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vryhof anchor manual 2005
Vryhof anchors
ACCREDITED BY THE DUTCH COUNCIL FOR CERTIFICATION Reg. No 24

p.o. box 105, 2920 AC krimpen ad yssel, the netherlands www.vryhof.com vryhof@vryhof.com

ISO-9001CERTIFICATED FIRM
DET NORSKE VERITAS INDUSTRY B.V., THE NETHERLANDS

Copyright © Vryhof anchors b.v., krimpen a/d yssel, the netherlands 2005. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by print, copy or in any other way without written permission of vryhof. Vryhof, Stevin, Stevpris, Stevshark, Stevtensioner and Stevmanta are registered trade marks. Vryhof reserves all intellectual and industrial property rights such as any and all of their patent, trademark, design, manufacturing, reproduction, use and sales rights thereto and to any article disclosed therein. All information in this manual is subject to change without prior notice. Vryhof anchors is not liable and/or responsible in any way for the information provided in this manual. First edition published 1984. Print run 7,500 copies. Second edition published 1990. Print run 7,500 copies. Reprint second edition print run 5,000 copies. Third edition published 2000. Print run 2,500 copies. Reprint third edition print run 1,500 copies. Second reprint third edition print run 1,000 copies. First print fourth edition print run 1,000 copies.

Introduction

3

A stone and something that looked like a rope. For millennia this was the typical anchor. Over the last 25 years of more recent history, vryhof has brought the art to a more mature status. They have grown into a world leader in engineering and manufacturing of mooring systems for all kinds of floating structures. In doing so the company has secured numerous anchor and ancillary equipment patents, and shared its experience with others. The company understands that the needs of the industry can not be satisfied by the supply of standard hard-ware only. Universal and tailored solutions rooted in proven engineering should be based on long practical experience. Vryhof has been and will be introducing new and original anchor designs well into the 21st century. With their products, advice and this manual, it shares this knowledge with those who are daily faced with complex mooring situations. This manual is intended as a means of reference for all who purchase, use, maintain, repair or are in any way involved with anchors. Though written from one anchor manufacturer’s standpoint, the information contained herein is applicable to many types of anchors. Total objectivity is, of course, impossible. It is hoped this manual will contribute to the work and success of all who work with anchors. They are the only fixed reference point for many of the floating structures on the world’s often turbulent waters.

1 General .

These systems were used. SALM buoy . Generally the ships stayed moored for a short duration of time (days). on ships and consisted of one or more lines connected to the bow or stern of the ship. Multiple mooring lines are used. of which a short selection is presented here. The mooring lines generally have a catenary shape. When the exploration and production of oil and gas started offshore.these types of buoys have a mooring that consists of a single mooring line attached to an anchor point on the seabed. Turret mooring . Semi-submersible drilling rig .generally the buoy will be moored using four or more mooring lines at equally spaced angles. The anchor point may be gravity based or piled.generally the semi-submersibles are moored using an eight point mooring. underneath the buoy. a need for more permanent mooring systems became apparent.this type of mooring is generally used on FPSOs and FSOs in more harsh environments. CALM buoy .Mooring systems 5 Mooring systems have been around just as long as man has felt the need for anchoring a vessel at sea. Two mooring lines come together at each of the columns of the semi-submersible. The vessel connects to the buoy with a single line and is free to weathervane around the buoy. Numerous different mooring systems have been developed over the years. The FPSO or FSO is able to rotate around the turret to obtain an optimal orientation relative to the prevailing weather conditions. semi-sub mooring typical turret mooring . which come together at the turntable built into the FPSO or FSO. and are still used.

fig. In a taut leg mooring.e. The mooring lines are directly connected to the FPSO or FSO at both the stern and bow of the vessel. 1-02 . This means that in a taut leg mooring the anchor point has to be capable of resisting both horizontal and vertical forces. For exploration and production in deep to ultra-deep water. 1-01 taut leg system fig. the mooring radius of the taut leg mooring will be smaller than the mooring radius of a catenary mooring for a similar application. i.generally used on FPSOs and FSOs in milder environments. 1-01 and fig. the taut leg mooring arrives at the seabed at an angle. the most common mooring line configuration was the catenary mooring line consisting of chain or wire rope. In a catenary mooring. An advantage of a taut leg mooring over the catenary mooring is that the footprint of the taut leg mooring is smaller than the footprint of the catenary mooring. To overcome this problem new solutions were developed consisting of synthetic ropes in the mooring line (less weight) and/or a taut leg mooring system (fig. The major difference between a catenary mooring and a taut leg mooring is that where the catenary mooring arrives at the seabed horizontally. When oil and gas exploration and production was conducted in shallow to deep water. 1-02). the restoring forces are generated by the elasticity of the mooring line.Mooring systems 6 catenary system Spread mooring . most of the restoring forces are generated by the weight of the mooring line. the weight of the mooring line starts to b e c o m e a limiting factor in the design of the floater. while in a catenary mooring the anchor point is only subjected to horizontal forces.

The synthetic fibre rope is generally terminated with a special spool and shackle for connection to the other components in the mooring system. 1-04). for instance semi-submersibles. The studlink chain is most commonly used for moorings that have to be reset numerous times during their lifetime. The major advantage of synthetic fibre ropes is the light weight of the material and the high elasticity. 1-03). the mooring line. buoys. Mooring line Chain The most common product used for mooring lines is chain which is available in different diameters and grades. Common wire ropes used in offshore mooring lines are six strand and spiral strand. fig. CR) for connection to the other components in the mooring system. wire rope has a lower weight than chain. the connectors and the anchor point.Mooring components 7 A typical mooring system can be divided in three different components. A chain mooring line can be terminated in either a common link or an end link (fig. FSOs). Two different designs of chain are used frequently. studlink and studless chain. 1-03 fig. while studless link chain is often used for permanent moorings (FPSOs. closed spelter. Wire rope When compared to chain. Typical materials that can be used are polyester and high modulus polyethylene (Dyneema). 1-04 . The wire rope is terminated with a socket (for instance open spelter. for the same breaking load and a higher elasticity. Generally wire rope is more prone to damage and corrosion than chain (fig. Synthetic fibre rope A recent development is the use of synthetic fibre ropes as mooring line.

as they have a shorter fatigue life than the chain (fig. Connecting link pear shaped The pear shaped connecting link is similar to the connecting link kenter type. 1-07 fig. 1-06 fig. The shackle can be used in both temporary and permanent moorings (fig. Like the connecting link kenter type. except that it is used for the connection of two pieces of mooring line with terminations that have different dimensions. fig. Generally connecting links kenter type are not used in permanent mooring systems. This connector is generally not used in permanent moorings (fig. depending on the application. 1-06). 1-05). Many different types of shackles are available. 1-08). the pear shaped connecting links are not used in permanent mooring systems (fig. 1-07). It consists of a bow. The connecting link kenter type has the same outside length as a chain link of the same diameter.Mooring components Connectors 8 Shackles The shackle is a connector that is very common in the offshore industry. Connecting link c type Like the connecting link kenter type. 1-08 . 1-05 fig. Connecting link kenter type The connecting link kenter type is most commonly used for the connection of two pieces of chain mooring line. the connecting link c type is used for the connection of two pieces of mooring line with terminations that have the same dimensions. The major difference between the kenter type and the c type is the way that the connector is opened and closed. which is closed by a pin. where the terminations of the two pieces have the same dimensions.

due to special bearing surfaces inside the mechanism (fig. which is caused by high friction inside the turning mechanism. 1-10 . The holding capacity is generated by the weight of the material used and partly by the friction between the dead weight and the seabed.Mooring components 9 Swivels A swivel is used in a mooring system. fig. although it can also be placed between a section of chain and a section of wire rope. fig. Common materials in use today for dead weights are steel and concrete (fig. 1-09). although a disadvantage of most common swivels is that they may not function while under load. generally of a temporary type. A new development is swivels that are capable of swivelling under load. 1-10). 1-09 Anchoring point Dead weight The dead weight is probably the oldest anchor in existence. There are many different types of swivels available. The swivel is often placed a few links from the anchor point. to relieve the twist and torque that builds up in the mooring line.

The drag embedment anchor has been designed to penetrate into the seabed. The pile is capable of resisting both horizontal and vertical loads (fig. The holding capacity of the drag embedment anchor is generated by the resistance of the soil in front of the anchor. 1-11). but not for large vertical loads although there are some drag embedment anchors available on the market today that can resist significant vertical loads (fig. 1-12). Pile The pile is a hollow steel pipe that is installed into the seabed by means of a piling hammer or vibrator.Mooring components 10 Drag embedment anchor This is the most popular type of anchoring point available today. The holding capacity of the pile is generated by the friction of the soil along the pile and lateral soil resist-ance. 1-12 . Generally the pile has to be installed at great depth below seabed to obtain the required holding capacity. fig. either partly of fully. The drag embedment anchor is very well suited for resisting large horizontal loads. 1-11 fig.

The holding capacity of the suction anchor is generated by the friction of the soil along the suction anchor and lateral soil resistance. 1-13). the suction anchor is a hollow steel pipe. but penetrates much deeper. When the anchor mode is changed from the installation mode to the vertical (normal) loading mode. 1-13 fig. 1-14). although the diameter of the pipe is much larger than that of the pile. 1-14 . After installation the pump is removed. creating a pressure difference. Vertical load anchor A new development is the vertical load anchor (VLA). the anchor can withstand both horizontal and vertical loads (fig.Mooring components 11 Suction anchor Like the pile. When pressure inside the pipe is lower than outside. The suction anchor is capable of withstanding both horizontal and vertical loads (fig. fig. The vertical load anchor is installed like a conventional drag embedment anchor. The suction anchor is forced into the seabed by means of a pump connected to the top of the pipe. the pipe is sucked into the seabed.

and from 1852. Yet these primitive anchors were of poor construction and often broke under pressure. Some have prospered. A stockless anchor was invented in 1821 and became popular. the so-called ‘Admiralty Anchor’ was used for ships of the Royal Navy. It was this weight as well as a certain degree of friction on the bottom which secured a vessel in position. the crosspiece at the top of an anchor which ensured that the positioning of the anchor would allow the flukes to penetrate the soil. others not. Curved arms were introduced in 1813. is presented on the following pages. A short overview of the anchors in use today. teeth or flukes were built on the anchor. and are far more efficient than their historical predecessors. anchor shackle shank fluke stabilisers . thus offering additional stability.History of embedment anchors 12 History of drag embedment anchors History traces the use of anchors to China as far back as 2. primarily as a result of the ease of handling and stowing. baskets of stones. qualities still valued today. allowing penetration into the seabed. Another refinement in the 19th century was the elimination of the stock. At that time the general tendency was to use large stones. bags of sand or even logs of wood loaded with lead which were then fastened to lines.000 BC. With the introduction of iron into anchor construction. The most recent designs are the results of vast experience and extensive testing. though it is quite probable that they were used prior to this. A large number of anchor types has been designed and commercialised over the years.

shank. an indication (*) is provided for a 10 t anchor as (HOLDING CAPACITY = WEIGHT * EFFICIENCY). stabilisers. Class A efficiency range *33 to 55 slender anchors with ultra-penetration. it is possible to classify the various anchor types.Characteristics of anchor types 13 Based upon certain charateristics such as fluke area. Class A Stevpris Stevshark FFTS . To allow a rough comparison of anchor type efficiency.

Class B Bruce SS Bruce TS Hook . allowing for improved penetration.Characteristics of anchor types 14 Class B efficiency range *17 to 25 anchors with ‘elbowed’ shank.

Class C Stevin Stevfix Stevmud Flipper Delta .Characteristics of anchor types 15 Class C efficiency range *14 to 26 anchors with open crown hinge near the centre of gravity and relatively short shank and stabilisers or built-in stabilisers.

Offdrill Boss . Class D Danforth LWT Moorfast .Stato .Characteristics of anchor types 16 Class D efficiency range *8 to 15 anchors with hinge and stabilisers at the rear and relatively long shanks and stabilisers.

Class E AC14 Stokes Snugstow Weldhold . more or less square-shaped shank. hinge at the rear and a relatively short. thick stabilisers.Characteristics of anchor types 17 Class E efficiency range *8 to 11 anchors with very short.

Class F US Navy Stockless Beyers Union Spek . no stock stabilisers. The stabilising resistance is built-in the crown.Characteristics of anchor types 18 Class F efficiency range *4 to 6 anchors with square shank.

Characteristics of anchor types 19 Class G efficiency range *<6 anchors with small fluke area and stabilisers at the front of the shank. Class G Single Fluke Stock Stock Dredger Mooring Anchor .

