Branches of Science Science is widely applied in every aspect of life.

It is the organized body of knowledge that is achieved by a thorough research. There are a number of branches in Science. Read on to know about them. Science is referred to as a system of objective knowledge obtained through deep researches done by the human being. Science is applied in every field and every aspect of life. With the help of scientific inventions and techniques, we have got all the latest facilities and high living standards. It's the science, with the help of which human being has reached beyond the space and stepped on the Moon and sent a spacecraft to Mars. There are a number of branches of science, out of which earth science, physical science and life science are the major branches. These three are considered as pure sciences. Other branches of science such as engineering, technology are associated with the practical application of result of scientific activity. The physical science is associated with the nature and behavior of energy and matter. Physics includes the study of time, light and gravity. Chemistry deals with the properties, composition, structure and reactions of the matter. Astronomy involves the study of the universe beyond the earth. The earth science that involves the study of structure and composition of the earth includes different branches such as geology, oceanography, meteorology, paleontology, etc. Life science is also known as biology, which deals with the study of evolution, development, distribution, structure, origin and function of the living things. It is categorized into different branches such as botany, genetics, zoology, medicine, etc. The mathematical science involves different branches such as arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and calculus. The social science is related to the study of human society past and present. It covers various branches such as sociology, anthropology, political science, law and economics. Following is the detailed information about the many branches that the field of science has. All A Branches of Science: A List B

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represent numbers and express mathematical relationships. Algology: see Phycology Anatomy: It is a branch of biology, related to the study of structure and organization of living things. It involves human anatomy, plant anatomy (phytotomy) and animal anatomy (zootomy). Angiology: It is the science that includes the study of blood and lymph vessels and their disorders. Anthropology: It involves the study of both past and present human cultures. It is associated with physical and social characteristics of humanity through the study of historical and present geographical distribution, acculturation, cultural history and cultural relationships. Apiculture: It is the science and art of raising and management of honeybees, Apis mellifera. It involves the cultivation of bees on commercial scale for the production of honey. Applied Mathematics: It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the mathematical techniques, which are used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains. Archaeology: It is a subdiscipline of anthropology that involves the study of physical evidence of past human societies, recovered through excavation Astronomy: It is the scientific study of celestial bodies such as stars, comets, planets and galaxies and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere such as the cosmic background radiation. Astrophysics: It is a branch of astronomy that is associated with the physics of celestial bodies (galaxies, stars and interstellar medium). Atomic Physics: It is a field of physics that is associated with the study of internal structure of atomic nuclei as an isolated system of electrons. It mainly involves the study of arrangement of electrons around the nucleus.

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Acoustics: It is a branch of science related to the study of transmission of sound waves. It usually refers to the characteristics of theaters, auditoriums and studios and includes the behavior of sound in buildings and noise and noise control. Aerodynamics: It is associated with the study of forces of air acting on objects in motion relative to air. Aeronautical Engineering: It is a branch of science that is related to the study of design and manufacture of flight-capable machines as well as the techniques of operating aircraft. Agriculture: It is the science of cultivating the ground, harvesting the crops and rearing and management of farming, husbandry and livestock. It is associated with the production of food, fiber, feed and other goods by systematic harvesting or growing the plants and rearing the animals. Agronomy: It is a branch of agriculture that deals with field crop production and soil management. It involves the scientific study of crop production and its usage for food, feed, fiber and fuel. Algebra: It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of structure, quantity and relation. It includes the use of symbols, letters and/or characters to

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Bacteriology: It is a branch of microbiology, which involves the scientific study of bacteria in relation to disease as well as agriculture. Biochemistry: It deals with the study of chemical substances and vital processes that take place in living organisms. It primarily focuses on the structure, function and role of biomolecules. It includes the study of organic chemistry of compounds and processes occurring in organisms. Bioengineering: It is an application of systematic, integrative and quantitative engineering principles to living structures, such as creating chemicals, drugs, tissues and artificial organs. Biology: It is also known as biological science, which includes the scientific study of life. It involves the study of structure, origin, growth, evolution, function and distribution of living things. Biophysics: It is a branch of science that involves an application of methods and principles of physics to understand the biological systems. Biotechnology: It is associated with the industrial application of living organisms and/or biological techniques developed through basic research. Biotechnology is applied for producing the pharmaceutical compounds and research materials. It is

mainly applied in genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology. Botany: It is also referred to as plant biology, plant science or phytology. It involves the scientific study of plant life.

Dynamics: It is a branch of mechanics that includes the study of various forces, their action on bodies and changes in motion they produce.

