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KALASALINGAM UNIVERSITY (Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education) Anand Nagar, krishnankoil.

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Even semester (2011-2012)

Lab manual for Microwave & Optical Communication Laboratory ECE 481

IV year/VIII semester/ECE A,B&C

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ECE 481-Microwave & Optical Communication Laboratory List of Experiments Cycle-I

1. Characteristics of Reflex Klystron 2. Characteristics of Gunn Diode Oscillator 3. Radiation Pattern of Horn Antenna 4. Setting up of a Fiber Optic Analog Link 5. Time Division Multiplexing of Optical Signals 6. Characteristics of Directional Coupler

7. Numerical Aperture of a Fiber 8. Microwave Magic Tee 9. Setting up of a Fiber optic Digital Link 10. Frequency Measurement. 11. VSWR and Impedance measurement 12. Measurement of Attenuation 13. Characteristics of LASER diode.

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Ex.No:1 Characteristics of Reflex Klystron

Aim: To obtain the mode characteristics of reflex klystron Components Required: Klystron power supply, Reflex Klystron oscillator, Isolator, Frequency meter, Variable attenuator, Detector mount with crystal diode, CRO and Waveguide stands. Theory: The Reflex Klystron makes the use of velocity modulation to transform continuous electron beam energy into microwave power. Electrons emitted from the cathode are accelerated and passed through the positive resonator towards negative reflector, which retards and, finally, reflects the electrons and the electron turn back through the resonator. Suppose an RF- Field exists between the resonators, the electrons traveling forward will be accelerated or retarded, as the voltage at the resonator changes in amplitude. The accelerated electrons leave the resonator at an increased velocity and the retarded electrons leave at the reduced velocity. The electrons leaving the resonator will need different time to return, due to change in velocities. As a result, returning electrons group together into bunches. As the electron bunches pass through resonator, they interact with voltage at the resonator grids. If the bunches passes the grid such that the electrons are slowed down by the voltage then energy will be delivered to the resonator and the Klystron will oscillate. Fig.1.2 shows the relationship between output power, frequency and reflector voltages. The frequency is primarily determined by the dimensions of the resonant cavity. Hence, by changing the volume of resonator, mechanical tuning of Klystron is possible. Also, a small frequency change can be obtained by adjusting the reflector voltage. This is called electronic tuning.

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Block Diagram

Klystron Power Supply SKPS-610

Multi Meter

Klystron Mount

Isolator XI-621

Frequency meter XF-455

Variable Attenuator

Detector mount XD-451

VSWR Mounts115


Fig.1.1. Block diagram of Reflex Klystron

Table1.1 Observation in Reflex Klystron

Sl. No. Repeller Voltage in Volts Reading in the CRO

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Procedure: 1. Check the Klystron power supply by observing all the knobs are in the initial Position. Before connecting the Reflex klystron to the power supply, switch on the power supply keeping the front panel in Beam Off position. Wait for few minutes and then change the switch to Beam On position. The meter on the power supply should indicate 280V which can be adjusted by beam voltage control. Bring back the switch to Beam Off position and switch off the supply. Now, connect the klystron leads to the socket output of the klystron power supply. 2. Switch ON the power supply and wait for few minutes. Turn the modulation Switch to Internal Modulation position. 3. Set the variable attenuator to maximum attenuation. 4. Connect a CRO to the output of the diode detector. 5. Switch ON the beam voltage and check the beam current on the meter of the power supply. The rated values are Beam voltage: 290V, Beam current: 20 to 25 mA 6. Obtain square waveform in the CRO. If there is no waveform, then decrease the attenuation and / or beam voltage to get some waveform. 7. Keep the knob at the repeller voltage mode and for various values of Repeller voltage, the corresponding reading in the CRO is noted. 8. Adjust the rotatable knob (micrometer type) of the frequency meter to get a DIP in the CRO reading. The corresponding frequency of oscillation is read from the frequency meter. 9. A graph is drawn between Repeller voltage Vs Detector output.