Hook • 1974 . • 1977 . It was equipped with an enlarged crown and fluke area and a streamlined shank for more efficient penetration. It has all classification societies approvals.History of vryhof anchor designs 20 Stevin A brief chronological summary of the types of anchors vryhof has designed for use in the offshore and dredging industries: • 1972 . This design was surpassed in 1980 by the Stevpris design and is no longer manufactured. Stevin Mk3 . The anchor had a square shank. This anchor is still manufactured and in use in offshore and dredging activities.The Stevin Mk3 anchor: is the improved version of the original Stevin anchor.The Hook anchor: originally designed for permanent moorings. The wing was not yet enlarged. It is no longer manufactured.The Stevin anchor: The original design.

equipped with a serrated shank and cutter-teeth for better penetration in hard soils.The Stevmud anchor: the Stevmud is essentially the Stevin anchor with a considerably enlarged fluke area. The Stevshark anchor is a specially reinforced Stevpris anchor. but has been surpassed by the Stevpris anchor. Stevmud • 1980 . Stevpris .The introduction of the Stevpris and Stevshark anchors. and incorporating the latest experience.History of vryhof anchor designs 21 Stevfix • 1978 . The Stevpris anchor is a deep penetrating anchor with a plough shaped shank. This anchor type was also surpassed by the Stevpris anchor and is no longer manufactured. It is no longer manufactured. • 1979 . such as coral types or sandstone. research and knowledge of the anchor designer. The fluke points are specially reinforced to withstand high point loads.The Stevfix anchor: this anchor was designed with special fluke points for harder soils and a larger fluke area than the Stevin. surpassing the performance of all earlier designs in the vryhof range.

History of vryhof anchor designs •1990 . Consequently the anchor is ideal for taut-leg mooring systems. vertical (or normal) loading of the fluke is obtained thus mobilising the maximum possible soil resistance. The Stevmanta VLA is a new design in which a traditionally rigid shank has been replaced by a system of wires connected to a plate. the Stevmanta VLA was developed. The anchor is designed to accept vertical (or normal) loads and is installed as a conventional drag embedment anchor with a horizontal load to the mudline to obtain the deepest penetration possible. The improved versions of the original Stevpris and Stevshark anchors.The Stevpris 22 Stevshark Mk5 Mk5 and Stevshark Mk5 were introduced. . As a VLA is deeply embedded and always loaded in a direction normal to the fluke. Based on industry demand for an anchor that could withstand vertical loads.Introduction of the Stevmanta VLA (Vertical Load Anchor). By changing the point of pulling at the anchor. Improvements have concentrated on two features: higher holding capacity and easier handling. Stevmanta •1996 . the load can be applied in any direction.

2 Theory .

type of mooring line. complementing the experience of the anchor manufacturer. It is by no means complete. shank design. . a few relevant test results are presented. This chapter presents a short overview of how these parameters influence the performance of the anchor. a much better understanding of anchor behaviour has been achieved. Nowadays. The performance of an anchor is influenced by many different parameters. both in the laboratory and in the field. soil conditions.Introduction 24 Theory Anchor design used to be based on practical experience of the anchor manufacturer only. science has become a major factor in the design process. of which the following are only a few: fluke area and design. In the last part of this chapter. but it will give a better understanding of how an optimal anchor design can be achieved. load conditions. Based on test results.

When the single shank is replaced by a twin shank construction (for instance Stevpris. FFTS). An increase in fluke area or an increase in the penetration depth of the anchor results in a higher holding capacity. an anchor which has protruding parts will encounter much more soil resistance and consequently will not penetrate as deep as a more streamlined anchor with the same fluke area. A clod of soil will form underneath the shank.Anchor holding capacity 25 Criteria for anchor holding capacity The holding capacity of an anchor is governed by the following parameters: • The fluke area. 2-01 and fig. 2-03 fig. 2-01 fig. will cause penetration resist-ance due to the fact that the soil can not pass easily past the shank. 2-02 Streamlining of the anchor A streamlined anchor is very important for optimal penetration in the soil. Shank shape A square shank. fig. 2-02. Bevelling the shank allows deeper penetration. 2-03). •The penetration of the anchor. As can be seen in fig. fig. the soil can more easily pass through and past the shank. the anchor type (design). the type of mooring line that is used (chain or wire rope) and the applied load. and consequently the twin shank anchor can penetrate deeper (fig. the influences on the anchor penetration are further clarified. usually two thin parallel steel plates. In the following paragraphs. which is common for most older type single shank anchors. 2-04). which is limited by the strength of the anchor design. effectively increasing the resistance of the soil (fig. The penetration of the anchor is governed by the soil type (deep penetration in very soft clay and shallow penetration in sand). 2-04 .

Anchor holding capacity 26 Mooring line An anchor connected to a wire rope mooring line will penetrate deeper than the same anchor connected to a chain mooring line (fig. • The bearing capacity of shank and mooring line (E).e. it will not resist any higher loads. at shallow penetration a wedge shaped piece of soil (in front and above the anchor) will fail. 2-05 fig. 2-06). • The friction of the mooring line in and on the soil (E). • The friction of the soil in the failure wedge along fracture lines (C). i. fig. is larger than the holding capacity of a wire rope mooring line. 2-08): • The weight of the anchor (A). The holding capacity of the anchor can then be described as a combination of the following parameters (fig. When an anchor reaches its ultimate holding capacity. but especially in very soft clay where very deep penetration can be obtained. The holding capacity of a chain mooring line. 2-08 . 2-07 C fig. This effect is noticeable in all soil conditions. 2-07 and fig. due to friction in and on the seabed. 2-06 B E D A fig. • The weight of the soil in the failure wedge (B). 2-05 and fig. • Friction between fluke surface and soil (fluke area) (D). This is caused by the higher lateral resistance (penetration resistance) along the chain mooring line.

Criteria for good anchor design 27 Scale influence Model Reality Related to Weight Length Fluke area Weight Penetration Moment Moment of inertia Section Modulus Bending stress Shear strength table A Anchor parameters can be scaled from geometrically proportional anchors using the scale rules in table A. • The anchor should be streamlined for low penetration resistance. retrieved and stored. Obstructing parts on the anchor should be avoided as much as possible. its holding capacity. • The shank must permit passage of the soil. installed. • The design of the anchor should be such that the anchor is capable of being used successfully in practically all soil conditions encountered over the world. corals and calcarenites. • The design must be so conceived and produced that the high loads common in practice can be resisted and that the anchor can be easily handled. • The anchor should be designed to ensure an optimum between structural strength of the anchor and holding capacity. ranging from very soft clay to sand. allowing the anchor to be quickly deployed in different soil conditions. consequently. • The penetration of an anchor depends upon its shape and design. n4/n3=n W 1/3 n3/n2=n W 1/3 . • The anchor design must have optimal mechanical strength to fulfil requirements and stipulations of the classification societies. Efficient stabilisers are an integral part of a good anchor design. • The fluke/shank angle of the anchor should be easily adjustable. a result of the fluke area and shank design in combination with penetration and soil type. There are several attributes of an anchor which are crucial in assuring its effective performance: L A W P M I S M/S F/A n n2 n3 n n4 n4 n3 W 1/3 W 2/3 W W 1/3 W 4/3 W 4/3 W • The anchor must offer a high holding capacity. • The stability of an anchor encourages its penetration and. • The surface area of an anchor fluke is limited by the required structural strength of the anchor.

although there are a number of anchor types on the market that are suited for most soil conditions encountered. There was not much science involved. it is this volume which determines the UHC.in hard soil like sand and hard clay. It is this understanding which is the hallmark of a competent anchor designer and builder. more use of experience. The following are influenced by the soil conditions encountered: Anchor type . Penetration and drag .Aspects of soil in anchor design 28 Aspects of soil mechanics in anchor design Until the nineteen seventies anchor design was largely an empirical process. It is not easy. Retrieval forces . For anchor design and installation. the maximum attainable ultimate holding capacity with a certain anchor type and size is higher than the attainable ultimate holding capacity in very soft clay. the availability of good soil data is of utmost importance as the soil is of great influence on anchor behaviour. The main problem is the prediction of the volume of soil mobilised by the anchor. For example. To a large degree.in very soft clay the anchor will penetrate deeper than in harder soil like sand. the required retrieval forces will be higher than in hard soil like sand. while others are more suited for hard soils (sand and hard clays). Detailed understanding of soil characteristics and behaviour is essential in the anchor design process and of increasing benefit in handling at sea. to calculate the Ultimate Holding Capacity (UHC) of an anchor from the commonly known soil mechanics formulas. .when an anchor is installed in very soft clay. Holding capacity . the drag length of the anchor will also be longer in very soft clay than in hard soil. in very soft clay the required retrieval force of an anchor can be equal to 80%90% of the installation load while in hard soil (sand) the retrieval force might only be 20%-30% of the installation load. for instance.some anchors are more suited for soft soil conditions (soft clay). As a consequence.

The consistency of clays is related to the undrained shear strength.75 75 .2 µm 2 .100 100 . However. the soil types encountered in anchor design are sand and clay (Grain diameter from 0. mooring locations consisting of soils with grain sizes above 2 mm.60 µm 60 . .2 mm 2 .40 40 .200 mm > . However.6 µm 6 . Clay type soils are generally characterised by the undrained shear strength.20 20 . also occur.150 150 . American (ASTM) and British (BS) standards do not use identical values (table B). boulders.25 25 .13 13 . cobbles.Soil classification 29 Undrained Shear Strength (kPa) Consistency of Clay Very soft Soft Firm Stiff Very stiff Hard Very hard table B Soil strength is generally expressed in terms of the shear strength parameters of the soil.20 mm 20 . the submerged unit weight.300 300 .1 µm to 2 mm).50 50 .200 µm 200 . Grain size < .600 µm 0. rock and such. the water content and the plasticity parameters. such as gravel.6 . The soil type is classified mainly by grain size distribution.6 mm 6 .200 mm Soil description Clay Fine Silt Medium Silt Coarse Silt Fine Sand Medium Sand Coarse Sand Fine Gravel Medium Gravel Coarse Gravel Cobbles Boulders ASTM D-2488 0 .400 > 400 BS CP-2004 0 .20 µm 20 .600 > 600 IIn general.200 200 . The undrained shear strength values Su can be derived in the laboratory from unconfined unconsolidated tests (UU).60 mm 60 .

2 2.30 Dense 0.2 0.10 Medium dense 0.2 .10 10 .15 . is shown on the laste page of this chapter.13 13 .7 0.3. indicating an undrained shear strength between 25 kPa and 50 kPa.5 1. An approximate relation between shear strength and the test values are shown in table C.25 25 .5 .1. • Very stiff clay is easily indented with the thumbnail.0. The undrained shear strength of clayey soil can also be estimated based on manual tests. ϕ.15 < 30 0.35 .35 10 . Very loose < 0.25 25 .0. A classification system for soil based on the carbonate content and grain size of the soil (Clark and Walker). indicating an undrained shear strength larger than 200 kPa.0.200 > 200 table C UU kPa 0 .30 >-30 CPT MPa 0.4 .Soil classification 30 Su kPa 0 .65 .4 0.15 15 . • In firm (medium) clay the thumb will penetrate several inches with moderate effort. An approxim-ate correlation between the angle ϕ and the relative density of fine to medium sand is given in table D.0.32 4 . • Hard clay is indented with difficulty with the thumbnail. indicating an undrained shear strength smaller than 25 kPa. Descriptive term Relative Density Angle ϕ SPT N CPT MPa 0. The mechanical resistance of sandy soils is predominantly characterised by the submerged unit weight and the angle of internal friction.200 200 .65 32 .25 5 12.0 .5 – 50 – 100 – 200 > 200 Very weak Weak Moderately weak Moderately strong Strong Very strong Extremely strong table E 1. The rock strength can generally be described by its compressive strength (table E).5 5 .400 > 400 SPT N 0.85 35 .7 .50 50 .4 4.38 30 .20 > 20 • In soft clay the thumb will easily penetrate several inches. indicating an undrained shear strength between 100 kPa and 200 kPa.100 100 .85 > 38 > 50 table D Descriptive term Compressive strength qu [MPa] < 1.0.50 Very dense > 0.8 6 .5 50 100 .100 100 .0 >3.25 – 5 – 12.4 Loose 0.50 50 . These parameters are established in the laboratory.0.15 15 .0 On site the values can be estimated from the results of the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) or Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT).35 30 . indicating an undrained shear strength between 50 kPa and 100 kPa. • Stiff clay will be easily indented with the thumb but penetration will require great effort.

an anchor with a fluke/shank angle of 320 will give the highest holding power. FFTS. the rear of the fluke and the fluke tip. This is the case for all anchor types.Fluke/shank angle 31 The penetration of an anchor into a certain soil type is greatly influenced by the selected fluke/shank angle. which can be used in intermediate or more complex soil conditions. 2-10 Soil type Approximate fluke/shank angle 50˚ 32˚ 32˚ Very soft clay Medium clay Hard clay and sand table F . have an additional intermediate fluke/shank angle of 41o. For hinging anchor types (Stevin. it will negatively influence performance. the anchor will fail to penetrate into the seabed and will begin to trip. For instance at a location where the anchor has to pass through a layer of soft clay before penetrating into a layer of sand. Danforth etc. Some modern anchors. etc. but not all anchor manufacturers use the same definition. The recommended fluke/shank angles for different soil conditions are presented in table F. like the Stevpris Mk5. In hard soil.) is not well defined. Often it is the angle between the anchor shackle.) the fluke/shank angle is the angle between the anchor shackle. 2-9 and 2-10). fall aside and slide along the seabed (Fig. If an anchor is used with the fluke/shank angle set at 500. fig. If an anchor is used with an incorrect fluke/shank angle. The method for measuring the fluke/shank angle for fixed shank anchors (Stevpris. 2-09 fig. the hinge and the fluke tip.

however the penetration will be less than when a fluke/shank angle of 50o is used. and the drag length longer (Fig. sand angle mud angle fig. 2-11 . 2-11). Consequently the holding capacity will be lower when the fluke/shank angle is set at 32o. the anchor will penetrate into the seabed.Fluke/shank angle 32 If an anchor is used in very soft clay (mud) with the fluke/shank angle set at 32o.

will have different holding capacities. It demonstrates that in spite of being the same weight. both of identical weight. 2-12 . two anchors of the same weight but different type. fig. Some examples: Fig. 2-12 shows a Stevpris Mk5 anchor and a Moorfast anchor. In general. both of which have identical weight.Fluke area 33 Because the fluke area of an anchor is of great influence on the holding capacity. the fluke areas differ substantially. Consequently. it can be stated that two anchors of the same weight but of different type (for instance a Stevin anchor and a Stevpris Mk5 anchor).5 times higher than that of the same weight Moorfast anchor. 2-13 illustrates the difference in fluke area of the Stevpris Mk5 anchor in comparison with the Bruce FFTS Mk4 anchor. Fig. The ultimate holding capacity of the Stevpris Mk5 anchor is 4 to 8. do not necessarily have the same fluke area. 2-13 fig. it can be useful to compare the fluke area of different anchor types that are available on the market today.

