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Distillation

Distillation

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Published by Gopa Roy Biswas

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Published by: Gopa Roy Biswas on Jul 10, 2012
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Distillation

Eg. pyrogen free water.Distillation .a process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component fractions of desired purity. preparation of distilled water. recovery of solvents from extracts of crude drugs. by the application and removal of heat. recovery of organic solvents .

P . P atm For any liquid. P This exerts an opposing pressure on the atmosphere above the solution known as the vapor pressure.Atmospheric pressure. the individual molecules within the liquid are continuously in motion A small percentage of these molecules attain enough kinetic energy to leave the liquid phase Vapor Pressure.

When enough energy. in the form of heat. is imparted to the solution the vapor pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure and the liquid begins to boil P < P atm P ≥ P atm .

will re-condense to a liquid known as the distillate . once cooled.The vapor obtained from a boiling liquid.

TYPES OF DISTILLATION SYSTEM .

CLASSIFICATION OF CONTINOUS COLUMNS • Nature of feed – Binary column – Multi component column • Number of product streams – Multi product column • Feed exits – Extractive distillation – Azeotropic distillation • Column Internals – Packed columns – Tray columns .

OTHER TYPES • Simple Distillation – Vapors produced are immediately channeled into a condenser which cools and condenses the vapors – Used only to separate liquids whose boiling points differ by 25C .

in succession. to effect separation – The fractionating column causes the vaporization-condensation cycle to repeat by providing multiple surfaces for the cycle to take place .OTHER TYPES • Fractional Distillation – Utilizes two or more vaporization condensation cyclces.

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completing one vaporization-condensation cycle. Vapors from the Distilling flask . they condense on the first cold surface.Fractional Distillation As the hot vapors leave the distilling flask.

Fractional Distillation •Each vapor-condensation (or minidistillation) cycle is known as one theoretical plate •The length of distillation column required to provide one theoretical plate of separation is known as the height equivalent theoretical plate (HETP) This cycle will continue until the top of the column is reached Vapors from the Distilling flask .

OTHER TYPES • Freeze Distillation – analogous method of purification using freezing instead of evaporation – It is not truly distillation. and does not produce products equivalent to distillation • Codistillation – distillation which is performed on mixtures in which the two compounds are not miscible. .

the components of which are miscible with each other only in certain proportions • C. the components of which are immiscible with each other .Binary system • A. mixtures. the components of which are completely miscible with each other in all proportions • B. Mixtures. Mixtures.

Mixtures. the components of which are completely miscible with each other .

the vapors expand out of the container and are then cooled below the boiling point temperature. • • • P  e -C/T • The temperature remains constant throughout the boiling process of a pure liquid. At the boiling point. the boiling point is the temperature at which the internal vapor pressure of the liquid becomes equal to atmospheric pressure (~760 mm Hg). the temperature will remain constant In a Distillation Process a liquid is heated to its boiling point. where they recondense as a liquid .if the composition of each phase remains constant.THE BOILING POINT • The Boiling Point is the temperature at which internal vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted by its surroundings If the liquid is open to the atmosphere.. the liquid and vapor are in equilibrium.. The internal vapor pressure of a pure liquid rises steadily as the temperature is increased until the boiling point is reached.

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