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Ex.No: 2 Characteristics of Gunn diode Oscillator

Aim: To obtain the characteristics of Gunn Diode Oscillator Components Required: 1. Gunn Power Supply GS-610 2. Gunn Oscillator XG-11 3. Isolator XI-621 4. Variable Attenuator 5. Frequency Meter XF-710 6. Matched Termination XL-400 7. Detector Mount with crystal diode 8. Oscilloscope 9. BNC Cable Theory: The Gunn Oscillator is based on negative differential conductivity effect in bulk semiconductors which has two conduction bands separated by an energy gap (greater than thermal energies). A disturbance at the cathode gives rise to high field region which travels towards the anode. When this field domain reaches the anode, it disappears and another domain is formed at the cathode and starts moving towards anode and so on. The time required for domain to travel from cathode to anode (transit time) gives oscillation frequency. In a Gunn Oscillator, the Gunn diode is placed in a resonant cavity. The Oscillator frequency is determined by cavity dimensions. Although Gunn Oscillator can be amplitude modulated with the bias voltage. We have used a PIN modulator for square wave modulation of the signal coming from Gunn diode. A measure of the square wave modulation capability is the modulation depth i.e. the output ratio between ON and OFF state. Gunn diode has no junctions. InP, CdTe or GaAs materials can be used to fabricate Gunn diode. These semi conducting materials have four energy bands and hence suitable for establishing negative resistance characteristics which is the source for producing sustained oscillations.
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Gunn Power Supply

CRO/ Multimeter

Gunn oscillator XG -11

Isolator XI -621

Variable Attenuator

Frequency Meter

Diode Detector

Fig.2.1. Block diagram of Gunn Diode Oscillator

Table2.1 Observation in Gunn Diode Oscillator

Sl. No. Gunn Bias Voltage (v) Gunn Current (A) Nature of output waveform

Threshold voltage

I (mA)

Volts (V)


Fig2.2 Model graph

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Procedure: 1. 2. Set the components as shown in Fig.2.1. Keep the control knobs of Gunn Power Supply as below: Meter Switch - OFF Gunn Bias Knob - Fully Anticlockwise PIN Bias Knob - Fully Anticlockwise PIN Mode Frequency - Any Position 3. 4. 5. Set the micrometer of Gunn Oscillator for required frequency of operation. Switch ON the Gunn Power Supply. Measure the Gunn Diode Current corresponding to the various Gunn bias voltage through the digital panel meter and meter switch. Do not exceed the bias voltage above 10V. 6. 7. Measure the threshold voltage which corresponds to maximum current. At one particular value of bias voltage, the current starts to decrease. This voltage is called Peak voltage. At another value of bias voltage, the current again starts to increase. The voltage is called as valley voltage. 8. Plot the voltage and current readings on the graph.


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Ex.No:3 Radiation Pattern of Horn Antenna

Aim: To measure the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna . Components Required: 1. Klystron power supply 2. Reflex klystron oscillator 3. Isolator 4. Frequency meter 5. Variable attenuator 6. Diode detector 7. Horn antennas 8. Multimeter and Waveguide stands Theory: The transmitted power (PT) of an antenna of gain G1 and the received power (PR) of an antenna of gain G2 are related by the equation, PR / PT = (0/4S)2 G1 G2 Where S is the separation between the two antennas and 0 is the free space wavelength. If two similar horn antennas are used then G1G2 (=G) and the equation reduces to PR / PT= (0/4S)2 G2 0 can be calculated by using the formula (1/g)2 = (1/0)2 (1/2a)2 where g is twice the distance of separation between successive minima. Smin, the minimum distance of separation between the antennas is given by Smin =2d2/ 0, where d(=12.5cm) is the larger dimension of the transmitting antenna.

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Fig.3.1.Block diagram of Horn antenna

Table3.1 Observation in Horn Antenna

Transmitting power PT Sl. No. (mW = Voltage*Current)

Receiving power PR (mW = Voltage(CRO) * Current)

Distance of separation ( S in cm) Gain (dB)

Table3.2 Observation in Horn Antenna

Angle in Degrees

Sl. No.

Receiving Power(Pr)(=Voltage(CRO) * Current)

Gain in dB

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Procedure: 1. Before connecting the two antennas, obtain the square waveform in the CRO using Setup1of the Characteristics of Reflex Klystron.. 2. Note down the multimeter/CRO reading (PT). 3. Note down the frequency of oscillation (f) from the frequency meter. 4. From the value of frequency (f) calculate 0 (=c/f) and then g. 5. Connect the two horns H1 and H2 between the frequency meter and diode detector. 6. Keep the distance between the two horns greater than Smin (so that the antenna under test is in the far field of transmitting antenna) and note down the distance of separation S between the two horns. 7. Note the corresponding multimeter/CRO reading (PR) in the multimeter/CRO connected to the diode detector mount without any tuning. 8. Calculate the gain using the formula Gain in dB =10*log10 (PR/PT *4S/ 0) RADIATION PATTERN MEASUREMENT 1. By using angle measurement platform, for various degrees of orientation of Horn antennas, the corresponding gain is calculated. 2. A graph is plotted with Gain Vs Angle in the Polar Plot. This gives the

radiation pattern of the horn antenna.