Strength of an anchor design

34

Anchors should be designed to withstand the loads applied on them in the different loading situations. Typical loading situations and areas of special attention for anchors are: • During the proof loading of the anchors in the factory, after construction has been completed. On basis of the proof load results, the classification societies issue the approval certificate. While embedded in the seabed • Depending on the soil conditions, different loading situations can occur on the anchor. In sands and clays, the load tends to be spread equally over the anchor, which generally presents no problems. Retrieval is also very simple, without excessive loads placed on the anchor. • In very hard soils, the anchor has to be able to withstand the load with only one or two of the fluke tips buried in the soil, as penetration in very hard soil conditions is generally shallow. • In very soft clays (mud) penetration of the anchor is uncomplicated. However, recovery of the anchor can cause high loads, sometimes exceeding the load that was used to install the anchor. • Sidewards forces on the top of (shallow) buried anchors can be so extreme that no anchor is capable of resisting them. During anchor handling • Care should be taken during the handling of the anchors, as the loads exerted by the winches, vessels and chain can sometimes exceed the structural strength of the anchor and cause damage. Anchor designers attempt to design the anchors for these high loads, however this is not always possible due to variations in the magnitude of the loads during handling operations.

Strength of an anchor design

35

• Large forces can be exerted on the anchor when high winch power is
used, the anchor is caught on the anchor rack or caught behind the stern roller of the AHV. • The use of an improper anchor/chaser combination. When a chaser is used that is either too small or too large, the chaser could jam on the shank of the anchor and cause damage. The strength of the Stevpris anchor is now more closely examined in the light of the remarks made before. Strength of the shank The prismatic shape of the Stevpris anchor not only ensures optimal penetration of the soil but also guarantees maximum strength. Although the Stevpris design also has limitations, it is one of the better designs to withstand sideward forces on the shank, a frequent occurrence in practice. When using an anchor in very soft clay (mud), the bending moment on the shank is low during the installation and when the anchor is in the soil. However, during the breaking out of the anchor, high bending moments could be introduced in the shank due to the high retrieval forces required in very soft clay. In extremely sticky soils, the breaking out force of the anchor can rise to 80% or 90% of applied anchor load; in certain instances, it can even exceed 100%. To reduce these forces the breaking out procedure is undertaken at low speed to allow time for the anchor to break out.

Strength of an anchor design

36

Strength of the fluke The strength of the fluke and especially the fluke points of an anchor are very important when working in extremely hard soils such as coral, limestone and other rock types. It is possible in such instances that the total holding capacity of the anchor will have to be sustained by the fluke points alone. This means the structure must be strong enough to withstand extreme bending forces. Loading in normal soil conditions is not a problem due to the fact that the load is equally spread over the fluke. In fig. 2-14, the different force points are shown for varying soil conditions. The location on the fluke where the proofload is applied, is also indicated. Strength in extremely hard soils In very hard soils such as calcarenite, coral and limestone, an anchor will not penetrate very deeply. Consequently the load applied to the anchor has to be held by the fluke tips of the anchor and a small portion of the fluke. This means that extremely high loads will be applied to the fluke tips, compared to normal soil conditions such as sand and clay. For use in very hard soil conditions, vryhof has designed the Stevshark anchor, a modified version of the Stevpris anchor. To create the Stevshark, the Stevpris anchor has been strengthened, consequently a Stevshark anchor having the same outside dimensions and holding capacity as a Stevpris anchor will be heavier. Strength calculations of the Stevshark design have been made to guarantee sufficient strength in the fluke points. The Stevshark anchor is designed to withstand the application of the main part of the load on just its fluke tips.

clay sand

proofload rock

fig. 2-14

Ballast weight can also be added inside the hollow flukes of the anchor. . i. This is important when working in very hard soil. where the anchor weight pressing on the fluke tips promotes penetration.e. up to 35% of the anchor weight. increased bearing pressure. the Stevshark anchor has a serrated shank and can be provided with cutter points on the fluke tips.Strength of an anchor design 37 To promote penetration.

0 – 3.48 38 . The quasi-static load plus the individual wave forces is called the total dynamic load.6 1. 2-15 Time in seconds Campos Basin Gulf of Mexico Northern North Sea Porcupine Basin Vorine Basin West of Africa West of Shetlands .39 39 .41 Current m/s 1 1 0. For quasi-static loads. See Fig. On top of this quasi-static load there are the individ-ual wave forces causing a high frequency motion. Depending on the location of the floater in the world.9– 1.0 2000 1000 0 8300 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 9800 fig.16 16 14 4 15 18 15 6 17 Wave period s 12 . the systems tend to move at a low frequency.0 – 1. The high frequency motion causes dynamic shock loads with a period of 10 to 14 seconds due to the rolling of the vessel and the movements of the anchor lines through the water.3 – 0.17 16 16 10 16 20 17 16 19 Windspeed m/s 25 44 . generally with a period of 140 to 200 seconds. waves and current acting on the floater.41 37 .2 1.39 20 39 . some extreme metocean conditions are presented for different areas. The quasi static load is the load due to the swell.15 14 15 . Generally the quasi-static loads will be equal to 50% to 90% of the total dynamic load. The loads induced in the mooring system can be divided into quasi-static loads and total dynamic loads.5 1. In the table below.5 0.0 – 1.Anchor loads and safety factors 38 Load in kN 4000 3895 Total dynamic Quasi static 2342 3000 The loads in a mooring system are caused by the wind. Location Waveheight m 8 – 10 11 15 . different metocean conditions will prevail. current and the frequency of the system. wind. 2-15 for an example of the difference between the quasi-static load and the total dynamic load.

e. due to the difference in failure mechanisms. 1996). it will slowly be pulled out of the soil. Temporary mooring Quasi-static Total dynamic load load 0.00 Damaged load condition 1.25 1. When a drag embedment anchor reaches its ultimate holding capacity. The required holding capacity is calculated by applying the factors of safety specified by the classification societies. From the quasi-static load and the total dynamic load.05 Intact load condition 2.0 1. the recently used factors of safety suggested by ABS. The damaged load condition is the condition in which one of the mooring lines has broken. it will continuously drag through the soil without generating additional holding capacity. the factors of safety are presented for the different load conditions for drag embedment anchors (for instance the Stevpris Mk5 anchor). The factors of safety used by the major classification societies are generally similar to those given in API RP 2SK (2nd edition. according to API RP 2SK. The intact load condition is the condition in which all the mooring lines are intact. The factors of safety for VLAs are higher than the factors of safety required for drag embedment anchors. are presented in table I.5 Intact load condition Damaged condition table I Mooring line safety factors Quasi-static load Dynamic load 1.5 1.43 Transient load condition 1. i. For VLAs. In the tables G and H.0 The quasi-static and total dynamic loads are generally calculated for the intact and damaged load condition.0 Damaged condition Not required table H VLA Total dynamic load 2. the required holding capacity of the anchor can be calculated.8 Not required Intact load condition 1.2 1.8 1. the load will stay equal to the UHC. When a VLA exceeds its ultimate pullout capacity.67 1. This is called the ultimate holding capacity (UHC) for drag embedment anchors and the ultimate pull-out capacity (UPC) for VLAs.18 table J .Anchor loads and safety factors 39 Permanent mooring Intact load condition Damaged condition table G Quasi-static Total dynamic load load 1. In table J the safety factors according to API RP 2SK for the mooring line are presented for comparison purposes.

this takes from a few hours up to 1 month. With time. consequently the load at the shackle increases also with the setup factor. On reloading. However. the parallel soil resistance gains strength. For permanent mooring systems the installation load should be held for the period specified by the classification societies (see table K). The penetrating anchor disturbs the soil and the soil temporarily loses strength. When the installation load is exceeded. but will still be capable of further penetration because the ultimate holding capacity has not been reached. the disturbed clay reconsolidates to its initial shear strength. These are: The set-up and consolidation effect Set-up and consolidation mainly occur in clayey soils. it takes a larger load to move the anchor again. the anchor will continue to penetrate and drag until the soil is capable of providing sufficient resistance or the ultimate holding capacity has been reached. After installation the anchor is capable of resisting loads equal to the installation load without further penetration and drag. the set-up effect factor is less than the sensitivity index indicates. Lloyd’s Register of Shipping American Bureau of Shipping Det Norske Veritas (NMD) table K . Because not all the soil around the anchor is disturbed. i. The anchor will then have penetrated to a certain depth.5. Observations on anchors for drilling rigs and theoretical considerations for a 3 to 4 week consolidation time demonstrate a typical set-up effect factor =1. The disturbance mainly reduces the soil resistance parallel to the fluke. called the drag length. there are certain effects which allow the anchor to withstand forces larger than the installation load without further penetration and drag.Anchor behaviour in the soil 40 Classification society Required duration of maintaining tension 20 minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes Drag embedment anchors Drag embedment anchors are generally installed by applying a load equal to the maximum intact load. depending on the soil type. increases. the bearing soil resistance to the fluke.e. Equilibrium dictates that also the normal load. The anchor will also have travelled a certain horizontal distance.

As a VLA is deeply embedded and always loaded in a direction normal to the fluke. viscous intergranular forces and inertia forces. where generally the angle between mooring line and seabed varies from 25 to 450.Rate effect factor Anchor behaviour in the soil 41 0 1. 2-16 Su=10 kPa Su=50 kPa .9 0. This means that once the required UPC of the VLA is known. the load can be applied in any direction.1 to 1.3 for total dynamic loads. Using the rate effect and set-up factors. Vertical Load Anchors A VLA is installed just like a conventional drag embedment anchor. the required installation load for the VLA is also known. Typical rate effect factors are 1. see Fig.8 0 200 400 600 800 1000 The rate effect An increased rate of loading increases the soil resistance. During installation (pull-in mode) the load arrives at an angle of approximately 45 to 500 to the fluke. For anchor behaviour the rate effect factor indicates how much higher the dynamic high frequency load may be without causing extra movement of the anchor once installed at the installation load.1 1 0.2 1. This must be taken into account with respect to total dynamic loads. Consequently the anchor is ideal for taut-leg mooring systems. the load always arrives perpendicular to the fluke. consequently the anchor holding capacity increases. 2-16 where the rate effect is presented for two different soil conditions (Su = 10 kPa and Su = 50 kPa). being 33% to 40% of the required UPC. The rate of loading influences pore pressure variations. the behaviour of the anchor after installation can be predicted more accurately. This change in load direction generates 2. Time factor St fig. After triggering the anchor to the normal load position.5 to 3 times more holding capacity in relation to the installation load.