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Cardiology: It deals with study, diagnosis and treatment of various disorders of heart and major blood vessels. Chemical Engineering: It is a branch of engineering that deals with design, construction and operation of machinery and plants for different products such as dyes, acids, plastics, drugs and rubber, applying the chemical reactions. Chemistry: It is a branch of natural science that is associated with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions. It is the science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself. Civil Engineering: This branch of engineering deals with the planning, designing, construction and maintenance of structures (roads, bridges, etc) and altering the geography to suit the human needs. Climatology: It involves the study of climatic data, analysis of climatic changes and investigations of its phenomena and causes. Computer Science: It includes a systematic study of computation and computing system. It involves different theories for understanding the computing systems and methods, algorithms, design methodology and tools, methods of analysis and verification and methods for testing the concepts. Cosmetology: It is the practice of beautifying the face, skin and hair, using different cosmetics. Cosmology: It is a branch of physical science that is associated with the nature of universe, its origin and overall structure. Craniology: This branch of science is related to the study of physical characteristics of the skulls of different human races. Cryogenics: A scientific study that deals with the production, control, application and uses of very low temperature. Cryptography: It is the science of protecting the information by transforming it into an unreadable, unintelligible, enciphered format with the use of a key and an algorithm. Cytology: It is a branch of biological science that is associated with the study of structure, origin, function and pathology of cells.

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Ecology: It includes the study of interrelationships between living organisms and their environment. Electronics: It is a branch of technology, which is associated with the development and application of circuits or systems, using electronic devices such as magnetic amplifiers, transistors, etc. Endocrinology: It is a branch of medical science that is associated with the study of function and pathology of endocrine glands. Engineering: It is an application of scientific, mechanical, physical and mathematical principles to design process, structures and products that are meant for improving the quality of life. Entomology: It is a branch of science that includes the study of insects in their relations to forests and forest products. Environmental Science: It is the study of interactions among biological, physical and chemical components of environmental system. Epidemiology: It includes the study of cause and distribution of diseases in human population. Ethnology: It involves the study of mental and physical differences of mankind. Etiology: It is the study of causes or origins of disease/abnormal condition. Etymology: It includes the study of history of words and their meanings. Eugenics: It deals with the study of hereditary improvement of human race by controlled selective breeding. Evolution: It is the sequence of changes involved in evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms. Exbiology: It is a branch of science that deals with life or possibilities of life present beyond the earth.

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Dactylography: It is the science of using the fingerprints for the purpose of identification. Dermatology: It is a branch of medicine that deals with the skin disorders such as moles, skin cancers, contact dermatitis, psoriasis and other skin conditions, related to other diseases. It also includes the disorders of hair, nails, mouth and external genitalia. Dentistry: This branch of medicine deals with diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the diseases associated with teeth, oral cavity and related structures.

Forestry: It is the art and science of managing and using forests and their associated resources to produce various products such as timber for human benefits. Floriculture: It is a discipline of horticulture, related with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for the gardens and floristry, including the floral industry. Forensic Science: It is a branch of medical science that deals with establishing the evidence for legal proceeding.

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Genetics: It is a branch of biology that focuses on the heredity and variation of organisms as well as the patterns of inheritance of specific traits. Gemology: It is the science and art of identifying, grading, evaluating and marketing the gemstones.

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Geography: It includes the study of the earth as well as its features phenomena and inhabitants. It also deals with climate, topography, vegetation and soil. Geology: This branch of science involves the study of origin, history, evolution and structure of the earth's crust. It also involves the examination of soil and rocks. Geometry: It is a branch of mathematics that deals with the questions of shape, size and relative positions of figures as well as with the properties of space. It is associated with polygons, vertices, triangles, meshes and associated operations to be done with them in 3D applications. Geophysics: It involves the study of physical and geological properties and characteristics of the earth, minerals and rocks. Gerontology: It deals with the scientific study of psychological, biological and sociological phenomena related to aging and old age. Gynecology: It is a discipline of medicine that is concerned with disorders of women, particularly reproductive and sexual function and diseases of reproductive organs.


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Jurisprudence: It is a branch of philosophy associated with study and structure of law and legal system.

Lexicography: It is the science of compiling, writing and editing the dictionaries. It is done on the basis of study of meaning, form and behavior of the words in a given language. Linguistics: It incorporates the study of structure, form, sound, function, variety and development of specific languages and human speech in general.