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Ex.No:4 Setting up of a Fiber Optic Analog Link

Aim: 1. To set up an 850nm fiber optic analog link and to observe the linear relationship between the input signal and the received signal. 2. To measure the bandwidth of the optical link. Components Required: 1. Optical Fiber Trainer Kit 2. Two channel, 20MHz Oscilloscope 3. Function Generator, 1Hz-10MHz Theory: An analog fibre optic link is to be set up in this experiment. The preparation of the optical fibre for coupling light into it and the coupling of the fibre to the LED and detector are given in table 1. The LED used is 850nm LED. The fibre is a multimode fibre with a core diameter of 1000m.The detector is a simple PIN detector. The LED optical power output is directly proportional to the current driving the LED. Similarly, for the PIN diode, the current is proportional to the amount of light falling on the detector. Thus, even though the LED and the PIN diode are non-linear

devices, the current in the PIN diode is directly proportional to the driving current of the LED.

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Fig 4.1: Layout diagram

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Sl. No.

Identification name P11ANALOG IN



1 2

Used to feed in analog sinusoidal 1V pp signal PIN Detector signal monitoring post

Transmitter Block

P32 PD1 O/P

Optical Rx1


Received signal with amplification

Optical Rx1


Gain adjustment potentiometer

Optical Rx1


Analog/Digital selection switch should be set to ANALOG position)

LED1 850nm

850nm LED source

Optical Tx1

7 8

PD1 I/O1,I/O2,I/O3

Pin detector Input /Output BNCs and posts i.for feeding signal to the experimentor from generator or observe signal from the experimentor on the oscilloscope

Optical Tx1

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Procedure: SETTING UP THE ANALOG LINK 1. Set the switch SW8 to the ANALOG position. Switch the power ON. 2. Feed a 1Vp-p sinusoidal signal at 1KHz from a function generator to the ANALOG IN pot p11 using the following procedure: i. Connect a BNC-BNC cable from the function generator to the BNC socket I/O3. ii. Connect the signal post I/O3 to the ANALOG IN post P11 using a patch cord. With this signal from the function generator is fed through to the ANALOG IN signal post P11 from the I/O3 BNC socket. 3. Connect one end of the 1m fiber to the LED source LED1 in the optical TX1 block. Observe the light output (red tinge) at the other end of the fiber. 4. Connect the other end of the fiber to the detector PD1 in the optical RX1 block. The PIN detector output signal is available at P32 in the optical RX1 block. Vary the input signal driving the LED and observe the received signal at the PIN detector. 5. Plot the received signal peak-to-peak amplitude with respect to the input signal peak-to-peak amplitude. 6. Repeat the above steps using the 3m fiber instead of the 1m fibre. Plot the received signal amplitude at the PIN detector as a function of input signal amplitude. 7. Observe that the relationship between the input electrical signal and the output electrical signal is linear. Thus the fibre optic link is a linear element.

TO MEASURE THE BANDWIDTH OF THE LINK 8. Apply a 2Vp-p sinusoidal signal at P11 and observe the output at P31. Adjust gain such that no clipping takes place. Vary the frequency of the input signal from 100Hz to 5MHz and measure the amplitude of the received signal. 9. Plot the received signal amplitude as a function of frequency [using a logarithmic scale for frequency]. 10. Note the frequency range for which the response is flat.

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Fig 4.2: Block diagram


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Ex.No:5 Time Division Multiplexing of Optical Signals

Aim: To set up the multiplexer and de-multiplexer using optical fibre trainer, and to observe the Simultaneous transmission of several channels using Time Division Multiplexing.

Components Required: 1. Optical Fibre Trainer Kit (OFT) 2. Two channel, 20MHz Oscilloscope 3. Function Generator, 1Hz-10MHz

Theory: OFT is as much a synchronous Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) unit as a fibre optic communication unit. The basic multiplexer has twelve 64 kbps channels which are time multiplexed. The multiplexed data stream is Manchester coded and the resulting TTL bit-stream drives the LEDs. At the receiver, the TTL signal is fed to a Manchester decoder which recovers the clock and the data. TDM is also the basis of time-switching used today in telecom switches. While multiplexing, say the voice signal from port 1, V1 is transmitted before V2, the voice signal from port 2. But at the receiver, the first received signal can be fed to port 2, and the later signal to port 1, resulting in switching between the two ports. If an asynchronous low bit rate signal is to be inserted in a synchronous MUX, the simplest technique is to sample the input signal using a submultiples of the MUX output c lock. However, this gives rise to jitter in the received signal.

