Gas Power Cycles

Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna

4.1 Carnot Cycle :
A Carnot gas cycle operating in a given temperature range is shown in the T-s diagram in Fig. 4.1(a). One way to carry out the processes of this cycle is through the use of steady-state, steady-flow devices as shown in Fig. 4.1(b). The isentropic expansion process 2-3 and the isentropic compression process 4-1 can be simulated quite well by a well-designed turbine and compressor respectively, but the isothermal expansion process 1-2 and the isothermal compression process 3-4 are most difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, a steady-flow Carnot gas cycle is not practical.

The Carnot gas cycle could also be achieved in a cylinder-piston apparatus (a reciprocating engine) as shown in Fig. 4.2(b). The Carnot cycle on the p-v diagram is as shown in Fig. 4.2(a), in which processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isothermal while processes 2-3 and 4-1 are isentropic. We know that the Carnot cycle efficiency is given by the expression.

ηth = 1 -

T TL T =1- 4 =1- 3 TH T1 T2

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Steady flow Carnot engine Indian Institute of Technology Madras .S. J. Sundararajan and Prof.1. U.Gas Power Cycles Prof. Shet .4.M . Prof.P. Mallikarjuna T TH TL 1 2 4 (a) 3 isothermal Turbine 1 heat in Work out 2 Isentropic Turbine Work out 3 4 Work Work in in Isothermal heat out Compressor Isentropic compressor Fig. T.

S.P. Shet .M . J.Gas Power Cycles Prof. U. T.2. Reciprocating Carnot engine Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Sundararajan and Prof. Mallikarjuna p 1 Process 1 Process 2 Process 3 Process 4 2: isothermal 3: isentropic 4: isothermal 1: isentropic 2 4 3 (a) Piston displacement (b) Fig.4.

T. J. Sundararajan and Prof.S. Carnot cycle on p-v and T-s diagrams Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Gas Power Cycles Prof.P. Shet .4.3. U. Prof. Mallikarjuna 3 4 2 1 Volume T3=T4 3 4 T2=T1 2 1 Entropy Fig.M .

4.1 From the above equation. we have. T1 ⎛ V4 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ T4 ⎝ V1 ⎠ γ−1 ⎛V ⎞ T . ηth = 1 1 rγ .S.4. T1 = T2 and T4 = T3. Shet .P. it can be observed that the Carnot cycle efficiency increases as ‘r’ increases. Working of Carnot engine Since the working fluid is an ideal gas with constant specific heats.Gas Power Cycles Prof. Sundararajan and Prof. Prof. This implies that the high thermal efficiency of a Carnot cycle is Indian Institute of Technology Madras . T. for the isentropic process. therefore v v4 = 3 = r = compression or expansion ratio v1 v2 Carnot cycle efficiency may be written as. 2 = ⎜ 3⎟ T3 ⎝ V3 ⎠ γ−1 Now.M . U. J. Mallikarjuna High temperature Source T3 K Perfectly insulated walls Piston T1 K Low temperature Perfect insulator cum Sink Perfet conductor Fig.

M . ηth = 1 rp 1 γ −1 γ From the above equation. Mallikarjuna obtained at the expense of large piston displacement. Carnot cycle efficiency may be written as.P. T. we have p1 p = 2 = rp = pressure ratio p4 p3 Therefore. This means that Carnot cycle should be operated at high peak pressure to obtain large efficiency. Prof. Also. J. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .S. T1 = T2 and T4 = T3.Gas Power Cycles Prof. ⎛p ⎞ T1 =⎜ 1⎟ T4 ⎝ p4 ⎠ γ−1 γ ⎛p ⎞ T and 2 = ⎜ 2 ⎟ T3 ⎝ p3 ⎠ γ−1 γ Since. for isentropic processes we have. it can be observed that. Sundararajan and Prof. the Carnot cycle efficiency can be increased by increasing the pressure ratio. Shet . U.