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Heliology: It deals with the study of the Sun. Hematology It is a branch of medical science that includes the study of function and disease of blood as well as diagnosis and treatment of disorders of blood, lymph glands and spleen. Hepatology: This branch of medical science incorporates the study of functions and disorders of liver as well as biliary tree, gallbladder and pancreas. Histology: It includes the study of structure and behavior of cells and body tissues, using microscopic examination of tissue slices. Horticulture: It is an agricultural technology that is associated with growing ornamental plants, flowers, fruits and vegetables. Hydroponics: It is a branch of science that deals with growing the plants, particularly vegetables, in water containing essential mineral nutrients, instead of in soil. Hydrotherapy: It is the science of treating a disease using hot or cold water, internally or externally to maintain and restore health. This treatment involves full body immersion, saunas, steam baths, colonic irrigation, sitz baths and hot or/and cold compresses. Hydrology: It deals with distribution, occurrence, properties, chemistry and circulation of water on the earth. It includes the study of streams, rivers, lakes, etc. Hydrostatics: It involves the mathematical study of forces and pressures in liquids.

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Ichthyology: It is the study of fish. Iconography: It is a system of using images, symbolic pictures, or figures to represent a theme or structure. Immunology: It deals with the study of diseases and body's immune system and its functions.

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Mammalogy: It is a branch of zoology that includes the study of mammals. Mammography: It is a special examination breast using an X-ray. It is one of the most effective methods for an early detection of breast cancer. Marine Biology: It is associated with the scientific study of living organisms in the ocean and other brackish or marine bodies of water. Mathematics: It is the body of knowledge that focuses on different concepts such as structure, quantity, change and space. It is also one of the academic disciplines. Mechanics: It is a branch of physics that is related to the behavior of physical bodies after subjecting to forces or displacements and the subsequent effects of bodies on their environment. Mechanical Engineering: It is a branch of engineering that includes the study of design, construction and operation of machinery. Medicine: It is the science of maintaining and/or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis and treatment with non-surgical techniques. Metallurgy: It is the science of extracting the metals from their ores. It also involves purifying the metals and casting useful items from them. Meteorology: This branch of science involves the study of chemistry, physics and dynamics of atmosphere and its direct effects on the earth's surface, oceans and life on the earth. Microbiology: It is a branch of biology that is concerned with the study of structure and function of microorganisms, including bacteria, molds and pathogenic protozoa. Mineralogy: It is a scientific discipline that includes the study of chemical composition, physical properties, internal crystal structure, origin, occurrence and distribution in nature of different minerals. Molecular Biology: It is a discipline of biology that includes the study of structure, formation and function of essential macromolecules such as RNA, DNA and proteins. It also deals with the process of replication, transcription and translation of genetic information. Morphology: It is the science of structure and form of organisms, including animals, plants and other forms of life, with special emphasis on external features. Mycology: It is a branch of botany that includes the study of fungi and fungal infection. It involves the study of fungi, their taxonomy, their biochemical and genetic properties and their use to humans as a source for food, medicine and tinder.


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Myology: This science includes the study of structure and function of muscles and muscle tissues.

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Nephrology: It is a discipline of medical science that focuses on diagnosis and treatment of various kidney disorders, including fluid and mineral balance. Neurology: It is related to the structure, functioning and disorders of nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, as well as related muscles, nerves and blood supplies. Nuclear Physics: It is a branch of physics, which includes the study of atomic nuclei, their interaction with each other as well as with constituent particles. Numismatics: This branch of science deals with the study and collection of coins, paper money, medals, tokens and similar objects. Nutrition: It is the study of foods and nutrients and their effect on growth, development and health of an individual.

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Obstetrics: This branch of medicine deals with the health and care of a woman and fetus during pregnancy, parturition and puerperium. Oceanography: It is the study of chemistry, physics, geology and biology of oceans in the world. Odontology: It is associated with the scientific study of anatomy, development and diseases of teeth. Oncology: It is associated with diagnosis and treatment of cancer and tumors. Oneirology: It is a scientific study of dreams and their contents. Ophthalmology: It is a branch of medical science that includes the study of structure, function and diseases of the eyes, such as conjunctivitis, cataracts, glaucoma, etc. Optics: It is a branch of physics that focuses on the physical properties of light and interaction of light with matter. Organic Chemistry: This branch of chemistry is associated with the study of carbon-containing compounds, which includes their structure and reactions. Ornithology: It is a branch of zoology that includes the study of birds. Osteology: It is a branch of anatomy, which involves the scientific study of structure, functions and pathology of bones.