2-17 • The American Bureau of Shipping • Bureau Veritas • Det Norske Veritas • Germanischer Lloyd • Lloyd’s Register of Shipping • Registro Italiano Navale • USSR Register of Shipping • Nippon Kaiji Kyokai • Norwegian Maritime Directorate In the early days there were no specific regulations regarding the holding power and strength of mooring anchors. A more detailed overview of HHP anchor proof loads is Anchor weight 1 5 7 10 15 20 table J Proof Load factor 26 79 99 119 155 187 t t t t t t Anchor weight 26 15 14 12 10 9 x x x x x x t t t t t t . 2-17). It is obtained by placing the anchor in a test yoke in which a hydraulic cylinder applies the test loads. controlled by a calibrated manometer (fig. nothing more. Some anchors were approved as ‘high holding power’ anchors. If an HHP anchor was requested by the owner. See table J for some examples of HHP anchor proof loads. the anchor has proof tested in strict accordance with the rules. The vryhof anchor types have been approved by the following Classification Societies: fig. This socalled HHP approval was obtained after carrying out field tests in various types of soil in which it had to be shown that an anchor provided a holding power of at least twice that of a standard stockless anchor. The rules which did exist were often followed regardless of the type of vessel.Proof loads anchors 42 Proof loads for high holding power anchors The proof load according to Classification Societies’ rules is applied at 1/3rd of the fluke length and is carried out immediately on fabrication of the anchor.

see fig. • Submission of a strength calculation of the anchor to the classification society prior to commencing anchor production: this includes determining the mechanical strength of the anchor as well as proving that the applied material can withstand the proofload. 2-19 Load in % • Proof load of the anchors at 50% of the breaking load of the chain. and the requirements have been substantially increased. UHC=250 t. If anchors need mobile offshore units certification. 2-18 Proofload in t Balanced mooring system API RP 2SK Breakload chain Ultimate holding capacity anchor Damaged load floater Proofload chain Pretension load anchor Intact load floater Proofload anchor 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 fig. The strength of the mooring line. From this figure it can be concluded that the proof load of the anchors should preferably be related to the break-load of the mooring line on the vessel. 2-18.5 t Stevshark Mk5 4 t Stevpris Mk5 0 50 100 150 200 250 fig. The use of the specified proof loads for HHP anchors can lead to situations where different types of anchors with the same holding capacity are proof loaded at different loads. • A statement of documented holding power from the anchor supplier. holding capacity of the anchor and strength of the anchor are all in the correct proportion and comply with the rules. . the following properties may be required: 10 t Stevin Mk3 4. 2-19. • Submittal of a Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manual. In fig. Nowadays the rules and regulations are far more rigid. given in the product data section. There are now special rules for ‘mobile offshore units’ and ‘permanently moored structures’.Proof loads anchors 43 29 t Danforth Proofload HHP anchors. a mooring system is shown in which all of the components are balanced.

vryhof has become increasingly aware of the vital importance of managerial aspects and their influence on the total quality-assurance and control system. Vryhof anchors obtained the ISO 9001 certificate No. A compilation of certificates is presented to a client upon completion of a project. THE NETHERLANDS .. ACCREDITED BY THE DUTCH COUNCIL FOR CERTIFICATION Reg. Initiated by various authorities they are continuously refined and followed up by operating companies such as vryhof anchor. Like other companies. and Sales of anchors and mooring components’. No 24 ISO-9001CERTIFICATED FIRM DET NORSKE VERITAS INDUSTRY B. Design and fabrication of anchors for permanent moorings are in accordance with the quality requirements of the Rules NS/ISO 9001 as described in our Quality Assurance Manual. Manufacture of anchors. Quality control is maintained throughout production.V.Quality control 44 The application of more advanced and complex technology in anchor construction has brought about requirements for a systematic approach to quality. QSC 3189 issued by Det Norske Veritas for ‘Design.

For example. deployed in sand. • The more tests results are strictly compared to practical results. strong winches and strong mooring lines are required. is capable of stopping a modern AHV at its full bollard pull.Anchor tests 45 Introduction In addition to practical experience of users and associates. Examining anchor tests that have been carried out in the past. • Test results have not always been interpreted independently. a 5 t Stevpris Mk5 anchor. which are not always available. the better one can forecast the holding power and general behaviour in practice. certain conclusions can be made: • Many tests were undertaken in which the results were recorded accurately. The optimal anchor test consists of model tests with 10 kg anchors. The anchors should be pulled until the ultimate holding capacity is reached. followed by full-scale tests with 1 t and 10 t anchors. Vryhof is in the perfect situation of having detailed test data available together with extensive practical data obtained during installation and use of anchors on projects on site. It is obvious that full-scale testing of anchors can be expensive. • Detailed reports. anchor tests are one of the most reliable means of forecasting anchor performance and thus making a proper choice of anchor type and size. however. • Anchor tests of the past are not always easy to interpret or compare because of different soil and anchor types. Large AHVs. . have not been very common. Research into anchor behaviour and the ultimate holding capacity of anchors is often carried out by testing a model anchor. preferably followed by a full-scale test in the field.

• The anchors should be tested up to their ultimate holding capacity. Sample test curves are presented in Fig. • Curve C is a curve of an unstable anchor. . This can be caused by a wrong fluke/shank angle setting. as a minimum. the testing program should preferably meet.Anchor tests 46 Holding Capacity A G B C D E F fig. 2-20 Testing a 10 t Stevpris Mk5 anchor to its ultimate holding capacity in sand would require a horizontal pulling capacity of approximately 600 t. This can be o caused by the absence of stabilisers. Reading test curves The behaviour of an anchor during tensioning can be accurately interpreted from the holding capacity versus drag curve. Properly interpreted performance curves can explain a lot about anchor behaviour. • Curve G represents an anchor penetrating in a layer of stiff clay overlain by very soft clay. • Drag and penetration of the anchor should be recorded during testing. the following criteria: • An accurate and sophisticated measuring system should be used. a short stabiliser or a fluke that is too long. Drag • Curve A is very steep and represents a streamlined anchor in very stiff soil. • Curve E is an anchor with a 32 fluke/shank angle in very soft clay. • Curve D is a normal curve for an anchor in very soft clay. • The anchor should be held under tension with a blocked winch for 15 minutes. a too large fluke/shank angle or a low efficiency anchor at continuous drag. 2-20. • Curve B is a normal curve for anchors in sand and medium clay. • Curve F represents an anchor that is turning continuously. If anchor tests are to be comparable. to investigate any drop in holding capacity.

after which the anchor shows continuous drag.30 pulling angle. drag and penetration graphs of the Stevin Mk3 and Stevpris Mk5 anchor as well as in the ultimate pull-out capacity graph of the Stevmanta VLA. 2-22 shows the result of the tensioning of the final anchors with a load of 820 t. which indicates that the anchor builds up its holding capacity constantly until the ultimate holding capacity has been reached. B. 2-22 Drag in meters . 102 t in the very soft clay and 150 t in the layer of mud on rock. Although the construction would took place at one location. Fig. The other curves are largely self-explanatory. 40 t Stevpris (sand location) and 60 t Stevshark (mud on rock location) were selected for the final mooring. 2-21 Drag in meters Full scale Gullfaks A anchors 800 700 600 Holding capacity in t A 500 400 300 B* C Survival load = 1500 ton 200 100 0 20 40 60 80 A = 40 t Stevpris in sand B = 60 t Stevshark in mud on rock C = 65 t Stevpris in mud * Final pretension load on site fig. Test results Vryhof’s extensive database of test results with different anchor types. Stord. Data has been obtained from practice. D. The data has been interpreted and afterwards incorporated in the ultimate holding capacity. a 65 t Stevpris (mud location). soft mud and an 8 m mud layer on rock. it was known that three different types of soil conditions would be encountered: sand. The purpose of these tests was to determine the correct anchor type and size for the mooring system of the Gullfaks A platform during the construction of the platform at Digernessundet. scale models and from third parties. Norwegian Contractors (1984) In 1984 Norwegian Contractors carried out tests at Digernessundet. while fig. As the mooring system required a survival load of 1500 t. E and G show a very stable rising line. produced a maximum holding capacity of 150 t in the sand. After the initial trials the Stevpris anchor was selected for further testing. 8 m soft clay on rock 50 25 soft clay 0 10 20 30 40 fig. sizes and soil conditions. 2-21 shows the test results of the 3 t Stevpris anchor.Holding capacity in t Anchor tests 47 150 Sand 100 Curves A. The 3 t Stevpris anchor that was used for the tests at a 3. Norway. has been frequently used in anchor design.

500 400 300 200 100 7-2 7-1 7-4 2-1 2-2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 fig.Horizontal load in kips Anchor tests 48 700 600 Large scale anchor test jip . Based on the results of tests. the 7 t Stevpris anchor could not be pulled up to its ultimate holding capacity. 2-23). Due to insufficient pulling capacity.7 & 2 t 7-3 Large scale anchor tests in the Gulf of Mexico In 1990. 2-23 Drag distance in feet . the ultimate holding capacity of the 7 t Stevpris anchor was calculated to be larger than 338 t (745 kips) (fig. The anchors were tested using a wire rope forerunner. The 2 t Stevpris anchor was tested up to its ultimate holding capacity of 107 t (235 kips). tests were performed with 2 t and 7 t Stevpris Mk5 anchors. as part of an anchor test Joint Industry Project (JIP).

the anchor line arrives at the anchor shackle at an angle of 20o to 30o with the mud line. Stevpris anchors installed in very soft clay and mud penetrate deeply. Line load in lbs 30 000 25 000 20 000 = dyn load = pull angle 50 40 30 15 000 10 000 20 18˚ 5 000 0 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 fig. a typical penetration for a 15 t anchor is 15 to 25 meters. Once the anchor is installed. Anchors in sand and firm to hard clays do not penetrate very deeply and only take small uplift loads. 2-24). Due to the inverse catenary in the soil. The maximum resistance was obtained for 18o uplift at mud line. a load making an angle up to 20o with the horizontal at mud line will not change the loading direction at the anchor! A Stevpris anchor has been tested in the Gulf of Mexico with gradually increasing pull angle (fig. 2-24 Line length pulled in feet Line angle vs mudine 35 000 60 .Anchor tests 49 Uplift Stevpris anchors are well capable of resisting uplift loads when they are deeply embedded.

the static load applied after the cycling phase revealed 25 to 50% larger anchor resistance than the initial installation load (fig. This effect is explained by further penetration of the anchor.15 0.25 to 1. 2-25).Anchor tests 50 Cyclic effect factor The loading at the anchor is cyclic.0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 fig. the static anchor resistance after some storm loading improves by the cyclic effect factor of 1. 1993.1 Increased capacity vs initial static Cycling 0. Applying this knowledge to the anchors. 2-25 Time in seconds .5. Although the maximum cyclic load was less than the initial installation load. Anchor resistance in kN Initial static capacity 0. Exxon performed cyclic tests on anchors reported by Dunnavent and Kwan.

13 m2 was pulled in at 0o pull angle (fig. At this load the winch was blocked. accepted a vertical load to the anchor of up to 2 times F! Amongst the many tests the anchor relaxation was measured.Anchor tests 51 Tests with Stevmanta anchors Tests have been performed in the Gulf of Mexico and offshore Brazil. 2-26 Line length pulled in feet .6 times the maximum installation load. The anchor with a fluke area of 0. then loaded vertically to a load equal to 1. The Stevmanta anchor being pulled in with a load equal to F. 200 Line load in % Block winch 150 100 Change mode 50 900 pulling angle with seabed in normal loading mode 25 30 35 0 0 5 10 15 20 fig. 2-26).

200 Line load in % 150 Block winch 100 50 Change from pull-in to normal mode 900 pulling angle with seabed in normal loading mode 4.Anchor tests 52 This permitted the monitoring of the load with time (fig. The subsequent pulling at 7:00 AM showed that for only a small movement.00 6. as the observed decrease in tension was due to movement of the winch. Continuous pulling caused the anchor to loose resistance and break out. 2-27) as what would be expected in real circumstances at a constant loaded anchor line.00 2.00 0 20. The results show that the holding capacity of the anchor does not change significantly during continuous loading.00 8. the full plate capacity (2 x installation load) could be reached.00 0.00 fig.00 22. 2-27 Time in hours .

the mode changed to the normal (vertical) mode and the anchor subsequently pulled with an uplift angle of 30o (fig. 2-28 Line length pulled in feet . The graphs clearly show this effect and that the anchor can be used for substantial horizontal loads. 2-28). 200 150 100 50 Change from pull-in to normal mode 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 300 pulling angle with seabed in normal loading mode Line load in % 0 fig. the anchor was installed with a horizontal pull. However. The behaviour is similar to the earlier vertical pull test.Anchor tests 53 To demonstrate that the feature of these anchors is not only a vertical resistance. for the 30o pull angle the anchor did not break out but moved slowly along the pulling direction through the soil.

063 mm 2 mm 60 mm Carbonate gravel 90 Carbonate clay silt sand Siliceous carbonate Siliceous carbonate Mixed carbonate and non-carbonate gravel Calcareous clay Calcareous silica silt Calcareous silica sand 10 Very weak Clay Calcilutite (carb. Or Breccia Conglomeratic calcirudite Calcareous sandstone Calcareous conglomerate Siltstone Sandstone Conglomerate or breccia Detrital limestone Conglomerat limestone Fine-grained agrillaceous limestone Calcareous claystone Claystone Fine-grained siliceous limestone Calcareous siltstone Siltstone Siliceous detrital limestone Calcareous sandstone Sandstone Conglomerate limestone Calcareous conglomerate Conglomerate of Breccia 10 90 90 Cementation of soil Very weak to firmly cemented soil Weak to moderately weak Well cemented soil Claystone Fine-grained limestone Moderately strong to strong (well cemented) rock Strong to extemely strong Calcareaous claystone Calcareous siltstone Crystalline limestone or marble Increasing lithification Conventional metamorphic nomenclature applies in this section Total carbonate content % 50 10 54 50 50 . Conglom. Sandstone) Siliceous calcarenite 50 Silica gravel Calcirudite (carb. Rock strength 0. Calystone) Clayey calcilutute Siltstone) Siliceous calcisiltite Calcisiltite (carb.002 mm Carbonate silt Carbonate sand 0.Soil table Increasing grain size of particulate deposits Approx. Silica silt Silica sand Calcarenite (carb.

