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Hube Lesson 2

Hube Lesson 2

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Published by: Cher Bacarro on Jul 10, 2012
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LESSON 2 Different theories and models of organizational behavior ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Theory • A

systematic grouping of interdependent concepts and principles that gives a framework to a significant area of knowledge.  Homans: “in its lowest form of classification, is a set of pigeon holes, a filing cabinet in which facts can accumulate. Nothing is more lost than a loose fact.” • The importance of theory is to provide a means of classifying significant and pertinent management information and knowledge. While in designing an effective organizational structure, there are a number of principles and concepts that are interrelated and that have a predictive value for managers. Theories constitute the belief system and management orientations that, consequently, affect the organization.

Douglas McGregor • He developed two attitude profiles or assumptions concerning the basic nature of people. • • These two divergent attitudes were termed THEORY X and THEORY Y. His real contribution was the suggestion that a leader’s attitude toward human nature has a large influence on how the individual behaves as a leader.

THEORY X ASSUMPTIONS o A traditional set of assumptions about people in a work environment. o They are perceived to be relatively self centered, indifferent to organizational needs and most often, resistant to change. THEORY Y ASSUMPTIONS o Implies a more humanistic and supportive approach to managing people. o The primary role of management is to provide an organizational climate in which the potential workers can be naturally released at work.  McGregor view that management had been ignoring these facts about people. He argued that the Theory Y set of assumptions is more genuinely representative of most workers.

 

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ingenuity. the managerial role is to coerce and control workers. Under proper controlled. With these assumptions. They have imagination.  It may be noted that Theory X and Theory Y set of assumptions is more truly representative of most people. a few individuals may fit into assumptions of the Theory X model. * People have potential. the managerial role is to develop potential in employees and help them release that potential toward common objectives.LESSON 2 Different theories and models of organizational behavior ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     TABLE 1 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y framework on the assumptions about employees TH EO RY X TH EO RY Y * The typical person dislikes work and * Work is as natural as play or rest will it. and creativity that can be applied to work. they learn to accept and to get them to work.   11   . has little ambition. if possible * People are not inherently lazy. Although there will always be important differences among people. They have become that way as a result of experience. and self control in the service of objectives seeks security above all. to which they are committed. * Most people must be coerced. threatened with punishment conditions. seek responsibility. * The typical person lacks * People will exercise self direction and responsibility. With these assumptions.

effort and money to discover how to realize full potential. the individual will accept external direction and control. o Ex: better working conditions. to discover new ways of organizing and directing human effort. 2.These are real motivators: achievement.   12   .These factors will lead to the motivation of these workers. The creation of conditions such that members of the organization can achieve their own goals bests by direction their effort toward the success of the enterprise. We are challenged to innovate. Theory Y 1. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory • In 1950. Direction and control through exercise of authority. In return for rewards offered.It will only keep the workers from becoming dissatisfied. theory about human motivation was developed by Frederick Herzberg.Constitutes conditions in work. 3. 3. 2. 2. The organization will be more effective in achieving its objectives if adjustments are made to the needs and goals of its members. .LESSON 2 Different theories and models of organizational behavior ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   IMPLICATIONS Theory X 1. extending the earlier theory of Maslow. o Ex: providing better opportunities for development among workers to experience them . We do not recognize the existence of potential in people and therefore. Motivator or job content factors . Hygiene or maintenance factors . salary and effective supervision that make employees satisfied but not necessarily motivated. responsibility and recognition. Organizational requirements take precedent over needs of members. there is no reason to devote time. • Their findings were two distinct factors that influenced motivation: 1.

On the other hand. David C McClelland Theory  Classify people in their dominant need for achievement.a strong correlation between high need for achievement and level of job performance and success.an individual has a drive to strive for quality work. if not properly attended to by management. power. He popularized the term “Achievement Motivation” – which is to describe an individual's drive to overcome challenges for advancement. 3. Need for power . and affiliation. People who are high in need achievement are highly motivated to strive for the satisfaction that is derived from accomplishing some challenging tasks. the satisfiers are important factors because these create dissatisfaction. Need for competence.  He viewed that successful entrepreneurs are persons with high need for achievement.an individual has a need to develop warm. 4.a drive to influence people to conform with certain situations.     13   . Tasks for which there is a reasonable chance for success and avoid those that are either too easy or too difficult. Need for affiliation . 2. friendly. cordial and personal relationship. Need for achievement .LESSON 2 Different theories and models of organizational behavior ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     TABLE 2 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Motivators Satisfiers Achievement Recognition Advancement Work Challenge Possibility for development Responsibility Company policies & administration Quality of supervision Relationship with supervisor Peer relations Pay Job security Working conditions Status  The motivators are the job factors that are intrinsically motivating the employees that constitute the most enduring sources of motivation in the work environment.  He believes that these are the basic needs to drive people: 1.

