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(A REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MBA IN JNTUH) MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (TOURISM AND HOSPILITALITY)
JNTUH UNIVERSITY KUKKATPALLY HYDERABAD – 500 072 2008 – 2010
BY SARVANI B REG NO: 09P41E0026 MBA (2009-2011)
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Project Work titled “TOURISM MARKETING IN INDIA” is a bonafide work of Ms. SARVANI B. Enroll No: 09P41E0026 Carried out in partial fulfillments for the award of degree of MBA: TOURISM & HOSPILATITY (Branch) of JNTUH – Hyderabad University under my guidance. This project work is original and not submitted earlier for the award of any degree / diploma or associate ship of any other University / Institution. Signature of the Guide Name and Official Address of the Guide Guide’s Academic Qualifications, Designation and Experience Place: Date: Submitted to Project Viva Voce held on _____________________________.
DECLARATION I, Ms. SARVANI B hereby declare that the Project Work titled “TOURISM MARKETING IN INDIA” is the original work done by me and submitted to the JNTUH through NITHM in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of Master of Business administration in Tourism & Hospitality is a record of original work done by me under the supervision of Mr. A. RAGHU of NITHM
Enroll No: Date:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank Mr. A.RAGHU, Dean and project guide under whose guidance this project has taken a successful shape. He helped me a lot in holistically completing this study.
I would also thank our beloved Director Dr. P. Narayana Reddy and all the faculty and staff of NITHM for extending their help at various levels of the project.
I would specially thank the librarian Mr. Ramesh and Assistant librarian Mr. Giri without those help it would have been difficult to find the right books for the reference.
STRATEGIES OF MARKETING TOURISM IN INDIA MARKETING OF TOURISM AS A SERVICE INDUSTRY PROMOTION OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN INDIA POMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY INDIA TOURISM SECTOR FOR ATTRACTING TOURISTS WAYS OF MARKETING TOURISM
Tourism Marketing in India
CONTENTS 6 .
India Estimates and Forecasts . Bibliography 7 . Ways to Market Tourism 12.Indian Market Share of South Asia Total Demand .World Travel & Tourism Total Demand 10. Hospitality 11.Indian Travel & Tourism Total Demand . Research Methodology 7. Limitations of Study 6.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.South Asia Travel & Tourism Total Demand . Introduction 4. The Indian Scenario 5. Acknowledgement 2. Analysis and Interpretation Charts: . Conclusion 13.Indian Market Share of World Total Demand . Role of Governments 8. Declaration 3. Sub-Sectors of Tourism 9.
INTRODUCTION 8 .
The means to achieve this goal is tourism marketing in India. the concept of marketing tourism in India assumes a lot of significance. Nowadays. From the earliest historical periods. According to Himziker and Krapf tourism is “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non–residents. The mission of tourism marketing in India should be to promote India as a desired destination to the traveler. contrasts and contradictions. India is a land of mystique.INTRODUCTION From Gandhi to the Ganges. Tourism is a human activity of great significance. travel has been a fascinating activity for people all over the world. with the mundane. Owing to industrial development. evolution in transportation and rise in disposable income. With the increasing growth of tourism and its associated opportunities. the definition of tourism has undergone a change along with the historical changes. be it for exploration. the urge to travel has become irresistible. travel has become a way of life. Bollywood to the Taj Mahal. More so in the face of increasing globalization. 9 . trade or pleasure. it is a country where tourism has huge potential to be unleashed. not simply as an attractive vacation but as an experience to cherish. It involves a temporary break from normal routine to engage with experiences that contrasts with everyday life. in so far as it does not lead to permanent residence and is not connected to any earning activity”. Over the years. While it appeals to the romantic imagination.
types of tourism India can promote and opportunities as well as the challenges associated with them.In making an attempt to explore the potential of marketing tourism in India. international organizations. The report also discusses innovative approaches to marketing tourism like rural tourism marketing. the report focuses on the analysis of the Indian tourism sector while drawing parallels from other parts of the world. A few marketing strategies to market tourism in India have been discussed. 10 . The scope of the report includes governmental role.