3 Practice .

the nature of the soil. the Stevtensioner. optimal performance of an anchor is not possible. the practical issues are just as important. connection of the anchor to the mooring line. chasers. . various types of support equipment are necessary or beneficial. The handling of an anchor and the selection and use of support equipment is of equal importance. Without proper anchor handling. their operation and the advantages and drawbacks involved. Anchor handling is a critically important and often complicated process. handling the Stevpris anchor.Introduction 56 Practice Although theoretical knowledge of anchors is essential for good anchor design and selection. It is for these reasons that anchor handling is a subject which requires careful consideration. The following handling procedures are by no means complete. In the process of handling anchors. handling the Stevmanta anchor. the depth of the water. but they do give some suggestions which can be applied to each anchor handling procedure and adapted for specific circumstances and locations. This chapter gives an overview of the recommended procedures that should be followed for anchor handling and the types and use of the support equipment during the handling operations. anchor handling/supply vessels. Some of the topics covered in this chapter are: requirements for a soil survey. the available handling equipment and the type and weight of mooring line. An anchor manual would be incomplete without consideration of these auxiliary items. the weather conditions. It is influenced by such factors as the weight and shape of the anchor. the reasons for their use.

• Sleeve friction. • Shell grading. • Undrained shear strength. • Granulometry and percentage fines. When choosing between anchor pile. also remoulded. Depending upon the type of survey performed and the soil conditions encountered.Soil survey 57 Typical contents survey report • Cone penetration resistance. • SPT values. • Pore pressure. but they should be accompanied by at least one vibrocore or sample borehole per site to obtain a description of the soil. suction anchor and drag embedment anchor the financial implications of the soil survey should be taken into account. table K For the dimensioning of drag embedment anchors. • Normalised rock hardness test (point load test). while in anchor pile design deep boreholes are required. The soil investigation can consist of boreholes. • Angularity and porosity. • Drained and undrained triaxal tests. For optimal drag embedment anchor dimensioning. . • Cementation. In most cases a depth of 8 to 10 meters is sufficient. • RQD index. For advice on specifying drag embedment anchor type/size and calculating expected behaviour. Cone penetration tests including sleeve friction are preferred. the availability of site-specific soil data is important. • Wet and dry densities. although in very soft clay a reconnaissance depth of 20 to 30 meters should be considered. • Plasticity limits. the site-specific soil data should be compared with soil data of previous drag embedment anchor (test) sites. • Specific gravity. • CaCO3 content. The ‘lack’ of soil data can be compensated by choosing a conservative (larger) anchor size. rock quality designation. • Unconfined compression tests. vibrocores. cone penetration tests or a combination of these. For suction anchor design therefore a more extensive soil investigation is generally required when compared to drag embedment anchors. the survey report should present the test results obtained on site and in the laboratory including the points as shown in table K. A typical soil survey for drag embedment anchor design requires a survey depth of twice the length of the fluke in sand and 8 times the fluke length in very soft clay. It is possible to dimension the drag embedment anchors based on limited soil information (for instance fewer boreholes). • Water content. • Compressibility. each anchor location should ideally be surveyed. The soil survey requirement for the design of drag embedment anchors usually consists of only shallow boreholes.

also for MODU applications. extra chain length is required. The table L can help in estimating the costs for the two alternatives.Pile or anchor 58 Description Pile Suction Anchor pile + + + + + + + + + + + + + + The choice between piles and anchors is only possible for permanent systems. The choice between piles and anchors strongly depends upon the circumstances. While it is a psychologically loaded subject. However.more expensive . Piles require a follower and a pile hammer. The survey work for anchors is generally much simpler than for piles. The required pile weight for a system is equal to the required weight of a Stevpris anchor. a crane barge with support spread versus the two anchor handling vessels. The disadvantage is the cost of the pile itself and the cost of the installation. experience has shown that the choice between anchor and pile is merely a matter of economics. The weather downtime for a spread involving a crane vessel is much longer than when AHVs are used. anchor removal is much cheaper than removal of installed piles. To allow drag of the anchors during pretensioning. Sometimes the pretension load for piles is much less than for anchors. Piles are not a good investment when an anchored entity must be moved. Suction piles are an alternative for drag embedment anchors and piles. a pile does not drag! However. the installation costs for piles are much higher. The advantage is the accurate positioning of the suction piles. But the choice is often made for piles on emotional grounds. Piles cost about 40% of equivalent capability anchors. The installation spread for piles is much more significant. Soil survey Procurement Installation spread Installation time Pile hammer Follower Pump unit Pretensioning Extra chain Rest value pile/anchor Removal of anchor point ROV + less expensive table L + + + + + . When abandoning a field. anchors that are properly pre-tensioned on site will also not drag.

Mounting instructions Stevpris / Stevshark Mk5 59 A1 pin 1 A2 pin 2 B1 pin 3 B2 pin 4 Plate A1 & A2 Pin 1&2 Forward fluke-shank connection Remove the locking plates A1 and A2 which are tack-welded to the fluke Plate B1 & B2 Pin 3&4 Aft fluke-shank connection Move the pins 1 and 2 to the outer side. Move the pins 3 and 4 to the outside. Remove the split pins and open the locking plates B1 and B2. .

Close the locking plates B1 Notch and B2 and secure with split pins.E7018 Welding process SMAW electrode welding position 2F material S355J2G3 (St52-2N) preheat material 50° C interpass temp max 250° C Serial number Sand angle Middle angle Mud angle Locking plate .AWS. Align pins 1 and 2 with the forward shank eyes. Fit and weld the locking plates A1 and A2 Mud on the fluke.Mounting instructions Stevpris / Stevshark Mk5 60 Fit the rear shank lugs into the fluke by means of a crane. When in position. Move pins 1 and 2 back into position. rotate the shank forward to align the front pins with the shank. Manoeuvre the rear shank lugs with the notch into the gap in the flukes. Move pins 3 and 4 back into position. Attention Make sure the serial number of the shank corresponds with the serial number of the fluke for reason of identification and certification. Align pins 3 and 4 with the rear shank lugs. See Middle welding detail Sand below. Place the shank in the sand. as indicated in the figures. middle or mud position. Vryhof recommended welding procedure for locking plates A1 and A2 Fillet weld with electrode acc.

Mounting instructions Stevpris New Generation 61 A1 pin 1 A2 pin 2 pin 3 pin 4 Plate A1 & A2 Pin 1&2 Forward fluke-shank connection Remove the locking plates A1 and A2 which are tack-welded to the fluke. Remove the splitpins and nuts from pins 3 and 4 and move the pins 3 and 4 to the outside. . 1 2 3 4 Aft fluke-shank connection Move the pins 1 and 2 to the inner side.

AWS.E7018 Welding process SMAW electrode welding position 2F material S355J2G3 (St52-2N) preheat material 50° C interpass temp max 250° C Locking plate Sand angle Middle angle Mud angle Mud eye Mid eye Sand eye . Fit and weld the locking plates A1 and A2 on the fluke. Align pins 3 and 4 with the rear shank lugs and insert them in the lugs. See welding detail below. Attention Make sure the serial number of the shank corresponds with the serial number of the fluke for reason of identification and certification. Vryhof recommended welding procedure for locking plates A1 and A2 Fillet weld with electrode acc. Place the shank in the sand. Align pins 1 and 2 with the forward shank eyes. When in position. as indicated in the figures.Mounting instructions Stevpris New Generation 62 Fit the rear shank lugs into the fluke by means of a crane. Tighten the bolts and insert splitpins 3 and 4. Move pins 1 and 2 back into position. middle or mud position. Manoeuvre the rear shank lugs into the gap in the flukes. rotate the shank forward to align the front pins with the shank.

An anchor with a 32 o fluke/shank angle will penetrate less and generate lower holding capacity in mud(fig. which can be adopted in certain layered soil conditions (table M). Reinstall the pins and locking plates in (A). 3-01 change from mud to sand angle fig. Seal weld the lock-ing plates.Setting the fluke/shank angle 63 fluke angle too large in hard soil ! Introduction In soil such as sand and medium to hard clay. 3-02). Change from mud to sand angle by removing the locking plates and the two rear pins in (B). If used in mud a 50o fluke/shank angle is appropriate. do not weld them to the pins (fig. Changing the fluke/shank angle on the Stevpris Mk3 This can be carried out within half an hour with the Stevpris anchor upside down on deck. Secure the anchor on deck. 3-02 Soil type Optimal fluke/shank angle setting 500 410 * 320 Very soft clay (mud) Certain layered soils Medium to hard clay or sand * Stevpris Mk5 only table M . decrease the fluke/shank angle by hauling the cable (C). no penetration ! fig. an anchor with a fluke/shank angle of 32o will give the highest holding power. Connect a tugger wire (C) to the holes (D) on the bottom side of the fluke. The Stevpris Mk5 anchor has an additional fluke/shank angle setting of 41o. An anchor with a 50o fluke/shank angle in this soil will not penetrate but will drag along the seabed. 3-01).

No special welding requirements (fig. No welding required. the locking plate is secured by means of a cotter pin (fig. Veering and hauling (C) to change the fluke/shank angle as above. change over pin and locking plates from (A) to (B). the pin however remains in (A). 3-04 . Changing the fluke/shank angle on the Stevpris Mk5 Changing the fluke/shank angle on the Stevpris Mk5 anchor is even quicker. 3-04). 3-03 change fluke/shank angle Stevpris Mk5 fig. 3-03). increase angle by veering (C). fig.Setting the fluke/shank angle 64 change from sand to mud angle Change from sand to the mud position.

3-05). PL pear link. 3-05 J C B A fig. B enlarged link. A common link Type III . 3-08). A common link Type II . and are usually not designed for use in combination with chasers. H swivel. for instance the forerunners VA02. In general. swivels are only designed to withstand longitudinal forces. B enlarged link. several different configurations are possible. A common link Type IV . C end link. These are: Type I . K special end link.The swivel is connected to the anchor shackle (fig. The design of the chaser tends to stop it at the swivel. J swivel shackle. C end link. A common link. 3-06 K J C B A fig.Connecting a swivel 65 Connecting a swivel to the Stevpris anchor To connect a swivel to the Stevpris anchor. Consequently. J swivel shackle. there will be high bending forces on the swivel. 3-08 . C end link. 3-07). J swivel. 3-07 PL A B H B A fig. When a chaser is used in combination with the Stevpris and swivel. 3-06).The swivel is connected to the anchor shackle via a special design end link (fig. J C B A fig. B enlarged link.The swivel is part of a forerunner connected to the anchor shackle. some of the configurations mentioned above are more suitable than others. VA04 and VA 06 described in the product data section (fig.The swivel is connected directly to the shank of the anchor thus omitting the anchor shackle (fig. B enlarged link. which can result in damage or even breakage.

the configuration type III and type IV are preferred. NO ! fig. the end shackle and the anchor shackle should be connected bow through bow instead of pin through bow as is normal practice. 3-09 fig. This means that in combination with the use of a chaser. the swivel is only loaded longitudinally. The illustrations fig. 3-12 . 3-09 through fig. The chaser can then pass the swivel and stop on the anchor shank. 3-14 show how and how not to connect the swivel to the Stevpris anchor when using a chaser. 3-11 fig. 3-13 and 3-14).Connecting a swivel 66 damage possible! Generally. 3-10 damage possible! NO ! fig. When the swivel (or swivel forerunner) is connected to the anchor shackle by means of an end shackle and a chaser is used. it is best when the swivel is fitted some distance from the anchor when a chaser is used. (See next page for fig. When a load is applied to the chaser. This to minimise the chance of damage to the shackles.

This will make the chaser pass more easily over the swivel.Connecting a swivel 67 damage possible! The best method for chasing with a swivel in the system is to maintain the tension of the anchor line as much as possible during chasing. 3-14 . 3-13 fig. NO ! fig.

chasers were introduced. resulting in longer. These were rings ‘chased’ along the cable towards the anchor and back again to a rig or handling vessel. Due to wear caused by the continuous movement of the buoy by the waves. partly eliminates cables and reduces wear on the system. The cost of a chaser is small when compared to the cost of a mooring line. The chaser system thus totally eliminates buoys.Chasers 68 Chasers and their application To facilitate handling. these pendants will break close to the buoy. The buoys would then float free and the anchors are much more difficult to recover. In deeper water higher anchor break-out forces are encountered. These wires are connected to a pendant eye situated on the anchor and equipped with a buoy for picking up. Their function was to ensure both installation and break-out of the anchor without having to use a pendant line/buoy. It is therefore extremely important from an operator’s viewpoint that chasers do not inflict damage to the mooring lines. heavier pendant wires and consequently larger buoys. pendant wires may be applied to retrieve the anchor. To overcome this. .

will not become disengaged due to a slack work wire. at times. A selection of the different chaser types is described in more detail on the following pages. the length of the chaser pendant line should be at least 1. There are many different types of chaser available on the market today. High interface pressure can arise from: • Pulling the chaser along a slack mooring line. when chasing a Chasing operations are best carried out on mooring lines which are fully tensioned.5 times the waterdepth. It is thus essential that such wear is taken by the chaser and not the mooring line. . There is little need for the application of high interface pressure while chasing. unlike the J-chaser. high interface pressures. the permanent chaser is captive on the mooring line and. The chasers vryhof recommends are manufactured in a material that is softer than the steel used for the mooring line. must result in wear. For optimum chasing operations. Chaser wear is induced by the application of high interface pressure between the mooring line and the chaser. • Maintaining high tension in the chaser workwire tensioned mooring line.Chasers 69 Towing a chaser along mooring lines with.

