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Kay Holton ITEC 57400 Fall 2011 Collaboration Assignment For the teacher collaboration assignment, I collaborated with

Mr. Tom Holton, agricultural education teacher at East Knox High School in Howard, Ohio. Mr. Holton is in his 30th year of teaching and like many veteran teachers, he has not recently updated his teaching resources, instead relying on those he has used for many years. I was excited to take on the challenge of locating current resources to meet the needs of both the students (to enhance their educational experience) and the teacher (to update his collection of resources.)

Through discussion with Mr. Holton about his curricular needs, we determined that the subject which needed the most updating was his collection of resources for the course unit of Dendrology and the related Plant Diseases and Damage unit. These resources will help meet the course instructional needs of the following course unit objectives and indicators:

The student will learn to identify and manage plant species important to the arboriculture industry. o Indicator 7.4.02: identify plant anatomical structures and tissues (e.g., roots, stems, flowers, leaves, fruits, seeds) Indicator 7.4.03: Describe physiological functions of plants (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, absorption) Indicator 7.4.04: Identify and classify plants using taxonomy

Students will determine conservation and restoration practices based on specific arboriculture ecosystem characteristics. Students will identify plant pests and levels of controlling methods. o Indicator 5.3.02: Explain biotic (plant and animal) interactions with the abiotic (nonliving) environment Indicator 5.3.09: Determine the impact that native and non-native invasive species have on ecosystems 1

Indicator 7.3.01: Identify and classify plant pests (i.e., insects, pathogens, weeds, diseases, animals) Indicator 7.3.02: Examine interrelationships between plants, pests, humans and environment (e.g., non-native species, climate change)

Although some instruction on dendrology is included at all levels of agricultural education (Agriculture 1, Agriculture 2, and Agriculture 3 & 4), Mr. Holton and I decided to focus on the selection of materials for the Agriculture 3 & 4 course.

Agriculture 3 & 4 course enrollment generally averages sixteen students and there are sixteen students currently enrolled in this course this year. Nine of the students are juniors and seven of the students are seniors. Male to female ratio in the course is 12:4. All students are English-speaking and Caucasian. There are six computers in the agricultural education classroom (all of which have internet access) and the class has access to the school computer lab (which must be reserved) which offers access to a class set of 25 computers. All students have average or above average reading ability for their age group and all have excellent computer skills. One of the students in the class is on an Individualized Education Plan (IEP), but she is a very high-functioning student. From having the students in the past in the Agriculture 1 and Agriculture 2 courses, Mr. Holton knows that each student in the class works well both independently and also collaboratively with classmates. Because most career-technical students benefit from hands-on instruction, the goal will be to include as many interactive instructional activities as possible.

Instruction for the Dendrology and related Plant Diseases and Damage units will encompass approximately three weeks of class time. Mr. Holton will be sure to review any terminology and concepts previously presented in the Agriculture 1 and Agriculture 2 courses as needed throughout the instructional process to increase student understanding of the new content being presented in this course. 2

After deciding on the ten resources, I met with Mr. Holton to offer my suggestions on incorporating these materials into his instruction and to get his opinion about my selections and recommendations. From my experience as a high school classroom teacher, I know that most high school students are fascinated by the Planet Earth series, so I recommended that he begin the units with the Planet Earth Seasonal Forests DVD as an interest approach to the units.

I suggested that he use Eyewitness Tree and Botany for Dummies to create instruction, such as a PowerPoint presentation, on the basic botany of trees. And, the clear photographs featured in Eyewitness Trees may be shared with all students through use of the classroom document camera to clearly illustrate the various structural components of trees.

To become familiar with structure and identification of native and non-native Ohio trees, I suggested that the students participate in a walk around the school campus where Mr. Holton can show the external tree structures to students and discuss the function of these structures. During this tree walk, students may collect tree leaves and branches which may be identified in the classroom with the use of What Tree is That? and Tree Identification websites. During our meeting, we decided that to reinforce these skills and to further practice using the identification keys on the websites, students will develop a tree leaf collection of 25 of the given list of 35 trees and will use these websites to identify their tree leaves. Students will use Trees of Ohio Field Guide to gather the information required for each tree in their tree leaf collection assignment (common name, scientific name, leaf type, leaf arrangement, leaf margin type.)

To teach the students about various tree disorders and pests, we decided that students will work in pairs and will select a tree disorder or pest and create a PowerPoint or Prezi presentation on this topic to be presented to their classmates. Students will use the Ohioline website to gather information needed for their presentation. 3

Because students also must learn the common and scientific names of a selected list of trees for the Ohio FFA Association Career Development Events, students may use the North American Trees card set for drill-and-practice of the common and scientific names of these trees.

To encourage the reading of trade-related publications, I suggested that students be assigned a relative article from the latest edition of The Buckeye magazine. I offered that students may be required to write a one-page reflection on the article, to both check for understanding and to help develop their career-related writing skills.

As a final activity for the unit, I recommended that Mr. Holton show the United Streaming Discovery Education video HowStuffWorks: Timber to teach the students more about the important role trees play in our lives. At the conclusion of the video, students may participate in a class discussion about the video content.