6. Inform workers about what they can do to get reinforcement.” The workers can be motivated by properly creating the work environment and providing rewards or stimulus for desirable worker’s performance. Failure to reinforce may encourage poor subsequent performance. Neutral reinforces like transfer of workplace may also be utilized to discourage unwanted behavior and encourage favourable worker behavior. Important assignments 3.  Positive reinforcement in modifying motivational behaviors of workers: 1. Participation in decision-making 2. rewards or any positive reinforces of a certain behavior are found to be more powerful than the negative and neutral reinforces. and desires.”     • • Negative reinforces. 3.  Since the Philippines is composed of various kinds of ethnic groups. regional peculiarities.   14   . “Usually. cultural mores. wants.  Examples of reward / positive reinforces: 1. Do not reward equally. it is difficult to say what kind of behavioural style or attitudinal orientation will best fit the prevailing environment of a Filipino organization. Be fair. It is the external environment that influences the behavior people exhibit rather than their external needs. for instance. Appealing compensation 4. Other incentives and benefits  According to Skinner. Tell workers when and what they are doing wrong. He believed that “the environment determines the individual behavior event if he alters the environment. 4. 2. dialects. even if both sets of reinforces may be used. Do not punish a subordinate in front of other workers. religious beliefs and value system.LESSON 2 Different theories and models of organizational behavior ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Skinner Operant Theory  Burrhaus Frederick Skinner.contested the theory that human needs are the determinant of human behavior. 5. the ultimate reinforcement is similar to that of prestige or esteem. In this theory. suspension from work.

despite its general appeal. the manager is inclined to place great value on promotion.e. PO = Performance Outcome Expectancy • e. the manager is inclined to believe that increased sales may result in his promotion. the manager is inclined to believe that increased marketing effort is likely to yield increases in company sales.Refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. an extrinsically motivated person who dislikes math may work hard on a math equation because the reward would be a good grade.g.  Extrinsic Motivation . Valence = Value or preference placed on an outcome • e. people learn the kind of rewards (outcomes) they value more highly than others. •  Most familiar model under this theory is that of Victor H...g.   15   .  Expectancy refers to the degree of an individual’s anticipatory belief that his specific action will certainly end in a particular result or outcome. The intrinsic and extrinsic rewards need to be considered. i. Vroom Level of Motivation = EP x PO x Valence Where EP = Effort Performance Expectancy • e. o Expectancy.g..e. through experience..  Intrinsic Motivation .LESSON 2 Different theories and models of organizational behavior ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     Expectancy Theory • Equates motivation with the product of valence and expectancy o Valence. • The assumption of these models is that desire as a strong feeling to start any effort that impels an individual to the attainment or possession of something. hence. how much an individual desires something.  The expectancy model has some limitations. the probability that a particular action will lead to the desired thing.Refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards.. Ex. The expectancy model implies that. assign a positive value on it. such as money or hubby. i. It needs further testing to establish a broad base of evidence for support.

One major difficulty with this model of motivation is that the needs of people are not subject to observation by managers or to accurate measurement for monitoring purposes. • • It relates to the individual’s inner self and how that individual’s internal state of needs determine behavior. ⇒ Workers are thinking individuals whose beliefs. workers will naturally produce more. ⇒ Reliable measures of valence.   16   . ⇒ Encourages managers to design a climate conducive that will stimulate appropriate worker behavior. perceptions. Content Theory • Focuses on the content or nature of items that motivate an individual. • He designed a system whereby a worker was compensated according to the individual’s production. expectancy and instrumentality need to be developed. ⇒ The expectancy model also needs to be more complete while still remaining practical enough for manager use. creating groups harmony and cooperation.LESSON 2 Different theories and models of organizational behavior ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   Advantages of the Expectancy Model ⇒ Help manager think about mental processes through which motivation as a human behavior occurs. and probability estimates virtually influence their behavior. orientation. ⇒ Some manager don’t have such time or resources to use complex motivational system on the job Traditional Theory of Motivation • Evolved from the work of Frederick W. Weaknesses of the Expectancy Model ⇒ It need further testing to establish a broad base of evidence for support. achieving maximum output and developing workers. • The traditional theory of motivation is based on the assumption that money is the primary motivation of increasing the productivity level of performance of workers – that if the reward is great enough. ⇒ The intrinsic and extrinsic rewards need to consider. Taylor • He emphasized using science.

If workers do not obey orders. Outlooks more adequate. It is in the context that managers recognize the nature. This leads to workers’ dependence on the organization. 2. The organization will continue to survive and attain the desired objectives.is in the form of fear. (Flourished during industrial revolution. he/she will be punished. Supportive Model = depends on leadership instead of power or money. 3. More systematic and organized. Example: 1.   17   . Chance given. Carrot . significance. Different Models of Organizational Behavior  These models constitute the belief system that dominates management’s thought in running the organization. Provides courses of action for a particular problem concerning organizational behavior. and effectiveness of the models they employ. Basis of model is Economic Resources.) Effectiveness of 4 Models • • • • • They are subject to evolutionary change that affects workers. demotion and some other penalty. reduction of bonus. Collegial Model = characterized by the collective responsibility shared by each of the members of the organization. Basis of model is leadership. 2. Fear of loss of job.is money in the form of pay or bonuses. Basis of model is partnership. 1.LESSON 2 Different theories and models of organizational behavior ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     Carrot & Stick Theory • Reward and punishment are still considered strong motivators. loss of income. body of people having a common purpose. Basis of model is Power. Custodial Model = depends largely on economic resources. Autocratic Model = Depends on the power & authority. 4. Stick .

LESSON 2 Different theories and models of organizational behavior ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   TABLE 3 The Four Models of Organizational Behavior SUPPORTIVE Basis of Model Leadership Managerial orientation Employee orientation Employee psychological results Employee needs met Performance results Support Job Performance Participation COLLEGIAL Partnership Team work Responsive behavior Self-discipline CUSTODIAL Economic Resources Money Security and Benefits AUTOCRATIC Power Authority Obedience Dependence on Dependence on Organization Boss Security Passive cooperation Subsistence Minimum Status and recognition Awakened drives Selfactualization Moderate enthusiasm   18   .

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