Procedure: 1. Set the jumpers , switches and short the shorting links, as given in the table. 2. During power ON, both even and odd marker patterns at the marker generator. and marker reference blocks will be set automatically as follows: Even marker: 0 0 0 0 0000 & Odd marker: X 1 X X XXXX

3. Turn ON at least one of the switches SW0-SW7 in the 8-bit data transmit block. This ensures that the multiplexer is correctly aligned.
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Fig 5.1 layout Diagram 4. Set up a 850nm digital link by connecting LED1 in the optical TX1 block and PD1 in the optical RX1 block using 1m optical fiber.

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Fig5.2: Transmitter of TDM-Block diagram

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Fig5.3: Receiver of TDM-Block diagram 5. Adjust the gain control until, the LEDs L0-L7 in 8-bit-data receiver block light up corresponding to the ON positions of SW0-SW7. When the TDM is working, the LEDs L8&L9 in the marker detection block will be OFF without any flicker .Toggle SW0 and observe the toggling of L0. The digital link and the TDM MUX-DEMUX are now set up. 6. Signal inputs given at the voice coder block. OFT is now being used in the loopback mode. The data and voice channels multiplexed on the transmit side are demultiplexed on the receive side of the trainer.
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7. Feed a sinusoidal signal of 1KHz and 1Vp-p at post B of S1 and display it on channel 1 of the oscilloscope. Trigger the scope on channel 1. Observe the received signal at voice 1 signal post P23 on channel 2 of the scope. Vary the frequency of the input signal and observe the received signal. Note the lower frequency cut off when the output voltage falls to 0.7Vp-p ( 3dB below 1Vp-p). 8. The signal is being digitized by a CODEC at 64bits/sec, multiplexed and transmitted on the fiber link. The received optical signal is converted to a TTL

signal and demultiplexed to obtain the transmitted signal back. The signal at P23 is the reconstructed version of the signal. The frequency response obtained is that of the CODEC used to digitize and reconstruct the voice signal. Observe the

received signal closely on the oscilloscope. Observe that it is a step approximation of the original signal. 9. The multiplexer also multiplexes the TTL signals controlled by switches SW0-SW7. At the receiver, the received signal I demultiplexed and the switch inputs are displayed at the LEDs L0-L7 respectively. 10. OFT also provides for directly feeding in two low-frequency TTL signals instead of the static switch settings at SW7 & SW6. Now insert the TTL signal at both P1 and P2 using two function generators.

11. Now insert the TTL signal at both P1 and P2. Observe the outputs at P21 and P22 on channel 1 and channel 2 of the oscilloscope.


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Ex.No:6 Characteristics of Directional Coupler

To measure the Coupling Factor & Directivity of the Directional Coupler.

Components Required: Gunn power supply, Gunn oscillator, Pin modulator, Directional coupler, Variable attenuator, Matched termination, Detector mount, CRO and Waveguide stands. Theory: The Directional coupler is a four port wave guide junction. It consists of a primary waveguide and a secondary wave guide. When all ports are terminated in their characteristics impedances, there is free transmission of power, without reflection , between port 1 and port 2 , and there is no transmission of power between port 1 and 3 or between port 2 and 4 because no coupling exists between these two pairs of ports. The degree of coupling between port 1 and 2 and between port 2 and 3 depends on the structure of the coupler. The characteristics of a directional coupler can be expressed in terms of its coupling factor and its directivity. Assuming wave is propagating from port 1 to 2 in the primary line, the coupling factor and directivity are defined as Coupling factor (dB) = 10 log 10 (P1 / P4)
Directivity (dB) = 10 log 10 (P4 / P3) Where P1 = power input to port 1 P3 = power output from port 3P4= power output from port 4

