. Vehicular Tech. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] 570 . E. REFERENCES [1] M.. 181-191.7-10. 2003. June 2004. Sadarangani. Integrated energy transducer drive for hybrid electric vehicles. 1994. Chang. 43. Mi. V. 15-19 Nov. Natanz Branch. Zeraoulia. Vaez-Zadeh. CONCLUSION In this paper an optimal design of a permanent magnet machine has been presented. degree in electric power engineering (electrical machines) from university of Tehran.World Academy of Science. Chin. Nov. Isfahan. 4." IEEE Trans. Genetic algorithm in search. Iran in 2003 and a M. vol. Magn. pp. PhD Thesis. Finally the finite element method was used to validate the optimized machine. Aug. Iran in 2002 and a M. Applied Superconductivity. Thelin. available online. P." IEEE Trans.74. S. Long beach. L. He received a B. vol. Royal Institute of Technology." in Proc. Fig.

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