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Pedology: It is a branch of science that deals with the study of soil, including its formation, composition, structure and classification. Petrology: This science incorporates the study of history, origin, structure, occurrence and chemical classification of rocks. Pharmacology: It involves the study of drugs/medications and their nature, origin, properties as well as their effects on living organisms. Philately: It involves the study and collection of postage stamps. Philology: It is the science of language and linguistics. Phonetics: It is the study and classification of sounds of human speech. Phycology: It is a branch of botany that includes the scientific study of algae. It is also known as algology. Physical Chemistry: It is a discipline of chemistry, which includes the application of techniques and theories from physics to study the microscopic, macroscopic, atomic, subatomic and particulate phenomena in chemical systems. Physics: It is a branch of science that is concerned with the study of properties and interactions of time, space, energy and matter. Physiology: This branch of biology deals with the study of physical, biochemical and mechanical functions and activities of living organisms. Physiography: It is the study of natural features of earth's surface and its natural phenomena such as climate, currents, land formation and distribution of flora and fauna. Plasma Physics: It is a branch of physics that deals with the study of interaction of plasma with itself, radiation and particle beams. Pollution: It involves the study of undesirable changes in biological, chemical and physical characteristics of water, air, soil or food, which can cause a number of adverse effects on the living beings. Pomology: It is a branch of science that includes the study of fruits and cultivation of fruits. Protozoology: It is a branch of zoology that deals with the study of protozoans. Psychology: It is the scientific study of mental and behavioral processes.

Radiology: It is a medical discipline that focuses on using radiation and other radioactive substances to diagnose and treat various diseases.

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Paleontology: It is a branch of biology that deals with the study of prehistoric life, based mainly in fossils of animals and plants. Pathology: It is a medical discipline that is related to cause and nature of disease. It mainly involves structural and functional changes in tissues and organs caused by the disease. Particle Physics: It is a branch of physics that includes the study of particles and their fundamental reactions.

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Seismology: It is a scientific investigation of earthquakes as well as structure of the earth, based on the study of seismic waves. Sericulture: It is also referred to as silk farming. It is rearing of silkworms for producing the raw silk. Serpentology: It is a branch of zoology, which deals with the study of snakes. Sociology: It is the scientific study of society, human social interaction and social relationships. Speech Therapy: It includes the evaluation and treatment of speech, language and voice disorders. It is

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the rehabilitation treatment for the patients with difficulties in swallowing or communication. Statics: It is the study of forces that act on the bodies at rest. Statistics: It is a branch of applied mathematics, associated with the collection, analysis, explanation or interpretation and presentation of data. It can be applied to a variety of academic disciplines, from social and natural sciences to humanities and to business and government.

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Taxonomy: It is the science of classifying all the living things by arranging them in groups according to their relationships with each other. Therapeutics: It is the science of healing or medical treatment of disease. Thermodynamics: It is a branch of physics which deals with general properties of energy and matter. It includes the study of amount of work, heat and other energy related to chemical reactions.

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Virology: It is a discipline of microbiology or pathology, which includes the study of evolution, structure, classification and pathogenesis of viruses.

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Zoology: It is a branch of biology that is related to the study of animal kingdom, including evolution, classification, distribution, structure, habits and embryology of animals.

The three main branches of science include the following:

• Earth and Space Science This area of science studies the Earth including its relation to other planets and bodies in the solar system and covers topics such as its weather, terrain and atmosphere. Within this branch, you may find the following areas of science: Geology, meteorology and astronomy. • Physical Science This branch of science typically deals with matter and energy. It allows us to measure objects and matter in terms of its weight, volume and mass. Within this spectrum you could find the following areas of science: Chemistry, physics, kinetics, electromagnetics, etc. • Life Science This describes the study of life on Earth, looking at the internal processes of living organisms on Earth and looking at how plants and animals interact with each other within a certain environment. Areas of science included under this branch may include: Biology, zoology and botany.