THE INDIAN SCENARIO 11 .
inspite of such attractions. in global terms. tourist arrivals in India are a mere 0.50% of the world receipts. palaces and havelis. The unprecedented growth in tourism in India has made it the second largest foreign exchange earner. transportation.30% of the world arrivals. just a 0. proprietors of tourist business and entrepreneurs supporting the tourism industry.THE INDIAN SCENARIO Tourism has major potential for India at our stage of transformation and development. India’s tourism industry has also recorded phenomenal growth. The world famous "golden triangle". travel agencies. We are still quite far from the target of 50 lakh tourist arrivals per year. it offers high value-added markets with considerable returns on investments. mountains. tourism has evolved into a highly structured industry with the potential to earn immense revenues. The rate of international arrivals in India in recent years has been to the tune of about 19 lakh arrivals per year. This is not surprising since India possesses a whole range of attractions normally sought by tourists and which includes natural attractions like landscapes. has put Jaipur 12 .000 foreign tourists and 7. As India opened her gates towards a more open economy. Being in the services industry. It puts equal value on our untouched natural resources and culture. beaches. Receipts are similarly low. scenic beauty. major rivers and manmade attractions such as monuments.000 domestic tourists every year. Tourism has a multiplier effect on people involved in hospitality. wildlife. The state receives 600. comprising Delhi. forts. Agra and Jaipur.000. Most popular destination Rajasthan has emerged in the last decade as one of the favorite tourist destinations for domestic and foreign tourists alike. However.
Rajasthan has registered record tourist arrivals in the first half of 2004 of over 400. This has effectively meant a 63 percent rise in foreign tourists and 33 percent increase in domestic visitors to the state over the previous year. Almost 60 percent of foreign tourists visiting India visit these places.5 million domestic visitors. 13 .000 foreign tourists and 5.on the world tourism map. Some additional statistics are presented below in order to reinforce the fact that Indian tourism is one major sector to look out for investors and entrepreneurs alike.
LIMITATION OF STUDY 14 .
15 . The questionnaires made were artificially filled. The customers showed fake response. There was no originality.LIMITATIONS OF STUDY • • • • The data is not available on the net (statistical).
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 16 .
which are collected by the investigator himself for the purpose of a specific enquiry or study. Primary data: Primary data are those data. then such data is known as secondary data. primary data is collected by the help of questionnaires. ‘Primary data’ and ‘Secondary data’.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Data can be classified under the two main categories. In this project report. In this project report.. which has already been collected by someone else. depending upon the sources used for the collection purposes. secondary data refers to the brochures and the data collected from the website of the company and other documents which are used in completion of this project report 17 . The validity and accuracy of final judgment is most crucial and depends heavily upon how well the data is gathered in the first place. Secondary data should be used with extra caution since someone else has collected it for his/her use. Before using such date the investigator must be satisfied with regard to the reliability. accuracy. The methodology adopted for date gathering also affects the conclusions drawn there from. Thus we can say that the data that is being collected for the first time is called primary data. Secondary data: When a person uses data. i. adequacy and suitability of the data to the given problem under investigation.e. Such data are original in character and are generated by surveys conducted by individuals or research institutions.
The impact of infrastructure on tourism development is only increasing with the increasing expectations and this calls for huge investments possible only through the government. The policies should be backed by a degree of national consensus. in the case of Iraq. India is not looked at as a rogue state. the level of development and the establishment of the country in the international tourism scenario. Issues like war and terrorism act as severe deterrents for tourism in general and inward tourism. It has taken care to ensure minimum negative impact on its image from extreme factions. Political decisions can change and impact the brand image of a country. but also make the presence of the nation felt at global level summits and events and showcase it as an attractive destination. in promoting tourism cannot be overemphasized. The government should not only facilitate growth through its policies and incentives. India and Pakistan have not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty whereas Iran has. the political and economic system of the country.ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENTS The role of government. The nation needs to projected as a haven for investing with a large reservoir of skilled and semi-skilled manpower. 18 . But the focus on terrorism is a crucial element of a country’s image. which. returning diasporas and business travel in particular. Political stability is a major factor for foreign investors to invest in a newly emergent high growth Indian economy with myriad openings for investments in the hospitality and aviation sectors. For example. India and Pakistan possess nuclear weapons. The extent of government intervention is linked to the importance of tourism to the economy. central and state level. Singapore rapidly controlled SARS and did its image a lot of good. Malaysia has succeeded despite an autocratic president and being labeled a “Muslim nation”. The government ought to prevent such unpopular actions and come up with properly thought-out damage limitation measures.