Primary Port 1

Wave Guide Port 2

Port 3 Secondary DIRECTIONAL COUPLER Wave Guide

Port 4

Fig: 6.1

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Gunn power supply

VSWR meter

Gunn oscillator

Pin modulator Isolator

Variable attenuato r

Directional coupler

Detecto r mount


Matched termination


1. Set up the components and equipments as shown in the figure. 2. Energize the microwave source for particular frequency of operation 3. Remove the multihole directional coupler and connect the detector mount of the frequency meter. Tune the detector for maximum output. 4.Set any reference level of power on VSWR meter with the help of variable attenuator, gain control knob of VSWR meter, and note down the reading(reference level let x) 5. Insert the directional coupler as shown in second fig 3 with detector to the auxiliary port 3 and matched termination to port 2,without changing the position of variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter. 6. Note down the reading on VSWR meter on the scale with the help of range-db switch if required. Let it be Y. 7. Calculate coupling factor which will be X-Y=C(db) 8.Now carefully disconnect the detector from the auxiliary port 3 and match termination from port 2 without disturbing the set-up 9.Connect the matched termination to the auxiliary port 3 and detector to port 2 and measure the reading on VSWR meter. Suppose it is Z. 10.Compute insertion loss X-Z in db

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11.Repeat the steps from 1 to 4. 12.Connect the directional coupler in the reverse direction.i.e,port 2 to frequency meter side.Matched termination to port 1 and detector mount to port 3.Without disturbing the position of the variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter. 13.Measure and note down the reading on VSWR meter. let it be Yd.X-Yd gives isolation I(dB). 14.Compute the directivity as Y-Yd=I-C. 15.Repeat the same for other frequencies


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Ex.No:7 Microwave Magic Tee

Aim: To measure the basic parameter Input VSWR,Isolation for Magic Tee. . Components Required: Microwave Source.Isolator,Variable attenuator, Frequency meter, slotted line, tunable probe, magic tee, matched termination, waveguide stand, detector

mount,VSWR meter . . Theory: Wave-guide tees are three port components. They are used to connect a branch or section of the wave guide in series are parallel with the main wave guide transmission line for providing means of splitting and also of combining power n a wave guide system. The two basic types of T-junctions are E-plane the axis of the side arm which is

(series) T and H-plane (shunt) T. these are named according to

parallel to the E-field or the H-field in the collinear arms.The device magic Tee is a combination of the E and H plane tee.The basic parameters to bemeasured formagic Tee are a)Input VSWR:Value of SWR corresponding to each port, as a load to the line while other ports are terminated in matched load.

b)Isolation The isolation between E and H arms is defined as the ratio of poer supplied by the generator connected to the E-arm terminated in matched load. to the power detected at H-arm when side arms

Hence Isolation(db)=10 log{P4/P3}











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Procedure VSWR Measurement of the Ports

1. Set up the components and equipments as shown in the fig.

2.Energize the microwave source for particular frequency of operation 3.Measure the VSWR of E-Arms similar to the measure ment of SWR for low and medium value. 4.Connect another arm to slotted line and terminate the other port with matched termination termination. Measure the VSWR as above. Measurement of Isolation 1.Remove the tunable probe and Magic Tee from the slotted line and connect the detector mount to slotted line. 2. With the help of variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter,set any power level in the VSWR meter. Let it P3 3. Without disturbing the position of variable attenuator and gain control knob, carefully place the magic tee after slotted line keeping H arm connected to slotted line, detector to E-arm and termination to arm 1&2. Let it beP4 4.Determine the Isolation. matched


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Ex.No:8 Numerical Aperture of a Fiber

Aim: To measure the numerical aperture of the given optical fiber. Components Required: Transmitter trainer kit, Receiver trainer kit, Fiber optic cable, Patch cords Theory: Numerical aperture refers to the maximum angle at which the light incident on the fiber end is totally internally reflected and is transmitted properly along the fiber. The cone

formed by the rotation of this angle along the axis of the fiber is the cone of acceptance of the fiber. The light ray should strike the fiber end within its cone of acceptance else it is refracted out of the fiber.

Procedure: 1.Insert one end of the fibre into the Numerical Aperture Measurement unit as shown in figure.Adjust the fibre such that its tip is 10 mm from the screen. 2.Gently tighten the screw to hold the fibre firmly in place. 3.Connect the other end of the fibre to LED2 through the simplex connector. The fibre will project a ircular patch of red light onto the screen. Let d be the distance between the fibre tip and the screen. Now measure the diameter perpendicular directions patch is given by X = (DE + BC) /4 4. Carefully measure the distanced between the tip of the fibre and the illuminated screen (OA in figure). The Numerical Aperture of the fibre is given by NA = Sin = X/Square root (d2 + X2) 5. Repeat steps 3 to 6 for different values of d. Compute the average value of Numerical Aperture.
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of the circular patch of red light in two mean radius of the circular

