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**/ International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology
**

Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4373-4378

SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE

ANALYASIS OF ADAPTIVE FILTER IN

NOISE CANCELLATION

RAJ KUMAR THENUA

Department of Electronics & Instrumentation, Anand Engineering College,

Agra, Uttar Pradesh-282007,India

S.K. AGARWAL

Department of Electronics & Communication, Sobhasaria Engineering College,

Sikar, Rajasthan-332021, India

Abstract

Noise problems in the environment have gained attention due to the tremendous growth of technology that has

led to noisy engines, heavy machinery, high speed wind buffeting and other noise sources. The problem of

controlling the noise level has become the focus of a tremendous amount of research over the years. In last few

years various adaptive algorithms are developed for noise cancellation. In this paper we present an

implementation of LMS (Least Mean Square), NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) and RLS (Recursive

Least Square) algorithms on MATLAB platform with the intention to compare their performance in noise

cancellation. We simulate the adaptive filter in MATLAB with a noisy tone signal and white noise signal and

analyze the performance of algorithms in terms of MSE (Mean Squared Error), percentage noise removal,

computational complexity and stability. The obtained results shows that RLS has the best performance but at the

cost of large computational complexity and memory requirement.

Keywords: Adaptive filter; convergence speed; LMS; Mean Squared Error; NLMS; RLS.

1. Introduction

In the process of transmission of information from the source to receiver side, noise from the surroundings

automatically gets added to the signal. This acoustic noise [1] picked up by microphone is undesirable, as it

reduces the perceived quality or intelligibility of the audio signal. The problem of effective removal or reduction

of noise is an active area of research [2]. The usage of adaptive filters is one of the most popular proposed

solutions to reduce the signal corruption caused by predictable and unpredictable noise.

An adaptive filter [3] has the property of self-modifying its frequency response to change the behavior in

time, allowing the filter to adapt the response to the input signal characteristics change. Due to this capability

the overall performance and the construction flexibility, the adaptive filters have been employed in many

different applications, some of the most important are: telephonic echo cancellation [1], radar signal processing,

navigation systems, communications channel equalization and biometrics signals processing.

The purpose of an adaptive filter in noise cancellation is to remove the noise from a signal adaptively to

improve the signal to noise ratio. Figure 1 shows the diagram of a typical Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC)

system [4]. The discrete adaptive filter processed the reference signal x(n) to produce the output signal y(n) by a

convolution with filter’s weights w(n).The filter output y(n) is subtracted from d(n) to obtain an estimation error

e(n). The primary sensor receives noise x

1

(n) which has correlation with noise x(n) in an unknown way. The

objective here is to minimize the error signal e(n). This error signal is used to incrementally adjust the filter’s

weights for the next time instant.

The basic adaptive algorithms which widely used for performing weight updation of an adaptive filter are:

the LMS (Least Mean Square), NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) and the RLS (Recursive Least Square)

algorithm [5]. Among all adaptive algorithms LMS has probably become the most popular for its robustness,

good tracking capabilities and simplicity in stationary environment. RLS is best for non-stationary environment

with high convergence speed but at the cost of higher complexity. Therefore a tradeoff is required in

convergence speed and computational complexity, NLMS provides the right solution.

ISSN: 0975-5462 4373

Raj Kumar Thenua et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4373-4378

2. Adaptive algorithms

2.1 LMS algorithm

The LMS is one of the simplest algorithm used in the adaptive structures due to the fact that it uses the error

signal to calculate the filter coefficients. The output y(n) of FIR filter structure can be obtain from Eq. (1)[6].

¿

÷

=

÷ =

1

0

) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) (

N

m

m n x m w n y

Where n is no. of iteration

The error signal is calculated by Eq. (2)

) 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( n y n d n e ÷ =

The filter weights are updated from the error signal e(n) and input signal x(n) as in Eq. (3).

) 3 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( n x n e n w n w µ + = +

Where: w(n) is the current weight value vector, w(n+1) is the next weight value vector, x(n) is the input

signal vector, e(n) is the filter error vector and µ is the convergence factor which determine the filter

convergence speed and overall behavior.