Many companies today are proud of the fact that they achieve despite the governmental policies. improved infrastructure would be huge steps towards greater tourism. Technical and judicial problems 7. smart political positioning and maneuvering. dynamic and powerful steering group in order to promote the nation as an alluring destination (similar to Public Diplomacy Strategy Board. UK). Regularization of standards of lodging and restaurants 4. Information and promotion within the country 3. Development of selected areas 9. The recommended functions of a National Tourist Organization (NTO) as listed by the UN are: 1. This calls for sound leadership. single window clearances. The government should create a small. which has the personal backing of the PM or the President. Publicity overseas 6. Research 2. Easing bureaucracy.was one of the official reasons for the US to justify its military invasion. Overall tourism policy and promotion 19 . International relations 8. Being on “the right side” politically is a crucial factor in the way the US and the West perceive other states. This calls for a mindset change at the top. Control of activities of private travel agencies 5. visa regulations.
Bihar. The Department of Tourism has offices in India and abroad to liaison with the state governments to promote tourism in India and to handle tourist enquiries. Andhra Pradesh. Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu. Assam. Karnataka. production. the government has identified 31 villages across the country (Himachal Pradesh. Also. Gujarat. Madhya Pradesh. 20 . South Korea for excellent tourism promotion. which operates under the Ministry of Tourism was created to achieve the objectives. The Department of Tourism. Rajasthan and West Bengal) to be developed as tourism hubs. Kerala. Lately. Indian Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) at the national level and similar bodies at the state level were created. marketing and financing. disseminate tourist information and publicize. The Indian Tourism office at Tokyo won two international awards for the best booth design and best folklore competition at Tour Expo held at Daegu. Sikkim. The Incredible India campaign has recently won two Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) gold awards at the annual meet of the association in Macau. The government has been active in promotional activities and it is doing its bit to give a fillip to the sector.Each of these functions would require efforts of the NTO in administration. Orissa.
which plan and execute inland as well as abroad package tours regularly. immigration officers. The campaign will involve sensitization. The government should also encourage the private sector in the tourism industry so as to create more and better facilities. operators. who provide conducted tours on the lines of government operated tours with added advantage of flexibility of choice about tourist places and duration. tourist police and others who have direct interaction with inbound tourists. screening. training and orientation. tourist guides. certification and feedback of key stakeholders of the industry – taxi drivers. The organized sector in India has players like SOTC and Thomas Cook. induction. There are local tour operators catering to the needs of cities. 21 .Another domestic campaign of the Ministry of Tourism is the Atithi Devo Bhava campaign which seeks to make Indians more tourist-friendly.
The issue is to develop facilities and showcase to the world in an appealing manner. Adventure Tourism: Trekking. Lakshadweep). angling.SUB-SECTORS OF TOURISM India is so diverse geographically as well as culturally that the tourism marketers can offer innumerable segmentation to the prospective tourists all over the world. Mountaineering has always been a popular tourist activity. which offer a plethora of entrepreneurial opportunities. Garhwal regions). Kumaon. maintaining global standards in product quality and service standards is essential to develop 22 . owing to the presence of mountain ranges like Himalayas. The packages that would attract adventure seekers in big numbers are paragliding. skiing (Himachal Pradesh) and rock climbing (Himalayas. rafting. as more forms can evolve along with the changing expectations of the people. scuba diving (Andaman & Nicobar. being a great way to see the desert and to enjoy a novel and adventurous holiday are now one of Asia's fastest selling adventure holidays. The following is a list of the types of tourism in India. Since adventure sport is already an established tourism product worldwide. The desert camel safaris of India. elephant safari are the in-things. the attractions being marketed and available resources. The list is not exhaustive. however. Most of these forms of tourism are existent for quite a few decades. The packaging and marketing of each of these types have to be done considering the target audience. Nilgiris and Aravallis. their categorization and segmented packaging for different sets of audience has been a recent trend. Suitable attractions do exist for almost all adventure activities. jeep safari.
Absence of certification courses for instructors and guides for mountaineering. The domestic and international campaigns are aimed at showcasing the diversity while promising the “authentic experience” of the cultures that tourists around the world look for. An observation of the ways through which cultures represent their food. While the national campaigns address the diversity aspect. the 23 . There is a dichotomy between the state and central government approval standards for adventure service providers. leading to mushrooming of adventure tour operators not properly equipped to service the niche segment. state government approval standards are perceived to be quite diluted. holidays and other expressions to tourists and a thoroughly comparing and contrasting each from a global perspective would prove helpful in enhancing the tourist interest in Indian culture. music. Introduction of standard communication gadgets is necessary in order to meet the international safety standards. As India is on the growth platform. river rafting or paragliding leads to a scarcity of properly trained manpower. In fact.sustainable advantages. Heritage and Cultural Tourism India is hailed to have a diverse culture and a rich heritage dating back to several centuries. It is important to understand through experience and analysis what exactly is perceived as authentic by the outsiders. trekking. this high-risk segment leaves much to be desired in terms of technical and safety standards. dance. The Indian culture is so diverse that there is lot of untapped potential in this segment in the domestic sector too. In India. lapses of this sort would be deterring. skiing.
