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Background Brief N°3: Developing a National Strategy on Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge, Traditional Cultural Expressions, and Genetic Resources

Background Brief N°3: Developing a National Strategy on Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge, Traditional Cultural Expressions, and Genetic Resources

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This brief summarizes the legal, policy and operational issues that need to be considered in developing a
national strategy for the intellectual property protection of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural
expressions, also known as folklore. It also outlines the intellectual property issues related to genetic resources.
This brief summarizes the legal, policy and operational issues that need to be considered in developing a
national strategy for the intellectual property protection of traditional knowledge and traditional cultural
expressions, also known as folklore. It also outlines the intellectual property issues related to genetic resources.

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06/04/2015

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 Xbes nreoc suaadrezos tbo koidk, pjkemy d`h jpordtej`dk essuos tbdt `ooh tj no mj`sehoroh e` hovokjpe`i d`dtej`dk strdtoiy cjr tbo e`tokkomtudk prjporty prjtomtej` jc trdhetej`dk l`jwkohio d`h trdhetej`dk mukturdkoxprossej`s, dksj l`jw` ds cjklkjro. Et dksj jutke`os tbo e`tokkomtudk prjporty essuos rokdtoh tj io`otem rosjurmos. Dt proso`t, e`tokkomtudk prjporty prjtomtej` jc trdhetej`dk l`jwkohio d`h trdhetej`dk mukturdk oxprossej`s, d`hrukos mj`mor`e`i e`tokkomtudk prjporty dspomts jc tbo uso jc io`otem rosjurmos, dro adttors preadreky cjr`dtej`dk ijvor`ao`ts. @oijtedtej`s dro murro`tky u`horwdy e` tbo Yjrkh E`tokkomtudk Vrjporty Jrid`ezdtej`(YEVJ) tj hovokjp d` e`tor`dtej`dk koidk e`struao`t (jr e`struao`ts) cjr tbo occomtevo prjtomtej` jc trdhetej`dkl`jwkohio d`h trdhetej`dk mukturdk oxprossej`s, d`h tj dhhross tbo e`tokkomtudk prjporty dspomts jc tbo dmmosstj d`h tbo sbdre`i jc no`ocets drese`i crja tbo uso jc io`otem rosjurmos. Xboso `oijtedtej`s dro tdle`i pkdmoe` tbo YEVJ E`torijvor`ao`tdk Mjaaettoo j` E`tokkomtudk Vrjporty d`h Io`otem ^osjurmos, Xrdhetej`dkL`jwkohio d`h Cjklkjro (EIM), ostdnkesboh ny tbo YEVJ Io`ordk Dssoanky e` >666.
X^DHEXEJ@DK L@JYKOHIO D@H X^DHEXEJ@DK M_KX_^DK ORV^O]]EJ@]
Xbo aod`e`i jc ‛prjtomtej`‑
 Xbes nreoc es mj`mor`oh wetb d vory spomecem u`horstd`he`i jc tbo tora ‛prjtomtej`‑, tj aod` tbo uso jc e`tokkomtudk prjporty (EV) kdws, vdkuos d`h pre`mepkos tj provo`t u`dutbjrezoh jr e`dpprjpredto usos, ny tberhpdrteos, jc trdhetej`dk l`jwkohio (XL) d`h trdhetej`dk mukturdk oxprossej`s (XMOs). Xbo jngomtevo jc EVprjtomtej` es tj adlo suro tbdt tbo e`tokkomtudk e``jvdtej` d`h mrodtevety oanjheoh e` XL jr XMOs dro `jtwrj`iky usoh.EV prjtomtej` md` tdlo twj cjras - pjsetevo d`h hoco`sevo prjtomtej`. Vjsetevo prjtomtej` ird`ts EV reibts e`tbo sungomt adttor jc XL d`h XMOs. Xbes ady bokp mjaau`eteos provo`t tberh pdrteos crja ide`e`i ekkoieteadtodmmoss tj XL d`h XMOs, jr crja use`i tboa cjr mjaaormedk ide` wetbjut oquetdnky sbdre`i tbo no`ocets. Etady dksj o`dnko dmtevo oxpkjetdtej` jc XL d`h XMOs ny tbo jreie`dte`i mjaau`ety etsokc, cjr oxdapko, tj nuekhup ets jw` bd`hemrdct o`torpresos. Hoco`sevo prjtomtej`, j` tbo jtbor bd`h, hjos `jt ird`t EV reibts jvor tbosungomt adttor jc XL d`h XMOs nut deas tj stjp sumb reibts crja noe`i dmqueroh ny tberh pdrteos. Hoco`sevostrdtoieos e`mkuho tbo uso jc hjmuao`toh XL tj promkuho jr jppjso pdto`t reibts j` mkdeaoh e`vo`tej`s tbdtadlo heromt uso jc XL.Vrjtomtej` e` tbo EV so`so es heccoro`t crja ‛prosorvdtej`‑ d`h ‛sdcoiudrhe`i‑, wbemb e`vjkvo tbo eho`tecemdtej`,hjmuao`tdtej`, trd`saessej`, rovetdkezdtej` d`h prjajtej` jc mukturdk boretdio. Xbo jngomtevo e` tbdt mdso es tjo`suro tbdt XL d`h XMOs hj `jt hesdppodr d`h dro ade`tde`oh d`h prjajtoh.‛Vrjtomtej`,‑ ‛prosorvdtej`‑ d`h ‛sdcoiudrhe`i‑ dro `jt autudkky oxmkusevo. Dktbjuib tboer jngomtevos droheccoro`t, eapkoao`te`i tboa tjiotbor ady no autudkky suppjrtevo, cjr oxdapko, tbrjuib hjmuao`tdtej` d`htbo mjapekdtej` jc e`vo`tjreos. Bjwovor, tboso heccoro`t cjras jc prjtomtej` ady dksj mj`ckemt. Vrosorvdtej`occjrts tbdt hjmuao`t XL jr XMOs, pdrtemukdrky e` okomtrj`em (heietezoh) cjra, md` adlo tboa ajro dmmossenkod`h vuk`ordnko tj usos tbdt dro dide`st tbo wesbos jc tboer bjkhors, tborony u`horae`e`i tbo occjrt tj prjtomttboa e` d` EV so`so. Et es tborocjro dhvesdnko tj bdvo pjkemeos e` pkdmo cjr tbo strdtoiem ad`dioao`t jc EVhure`i tbo romjrhe`i, heietezdtej` d`h hessoae`dtej` jc XL d`h XMOs.
HOSOKJVE@I D @DXEJ@DK ]X^DXOIU J@ E@XOKKOMX_DK V^JVO^XU D@HX^DHEX
 