(BC and DE in figure).The


Block Diagram



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Ex.No:9 Setting up of a Fiber Optic Digital Link

Aim: To set up 850nm and 650 nm digital links and to measure the maximum bit rates supportable on these links. Components required: 1. Optical Fibre Trainer Kit (OFT) 2. Two channel, 20MHz Oscilloscope 3. Function Generator, 1Hz-10MHz Theory: The OFT can be used to set up two fibre optic digital links,one at a wavelength of 650nm and the other at 850nm. LED1,in the optical TX1 block, is an 850nm LED and LED2, in the optical TX2 block, is a 650nm LED. PD1, in the optical RX1 block, is a PIN detector which gives a current proportional to the optical power falling on the detector. The received signal is amplified a nd converted to a TTL signal using a comparator. The gain control plays a crucial role in this conversion. PD2, in the optical RX2 block, is another receiver which directly gives out a TTL signal. Both the PIN detectors can receive 650 nm as well as 850 nm signals, though their sensitivity is lower at 650 nm.

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Fig.9.1:Layout Diagram
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Table 9.1:Interface Details Identification Name 1 SWB



Analog/Digital selection switch(should be set to DIGITAL position)

2 3 4 5 6 7

LED1 850nm LED2 650nm PD2 PD1 P31 JP2

850nm LED source 6 50nm LED source Optical receiver with TTL output Pin detector Pin detector signal after gain PD1/PD2 receiver selec posts B& A1 should be shorted to select PD1

Optical Tx1 Block Optical Tx2 Block Optical Rx2 Block Optical Rx1 Block Optical Rx1 Block

8 9

GAIN S6 coded data

Gain control potentiometer Manchester coded data shorting link post A :coder output post B: Input to Tx1/Tx2/Electrical posts A&B should be shorted

Optical Rx1 Block Manchester block


S26 coded data

Received Manchester coded data shorting link PostA:Receiver output(Rx1/Rx2) PostB:Input to decoder&clock recovery block Posts A&B should be shorted

Decoder&clock recovery block



Input /Output BNCs and postsfor feeding in and observing signals

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Procedure: SETTING UP A DIGITAL LINK OF 85Onm 1. Set the switch SW8 to the digital position. 2. Connect a 1m optical fibre between LED1 and the PIN diode PD1. Remove the shorting plugs of the coded data shorting links, S6 in the Manchester coder block and S26 in the decoder & clock recovery block. Ensure that the shorting plug of jumper JP2 is across the oposts B & A1 [for PD1 receiver selection] 3. Feed a TTL signal of about 20 KHz from the function generator to post B of S6.Observe the received analog signal at the amplifier post P31 on c hannel1of the oscilloscope. 4. Compare this signal with signal at post A of S26 and observe that the signal at S26 is the inverted version of the signal at P31. 5. The received signal at P31 changes with gain but that of S26 does not, this is because the P31 signal is fed to the comparator-cum-inverter circuit to give the signal at S26. The comparator reference voltage is 0.55V and unless the signal amplitude is greater than 0.55V, the comparator output is high. Verify this. 6. Set the gain such that the signal at P31 is about 2V. Observe the input signal from the function generator on channel 1 and the received TTL signal at post A of S26 on channel 2. Vary the frequency of the input signal and observe the output response. 7. Calculate the maximum bit rate that can be transferred on this digital link. 8. Repeat the above steps using the 3m fibre. SETTING UP A DIGITAL LINK OF 65Onm 1. Use the 1m fibre and insert it into LED2. Observe the light output at the other end of the fibre. The output is a bright red signal. This is because the light output around 650 nm is the visible range. 2. The other end of the fibre should now be inserted into PD1. 3. Repeat the steps 3-7 using this new link. 4. Use the 3m fibre and set up the 650 nm digital link between LED2 and PD1 and repeat the steps from 3-7.
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Fig 9.2: Block diagram


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Ex.No:10 Frequency Measurement