Arts and crafts too play a major role with them being a significant reflection of the culture. The government and the tour operators need to promote these aspects. This image can be exploited to promote pilgrimage tours and spiritual tourism. The variety of temples in India is probably unmatched. The demand is increasingly owing to the attraction to all cultures oriental and the increasing stress in the lifestyles. Music and dance are already being incorporated into the tourist packages to display greater variety. Textile circuits are offered as a USP by those tour operators who want to offer something beyond the regular heritage sites. In fact. They can add more content to their packages as well as help increase the income levels of the artisans. Religion is a dominant aspect of the Indian culture. the west views India as a land of mystics and hermits. Indian designs and works like the tie and dye. This could provide etc thrust to the local community and the much needed encouragement for a variety of dying crafts.state level campaigns should bring out the unique aspects of the state’s culture and aim them at both foreign and domestic tourists. This is one area where encouragement of direct sales from the local craftsmen is possible so as to minimize leakages and maximize the benefits of tourism to the local communities. These activities being labor intensive would result in a greater income multiplier. tussar silk weaving are looked at as exotic and being increasingly adopted by leading western designers in the fashion circuits. Architecture and rituals across the country enable a wider offering. The sheer number of fairs and festivals throughout the year give enormous number of 24 . influencing larger number of people. The local artists are benefiting from the support. But the preservation of authenticity that translates into the experience to the tourists is a concern as very often the motives to perform tend to get commercialized.
000 in India.themes and opportunities for promotion. India would be in a position to generate health-care tourism revenues to the tune of $2. Some facts in this regard: A heart surgery in the US costs $30. décor.000 in India. The country needs to exploit the cost advantage it can offer to a health tourist.000 as compared to $6. Some of the well-received initiatives include Palace on Wheels and the Royal Orient. Further growth in the sector will be 25 . Health Tourism India is gradually gathering popularity as a health tourist destination.000 and $26. The Indian Railways is acting as a unifying factor and doing its bit to promote the different regions.2 billion by 2010. a CII study has said. It attracted approximately 180. A bone marrow transplant in the US costs $250. According to a recent McKinsey study. Clinical outcomes in India are at par with the world's best centers. while the promotion can be done on a national level when attracting people from different parts of the country and the world. The growth in this segment was 25% during the year.000 medical tourists in 2004. comfort and style. besides having internationally qualified and experienced specialists. the campaigns might be designed by the local organizations and operators. while offering tourist facilities on board too. These offer luxury experiences through facilities. The occasions being distributed throughout the year would be able to reduce the seasonal nature of the tourism industry. As most of the festivals are local in nature. The trains are playing an increasingly important role in connecting the destinations.
The ethical aspects need to be taken care of to sustain the growth in this sector. The proposal to introduce special medical visas is expected to boost the health care tourism. and other indigenous systems of medicine like unani and siddha. with Indonesia and Thailand being the leaders. meditation. hotels and travel service providers is essential.fuelled by the development of the Golden Quadrilateral highways project. the upgrades suggested for the metro airports and improved air connectivity. The increase in the number of massage centers and spas has led to an increase in the local incomes as well as the attraction of a destination. drawing the lines of responsibility of different parties involved – the foreign patient and the local medical organizations. owing to stressful lives and increasing health-conscious. ayurveda. patients may have to provide only medical records and proof of appointment at healthcare institutions for getting visas which might be upto a duration of 12 months. in order to target a wider set of audience the health tourism can be offered as way to rejuvenate and re-strengthen physically. It is important to explain the intricate issues in the procedure and package as it deals with peoples’ lives so that they do not feel deceived. 26 . Networking with hospitals. Yoga can also be offered to patients undergoing treatment for asthma or arthritis as a part of health packages. With yoga. psychically and spiritually. There is still a need for legislation in these areas. Rather than catering to specific ailments. India offers a unique basket of services to an individual that is difficult to match by other countries. The competition in these services is tense. Under the new systems. Yoga has unprecedented levels of acceptance in the West.