The resources were selected by evaluating them using the criteria suggested in Instructional Technology and Media for Learning (10thEd.) (Smaldino, Lowther & Russell, 2012) such as: Does the resource help meet the lesson objectives? Does the resource contain accurate and current information? Does the resource use age-appropriate language? Is the topic presented in such a way that the students will be interested and engaged? Does the resource represent the best available media in its resource type and was it developed by a reputable source? Is the resource easy to use for both the student and teacher? Is the resource bias-free? Is any accompanying user guide easy to use? Is the text material at the appropriate reading level? Is the information clearly organized? Is any included table of contents and index useful? For video materials: Is the pacing appropriate? Is the use of cognitive learning aids appropriate?

During the selection and planning process, I was cognizant of the need to select resources which allowed for the use of student-centered strategies, as much as possible, instead of teacher-centered approaches.

Mr. Holton was pleased with the resources I selected for the Dendrology and related Plant Diseases and Damage units for his Agriculture 3 & 4 course. He plans to update this course by incorporating these resources and teaching strategies into his course instruction.

Media List

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BBC (Producer). (2007). PLANET EARTH: Seasonal Forests. [Full Video]. Description: Seasonal Forests is one of twelve segments of the BBC/Discovery Channel Planet Earth DVD video program. Seasonal Forests is 42:03 in length and is divided into nine segments: Life in the Taiga Forest (7:23), The Conifer Forests of North America (6:48), Creatures of the Conifer Forests of South America (3:21), The Life Cycle of the Periodical Cicadas (4:46), Autumn Turns to Winter in the Northern Hemisphere (5:11), The Colors of the Seasons in North America (2:06), The Dry Season in the Tropical Forest (3:05), The Wet Season in Madagascar (5:22). Suggested Use: Because the video shows the relationship of trees to insects and animals (for food, shelter, clean air), this video could be used to demonstrate the important role trees play to the survival of the Earths ecosystem. Restrictions/Limitations: Prior to planned presentation, the teacher must ensure that the DVD projection system is in operational order. Currently available from Discovery Education United Streaming (not available for download), the Columbus Metropolitan Library, or http://dsc.discovery.com/ (regular price $79.95, currently on sale for $29.95).

2. Burnie, D.. (2005). Eyewitness tree. New York, NY: DK Publishing, Inc. Description: This 72 page book includes information about types of trees (broadleaved vs. coniferous vs. tropical), how trees grow, roots, trunk, bark, buds and leaves, types of leaves (simple, compound, needles/scales), pollination by wind, insects, and animals, fruits and berries, seeds and nuts, cones, falling leaves, death of a tree, life in the leaf litter, pollution and disease, from tree to timber, working with wood, tree care and management, looking at trees, Did you know? (amazing facts), Questions and Answers, identifying trees, find out more, and glossary. Suggested Use: Although this book is intended for a younger audience, its beautiful full-color photographs and concise accurate text will be very useful in the high school agricultural education classroom for both the teacher and the students to use as a resource to learn the basics information about trees. The clear photographs with the crisp white background may be easily displayed on the document camera for all students to easily see. Restrictions/Limitations: There are no restrictions/limitations to the use of this book. It may be ordered from www.barnesandnoble.com for $19.00 or borrowed from the Columbus Metropolitan Library.

3. Denaro, J. (illustrator), North American Trees. Europe: Heritage Playing Card Company. Description: This set of playing cards contains 54 cards, each with an illustrated image of a different North American Tree along with detailed images of the leaf, fruit/flower of each. Each card also lists the mature height, as well as the common and scientific name of each species. Suggested Use: This card set will be useful for students to use as flashcards to study tree characteristics and to use as flashcards to learn the common and scientific names of the individual tree species. Restrictions/Limitations: There are no limitations to the use of this card set. Purchase of a class set ($6.95 each) will be useful so that each student has home access for memorization of common and scientific names. Available from several online vendors. May be found at gift shops (such as Holden Arboretum, in Kirtland, Ohio). 4. Digital Ranch Productions (Producer). (2008). HowStuffWorks: Timber. [Full Video]. Available from http://www.discoveryeducation.com/ Description: This 42:14 video from Discovery Education United Streaming contains eight individual segments: Woods Structure (4:01), Dangerous Logging (3:55), Genetic Engineering (6:41), Plywood (7:20), Sawmill (3:21), Recycling Paper and Cardboard (4:23), Constructing a Prefab Home (5:29), and Fuel from Timber (6:18). Suggested Use: Because this video offers a good overview of the timber industry and includes information on how timber is grown, harvested, processed and recycled, it is a good resource to not only teach students about the trees and the timber industry, but also gives them an insight into possible career opportunities in the timber industry. Restrictions/Limitations: To ensure future access, the teacher should be sure to download this video from Discovery Education. The teacher must check that the computer projection system is in operational order prior to the planned showing. Available from Discovery Education United Streaming.