Fig.1 Adaptive Noise Cancellation

2.2 NLMS algorithm

In the standard LMS algorithm, when the convergence factor μ is large, the algorithm experiences a gradient

noise amplification problem. In order to solve this difficulty, we can use the NLMS (Normalized Least Mean

Square) algorithm. The correction applied to the weight vector w(n) at iteration n+1 is “normalized” with

respect to the squared Euclidian norm of the input vector x(n) at iteration n.

We may view the NLMS algorithm as a time-varying step-size algorithm, calculating the convergence factor μ

as in Eq. (4)[7].

( ) 4

) (

) (

2

n x c

n

+

=

o

µ

Where: α is the NLMS adaption constant, which optimize the convergence rate of the algorithm and should

satisfy the condition 0< α<2, and c is the constant term for normalization and is always less than 1.

The Filter weights are updated by the Eq. (5).

) 5 ( ) ( ) (

) (

) ( ) 1 (

2

n x n e

n x c

n w n w

+

+ = +

o

2.3 RLS algorithm

Adaptive Noise Canceller

Output

e(n)

d(n)

y(n)

+

_

E

Adaptive

Filter

s(n)

x(n)

x1(n)

Primary Sensor

Reference Sensor

Signal

Source

Noise

Source

ISSN: 0975-5462 4374

Raj Kumar Thenua et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4373-4378

The RLS algorithms are known for their excellent performance when working in time varying environments

but at the cost of an increased computational complexity and some stability problems. In this algorithm the filter

tap weight vector is updated using Eq. (6) [8].

Eq. (7) and (8) are intermediate gain vector used to compute tap weights.

) 8 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (

1

n x n w n u ÷ =

÷

ì

Where: λ is a small positive constant very close to, but smaller than 1.

The filter output is calculated using the filter tap weights of previous iteration and the current input vector as

in Eq. (9).

In the RLS Algorithm the estimate of previous samples of output signal, error signal and filter weight is

required that leads to higher memory requirements.

3. Simulation Results

In the simulation the reference input signal x(n) is a white Gaussian noise of power two-dB generated using

randn function in MATLAB, the desired signal d(n) ,obtained by adding a delayed version of x(n) into clean

signal s(n), d(n) = s(n) + x

1

(n) as shown in Fig.2.

Fig.2:(a) Clean tone(sinusoid) signal s(n);(b)Noise signal x(n);(c) Delayed noise signal x1(n);(d) desired signal d(n)

The simulation of the LMS algorithm is carried out with the following specifications:

Filter order N=19, step size µ= 0.001 and iterations= 8000

The LMS filtered output is shown in Fig.3 (a), the mean squared error generated as per adaption of filter

parameters is shown in Fig.3 (b). The step size µ control the performance of the algorithm, if µ is too large the

convergence speed is fast but filtering is not proper, if µ is too small the filter gives slow response, hence the

selection of proper value of step-size for specific application is prominent to get good results. The effect of step-

size on mean squared error is illustrated in Fig.7.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) 7 ( / n u n x n u n k

T

+ = ì

( ) ( ) ( ) ) 9 ( 1

1

n x n w n y

T

n

÷ =

÷

( ) ( ) ( ) ) 10 (

1 1

n y n d n e

n n ÷ ÷

÷ =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) 6 ( 1

1

n e n k n w n w

n

T

÷

+ ÷ =

ISSN: 0975-5462 4375

Raj Kumar Thenua et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4373-4378

Fig.3: MATLAB simulation for LMS algorithm; N=19, step size=0.001

Fig.4: MATLAB simulation for NLMS algorithm; N=19, step size=0.001

Fig.5: MATLAB simulation for RLS algorithm; N=19, lembda=1

Fig.4 and Fig.5 shows the output results for NLMS and RLS algorithms respectively. If we investigate the

filtered output of all algorithms, LMS adopt the approximate correct output in 2800 samples, NLMS adopt in

2300 samples and RLS adopt in 300 samples. This shows that RLS has fast learning rate.

The filter order also affect the performance of a noise cancellation system.Fig.6 illustrate how the MSE

change as we change filter order, when filter order is less (<15) LMS has good MSE as compared to NLMS and

RLS but as the filter order increased (>15) the performance of RLS becomes good and LMS has poor

performance it proves that the selection of right filter order is necessary to achieve the best performance. In our

work the appropriate filter order is 19 therefore all simulations are carried out at N=19.