agricultural expansion. Private entrepreneurs have also taken up tourism schemes in this belt. Tourism could therefore be a means of redistributing economic resources. The attractions are a wide variety of wildlife. debts. deforestation etc. flora and fauna in idyllic surroundings. India is serving as an eco-tourism destination. which are otherwise of low value. mitigating the socio-economic situation both at local and national scale and contributing to biodiversity conservation. but perfectly meet the demands of the growing travel industry. which result in the loss of valuable biodiversity and degradation of national parks. Promotion of this sector requires a number of clearances for the concerned authorities as most of the destinations are protected reserves. over-exploitation of wild resources. This is because an overwhelming majority of species is located in developing countries. which comprise mega-biodiversity regions and protected parks. 27 . Industrialized countries on the other hand are characterized by high and increasing demands for nature-based vacations. such as remote beaches. tourism received increasing attention especially in developing countries as it is has potential for generating income while creating incentives for conservation. with protected areas representing first-rate attractions.. Nature-based tourism a sub-sector of tourism can be an important channel for redistributing resources from countries who demand higher nature based vacation to developing countries. It is considered an ideal development keeping in tandem with ecological development globally. But these developing countries face more serious problems like rapid population growth. It is argued that tourism allows for the use of areas.Eco Tourism In the 1990s. With increasing awareness about nature.
it should be fully compatible with the conservation goals of the country. In addition to these due to flying. domestic airfares.The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and ecotourism society define ecotourism as “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the wellbeing of the local people. The pessimistic view has been that ecotourism cannot lead to sustainable development. accommodation and food.“ However for tourism to be called ecotourism. while at the same time pose minimum threat to the continuation of local culture and society. tourism causes significant environmental damage costs. Such a transfer of revenue establishes a direct link between conservation and personal income. Under this concept. in the form of entrance fees. The criteria for ecotourism are: • • • Minimum physical and social impacts on the visited area Ecological education of the tourist at the natural site Notable economic participation by local tourists. By creating economic disparities between tourist destinations and the economies that surround them. The optimistic view is that tourists are an economic force that can promote the conservation of the natural attractions that entice the tourists in the first place. sale of local goods such as handicrafts and souvenirs and tax revenues levied on the above. Moreover. the expansionary influences of tourism also create pressures for population growth through migration to fill jobs linked directly or indirectly to tourism. hiring charges of the guide. revenues from tourists. 28 . are distributed among the population that is most likely to exploit the natural areas. it should contribute by means of income and education to the contribution of ecosystems.
Another issue of concern is as more and more tourists arrive in the country. while the developing countries face the costs for preservation. most ecotourism spots do not even generate enough financial resources to cover their maintenance costs. 29 . this would result in a huge burden on host countries. At present. Many nature based tourist destinations in India charge a nominal fee or no fees at all. This can lead to unsustainable growth in the country. effective planning. governments in developing countries often turn to ecotourism as the major option to generate economic benefits without adequate planning. management and control are a precondition for the sustainable growth of ecotourism. These non-use values often accrue to tourists from the global community. which can be avoided only through appropriate measures. The economic potential of ecotourism has remained unrealized so far because a major proportion of the nature-based tourism is characterized by non-use values. Thus. Unless the costs of maintenance of the parks and the opportunity cost of protection of these nature-based tourist destinations are realized in the form of entrance fees.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 30 .
20 2.6 5 10.3 9 2.2 7.1 7.9 8.1 7.7.90 6.4 GDP T&T Economy 1.30 2.6 0.5 --.1 2.663.3 Tourism Business Travel Government 36 Expenditures Capital 485.The tourism sector in India is witnessing an impressive growth curve.8 202.972.1 14 7.4 --.404.477.00 2.1 Growth1 INR bn 2014 % of Tot Growth2 31 .2 1 5.9 14.1 114.002.30 --.8 7.9 1.5 2 9.1 9.9 4.40 4.846.8.3 96.7 1 4.1 27.70 --.90 7.9 3.2 7.8 11.3 81 4.790.027.612.10 Demand T&T Industry 618.3 Investment Visitor Exports Other Exports Travel & Tourism 1.441.50 5.3 12. India Estimates and Forecasts 2004 % India INR bn of Tot Personal Travel & 927.7 GDP T&T Industry 11.7 1.1 779.6 2.13.7 1.60 5. This is evident from the table given below.00 5.456.9 387.6 2 Employment T&T Economy 24.4 487.3 3.