Very soon afterwards the pear-shaped chaser with shackle eye was introduced. The chaser is deployed over the stern roller of an AHV at approximately 1/3 of the water depth. The design of these chasers offers superior sliding and penetration properties. simple shackles were used. 3-15 fig. 3-15) is used on mooring lines where the anchor has to be recovered and no permanent chaser has been installed. Originally. 3-16) was introduced.Chaser types 70 The J-chaser The J-chaser (fig. It is then towed into contact with the anchor shank/fluke for anchor break-out and retrieval. The permanent chain chaser As a practical alternative to the buoy and pendant. these were followed by special cast oval rings which were attached to a pendant by a ‘bight’ of chain and shackle. fig. the permanent chain chaser (fig. The chaser is towed across the mooring catenary until it catches the chain. 3-16 . In other cases the J-chaser is used simply to keep a chain free from a pipeline during deployment of the anchors. or the normal recovery mechanism has failed.

Some designs of wire chaser incorporate fully rotating rollers over which the mooring wire passes. The permanent wire chaser is easily detachable by removal and re-assembly of the hinge bolt and rocker. and when the chaser is engaged with the mooring line. because the rocker is easily removable. The withdrawal and replacement of the single bolt permits easy assembly of the chaser on the mooring cable. fig. and because of their size. The large radius at the base of the groove assists in reducing wear of the rocker and avoids severe ‘opening’ of the lay of the wire if a loop of wire is pulled during the handling process. 3-17 fig. heavier and much more costly than the permanent wire chasers discussed above. and composite wire/chain mooring systems became necessary. The permanent wire chaser The permanent wire chaser (fig. They are consequently larger. 3-18) was introduced when rigs moved to deeper waters. The material of the rocker is not as hard as the material of the wire. 3-17) were introduced to satisfy this need.Chaser types 71 The detachable chain chaser For rigs in service it is sometimes preferred to equip the mooring with a chaser which does not require the anchor chain to be broken and re-made. The rocker has two opposing grooves. Detachable chain chasers (fig. The chaser incorporates a ‘rocker’ which is centrally mounted on a hinge bolt. replacement is relatively inexpensive. To be effective such rollers need to be of a large diameter and require to be supported by bearings. they require more power at the AHV to penetrate the seabed and reach the anchor. This means that wear is taken by the rocker without damage to the wire and. the wire slides through one of these grooves irrespective of the angle which the chaser makes with the mooring. 3-18 .

The J-lock chaser can help in such an instance. This chaser can also be used when a very heavy chain has to be installed. the forces required do not increase. The J-lock chaser is stopped at the permanent chaser.Chaser types 72 The J-lock chaser The J-lock chaser (fig. there is the chance that the AHV cannot break out the anchor by means of the chaser. This means that this chaser can be used to assist in unforeseen circumstances. Consequently. 3-19 . The design prevents the J-lock chaser from sliding back. The well-balanced and ‘guiding’ design of the chaser enables catching the chain when the chaser approaches a mooring at a point where the catenary angle is as high as 450. 3-19) has been designed so that it can slide along the chain in one direction and when the pulling direction is reversed. After this operation. fig. If the winch pull of both tugs is now increased. It is released from a second AHV and slides along the chain towards the anchor. The J-shape permits catching the anchor chain after the anchor has been installed. the J-lock chaser can be released again. and the anchor can easily be broken out. This means that the tension in the mooring line can be wholly transferred from the rig to the chaser. When a normal permanent chaser is used under unforeseen conditions. the J-lock chaser prevents the permanent chaser from sliding away from the anchor. the chaser locks on the chain and does not slide any further. It assists during installation by lifting the chain.

Deployment procedures for the Stevpris anchor will also be given for permanent moorings where chasers are normally not used. 3-22 If anchor is kept on roller. 3-20).Stevpris installation Stevpris deployment for MODUs 73 chaser Introduction Typical methods for deployment and retrieval of Stevpris anchors with an anchor handling vessel (AHV) are described. to deck the anchor before run out to check the jewellery. focusing on the use of chasers for handling the anchor (fig. When rig gives order to lower the anchor. and by some operators required. triangular plates on drum fig. Alternatively the chaser can be kept on deck/roller. fig. Boat increases power until anchor line tension rises on rig winch tension meter. veer pendant till anchor arrives at roller. 3-20 always deck anchor with chain between flukes fig. keep triangular plates below the main shackle on the drum for stability of the anchor. 3-23 . Handling using permanent pendant lines is similar. 3-23). 3-22). 3-21 quickly pass drum fig. Laying anchors It is preferred. This is the most common practice on mobile drilling rigs (MODUs). Run the anchor line out the full distance with anchor on deck or on roller. with the chain between the flukes (fig. 3-21). Allow the anchor some speed to negotiate the bump at the change-over from the deck on to the roller (fig. In this situation the propeller thrust passes underneath the anchor and does not influence the fluke (fig.

Stevpris installation 74 Reduce propulsion momentarily when anchor passes the propeller thrust. Keep constant tension in the pendant line to prevent the anchor from falling through the chaser and possibly turn. 3-26 . AHV further increases power until tension rises further at rig winch. i. Keep constant tension in order to ensure anchor does not fall through chaser. anchor remains in the chaser and orientation of the anchor is correct (fig. AHV pays out pendant and maintains paying out pendant after anchor has landed on the bottom till a wire length of 1. Stop lowering when anchor hangs 10 to 15 meter above the bottom and advise rig. STOP ! fig. 3-25 wait for signal rig fig. reactivate and maintain propeller thrust to well above 30 tons. Note: In some circumstances AHVs prefer to run the anchor hanging from the pendant line below the propeller wash approximately 60 to 80 meter above the seabed.3 to 1. Once below the propeller wash zone.5 to 2 times the water depth is out.e. Stay above or behind the anchor. AHV immediately stops the propulsion and is consequently pulled backwards.5 times the water depth in shallow water (100m) and 1. If this method is employed. Rig commences to pull in slowly. keep chaser on anchor head for control of anchor orientation and lower anchor (fig. Rig now instructs AHV to pay out until pendant line is 1. 3-24 fig. the load in the line is larger than the chain-soil friction (fig. i. AHV increases power till tension is again seen to rise at the rig.e. 3-24).4 to 1. Enough slack wire must be paid out not to disturb the anchor during buoying off or waiting. make sure that at all times the anchor is correctly oriented in the chaser. 3-25). 3-26). This method requires less power on the winch during the actual laying of the anchor. At this moment rig orders AHV to lay the anchor.4 times in deeper water.

etc. If anchor has not been laid correctly. 3-30 . to give another pull once the anchor is on bottom. otherwise anchor could land upside down! (fig. No tension in pendant to ensure smooth passing over the chain. 3-28). equal to the total chain/soil friction plus 50 t to embed the anchor fully and create confidence in good setting. When chaser is pulled into contact with anchor shank. This also gives stability to the anchor when the AHV strips the chaser back or buoys off the pendant.5 to 2 times the water depth. 3-27). do not wait. the rig can tension up to the full pretension load directly (fig. Moorfast. Now the AHV can retrieve the chaser and return to the rig. rig hauls AHV slacks fig. Retrieving anchors The chaser should be brought to the anchor with a pendant of at least the length of 1.e. a rerun can be made immediately. especially in rough water (fig. measured from the stern roller. Once the anchor hits bottom. i. If circumstances allow. 3-28 wrong ! keep cable under tension fig. Suggestion: pre-load the anchors to the maximum required pretension load as soon as the chaser is 100 meter or more ahead of the anchor. i. slack in the pendant line. Chaser should hang freely down from the anchor line till the bottom is reached.Stevpris installation 75 Rig continues heaving the cable to a sufficient load. Do not do this with Stevpris anchors. No extra pull after landing! It is customary with older anchors such as Danforth. increase thrust and keep thrust while heaving.e. Pendant line must remain slack. AHV should not pull again. 3-30). 3-27 do not pull after landing ! fig. 3-29 patience in very soft soils ! fig. A too short pendant and/or too little tension in the cable results in a situation as sketched (fig. the rig should maintain tension of 60 to 70% of the pre-load tension. 3-29). While chasing.

i. 3-34 . Check jewelry (fig. Decking the Stevpris anchor If anchor is not correctly oriented. 3-32).e.Stevpris installation 76 The motion of the vessel itself now helps gradually to break the anchor loose. rig hauls keep pulling fig. Sequentially with the vessels motion the pendant is shortened gradually. Have patience. keep the chaser in contact with the bow shackle by maintaining sufficient thrust (fig. The rig can help and speed-up the operation by hauling the anchor line at the same time! Once the anchor is off bottom. 3-32 keep tension ! fig. Anchors in very soft clay can be buried very deep. 3-33 wrong ! anchor cannot deck ! fig. 3-34). keep pendant line under tension while working the anchor. the anchor will come. It is important to control the anchor orientation at all times for easy racking. the anchor has to be pulled back to the stern roller and orientation checked (fig. 3-31). reduce propulsion and let anchor slide down through the chaser. If the anchor slides through the chaser. take your time and be gentle with the equipment. 3-33). on deck the anchor lays on its back with shackle towards AHVs bow and cable between the upwards directed fluke points. 3-31 always deck anchor with chain between flukes fig. Rotation is easier while near the rig where all loads are lower (fig. Anchor orientation The anchor flukes are always oriented towards the rig. laying and decking of the anchor.

make sure anchor is below the propeller wash away from the propeller influence zone (fig. fig. Increase propulsion moving AHV forward pulling chaser in contact with the anchor. 3-37). allow the anchor to turn with its back on the roller. 3-35 turn STOP ! stop / reduce propulsion fig. With sufficient bollard pull haul pendant. fluke points up. 3-36 fig. the chain directing between the fluke points (fig. Then pay out pendant. Pull anchor on the drum. 3-35). Make sure the stern roller is perpendicular to the chain. 3-37 . stop/reduce thrust for only a few seconds when anchor passes the propeller wash onto the drum. Then pull further on deck (fig. 3-36).Stevpris installation 77 Turn the anchor with a shot of propeller wash.

3-38). 3-39). every anchor type will be unstable and drag in hard soil. For inspection anchor can be pulled on deck. change fluke angle to 32 degrees for hard soil or to 50 degrees for very soft soil. pull on the cable.Stevpris installation 78 With little tension in the line. fig. the chain hangs steep against the fluke points and anchor cannot rotate easily (A). With anchor on the stern roller reactivate propulsion. Mind. If required. 3-38 fig. stiff clay or sand with a fluke angle set for mud! (fig. Before rotating the anchor. 3-39 . the anchor will be free to turn (B) and (C) (fig.

The anchor could pass the stern roller on its side and get damaged! So stop/reduce the thrust just before the anchor passes the propeller wash (fig. the cable prevents the anchor to turn on its back at the stern roller. If the AHV maintains thrust. If the propeller is not stopped. 3-42 damage ! fig.Stevpris installation 79 What not to do! The anchor is approaching the drum. 3-43). the thrust risks turning the anchor around the cable then acting as a shaft (fig. 3-40 and rotate ! fig. 3-41 anchor slides through chaser fig. Boarding will be difficult now. 3-43 . 3-41). When the thrust is maintained while hauling in the chaser. 3-42). 3-40). The relative weight of the anchor increased by the thrust force on the fluke will cause the anchor and the cable to slide down through the chaser and control of anchor orientation is lost (fig. thrust on anchor makes it swing ! fig. the water flow will push the fluke (fig.

3-45 wrong ! risk losing control over anchor orientation fig. 3-46). As soon as anchor is resting on bolsters. Reduce the power of the propeller as anchor passes the wash zone and bring anchor on roller for inspection and reactivate thrust (fig. keep tension ! fig. The direction of the anchor cable must now be perpendicular to the rack (fig. 20 to 30 tons or more as required to maintain the chaser on the head of the anchor. anchor remains correctly oriented (fig. reduce tension to 15 tons. chaser remains in tight contact with anchor. slack pendant wire completely. The AHV maintains sufficient tension while pulling the anchor to the stern roller. When anchor arrives at bolster. 3-45). 3-47 .Stevpris installation 80 Racking the Stevpris Rig heaves in anchor line. rotate anchor with fluke points directing outwards and keep chaser tight on the anchor (fig. bring anchor to the stern of the AHV. Deploying Stevpris from the anchor rack AHV receives pendant from rig and connects to AHV winch wire. fig. AHV keeps sufficient tension in pendant. AHV moves to a position at a good distance but less than the water depth (for instance 50 meter dependent on weather) from the rig. AHV veers while keeping some tension in the pendant line transferring the anchor to the bolster. 3-47).5 times anchor weight) to keep chaser on anchor head. anchor falls out of control of the chaser and might rotate and make racking difficult. AHV pays out winch wire while keeping sufficient bollard pull (at least 1. Anchor flukes point towards the rig. If tension is not sufficient. Stop winch and keep sufficient tension. If this occurs. Rig hauls. 3-46 keep tension ! fig. 3-44 keep tension ! At some distance from the rig. pulling AHV towards it. 3-44). Only now rig pays out cable while AHV hauls in on the winch.

