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Prestressed Rock Anchor
 A prestressed rock anchor is a high
strength steel tendon, fitted with a
stressing anchorage at one end and a
means permitting force transfer to the
grout and rock on the other end. The rock
anchor tendon is inserted into a prepared
hole of suitable length and diameter,
fixed to the rock and prestressed to a
specified force.
 Ground anchors are used in civil
engineering for the following applications:
 To resist lateral thrust on retaining walls and
in-situ diaphragm walls,
 For stabilizing of slopes and land slides,
 To resist uplift on basements and other
 To strengthen masonry and concrete
dams, and
 For testing of large diameter piles.
Applications Include
 Retaining walls
 Tower bases
 Concrete structures
 Concrete form hardware
 Tunnels
 Mines
 Dams
 Bridges
 Slope stabilization
 Rock fall protection
Typical Details of Prestressed
Rock Anchor
Fixed Length - The length
of the anchor which is
grouted in, from which the
pullout capacity of anchor
is achieved.

Free Length - The part of
the anchor which is not
bonded to the surrounding
area and is free to
Necessary Data
a) Service life of anchor (temporary or
b) Design load per anchor; and
c) Soil investigation for following factors:
i) Complete borehole log indicating types of soil and
rock encountered with respect to depth. The depth of
penetration into rock with core drilling should be
minimum 10 m
ii) Un drained shear strength and bulk density at
different depths
iii)Shear strength and unit weight of rock
iv) Sulphate and chloride contents in soil as well as
ground water
v) Permeability of rock and fissurs -pervious zones
Method of Construction
 Drilling Through Overburden - Drilling
through overburden is normally carried out
by suitable equipment. For keeping the side
stable, either temporary easing is provided
or bentonite mud circulation is used. The
size of the hole depends upon the capacity
of the anchor. In case of inclined bores use of
casing tube shall be obligatory.
 Drilling Through Rock - Drilling through
rock is carried out by using either rotary
method with water flush or using pneumatic
percussion method with air and/or water
Percussion Drilling
Water Proofing of Hole
 After drilling through rock a water test is
carried out.
 The anchorage length (fixed length) for all
permanent anchors has to be tested for
water-proofing to avoid corrosion and if
water loss is found to be excessive the hole
is grouted.
 The grout is then re-drilled and water test
repeated and the whole procedure is
repeated till satisfactory lugeon value is
 Lugeon: Lugeon is defined as flow of water



Arrangement for Water
Fabrication of Anchors
 Anchors can be shop fabricated or
fabricated on site depending upon the
construction requirements.
 Anchors shall be free of dirt, detrimental
dust or any other deleterious substance.
Anchors shall be handled and protected
prior to installation to avoid corrosion or
physical damage.
Fabrication of
Rock Anchor
 Required number of strands is to be cut to the required
length. Cutting of cable is to be derived as Fixed length
+ Free length + extra 1m (for stressing)
 Strands are cleaned thoroughly and oil on the surface
is removed. 1st coat of epoxy paint is to applied
immediately with the help of brush. After 24hrs 2nd
coat of epoxy paint is to be applied on strands. Quartz
sand is to be sprinkle on fix length of strands when 3rd
coat is tacky.
 Free length of strand is to be cleaned with the help of
emery paper. Place the plain flexible HDPE pipe, 2mm
thick on free length portion.
 The pre-stressing strands, greased for the free length
portion should be enclosed in HDPE sleeve, 2mm thick
encasing individual strand.
 Fixed length of the cable is then provided corrugated
HDPE sheathing 2mm thick.
 Centralizers fabricated from plastic or steel, are
provided to ensure min 5mm grout cover to anchor in
fix length.
 Fix shoe with the help of brazing at bottom of cable.
Spacers & Centralizers
 Spacers: The purpose of a spacer is to help
insure that grout surrounds each strand for
corrosion protection and for bond strength
development. Designers should specify the
desired distance between spacers (typically
 Centralizers are placed over the assembled
strand bundle in order to maintain the
required spacing between the anchor and
the borehole so that an adequate thickness
of grout (minimum 0.5") surrounds the
anchor. A wide variety of centralizers are
available depending upon the anchor type.
Lowering Anchors
 Anchors are placed in accordance with
type of anchors.
 Suitable guide system and temporary
fixing of the anchor is required to avoid
movement of anchor during grouting.
 Grout tubes are checked to ensure that
they are free.
 Suitable spacers are also provided when
required to ensure that anchor assembly
does not get entangled.
Fixed Length Grouting
 After the anchor is lowered, the fixed
length of the anchor is grouted.
 Grouting is carried out under pressure (@
4-8 kg/cm2) by fixing a packer at the top
of the fixed length or as necessary in
accordance with the type of anchor.
 Normally thickest possible grouting (0.5
water cement ratio) is adopted for
primary grouting.
 Adequate care is required so that the free
length of the anchor remains free to
 Stressing is carried out after 21 days of grouting
when, it attains the required strength.
 Depending on the different types of anchors
used, details of the stressing jack vary.
 The anchor is stressed for about 10 percent of
the load and elongation measurements taken
beyond this range.
 This takes care of any seating errors.
 Anchor is subsequently stressed to 10 percent
excess load over the design and elongation
 After noting the elongation, the anchor is locked
either to design load or part of the design load
depending on the requirements.
Setup for Stressing
12 Strands
of 12.7 mm