Table is another term for relations; although there is the difference in that a table is usually a multi-set (bag) of rows whereas a relation is a set and does not allow duplicates. Besides the actual data rows, tables generally have associated with them some meta-information, such as constraints on the table or on the values within particular columns. Types of Graphs Line Graphs Comparing various sets of data can be complicated, but line graphs make it easy. The plotted peaks and dips on the grid allow you to monitor and compare improvement and decline. Scientists use line graphs all the time, as do all types of professionals and students. Learn more about line graphs—the most popular type of graph. Bar Graphs Pleasing to the eyes, bar graphs compare data in a simple format consisting of rectangular bars. With a few varieties to choose from, settling on the right bar graph might be confusing. Should you go with a horizontal, vertical, double or group bar graph? Read on to find out. Pictographs You first encounter pictographs during childhood and bump into them all through life—at school, work, and all over magazines and on TV. These diagrams, which use small picture symbols to compare information, are a media favorite; statisticians, though, do not share the sentiment. Find out why, and learn more about the uses of pictographs. Pie Charts Simple to make and simple to understand, a pie chart is a popular form of data comparison, consisting of a circle that is split into parts. When should you use pie charts, and when should you not? Learn about their advantages and disadvantages, and get some tips on making pie charts. Cosmographs A cosmograph is a type of chart that shows comparisons. In doing so, it makes life and work easier. If you want to prepare an inputoutput model for your organization, or compare the features of a geographical region through a simple visual, cosmographs come in handy. Find out how a cosmograph can help you. Organizational Charts These diagrams represent the relationships between the different positions and ranks of a company through a series of boxes that go from top to bottom and side to side. Not only does anorganizational chart add order and structure to an organization, but it also shows if changes are needed. Get more information on organizational charts. Flow Charts When projects seem overbearing and processes seem complex, flow chartscan save the day by break things down into smaller steps and giving you a clearer idea of the overall process. Shapes are typically used to represent the components of a flow chart. Find out what these shapes represent and learn more about flow charts. A table is a set of data elements (values) that is organized using a model of verticalcolumns (which are identified by their name) and horizontal rows, the cell being the unit where a row and column intersect.[1] A table has a specified number of columns, but can have any number of rows[citation needed]. Each row is identified by the values appearing in a particular column subset which has been identified as a unique key index. A graph is an abstract representation of a set of objects where some pairs of the objects are connected by links. The interconnected objects are represented by mathematical abstractions called vertices, and the links that connect some pairs of vertices are called edges. Typically, a graph is depicted in diagrammatic form as a set of dots for the vertices, joined by lines or curves for the edges. LAW OF EXPONENT Rule #1: Multiplying Exponents With the Same Base a^m X a^n = a^(m+n) To multiply two exponents that have the same base, add the powers. In other words, if you wanted to multiply 3^4 by 3^6, you would get 3^10. This makes a lot of sense. Think about it: 3^4 = 3 X 3 X 3 X 3 3^6 = 3 X 3 X 3 X 3 X 3 X 3 If you multiply them together, you get (3 X 3 X 3 X 3)(3 X 3 X 3 X 3 X 3 X 3), which means there are ten 3s multiplied together, or 3^10. Rule #2: Dividing Exponents With the Same Base (a^m)/(a^n) = a^(m-n) To divide two exponents that have the same base, subtract the power in the denominator from the power in the numerator. In other words, if you wanted to divide q^4 by q^2, your answer would be q^(4-2) or q^2. You can prove this the same way you did with the previous law. If there are four q’s in the numerator (q X q X q X q) and two in the denominator (q X q), two of the q’s will cancel each other out, leaving only two q’s in the numerator. Rule #3: Raising a Product to a Power (aXb)^n = a^n X b^n To raise a product of several numbers to a power, raise each number to the power. In other words, if you wanted to raise 2q to the third power, you would have to raise the 2 and the q to the third power, so your answer would be 8q^3. You can prove this one by writing out (2 X q) X (2 X q) X (2 X q). You can remove the parentheses and combine the 2’s and the q’s like this: 2 X 2 X 2 X q X q X q. Look again – that’s the same thing as 2^3 X q^3 or 8q^3. Rule #A: Raising a Quotient to a Power (a/b)^n = (a^n/b^n) To raise a quotient of two numbers to a power, raise each number to the power. In other words, if you wanted to raise 2/5 to the third power, you would have to raise the 2 and the 5 to the third power, so your answer would be (2^3)/(5^3) or 8/125. You can prove this one by viewing the quotient as a fraction, and multiplying it by itself n times. Try it. Rule #5: Raising an Exponent to an Additional Power (a^m)^n = a^(mXn) To raise an exponent to an additional power, multiply the two powers. In other words, if you wanted to raise x^2 to the third power, you would multiply the two powers – 2 and 3. This would leave you with the answer x^6. The proof for this law is beyond the scope of this article.

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SUBMITTED BY‫׃‬ RAINE BRIAN C. BRIONES SUBMITTED TO‫׃‬ ARLENE Q. SAN JUAN

PANGALAN‫ ׃‬Raine Brian C.Briones GRADE/SECTION‫ ׃‬Grade II Sec 2 TIRAHAN1005 ‫׃‬Kamias St. Napico Manggahan Pasig City PANGALAN NG TATAY‫ ׃‬Joselito Briones PANGALAN NG NANAY‫ ׃‬Miraluna C. Briones EDAD NG BATA6 ‫½׃‬ PETSA NG KAPANGANAKAN‫ ׃‬September 28, 2005

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