8 of its budget on tourism and rates fifth in receiving the largest tourist arrivals (31. U. 5 million tourists visited India. 43% visited India for pleasure. Jaipur circuit. In India. India has the potential to become the number one tourist destination in the world with the demand growing at 10.10000 crores by 2001.9 per cent. The pride of place continues to be the Golden Triangle i. China spends 3. Delhi. 25% for business and 11% for meeting friends and relatives. the Government spending on tourism is 153rd in the world at 0.e. The highest number of foreign tourists i. The tourists below the age of 30 years are predominantly pleasure seekers.e. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) selected New Delhi to host its fifth Global Travel and Tourism Summit in April 2005.S. India's visibility on the world tourist map has just got better.Employment Source: World Travel and Tourism Council Over the years. In the year 2000. tourism has emerged as a major segment of Indian economy contributing significantly to the foreign exchange earnings which have increased from Rs. 32 crores in 1974-75 to more than Rs. 32 . Agra.2 million) after France.1 per cent per annum.. the WTTC has predicted. Spain and Italy.
real growth. %) S.Asia Total Demand (cum.Asia T& T Total Demand 33 . real growth. %) Indian Mkt Share of S.Indian Travel & Tourism Total Demand (1990 constant US$ billion) Indian T& T Total Demand (cum.
%) World T& T Total Demand 34 .Indian Mkt Share of World Total Demand (cum. real growth.
But today the scenario has changed. Some of the recent expansions announced by the major players are listed below: The ITC Welcomgroup has invested Rs 1.000-1. 35 . The Leela Palaces and Resorts plans to invest over Rs 900 crore in three more hotels in Udaipur. top Indian companies were restricted to the major towns and cities. Several foreign chains have entered the Indian market. The result is that the quality of service has improved. it is only natural that Indian hospitality is witnessing a boom.000 crore expansion taking its presence to 15 from the current seven.500 crore with thrust on super deluxe luxury properties in the key metros. The overseas players have brought in efficient systems and service standards from Europe and the US. The Grand Group of Hotels has announced a Rs 1. Earlier. Chennai and Hyderabad.500 crore and will further invest Rs 1.HOSPITALITY SECTOR With the spurt in tourism. The top companies are setting up hotels in smaller towns and cities. Competition has forced Indian hotel groups to improve their standards.
The importance of tourism is not only the foreign exchange it brings in but. more importantly.WAYS TO MARKET TOURISM India receives three million foreign tourists a year while a small country like Thailand. Western Europe. for which they had little time when they were busy with their careers. India is yet to be marketed to its full potential as a tourist destination. The first step in any marketing exercise is to identify the customer and his or her needs and inclinations. The younger backpackers or student-type tourists are not sufficiently well funded. And in those regions. medieval. These are usually people who have retired and can afford to explore the world outside their own immediate reach. Taking our primary target group of retired people. there is one common characteristic among such people throughout the world. the US. receives more than three times that number and they plan to double it to 20 million tourists in the next decade. They like to play golf and explore history. So far. with much more limited geographic and historical attraction. and arts. 36 . and Japan. the target groups we have to attract are people who have the time and the money. This is good but it isn't enough. viz. in the employment it generates at several locations and in several layers of society -.ranging from airline staff to hotel employees and scooter-taxi wallahs. religions. The major sources of such tourists are the three richest regions of the world. and Mughal India. the temples and forts of ancient days. the Indian tourism industry has focused on selling ancient.
For a European tourist it is often more interesting to see remnants of the adventurers from their own countries. the same is happening to the monuments and cities built by our European colonisers -. today we take pride in showing tourists monuments like the Taj Mahal as the pride of India. it is easier to relate to such sites as most of them are descendants of Europeans. 37 . More recently. The Japanese and Chinese will willingly do the Buddhist circuit in much greater numbers. and for playing games like golf. we as a nation have become confident enough in our own standing and achievements that we can rise above anti-colonial feelings and talk about the colonial period without inhibitions or resentment.the Portuguese. and so Goa has been marketed. especially now that Nepal is in trouble.Secondly we need to explore opportunities for leisure tourism. Kerala has successfully marketed itself for everything -. if we can organize a pleasant experience for them in Bihar. India's hill states can easily attract more tourists than Nepal does. With the passage of time. There are people who will come to enjoy India's winter sun. Even for the Americans. the French. Then. but Nepal is much better organized for trekkers and mountain-lovers than Uttaranchal or Himachal Pradesh. our colonial history presents its own opportunities. the Dutch. but India has many more beaches.from the ayurvedic massage to its backwaters. and the British. Fortunately. Although the Mughals colonised India and even converted our people to their religion four centuries ago.