Aim: To demonstrate the relationship between Frequency(f), Wavelength in free space(0) and Guide Wavelength(g). Components Required: 1. Klystron power supply 2. Reflex klystron tube 3. Isolator 4. Variable Attenuator 5. Frequency meter 6. Detector Mount with crystal diode 7. Slotted Section with Tunable probe 8. Waveguide stands and CRO Theory: Microwave frequency is measured using a commercially available frequency counter and cavity wave meter. The frequency also can be computed from measured guide wavelength in a voltage standing wave pattern along a short circuited line by using a slotted line. Three methods of frequency measurement are 1. Wavemeter method 2. Slotted line method 3. Down conversion method Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Connect the microwave components as shown in above figure. Obtain the square waveform in the CRO. Replace the detector Mount by a slotted section with Tunable probe. Connect the CRO to the tunable probe mounted on the slotted section and obtain the square waveform. Move the probe in the slot and measure the distance between two adjacent minima. The distance between these minima is g/2. Calculate 0 from the equation by substituting the value of g. Place the probe at the position of maxima in the slotted line. Adjust the rotatable knob of the frequency meter to get a dip in the CRO. From the frequency meter reading, find out the frequency from the calibration chart. Calculate 0 from the relation 0=c/f where c is the velocity of electromagnetic waves in free. Compare the values of 0 obtained by using step 5 and 6. 34

6. 7.


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9. Repeat the experiment at 2 different operating frequencies of the reflex klystron. The frequency 10. of the Oscillations can be changed by tuning the turning screw fixed on the body of the klystron clockwise . For every frequency setting, the repeller voltage is to be adjusted for maximum output. Block Diagram

Klystron Power supply


Diode detector


Klystron With Mount

Variable Attenuator

Frequency Meter

Fig 10.1. Measurement of frequency Position of first minima(P1) MSR VSR P1, cm Position of second minima(P2) MSR VSR P2, cm g/2= P1~ P2 PSR HSR PSR+HSR mm Lenth of cavity Microwave frequency (GHz)

Table 10.1 Measurement of frequency

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Ex.No:11 VSWR AND Impedance Measurement

Aim: To measure the standing wave ratio of an unknown load and determine its impedance . Components Required: 1. Klystron power supply 2. Reflex klystron oscillator 3. Isolator 4. Variable Attenuator 5. Frequency meter 6. Detector Mount with crystal diode 7. Movable chart 8. Waveguide stands and CRO Theory: VSWR Measurement: VSWR and the magnitude of voltage reflection coefficient are very important parameters which determine the degree of impedance matching. These parameters are also used for the measurement of load impedance by the slotted line method. When a load ZLZ0 is connected to a transmission line, standing waves are produced. By inserting a slotted line system in the line, standing waves can be traced by moving the carriage with a tunable probe detector along the line. VSWR can be measured by detecting Vmax and Vmin in the VSWR meter : S = Vmax/Vmin. Low value of VSWR (S<20) can be measured directly from the VSWR meter. For high VSWR (S>20), the difference of power at voltage maximum and voltage minimum is large, so it would be difficult may exceed 20A. Therefore, VSWR measurement with a VSWR meter calibrated on a square-law basis (I=kV2) will be inaccurate. Hence double minimum method is used where measurements are carried out at two positions around a voltage minimum point. Impedance measurement: Impedance is a complex quantity, both amplitude and phase of the test signal are required to be measured. The following techniques are commonly used for impedance measurement. 1. Slotted line method 2. Impedance measurement of Reactive Discontinuity 3. Impedance measurement by Reflectometer. Procedure: 1. Arrange the apparatus as shown in above figure. 2. After obtaining the oscillation, measure g. 3. By noting down Vmax and Vmin by adjusting the slotted line, measure VSWR by using the formula VSWR= (Vmax/Vmin).
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4. To find the distance of the first minima from the load, note down the position of any minima (PL) in the slotted line when the load is connected.Now remove the load and connect a fixed short at the slotted line. Now move the probe towards the short till you obtain the minima position again.Note down this position (PS). The distance between these two readings (PL~PS ) will give the value of X. 5. Draw the circle of radius equal to VSWR taking unity as the centre in the smart chart. 6. Move a distance (X/ g.) towards the load side on the outer circumference of the smith chart and mark it. 7. Draw a line joining the centre of the VSWR circle with this point. 8. The above line will cut the VSWR circle at a point. 9. Read the value of impedance corresponding to this point. This will give the normalized impedance. 10. Compare this value with the impedance calculated using the formula.

Block Diagram
Klystron power supply

Klystron With mount


Variable Attenuator

Frequency Meter

Slotted line Unknown load

Fig 11.1 Measurement of VSWR and Impedance Load Position of first Position of second minima(P1) minima(P2) cm cm g=2(P1~P2) cm Vmin Volts Vmax Volts VSWR =V(Pmax/Pmin) = Vmax/Vmin

Table 11.1 Measurement of VSWR

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Position of minimum with load (PL) cm

Position of minimum with shorting plate (PS) cm


Normalized Load Theoretical Practical

ZL in Theoretical Practical

Table 11.2 Measurement of Impedance


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Ex.No:12 Measurement of Attenuation

Aim: To measure the attenuation of a given microwave component. Components Required: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Microwave Source Fixed / Variable Attenuator Waveguide detector mount VSWR meter CRO Test Component Waveguide stands.