In table1 performance analysis of all three algorithms is presented in term of MSE, percentage noise reduction,

computational complexity and stability [9]. It is clear from the table1, the computational complexity and

stability problems increases in an algorithm as we try to reduce the mean squared error. NLMS is the favorable

choice for most of the industries due less computational complexity and fair amount of noise reduction.

ISSN: 0975-5462 4376

Raj Kumar Thenua et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4373-4378

Fig.6 MSE versus filter order (N)

Fig.7 MSE versus Step-size (µ) for LMS algorithm

Table1. Performance comparison of various adaptive algorithms

S.N Algorithm Mean

Squared

Error

(MSE)

% Noise

Reduction

Complexity

(No. of multiplications

per iteration)

Stability

1. LMS 2.5×10

-2

91.62% 2N+1 Highly Stable

2. NLMS 2.1×10

-2

93.85% 5N+1 Stable

3. RLS 1.7×10

-2

98.78% 4N

2

less Stable

4. Conclusions

In this work, different Adaptive algorithms were analyzed and compared. These results shows that the LMS

algorithm has slow convergence but simple to implement and gives good results if step size is chosen correctly

and is suitable for stationary environment. For a lower filter order (<15) the LMS proved to have the lowest

MSE then the NLMS and RLS, but as we increase the filter order (>15) the results showed the opposite, so we

need to take this in consideration when selecting the algorithm for a specific application.

ISSN: 0975-5462 4377

Raj Kumar Thenua et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

Vol. 2(9), 2010, 4373-4378

When input signal is non-stationary in nature, the RLS algorithm proved to have the highest convergence

speed, less MSE, and highest percentage of noise reduction but at the cost of large computational complexity

and memory requirement.

The NLMS algorithm changes the step-size according to the energy of input signals hence it is suitable for

both stationary as well as non-stationary environment and its performance lies between LMS and RLS. Hence it

provides a trade-off in convergence speed and computational complexity. The implementation of algorithms

was successfully achieved, with results that have a really good response.

References

[1] J. Benesty, et. al. , “Adaptive Filtering Algorithms for Stereophonic Acoustic Echo Cancellation”, International

Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1995, vol.5, Page(s): 3099 – 3102.

[2] Bernard Widrow, et. al. “Adaptive Noise Cancelling: Principles and Applications”, Proceedings of the IEEE, 1975,

Vol.63 , No. 12 , Page(s): 1692 – 1716.

[3] Simon Haykin, “Adaptive Filter Theory”, Prentice Hall, 4

th

edition.

[4] Ying He, et. al. “The Applications and Simulation of Adaptive Filter in Noise Canceling”, 2008 International

Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, 2008, Vol.4, Page(s): 1 – 4.

[5] Paulo S.R. Diniz, “Adaptive Filtering: Algorithms and Practical Implemetations” ,ISBN 978-0-387-31274-3, Kluwer

Academic Publisher © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, pp.77-195.

[6] Slock, D.T.M., “On the convergence behavior of the LMS and the normalized LMS algorithms”, IEEE Transactions on

Signal Processing, 1993,Vol. 41, Issue 9, pp. 2811-2825.

[7] Abhishek Tandon, M. Omair Ahmad, “An efficient, low-complexity, normalized LMS algorithm for echo cancellation”

The 2nd Annual IEEE Northeast Workshop on Circuits and Systems, 2004. NEWCAS 2004, Page(s): 161 – 164.

[8] Sanaullah Khan, M.Arif and T.Majeed, “Comparison of LMS, RLS and Notch Based Adaptive Algorithms for Noise

Cancellation of a typical Industrial Workroom”, 8th International Multitopic Conference, 2004, Page(s): 169 – 173.

[9] Yuu-Seng Lau, Zahir M. Hussian and Richard Harris, “Performance of Adaptive Filtering Algorithms: A Comparative

Study”, Australian Telecommunications, Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC), Melbourne, 2003.