coffee. we have several such monuments and sites bearing witness to the history of our European colonisers. The British East India Company began its operations in Madras. if we were to look at different parts of India against the canvas of the history of the European merchants in India. We should use them to market our country. and tea estates which are totally Indian-owned today. In France schoolchildren are still taught about the French empire in India. No other country in Asia has this asset and it is time for us to exploit it by marketing this part of our history. The other legacy of the British is the plantations of the Nilgiris on the Eastern side and Munnar on the Western side. Mahe. The pioneering British planters braved malaria and wild animals to create the rubber. which consisted of Pondicherry.Fortunately. 38 . In short. A travel film on this section of India in itself can be a great advertisement for India. It has several French remnants. and Chandannagar. There are very few locations in the world where this can be seen. But perhaps the people who have most historical connections with India are the British and through them their cousins from the US. Lets take the case of Pondicherry. we can create a whole saga of great interest to Western tourists. including the use of the French language. Karaikkal.
Dual. 39 . or other similar activities. and added revenue for participating businesses. Why Packages Are Popular? Travel packages have become increasingly popular over the years.income families find it difficult to schedule vacation time. In the hospitality and tourism industry. They are attractive because they benefit both the customer and participating businesses. meals. "packaging" is the process of combining two or more related and complementary offerings into a single-price offering. The customer pays at one time and has a good idea of the trip's total cost.PACKAGING: A Tourism Marketing Tool Time is a valuable commodity for today's travelers. Benefits to the Customer: Packaging can be an effective marketing tool to provide several customer benefits. guide services. packaging provides convenience and value to the customer. These may include: Ability to budget for trips. because packages make travel easier and more convenient. Packaging can also create a variety of benefits for participating businesses. or an individual's job makes long vacations impractical. entrance fees to attractions. transportation costs (air. train. cab or bus). auto. family members often have jobs or activities that conflict. Packaging is a popular technique used for attracting these customers. entertainment. A package may include a wide variety of services such as lodging. Packages include most of the components a customer must pay for during a trip.
meals. Businesses that package can frequently purchase tickets. Packaging can allow the business to reduce marketing costs or start a new program one could not normally afford by joining with one or more businesses to conduct a marketing or advertising program. reservations. Use packaging during low demand periods to add attractive features to the business's service or product. Specialized interests. Improved target marketing. Popular programs and activities. Visitors and travelers are often unfamiliar with many of the activities and attractions in an area: a package can help customers find them easily. 40 . accommodations. Packaging can be an effective tool to tailor tourism and travel products for specific target markets. Increased convenience. Smooth business patterns. thus generating additional business. Greater economy. and other components of a trip. Packaging provides a unique opportunity to design components of a package for specialized interests. Trips can be time consuming and difficult to arrange. Several telephone calls and letters may be required to arrange for tickets. Joint marketing opportunities. Packaging can be used by businesses to help improve profitability and build customer volume. and other package components at wholesale prices.
Packaging can be used to highlight special holiday weekends by developing services appropriate to the theme of the weekend. or marketing service firms that could provide a part of the package? What are potential marketing and promotional networks that will help spread the word about your product? Will the physical appearance and service skills of your business match the target audience? 41 . Greater holiday weekend business. businesses. Businesses can create their own events that can occur throughout the year. Redirected traffic to lesser-known attractions. Items to Consider in Developing a Package: Before developing a tourism packaging program. Directing visitors to often overlooked attractions can help in two ways: heavily visited attractions may be offered some relief. while newly discovered attractions may thrive and prosper. the business should devise a marketing plan through practical marketing research. Unique recurring events. Events could be tournaments such as chess or bridge or crime reenactments that let guests do the detective work. The business owner should ask him/herself the following questions: Are you willing to do market research to determine who your customers are and what they want? What are the potential attractions.
Offer consistent quality and compatibility among elements. Provide a distinctive customer benefit. Rural Tourism: Strategies for Marketing Rural Tourism in India 42 . written agreements between the cooperating businesses. Provide value to the customer. you will be required to develop formal. Be well planned and coordinated. Elements of a Successful Package: Include attractions or demand generators. Cover all the details. Generate a profit. Does your business have the ability to manage and service the customers you generate through your packaging program? Are you prepared for a risk? Because you will be including customer service activities that are not under your direct control.
like promotion of rural tourism around a heritage site 43 . This developmental role is to be further strengthened by socially responsible marketing. it is necessary that the objectives of tourism development in relation to a region. Further. This. tourism can also be sold as post-convention destination not only for the conventions held in India but also for neighbouring countries. Thus. When it comes to cities and leisure spots/heritage sites . at times. city or leisure spots) we should consider the following aspects: Attractions . cities or leisure spots(a rural area). the developmental role of marketing has to be kept in mind while marketing regions.India. city or (a rural area) leisure spot be clearly stated. has been a long haul tourist destination and provision of rural tourist destinations in its basket of destinations will go a long way in showcasing and marketing India in a better perspective. marketing strategies concentrate on increasing the volume of tourists. In fact. traditionally.particularly in the rural areas. This is because the local bodies are either not aware about the developmental role of tourism or are constrained by their own politics or lack of funds. As tourism becomes established as an economic activity. creates a host of unforeseen consequences. marketing becomes a major problem. Before we go further in dealing with these aspects it must be noted that in the marketing of a destination (region.