Due to the large forces damage to shank and fluke might occur when the chain is hanging over the anchor (fig. If this is not possible or allowed for some reason. 3-51).Stevpris installation 81 Boarding the anchor in deep water In deep water the weight of the anchor line becomes of predominant importance. It is recommended to board the anchor with the chain between the fluke. it could even position itself upside down! In such cases boarding the anchor is difficult and damage might occur (fig. 3-50 large weight fig. For line loads larger than 8 times the anchor weight the anchor could be pulled against the chaser as illustrated. It happens that the anchor is accidentally pulled over the roller on its side. allowing the boarding of the anchor near the rig where loads are smaller. 3-48 lock chaser fig. 3-51 . anchor weight high tension fig. 3-48). 3-49 8 x anchor weight fig. This can be done by lifting the anchor line using a lock chaser or grapnel handled by a second vessel (fig. The anchor fluke is generally designed to withstand loads up to 8 times the anchor weight (fig. another solution is to reduce the weight that is hanging from the anchor. The best and preferred solution is to pull the anchor from the bottom and have the rig haul the anchor line. 3-49). 3-50).

The chain will pass the stern roller next to the anchor. A wire anchor line might be too light to position the anchor correctly and the anchor may not topple over. the anchor could skid over the seabed and prevent penetration. make sure that before boarding. 3-52). When the fluke is ballasted. 3-52 Ballast in fluke Using a wire rope forerunner and ballast material placed inside the hollow fluke. 3-53). fig. the weight of a chain forerunner will cause the shackle to nose down and bring the fluke in penetration position (fig. this situation should be avoided as damage may occur (fig. wire chain with ballast in fluke use chain forerunner fig. However. 3-53 . the anchor may not topple over with the fluke points directed downwards.Stevpris installation 82 If boarding the anchor on its side is inevitable. the vessel is turned to free the anchor line from the anchor and haul gently.

Stevpris installation

83

pendant line force

Chaser equilibrium To control the anchor, the chaser collar must always be on the anchor head. The tension in the anchor cable must be equal or larger than 1.5 times the weight of the anchor. If not, the anchor slides through the chaser and the orientation is not controlled (fig. 3-54). Equilibrium forces determine if chaser is in contact with the anchor. Near bottom, the vertical load at the chaser from the anchor line Flv is small. The chaser remains only in contact with the anchor if the bollard pull Fph is larger than the horizontal line load Flh which in turn must be larger than the anchor weight W (if not the anchor will slide down). The angle of the pendant line must be larger than 45° (fig. 3-55).

anchor line tension

anchor weight
fig. 3-54

Fp

Fpv

Flh Fph Flv
fig. 3-55

Fl

W

Recommendation: Bollard pull must always be equal or larger than the line tension, i.e. use a minimum bollard pull of 20 to 30 tons for a 12 to 15 ton anchor. Use a minimum pendant line length of 1.4 to 1.5 times the water depth in shallow water (100m) and 1.3 to 1.4 times the depth in deeper water (fig. 3-56).

chaser

fig. 3-56

Stevpris installation
Deployment for permanent moorings

84

The simplest deployment procedure for the Stevpris anchor is to lower the anchor to the seabed using the mooring line. When the anchor is nearly on the seabed, the AHV should start moving slowly forward to ensure that the anchor lands correctly on the seabed (fig. 3-57). Another option for the deployment of the Stevpris anchor is to connect a temporary installation bridle (wire rope) to the anchor. The bridle is connected to the padeyes situated at the back of the shank of the anchor. The AHV then lowers the anchor overboard while paying out the mooring line and the bridle simultaneously (fig. 3-58).

fig. 3-57

temporary bridle mooring line

fig. 3-58

To recover a Stevpris anchor after it has been installed, the AHV should take the mooring line and pull it in the opposite direction that the anchor was installed in, generally away from the centre of the mooring. The AHV should recover the mooring line till a length of approximately 1.5 times the water depth is still overboard. When only 1.5 times the water depth of mooring line is left overboard, the AHV should block the winch and keep a constant tension on the mooring line equal to the pre-load tension. Once the anchor starts to move in the soil, a lower tension in the mooring line can be used (fig. 3-59).

fig. 3-59

Piggy-backing

85

Introduction Piggy-back is the practice of using two or more anchors in order to obtain holding power greater than can be achieved with one only. Piggy-backing is used when anchors are employed with insufficient holding capacity. This can be caused by improper design for the particular environment or insufficient anchor size. In some soil conditions, the use of two smaller anchors in piggy-back can offer an advantage over the use of one larger anchor. This can be the case when the anchor has to hold in a certain layer and holding capacity in the underlying layer is uncertain. Considerations to remember on piggy-backing: •Installing a piggy-back system is more costly than the installation of a single anchor. •If the mooring line of the second anchor is connected to the rear of the first anchor, the stability, penetration and holding capacity of the first anchor may be less than is the case for a single anchor. The force from the second anchor may tend to pull the fluke of the first anchor closed (hinging type anchors). •If the piggy-back anchor is connected to the first anchor by means of a chaser, the chaser may obstruct penetration of the first anchor. • Both anchors must be exactly in line with the mooring line load. The lead anchor may become unstable if a lateral load is applied. •Two hinging anchors in piggy-back do not provide 2 times but only 1 to 1.6 times the individual holding capacity of the two anchors, for reasons described in second point above.

to promote penetration and obtain better holding capacity (fig. Note: if the piggy-back anchor can not be laid in line with the mooring load. and the second anchor (fixed fluke/shank type anchors) is connected at 3 to 4 shank lengths distance from the first anchor. the Stevpris is main anchor and the Stevin is back-up. the piggy-back anchor makes the main anchor unstable. the holding capacity of the 2 anchors may be up to 2. 3-60 . the pendant line between the two anchors should be wire rope.Piggy-back methods 86 •If the first anchor is not influenced by the pull from the second anchor.5 times the holding capacity of the individual anchors. For optimal performance of the combination. Here. In such a case the Stevpris can better be placed as the second anchor. Piggy-backing involving hinging anchors Since there is little difference between handling one hinging anchor or two. The pendant line is connected to the padeye near the anchor shackle so performance is not reduced. 3-60). the first method is described with a Stevin anchor (hinging) in combination with a Stevpris anchor (non-hinging). fig. due to the extra penetration of the second anchor. This is the best solution when using a fixed shank anchor as the fluke of the Stevpris anchor can not be pulled closed.

• Connect the other end of the pendant line to the anchor shackle of the second Stevpris anchor (fig. • Lower the piggy-back anchor and tension the mooring line again. a second pendant line is connected to the padeye behind the anchor shackle. • Connect the second anchor to the pendant line. • Bring the anchor to its location. with the mooring line connected to the anchor shackle and the pendant line (wire rope for optimal performance and approximately three times the shank length of the first Stevpris anchor) connected to the padeye behind the anchor shackle. Piggy-backing with two Stevpris anchors When two Stevpris anchors are used in piggy-back. fig.Piggy-back methods 87 The installation procedure is described as follows: • Pay out the main anchor as usual. • To lower the second Stevpris anchor to the seabed. • Tension the mooring line until the anchor slips. The installation procedure of two Stevpris anchors in piggy-back is as follows: • Pay out the main Stevpris anchor. 3-61). • Provide the pendant of the second anchor with a buoy for easy retrieval. the Stevpris anchors are lowered to the seabed and positioned and buoyed off. the holding capacity of the combination may be equal or higher than the sum of the individual holding capacities of the anchors. • The Stevpris anchors are then tensioned by pulling on the mooring line (fig. 3-62). 3-62 . • Using the second pendant line.

3-63). fig. The installation procedure described for two Stevpris anchors is also applicable when a chaser is used for the connection. 3-63 . although a pendant line connected directly to the padeye behind the main anchor shackle of the first anchor is prefered. 3-61 fig.Piggy-back methods 88 Piggy-backing by using a chaser Sometimes chasers are used to connect the piggy-back anchor to the first anchor (fig. care must be taken that anchors are installed in line with the load. During the deployment of the piggy-back combination.

The most efficient methods are based on two different principles: • Double line installation method using the fixed angle adjuster. The double line installation method is typically used when it is preferable to install the anchor with a steel wire rope installation line instead of using the actual mooring line (for example polyester). It is also possible to use the Stevtensioner with the single line installation method. The angle adjuster is responsible for changing the anchor from the installation mode to the vertical (or normal) loading mode. however because this is very similar to the double line installation method with Stevtensioner. • Double line installation method. it is not presented here.Stevmanta VLA installation 89 installation mode shear pin Introduction The Stevmanta VLA consists of an anchor fluke which is connected with wires to the angle adjuster. 3-65 . There are many options to install VLA anchors. 3-64 normal mode fig. fig. The following three typical methods for installing the Stevmanta VLA are discussed: • Single line installation method. • Single line installation method using the shear pin angle adjuster. • Double line installation method using the Stevtensioner.

e. When the shear pin breaks. 3-65). the Stevmanta changes from the installation mode to the normal (vertical) loading mode (fig. When the Stevmanta is on the seabed. 3-67 fig. i. The tail assists in orientation of the Stevmanta on the seabed. The Stevmanta is deployed with the shearpin angle adjuster. an ROV can optionally inspect the anchor (position and orientation). 3-64 and fig. 3-67). the tail will be the first part to reach the seabed (fig. Installation procedure In the installation procedure an optional tail has been included on the Stevmanta.Stevmanta VLA installation 90 Single line installation procedure This procedure requires only one AHV for installation of the Stevmanta. 3-66). The mode of the anchor changes when the shearpin breaks at a load equal to the required installation load. Lower the Stevmanta overboard. fig. The Stevmanta will decend tail first. 3-66 tail for orientation recovery ROV Show movie in browser . Connect the installation/mooring line to the angle adjuster on the Stevmanta on the AHV. The AHV starts paying out the installation/ mooring line while slowly sailing away from the Stevmanta (fig.

When the predetermined installation load has been reached with the AHVs bollard pull. The Stevmanta will start to embed into the seabed (fig. 3-68 fig. the shearpin in the angle adjuster fails. 3-68). the AHV can continue to increase the tension in the (taut-leg) installation/mooring line up to the required proof tension load (fig. fig. This can be clearly noticed on board the AHV. as the AHV will stop moving forward due to the sudden increase in holding capacity. 3-69). 3-69 . triggering the Stevmanta into the normal (vertical) loading mode.Stevmanta VLA installation 91 When enough of the installation/mooring line has been paid out. Now that the Stevmanta is in the normal (vertical) loading mode. the AHV starts increasing the tension in the installation line.

3-70 fig. for easy connection later on (fig. 3-71). the mooring line can be buoyed off. fig. 3-71 . the installation/mooring line can be attached to the floater.Stevmanta VLA installation 92 After the Stevmanta has been proof tensioned to the required load. In case of a pre-laid mooring. 3-70). Stevmanta retrieval The Stevmanta is easily retrieved by pulling on the ‘tail’. Connection to the tail can be achieved either with a grapnel or by using an ROV (fig.

The recovery system consists of two special sockets which connect the front wires to the fluke. so that it can be retrieved with a load equal to about half the installation load (fig. 3-73). fig. i. 3-72).e. the front sockets will disconnect from the fluke (fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 93 pull for retrieval Alternatively the Stevmanta can be equipped with an optional recovery system. the mooring line is pulled backwards. To recover the anchor. This reduces the resistance of the anchor. away from the centre of the mooring. Once the mooring line has been pulled back. The Stevmanta VLA is now pulled out of the soil using just the rear wires. 3-73 . 3-72 retrieval fig.

The Stevmanta is deployed with the fixed angle adjuster. 3-76). 3-74 normal mode mooring line installation line fig. the line on the rear of the angle adjuster (fig. During the installation AHV1 handles the steel installation line and AHV2 handles the mooring line. fig. The Stevmanta is in the normal (vertical) loading mode when the mooring line is tensioned. The recovery buoy is connected to the installation line via a delta plate at approximately 90 m from the Stevmanta (fig. In the installation procedure an optional subsea recovery buoy can be included in the installation line.Stevmanta VLA installation 94 installation mode mooring line installation line Double line installation procedure This procedure requires two AHVs. i.e. i. the line on the front of the angle adjuster (fig. 3-77 . 3-75). 3-75 AHV2 AHV1 fig. The mode of the anchor (installation mode or normal (vertical) loading mode) is chosen by pulling on either the installation line or the mooring line. 3-76 AHV2 AHV1 Show movie in browser fig.e. 3-77). The Stevmanta is in the installation mode when the installation line is tensioned. 3-74). for instance polyester (fig.