ISSN: 0975-5462 4378

(3). The output y(n) of FIR filter structure can be obtain from Eq. Signal Source s(n) Primary Sensor x1(n) d(n) + e(n) _ Output Noise Source Reference Sensor x(n) Adaptive Filter y(n) Adaptive Noise Canceller Fig. and c is the constant term for normalization and is always less than 1. Adaptive algorithms 2.3 RLS algorithm ISSN: 0975-5462 4374 . we can use the NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) algorithm. (2) e( n ) d ( n ) y ( n ) ( 2) The filter weights are updated from the error signal e(n) and input signal x(n) as in Eq.1 LMS algorithm The LMS is one of the simplest algorithm used in the adaptive structures due to the fact that it uses the error signal to calculate the filter coefficients.2 NLMS algorithm In the standard LMS algorithm. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. In order to solve this difficulty. e(n) is the filter error vector and µ is the convergence factor which determine the filter convergence speed and overall behavior. y ( n) w(m) x (n m) m 0 N 1 (1) Where n is no. (4)[7]. 2(9).Raj Kumar Thenua et. 4373-4378 2. We may view the NLMS algorithm as a time-varying step-size algorithm. w( n 1) w(n) e(n) x(n) (3) Where: w(n) is the current weight value vector. when the convergence factor μ is large. w( n 1) w( n) c x(n) 2 e( n ) x ( n ) (5) 2. w(n+1) is the next weight value vector. The correction applied to the weight vector w(n) at iteration n+1 is “normalized” with respect to the squared Euclidian norm of the input vector x(n) at iteration n. of iteration The error signal is calculated by Eq. the algorithm experiences a gradient noise amplification problem. 2010.1 Adaptive Noise Cancellation 2. x(n) is the input signal vector. (5). calculating the convergence factor μ as in Eq. 4 ( n) 2 c x(n) Where: α is the NLMS adaption constant. (1)[6]. al. The Filter weights are updated by the Eq. which optimize the convergence rate of the algorithm and should satisfy the condition 0< α<2.

3 (b). wn w T n 1 k n en 1 n ( 6) Eq. (6) [8]. Simulation Results In the simulation the reference input signal x(n) is a white Gaussian noise of power two-dB generated using randn function in MATLAB. d(n) = s(n) + x1(n) as shown in Fig. The effect of stepsize on mean squared error is illustrated in Fig. Fig.(c) Delayed noise signal x1(n). if µ is too large the convergence speed is fast but filtering is not proper. if µ is too small the filter gives slow response.3 (a). (7) and (8) are intermediate gain vector used to compute tap weights. step size µ= 0. but smaller than 1. y n1 n w T n 1xn (9) en1 n d n yn1 n (10) In the RLS Algorithm the estimate of previous samples of output signal.(b)Noise signal x(n). 4373-4378 The RLS algorithms are known for their excellent performance when working in time varying environments but at the cost of an increased computational complexity and some stability problems.7. The filter output is calculated using the filter tap weights of previous iteration and the current input vector as in Eq. 2010.2:(a) Clean tone(sinusoid) signal s(n). al. the desired signal d(n) . 3. ISSN: 0975-5462 4375 . (9). In this algorithm the filter tap weight vector is updated using Eq. 2(9). error signal and filter weight is required that leads to higher memory requirements.obtained by adding a delayed version of x(n) into clean signal s(n). k n u n / xT n u n u (n) w (n 1) x ( n) 1 (7 ) (8) Where: λ is a small positive constant very close to. the mean squared error generated as per adaption of filter parameters is shown in Fig.(d) desired signal d(n) The simulation of the LMS algorithm is carried out with the following specifications: Filter order N=19. hence the selection of proper value of step-size for specific application is prominent to get good results.Raj Kumar Thenua et. The step size µ control the performance of the algorithm.001 and iterations= 8000 The LMS filtered output is shown in Fig. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.2.