5. Kratx, R.F. (2011). Botany for dummies. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc. Description: This paperback book offers information on plant basics (plant cells and tissues, vegetative and reproductive structures), plant physiology (metabolism, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, translocation, regulating plant growth and development), plant reproduction and genetics, plant biodiversity (evolution and adaptation, bryophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms), and plant ecology and biotechnology. Suggested Use: This book may be used by the teacher as a reference for teaching plant physiology. It also be used by the students as a reference for completing a report or class project on plant physiology. Limitations/Restrictions: This book is available from the Columbus Metropolitan Library or may be purchased for $11.45 at www.amazon.com (suggested retail $19.99). 6. Tekiela, T. (2004). Trees of ohio field guide. Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications, Inc. Description: This book contains 115 species of Ohio trees. Two pages are dedicated to each species. On one page, a full-color photograph of the leaf with smaller shots of the bark, fruit, and/or flower clearly illustrates the characteristics of the species. The facing page includes detailed information such as family, height, tree (habit), leaf, bark, flower, fruit, fall color, origin/age, habitat, range, and Stan's (author) notes. The book also contains a glossary of frequently-used terms, along with basic information on leaf characteristics. Suggested Use: This book may be used for individual student/team study of tree leaf identification in preparation for the Ohio FFA Forestry and Nursery/Landscape Career Development Events. The teacher may use a document camera to show students the color photographs of each tree species when presenting the tree and its identifying characteristics during class presentation. Restrictions/Limitations: Use of this book has no limitations. It is a uniquely valuable tree resource to Ohio teachers and students, as it contains only Ohio trees. The $12.95 price may allow for the purchase of a class set of books. Available at the Columbus Metropolitan Library.

7. The buckeye, the official publication of the ohio nursery & landscape association. The Ohio Nursery & Landscape Association, Westerville, Ohio. Description: This magazine is produced ten times a year by The Ohio Nursery & Landscape Association, primarily for its members. It contains the latest information affecting this segment of Ohios horticultural industry such as best practices, pest information, and information on research studies. Suggested Use: Although this publication is aimed at professionals in Ohios nursery and landscape industry, because it regularly contains the latest information on factors (such as pests) affecting Ohios trees, it is a valuable resource for the agricultural education student who is studying trees. Limitations/Restrictions: The school subscription cost for the print version of the magazine is $45.00 per year (ten issues). The current issue may be viewed free online at www.onla.org. If a class assignment using the online version is created, students will need access to a computer with internet access. 8. (1998). What tree is that?, National Arbor Day Foundation, Retrieved October 9, 2011 from http://www.treelink.org/whattree/ Description: This site asks questions (and offers clues) to help the user identify their tree. The questions are asked in a multi-question format, such as _______ or _______ or _______ and the user selects the appropriate question, they are moved sequentially through the process until the tree is identified. Suggested Use: The use of keys, such as that offered by this website, is an important skill for students to master. This key may be used for students to identify trees from a class tree identification walk or for a student leaf collection assignment. It may be used in conjunction with the Tree Identification site listed in #6 above as a way to check the accuracy of the identification. Restrictions/Limitations: Students need access to a computer with internet access to use this online tool. For the students to complete the assignment individually, the computer lab must be reserved. Students may work in pairs using the classroom computers. The What Tree is That field guide (a paper copy of the information presented on this site) is available for $5.00 from the Arbor Day Foundation at http://www.arborday.org/Shopping/Merchandise/MerchDetail.cfm?id=14

9. (2011). The Ohio State University College of Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Sciences Ohioline Yard & Garden. Retrieved October 15, 2011 from http://ohioline.osu.edu/lines/trees.html. Description: This site offers an extensive amount of resources for those interested in Ohio trees (and other horticultural items). Materials on the site have been produced principally by the Ohio State University Extension staff. In the Trees, Shrubs, and Groundcovers section of the site, users may find bulletins with information on diseases, insects and mites, other pests, plant selection and use, and plant care. Links to Forestry Fact Sheet Series (includes subjects such as calibration of sprayers, timber sale contracts, and maple syrup production) and Forests of Ohio also are available. Suggested Use: The vast amount of information on the site may be used as a reference source for the teacher or the students. Because all publications on this site may be copied without permission for educational use, the teacher may select some to copy to use as class reading assignments. Limitations/Restrictions: The bulletins on this site may contain vocabulary terms which may require some pre-teaching. 10. (2011). Tree Identification, Retrieved October 9, 2011 from http://www.realtimerendering.com/trees/trees.html. Description: This site allows the user to input characteristics of a tree in an attempt to identify the tree. The characteristics which may be entered are needles per cluster, single needles, length of needles, flattened needles, length of cones, fruit, thorns, leaf edges, leaf arrangement on twigs, simple leaf only, and compound leaves only. The database contains 139 of the most common trees in the Northeastern and Central United States. The site also offers the option of setting-up a tree identification quiz, with many choices of options. Suggested Use: This identification portion of this site would be good for students to use when identifying trees from a tree walk or for a leaf collection project. The quiz portion of the site would be useful as an extension activity. Restrictions/Limitations: To use this resource, students must have access to a computer with internet service. The students could work in pairs using the classroom computers or the computer lab may be reserved for students to work individually.

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