Jack – K 200
Pressure Application
Elongation Measurement
Stressing of inclined
Rock Anchor
Case study
Project: Construction of Office Complex for
Canara Bank at Bandra Kurla Complex,
Client : Canara Bank
Consultant : STUP
PMC : Gherzi Eastern Ltd.
Contractor : NBCC Ltd.
Sub Contractor: Freyssinet
PresstressedConcrete Co. Ltd.
Front View
Design for Rock Anchor
 Design Load: Design load is a assign load on anchor after
allowance for all losses. In this case the design load is 50 T.
 High Tensile Strand
Nos of high tensile strand required for 1.75 x 50 T
capacity of anchor:
Minimum breaking load of 12.7mm dia HT strand =
Factor of safety for tension in strand = 1.5(min)
U.T.S. of cable = 18737/1.5
= 12.49 T
No of HT strand required for 55 T Design load =
= 7 nos
Hence use 12 K13 Anchorage System i.e. 7 nos of
12.7mm dia HT Strand for each anchor.
 Fixed Length
Capacity of anchor = 55 T (with losses)
Diameter of Hole = 110mm
Bond stress between strata & grout = 2.9 kg/cm2
Fixed length = 55000/(3.14 x 11 x 2.9)
= 548.8 cm
~ 550.0 cm
 Free length
 Minimum 5.0 m (As per IS-10270 : 1982)
 Total Length of Anchor
 Fixed + Free = 10.5 m
Estimate for Rock Anchors
Water Test: Observation
Water Test
 Conclusion:
Water loss is to be finding out in
terms of Lugeons. The lugeon value
achieved is 0.15 which is less than 3.0 as
per IS: 10270-1982. Hence the test was
Pullout Test
 Objective:
 To study the performance of tendon
anchorage assembly under the application of
pre-stressing force.
 To observe for any premature failure – any
permanent deformation and abnormal
behavior during application of load.
 To measure the elongation of tendons during
Test Setup and Procedure
 The loading mechanism consist of 12 nos HT
strand 12.7mm dia, Freyssinet K-200 Jack and
electrically operated high pressure pump.
 The electrically operated high pressure pump
was equipped with calibrated pressure gauge
and least count of 5 kg/ cm2.
 The stressing equipment was placed over the
rock anchor tendon in such a manner that the
jack, bearing plates and stressing anchorage are
axially aligned with the tendon and the tendon
was centered within the equipment.
 The pullout test was performed by incrementally
loading the ground anchor in accordance with
the schedule given in the attached format.
Test Setup and Procedure
 The load was raised from one increment to
another, immediately after recording the
ground anchor movement up to the failure of
 The anchor failure may occur due to
 Anchor Grout Bond failure
 HT strand failure
 The load shall be monitored with a pressure
 After stressing the plot of ground anchor
movement versus load for each increment in
Elongation v/s Pressure Graph
 Anchor failed at 400 kg/cm2 pressure. The
failure occurs due to grout bond failure.
 No failure of the strand or distortion of
anchorage was observed after
dismantling the test set-up.
Research Paper
Rock Anchors for Dams, The
National Research Project: The
Evolution of Post-tensioned
Anchors on Hydropower Dams

By Dr. Donald A. Bruce, Geosystems, L.P.,
USA and John S. Wolfhope, P.E., Freese and
Nichols, Inc., USA
 Rock anchors provide a cost-effective and low
maintenance solution for strengthening hydropower
 Prestressed rock anchors have been used to stabilize
dams and appurtenant structures in North America for
over three decades.
 The goal of the National Research Program on Rock
Anchors for Dams is to advance the awareness and
understanding of the use of post-tensioned anchors
throughout the dam and hydropower industries.
 The prime objectives are to: a) produce a definitive and
detailed list of all the North American dam anchor
projects, b) trace the evolution of practice via an
analysis of codes and specifications, and c) to project
the market for post-tensioned anchors on large dams
and hydropower facilities.
 Over 390 case studies have been collected and
 The research approach for the National
Research Program was as follows:
 Conduct Survey of dam anchoring practice.
 Collect all published books and technical
 Develop an Internet-based interactive
database repository of information related to
anchoring of dams.
 Review the evolution of North American
anchoring practice and technical guidance
 Characterize the market for prestressed rock
anchors in dams.
Histogram of Anchored
• Prestressed rock anchors have been used
successfully over the past thirty years on nearly
four hundred dams and hydropower facilities in
North America.
• Prestressed rock anchors provide a cost-
effective, environmentally acceptable low
maintenance solution for rehabilitating dams to
meet modern design standards.
• North American practice has evolved
substantially over the past four decades through
emphasis on codes, technical specifications, and
improvements in construction techniques.
Particular attention has been paid to corrosion
• Post-tensioned anchors have a long history of
being successfully applied on FERC regulated