Block Diagram Klystron

power supply


XM 251

XA 621 SETUP 1

XA 520


Klystro n power supply



XM 251

XA 621

XA 520

Test component SETUP 2


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Theory: Measurement of attenuation or calibration of a given attenuator can be effected by three methods. 1. Direct or power measuring method. 2. Substitution method. 3. Impedance measuring method. When a device or network is inserted in the transmission line, part Pr of the input signal power Pi is reflected from the input terminal and the remaining part Pi-Pr which actually enters the network is attenuated due to the non-zero loss of the network. The output signal power P0 is therefore less than Pi. Insertion Loss = Reflection Loss + Attenuation Loss Where by definition, Insertion Loss (dB) = 10 log P0 / Pi Attenuation Loss (dB) = 10 log (P0 / Pi Pr ) For perfect matching, Pr = 0, and the insertion loss and the attenuation loss become the same.

Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Arrange the apparatus as shown in setup 1. Obtain the microwave oscillation as per the procedure in basic setup. Measure the peak to peak voltage V1 of the square wave in the CRO. Insert the test component as shown in setup 2. Now measure the peak to peak voltage V2 of the square wave in the CRO. The attenuation of a given component is calculated using the formula Attenuation A= 10 log10(V1/V2) db 7. If VSWR meter is used, then the differences in decibel reading for the two setups will give the attenuation of the component.


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Ex.No:13 Characteristics of LaserDiode

Aim: To study the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of LASER diode. Components Required: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fiber link - E Kit Glass Fiber Cable with ST connector Patch cords Voltmeter Ammeter Power supply

Theory In optical fiber communication system, electrical signal is first converted into

optical signal with the help of electrical to optical conversion device as LED or LASER diode. After this optical signal is transmitted through optical fiber, it is retrieved in its original electrical form with the help of optical to electrical conversion device such as photo detector. All the LASER diodes distinguish themselves in offering high output power coupled in to the important peak wavelength of emission, conversion

efficiency, optical rise and fall times which put the limitation on operating frequency, maximum forward current through LASER diode and typical forward voltage across LASER diode. An important feature of LASER diodes is their ability to respond to direct, high speed modulation. V-I Characteristics of LASER diode: The voltage-current (V-I) properties of GaAlAs semiconductor laser is similar to that of silicon diodes. When a forward voltage is applied to the laser, current starts to pass at a certain threshold voltage. This is called as the Threshold Voltage; the threshold voltage of the GaAlAs semiconductor laser is approx. 1.2 V, which is considerably higher than that of silicon diodes (approx. 0.6 V) in general. Since the reverse breakdown voltage is far lower (absolute maximum rating = 2V) than that of silicon diodes (more than 30V), care must be taken not to apply a reverse voltage exceeding this maximum rating.
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Fig.13.1: Voltage-current characteristics of LASER diode at different temperatures

Fig.13.2: Voltage-current characteristics of LASER diode Block Diagram.

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Procedure: 1. Confirm that the power switch is in OFF position and then connect it to the kit. 2. Make the jumper settings and connection as shown in the block diagram. 3. Insert the jumper connecting wires (provided along with the kit) in jumper JP1, JP2 and JP3 at positions shown in the diagram. 4. Connect the ammeter and voltmeter with the jumper wires connected to JP1, JP2 and JP3 as shown in the block diagram. 5. Keep the potentiometer P5 in anticlockwise rotation is used to control intensity of laser diode. 6. Connect external signal generator to ANALOG IN post of analog buffer and apply sine wave frequency of 1MHz, 1Vp-p signal precisely. 7. Then connect ANALOG OUT post to ANALOG IN post of transmitter. 8. Then switch ON the power supply. To get the V-I characteristics of LASER diode, rotate Pr5 slowly and measure forward current and corresponding forward voltage at JP1,JP2 and JP3 respectively. 9. Take number of such readings for various current values and plot V-I characteristics graph for the LASER diode. . When a forward voltage is applied to the laser, current starts to pass at a certain threshold voltage. This is called as the Threshold Voltage.


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