On the contrary look at a region like Kumaun which is struggling hard to promote its attractions in different cities (other than Nainital) and rural areas and develop its tourism products. checking the decline and doing away with the negative impacts of tourism. Infrastructure (accommodation. If proper questions are not posed and answered. a region like Goa. etc. 44 . In marketing jargon what they require is internal marketing. the planners and developers blindly imitate outside concepts and models of development without taking into consideration the local needs. environmental or social impacts). proper maintenance. In such a situation the destination may not take off at all or the entire developmental investment may go waste. customs. attitudes and constraints. They no more require promotion and have similarly exhausted their carrying capacity (infrastructural. In India we find different destinations in different stages of what is termed as the product life cycle. Carrying capacity of the destination. product improvement. hygiene. law and order situation (for both the local population as well as tourists). a city like Shimla or a leisure spot like the Badkal Lake have reached a maturity level. Their problem on the contrary is of retaining their image. For example. Eco-fragility. Environmental issues (Pollution. etc. means of transportation)-I gather should not be too far from railhead or airport: 2-21/2 hr.) Safety. etc. cuisine. checking the decline. clean water (basic amenities etc.) Accessibility (roads.
The questions to be answered and the issues to be resolved would be many but we take a few here for consideration: 1. What type of tourists are to be attracted? Etc. language.) within the region have to be developed into tourism packages? 2. we could have a destination with unique selling preposition e. If the destination is highly seasonal. How to ensure that the ecology and environment at the destination are not damaged by tourism? 8. Do we have a market for them? 4. What type of infrastructure is to be created? 5.equate with west Actually living with people Diversity of culture. Whether these attractions have to be packaged and promoted as a mix or as separate attractions? 3. What type of attractions (nature. craft Exposure to heritage sites 45 . Aathiti Devo Bhava is more practiced in rural India than anywhere else An experience one cannot have anywhere in the world . food. should huge investments be made or (we) one should develop alternate and subsidiary accommodation? 7.g. adventure or cultural etc. Having resolved issues submitted for your consideration regarding enhancement of rural tourism. Is the local population receptive to tourism? 6.
Coming back to nature Health . Then there is yoga. Unnani. 46 . Ayurveda.physical and mental both: yoga.away from humdrum. exposure to local medicine or Indian system of medicine e.may be organically cultivated Local crafts and cottage industry can provide unique shopping experience (inexpensive) For investors also.g. various types of massages Tranquillity . promotion of rural tourism investment could bring in higher returns on comparatively low investments. stressless and strain free stay Not necessarily though promoting vegetarianism can also be a USP Environment friendly Freshness in food ingredients when procured locally .
CONCLUSION 47 .
These learnings have to implemented with the support of the government and the determination of entrepreneurs to turn India into a great tourist destination as make tourism one of the most effective drivers of the Indian economy. However. Under the Plan.CONCLUSION The Tenth 5-year plan (2002-2007) of the government treats tourism as a major engine of economic growth and employment generation. Given the strong emphasis of the government on the promotion of tourism and improvement of the tourist infrastructure and the vast untapped potential of India as a tourist destination. The marketers have to get their marketing fundamentals in place to capitalize on this promising sector. Tourism is perhaps the most under rated sector in India which can be great driver of economic growth in and generate millions of jobs as well. there is little doubt that future prospects for Indian tourism are bright. France and Hong Kong. India is a country with the highest potential as far as the tourism sector is concerned. There are lessons to be learnt form effective tourism marketing efforts by Indian states like Kerala as well as foreign countries like Malaysia. 48 . total resources of Rs29 billion were allocated towards tourism. the challenge is to effectively market tourism in India and leverage on the potentials of the sector.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 49 .
com www.wikipedia.tourismstats.expediainc.org International Tourism Management-Sagar Publications Economic Times 50 .BIBLIOGRAPHY www.hotels.org www.com www.com www.com www.com www.incredibleindia.indiatourism.world-tourism.indiadata.sabre-holdings.com www.org www.
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