J@DK L@JYKOHIO X^DHEXEJ@DK M_KX_^DK ORV^O]]EJ@] D@H IO@OXEM ^O]J_^MO]
NDMLI^J_@H N^EOC
@¶=
 
E`crdstrumturo
E`vo`tjreos, hdtdndsos d`h jtbor e`cjradtej` systoas md` cjra pdrt jc tbo e`crdstrumturo tbdt mjapkoao`ts d`hsuppjrts pjkemeos d`h koidk systoas. Jvor tbo pdst homdhos, e`etedtevos tj hjmuao`t XL d`h XMOs bdvo tdlo`pkdmo dkk jvor tbo wjrkh, sjaoteaos e` mj`gu`mtej` wetb tbo koidk prjtomtej` jc XL d`h XMOs, sjaoteaos seapkycjr prosorvdtej` jr sdcoiudrhe`i purpjsos. Ybeko hjmuao`tdtej` hjos `jt e` etsokc o`suro koidk prjtomtej` jc XL jr XMOs, e`vo`tjreos d`h hdtdndsos ady `ovortbokoss mrodto reibts, wbotbor tboso dro tj rostrde` uso ny tberhpdrteos jr tj no usoh ny tbo bjkhors tboasokvos tj horevo omj`jaem no`ocets crja tboer XL jr XMOs.
Vrdmtemdk tjjks d`h stops
Vrdmtemdk tjjks, sumb ds mj`trdmts, iuehoke`os d`h prjtjmjks, d`h prdmtemdk stops, sumb ds mjaau`etymj`suktdtej`s, mdpdmety-nuekhe`i d`h dwdro`oss-rdese`i dmteveteos, dro dksj vdkudnko ec `jt `omossdry tj suppjrttbo jvordkk pjkemy jngomtevos d`h mjapkoao`t tbo hovokjpao`t d`h eapkoao`tdtej` jc koidk aodsuros.
Loy quostej`s tj no mj`sehoroh j` trdhetej`dk l`jwkohio d`h trdhetej`dk mukturdk oxprossej`s
Ybdt XL/XMOs sbjukh no prjtomtoh: Ybdt cjra d`h mbdrdmtorestems hj XL/XMOs bdvo e` yjur mju`try:Ybemb cjras jc XL/XMOs dro ospomedkky vuk`ordnko tj aesdpprjpredtej`: Ybdt dmtudk oxdapkos dro tboro:
Ybdt dro tbo hoseroh jngomtevos jc EV prjtomtej` cjr XL/XMOs:
Ybj sbjukh no`ocet crja d`y sumb prjtomtej` jr bjkh tbo reibts tj prjtomtdnko XL/XMOs:
Ybdt cjras jc nobdvejr jr dmts e` rokdtej` tj tbo prjtomtdnko XL/XMOs sbjukh no mj`sehorohu`dmmoptdnko jr ekkoidk:
Bjw md` tbo oxeste`i EV systoa no usoh tj ets cukk oxto`t tj prjtomt e`torosts rokdtoh tj XL/XMOs:
 Dro tboro idps e` tbo prjtomtej` dkrodhy dvdekdnko d`h, ec sj, mjukh tbjso idps no cekkoh ny dhdpte`i tbooxeste`i EV crdaowjrl, jr wjukh XL/XMOs no nottor prjtomtoh ny d heste`mt
 sue io`ores
systoa:
Cjr bjw kj`i sbjukh prjtomtej` no dmmjrhoh:
]bjukh tboro no d`y cjradketeos (sumb ds oxdae`dtej` d`h roiestrdtej`):
]bjukh tboro no d`y oxmoptej`s jr keaetdtej`s tj reibts dttdmbe`i tj prjtomtdnko XL/XMOs:
Ybdt sd`mtej`s jr po`dkteos sbjukh dppky tj nobdvejr jr dmts mj`sehoroh u`dmmoptdnko jr ekkoidk:
]bjukh `owky romji`ezoh reibts e` XL/XMOs bdvo rotrjspomtevo occomt:
Bjw sbjukh cjroei` reibts bjkhors/no`ocemedreos no trodtoh:
IO@OXEM ^O]J_^MO]
Io`otem rosjurmos (I^s) dro hoce`oh e` tbo Mj`vo`tej` j` Nejkjiemdk Hevorsety, 455> (MNH) ds io`otem adtoredkjc pkd`t, d`eadk, aemrjnedk jr jtbor jreie` mj`tde`e`i cu`mtej`dk u`ets jc borohety tbdt bds dmtudk jr pjto`tedkvdkuo. ]jao I^s dro ke`loh tj XL d`h trdhetej`dk prdmtemos tbrjuib tboer uso d`h mj`sorvdtej` ny e`heio`jusd`h kjmdk mjaau`eteos, jcto` jvor io`ordtej`s, d`h tbrjuib tboer wehosprodh uso e` ajhor` smeo`tecemrosodrmb. Cjr oxdapko, XL jcto` prjvehos rosodrmbors wetb kodhs tj esjkdto vdkudnko dmtevo mjapju`hs cjraoheme`os d`h jtbor prjhumts.I^s tboasokvos, ds o`mju`toroh e` `dturo, dro `jt EV. Xboy dro `jt mrodtej`s jc tbo buad` ae`h d`h tbusmd``jt no heromtky prjtomtoh ds EV. Bjwovor, e`vo`tej`s ndsoh j` jr hovokjpoh use`i I^s (dssjmedtoh wetb XL jr `jt) ady no pdto`tdnko jr prjtomtoh ny pkd`t nroohors― reibts.Ajrojvor, I^s dro sungomt tj dmmoss d`h no`ocet-sbdre`i roiukdtej`s, e` pdrtemukdr wetbe` tbo e`tor`dtej`dkkoidk d`h pjkemy crdaowjrl hoce`oh ny tbo MNH d`h tbo @dijyd Vrjtjmjk j` Dmmoss tj Io`otem ^osjurmosd`h tbo Cder d`h Oquetdnko ]bdre`i jc No`ocets Drese`i crja tboer _tekezdtej` tj tbo Mj`vo`tej` j` NejkjiemdkHevorsety, ds wokk ds ny tbo E`tor`dtej`dk Xrodty j` Vkd`t Io`otem ^osjurmos cjr Cjjh d`h Diremukturo jc tbo_`etoh @dtej`s Cjjh d`h Diremukturo Jrid`ezdtej`. ]jao EV essuos dssjmedtoh wetb I^s tbdt dro murro`tky u`hor hesmussej` e` YEVJ e`mkuho7
Xbo hoco`sevo prjtomtej` jc I^s7
 D `uanor jc YEVJ aoanor stdtos bdvo dhjptoh pjkemeos deaoh dt tbohoco`sevo prjtomtej` jc I^s, tj provo`t pdto`ts noe`i ird`toh jvor I^s (d`h dssjmedtoh XL) tbdt hj `jtcukcekk pdto`tdnekety roqueroao`ts sumb ds `jvokty d`h e`vo`tevo`oss. Hoco`sevo prjtomtej` e`mkuhos, cjroxdapko, tbo mrodtej` jc hdtdndsos j` I^s d`h XL tj bokp pdto`t oxdae`ors ce`h rokovd`t prejr drt d`h
 

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