Raj Kumar Thenua et.5: MATLAB simulation for RLS algorithm.5 shows the output results for NLMS and RLS algorithms respectively.Fig. In our work the appropriate filter order is 19 therefore all simulations are carried out at N=19.001 Fig. 4373-4378 Fig. This shows that RLS has fast learning rate. al. computational complexity and stability [9]. In table1 performance analysis of all three algorithms is presented in term of MSE. NLMS adopt in 2300 samples and RLS adopt in 300 samples. N=19. percentage noise reduction. N=19. It is clear from the table1. 2(9). when filter order is less (<15) LMS has good MSE as compared to NLMS and RLS but as the filter order increased (>15) the performance of RLS becomes good and LMS has poor performance it proves that the selection of right filter order is necessary to achieve the best performance. The filter order also affect the performance of a noise cancellation system. lembda=1 Fig. If we investigate the filtered output of all algorithms. LMS adopt the approximate correct output in 2800 samples. NLMS is the favorable choice for most of the industries due less computational complexity and fair amount of noise reduction.3: MATLAB simulation for LMS algorithm.001 Fig.6 illustrate how the MSE change as we change filter order. step size=0.4: MATLAB simulation for NLMS algorithm.4 and Fig. 2010. step size=0. N=19. ISSN: 0975-5462 4376 . the computational complexity and stability problems increases in an algorithm as we try to reduce the mean squared error. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.

N Algorithm Mean Squared Error (MSE) % Noise Reduction Complexity (No. LMS NLMS RLS 2. For a lower filter order (<15) the LMS proved to have the lowest MSE then the NLMS and RLS.5×10-2 2. Performance comparison of various adaptive algorithms S.62% 93. 2010. so we need to take this in consideration when selecting the algorithm for a specific application. different Adaptive algorithms were analyzed and compared. 2(9). al. but as we increase the filter order (>15) the results showed the opposite. 2.7 MSE versus Step-size (µ) for LMS algorithm Table1. ISSN: 0975-5462 4377 .1×10 -2 91. These results shows that the LMS algorithm has slow convergence but simple to implement and gives good results if step size is chosen correctly and is suitable for stationary environment. 3.Raj Kumar Thenua et.78% 2N+1 5N+1 4N2 Highly Stable Stable less Stable 1.7×10-2 4.6 MSE versus filter order (N) Fig.85% 98. of multiplications per iteration) Stability 1. Conclusions In this work. 4373-4378 Fig. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.

2008. NEWCAS 2004. “Adaptive Filtering: Algorithms and Practical Implemetations” . 1993. The NLMS algorithm changes the step-size according to the energy of input signals hence it is suitable for both stationary as well as non-stationary environment and its performance lies between LMS and RLS. [9] Yuu-Seng Lau. al. 4373-4378 When input signal is non-stationary in nature. “The Applications and Simulation of Adaptive Filter in Noise Canceling”. [2] Bernard Widrow. Diniz. Proceedings of the IEEE. Zahir M. and highest percentage of noise reduction but at the cost of large computational complexity and memory requirement. with results that have a really good response. 1975. M. Vol.63 . [3] Simon Haykin. normalized LMS algorithm for echo cancellation” The 2nd Annual IEEE Northeast Workshop on Circuits and Systems. “Adaptive Filter Theory”. et. LLC. Omair Ahmad. Australian Telecommunications. Prentice Hall. et. 2004. References [1] J.Raj Kumar Thenua et. less MSE.4. “An efficient.M. and Signal Processing. 41. vol. 4th edition. “Comparison of LMS. pp. No. Vol. International Conference on Acoustics. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. Page(s): 1 – 4. the RLS algorithm proved to have the highest convergence speed. The implementation of algorithms was successfully achieved.77-195. low-complexity. “Adaptive Noise Cancelling: Principles and Applications”. pp. [6] Slock. 8th International Multitopic Conference. 12 . [4] Ying He. Hussian and Richard Harris.5. 2003. Hence it provides a trade-off in convergence speed and computational complexity.R. “Performance of Adaptive Filtering Algorithms: A Comparative Study”. al. Page(s): 169 – 173. Page(s): 3099 – 3102. et.. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.Vol. Page(s): 161 – 164. 2010. 2004. 2(9). . [7] Abhishek Tandon. RLS and Notch Based Adaptive Algorithms for Noise Cancellation of a typical Industrial Workroom”. “Adaptive Filtering Algorithms for Stereophonic Acoustic Echo Cancellation”. Speech. “On the convergence behavior of the LMS and the normalized LMS algorithms”. 2811-2825. Benesty. Kluwer Academic Publisher © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media. Melbourne. al. 2008 International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering. ISSN: 0975-5462 4378 . M. al. [5] Paulo S. [8] Sanaullah Khan. Page(s): 1692 – 1716. D. Issue 9. Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC).T.Arif and T. 1995.ISBN 978-0-387-31274-3.Majeed.

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