Stevmanta VLA installation 95 AHV2 AHV1 Connect the installation line to the angle adjuster on the Stevmanta on board AHV1. AHV1 is now no longer connected to the Stevmanta and the installation line can be recovered on deck (fig. the breaking device is placed on the delta plate connecting it to the installation line and AHV1. If more bollard pull is required than one AHV can deliver. 3-78 AHV2 AHV1 break link breaks fig. 3-79 AHV2 pretension load recovery line fig. Pass the mooring line from AHV2 to AHV 1 and connect it to the angle adjuster. AHV2 keeps the mooring line slack by keeping the same distance from AHV1. Lower the Stevmanta VLA overboard by keeping tension on both the installation line (AHV1) and the mooring line (AHV2). When enough of the installation line has been paid out. When the predetermined installation load has been reached. fig. the breaking device in the installation line fails (break shackle connecting the installation line to the delta plate). If the optional recovery buoy is used. 3-80 . AHV1 starts increasing the tension. AHV2 slackens the tension in the mooring line and AHV1 starts paying out the installation line while slowly sailing away from the Stevmanta (fig. 3-79). When the Stevmanta is on the seabed. 3-78). 3-80). an ROV can inspect the anchor’s position and orientation. AHV2 can buoy off the mooring line and pull with AHV1 in tandem. The Stevmanta will start to embed into the seabed. freeing the installation line from the Stevmanta (fig.

the anchor is easily retrieved (fig. the mooring line can be buoyed off. 3-81 After the Stevmanta has been proof tensioned to the required load. fig. 3-82). 3-82 . Stevmanta retrieval The Stevmanta is recovered from the seabed by returning to ‘installation mode’ instead of the normal (vertical) loading mode. If AHV2 can not generate enough bollard pull to reach the required proof tension load. The AHV picks up the recovery buoy from the seabed and by pulling on the installation load at an angle of approximately 450 with the seabed. In case of a pre-laid mooring. the mooring line can be attached to the floater. AHV2 fig. AHV1 can be connected in tandem to AHV2 to generate additional bollard pull. 3-81). for easy connection later on (fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 96 AHV2 AHV2 can now start increasing the tension in the mooring line.

The Stevmanta VLA will be going downwards tail first. 3-83 . In the installation procedure a tail (approximately 30 m length. consisting of a length of wire with approximately 5 m of chain on the end) has been included on the Stevmanta VLA.Stevmanta VLA installation 97 Single line installation with Stevtensioner The Stevmanta VLA is deployed with the shearpin angle adjuster. When the shear pin breaks. Connect the forerunner to the angle adjuster of the Stevmanta VLA on the AHV. fig. The mode of the anchor changes when the shearpin breaks at a load equal to the required installation load. i. Connect the tensioning chain to the forerunner on Stevmanta VLA #1 using the subsea connector and pass the other end through the Stevtensioner. Connect the tail to the rear of the fluke of the Stevmanta VLA #1. Lower Stevmanta VLA #1 overboard (fig. 3-83). the Stevmanta VLA changes from installation mode to the normal (vertical) loading mode. This end of the chain is terminated with a male part of the subsea connector. the tail will be the first part that reaches the seabed. The tail assures correct orientation of the Stevmanta VLA on the seabed.e.

Stevmanta VLA installation 98 Connect the forerunner of Stevmanta VLA #2 to the passive side of the Stevtensioner. Deploy the Stevtensioner and Stevmanta VLA #2 overboard by slacking the AHV workwire (fig. 3-85 . 3-84 and fig. 3-84 fig. fig. As part of the forerunner a tri-plate is included with a breaklink between the Stevtensioner and the tri-plate. 3-85). Connect the AHV work-wire to the tail of Stevmanta VLA #2 using a subsea connector. The male part of a subsea connector is connected to the third hole of the tri-plate.

the AHV can lay down Stevmanta VLA #2 on the seabed. the resistance of the tail will orient the Stevmanta in the heading of the AHV which is moving forward slowly. 3-86). When a tension of approximately 1000 kN has been reached. 3-87). The purpose of the applied tension is to ensure that Stevmanta VLA #1 is embedding properly and to take the slack out of the system. the AHV stops the winch and increases the tension in the mooring system (fig. When Stevmanta VLA #2 is near the seabed.Stevmanta VLA installation 99 When the tail of Stevmanta VLA #1 touches the seabed. 3-87 . The AHV places the Stevmanta on the seabed and continues with the deployment of the rest of the system (Stevtensioner and Stevmanta VLA #2) (fig. fig. This will start to embed Stevmanta VLA #1. 3-86 fig.

This will generally consist of 4 to 7 yo-yo procedures to reach the required tension at the anchors. 3-88). 3-90 . The female part of the subsea connector (connected to the work wire) is then moved to the male part of the subsea connector connected to the tensioning chain above the Stevtensioner (fig. the AHV continues to deploy the work wire until the tail and the subsea connector are on the seabed. fig. 3-89 and fig. the AHV stops paying out the work wire and the ROV is sent down to disconnect the subsea connector from the tail on Stevmanta VLA #2. fig. 3-90).Stevmanta VLA installation 100 When Stevmanta VLA #2 has been placed on the seabed. the AHV can start the tensioning operation. When this has been accomplished. 3-89 fig. (fig. 3-88 With the work wire now connected to the tensioning chain.

392). With the tensioning of the anchors completed. After the proof loading of the anchors. the ROV disconnects the subsea connector between Stevmanta VLA #1 and the Stevtensioner (fig. The anchor forerunners are now no longer connected to the Stevtensioner. The tensioning of the anchors is now complete. the AHV increases the tension in the system up to the point were the breaklink connecting the passive line to the Stevtensioner fails. 3-93). The ROV can be used to connect the mooring lines (with separate female connectors) to the male connectors on the anchor forerunners. 3-93 . these will break and trigger the Stevmanta VLAs to their normal loading mode (fig. 3-91 fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 101 When the tension in the system reaches the break load of the shear pins in the angle adjuster of the Stevmanta VLAs. the anchors will be proof loaded in their normal loading mode. When the AHV continues to increase the tension in the system. fig. 3-91). The AHV can start recovering the Stevtensioner with the tensioning chain by winching in the work wire (fig. 3-92 fig.

3-95). 3-83 normal mode mooring line installation line fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 102 installation mode mooring line installation line Double line installation with Stevtensioner The Stevmanta is deployed with the fixed angle adjuster. the line on the front of the angle adjuster (fig. The mode of the anchor (installation mode or normal (vertical) loading mode) is chosen by pulling on either the installation line or the mooring line.e. fig. 3-84 Show movie in browser . During the installation AHV1 handles the installation line (preferably chain and steel wire) and AHV2 handles the mooring line. i. the line at the rear of the angle adjuster. The Stevmanta is in the installation mode when the installation line is tensioned.e. In this case the reaction anchor can be either a Stevpris or Stevmanta. The Stevmanta is in the normal (vertical) loading mode when the mooring line is tensioned. The installation procedure with the Stevtensioner requires a reaction anchor (the typical use of the Stevtensioner is presented in the next chapter). i. for instance polyester (fig. For now a Stevpris is shown as reaction anchor and is to be on the active side of the Stevtensioner. 3-94).

Connect the installation line to the reaction anchor. Pass the installation line through the Stevtensioner (fig. 3-97). 3-86 . Lower the Stevmanta to the seabed by keeping tension on both the installation line and mooring line. 3-85 AHV2 work chain stopper AHV1 fig. 3-96). A break link can be installed between the Stevtensioner and the installation line on the passive side (fig. Pass the mooring line from AHV2 to AHV1 and connect it to the angle adjuster. fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 103 AHV2 tensioner AHV1 Connect the installation line to the angle adjuster on the Stevmanta on AHV1. Connect the installation line to the passive side of the Stevtensioner.

Lower the Stevtensioner and reaction anchor to the seabed (fig. 3-87 AHV2 AHV1 wire stopper tensioner stopper chain fig. 3-98). AHV2 stays above the Stevmanta. 3-100). During the movement of AHV1. AHV2 shark jaws wire stopper tensioner AHV1 chain fig. Buoy off the retrieval line (or mooring line) of the reaction anchor. 3-88 AHV2 AHV1 wire stopper tensioner stopper chain fig. 3-99).Stevmanta VLA installation 104 Sail to set-down position of the reaction anchor (AHV1 only). 3-89 . the installation line of the Stevmanta has to be paid out (fig. AHV1 sails to tensioning point and starts taking in the slack of the tensioning line (fig.

105 The break link will break on the Stevmanta when the required installation load has been reached (fig.Stevmanta VLA installation Start the tensioning procedure (yo-yoing) (fig. 3-102). 3-90 AHV2 wire stopper tensioner break link breaks chain AHV1 stopper fig. AHV2 wire stopper tensioner chain AHV1 stopper fig. 3-91 . 3-101).

3-93 . 3-103).Stevmanta VLA installation 106 Recover the Stevtensioner. AHV2 pretension load chain tensioner wire AHV1 stopper fig. AHV2 can now proof tension the Stevmanta and then buoy off the mooring line. two Stevmantas can also be installed at the same time. This Stevmanta can then also be proof tensioned (fig. AHV2 proof tensions one Stevmanta while AHV1 recovers the Stevtensioner and disconnects it from the installation line of the other Stevmanta. 3-104). Installation of the Stevmanta is now complete (fig. Instead of using a reaction anchor. the installation line and the reaction anchor to AHV1. 3-92 AHV2 AHV1 wire stopper tensioner stopper chain fig. After completion of the tensioning (yo-yoing).

becoming a part of the mooring system. fig. The new Stevtensioner models VA600. by air. reduced weight and improved handling.The Stevtensioner 107 Introduction The Stevtensioner is used for cross tensioning of diametrically opposed anchor legs moored by drag anchors or anchor piles. for rush deliveries. but heavy enough to easilty slide down the mooring line. • Due to economical volume/weight ratio. • Designed to smoothly guide at least 5 links and therefore prevent chain getting stuck inside. 3-105). • The integrated shape allows for smooth passage over stern roller. • Load measuring pin is equipped with two independent sets of strain gauges. The anchor line tension is measured by a measuring pin located inside the Stevtensioner and as such well protected against damage caused by handling and lifting operations (fig. VA1000 and VA1250 can handle chain diameter ranging from 76 mm up to 152 mm. FPS. The Stevtensioner can be deployed from a crane barge. the vertical pulling force only needs to be 40% of this pretension. 3-94 The new Stevtensioner models offer the following features: • Smaller dimensions. the new Stevtensioner models allow for containerised freight by either sea or. TLP. The Stevtensioner is generally used for the installation of (semi) permanent floating structures such as the SPM buoy. FPSO. The umbilical cable connections are protected against handling and lifting operations. 2V H fig. The existing models VA220 and VA500 were designed for handling a single size of chain. After the tensioning operations the Stevtensioner is demobilised and ready for the next project. AHV or any vessel having enough crane/winch capacity to pull the required vertical force. 3-106). STL. These connections may be used for acoustic transfer of the signals. 3-95 . To achieve the required horizontal pretension load at the anchor points. etc. The Stevtensioner can however also be used for permanent tensioning purposes. he working principle of the tensioner The Stevtensioner is based on the principle that a vertical load to a horizontal string causes high horizontal loads. Because of this variety in chain sizes additional work chain may not be required (fig.

it blocks the chain. 3-107 chain locks fig. Consequently the anchors or piles are loaded and cause an inverse catenary of the mooring line in the soil. the Stevtensioner is recovered by pulling the lifting/pennant wire making it disengage. passive chain active chain fig. Lowering the Stevtensioner slackens the anchor lines and allows it to slide down over the active chain. Generally the required horizontal load is achieved after 5 to 7 steps. When the Stevtensioner is lifted by the active chain. When the Stevtensioner is lifted from the seabed. the horizontal load on the anchor points increases. This allows the Stevtensioner to slide up along the active chain to the surface (fig. 3-108). In other words: chain length is gained. as well as causing the anchor to drag and embed. The oppos-ite anchor line (active line) passes through the Stevtensioner. 3-107).The Stevtensioner 108 One anchor line (passive line) is attached to the tension measuring pin at the Stevtensioner. the passive and active mooring lines are also lifted. Tensioning starts by applying the yo-yo movement to the active line (fig. Once tensioning is completed. By repeating this several times (called the yo-yo movement). 3-108 .

Consequently the anchors or piles are loaded. and also causes the anchor to drag and embed.The Stevtensioner 109 Measurement of the tensions applied Fig. 3-98 30 time in minutes 60 90 120 . When lowering to seabed the gain in chain length (slack) is won by the Stevtensioner sliding down the chain (approximately 5 to 8 links). in other words: chain length is gained. The graph shows a total of 5 heaves (yo-yo’s). tension force in t 250 125 0 0 tension on anchor lifting force fig. These are discussed below. 3-109 shows the curve recorded during tensioning of chains connected to piles for the Coveñas Pipeline Project in Colombia. The next heave (yo-yo) will therefore create a higher tension in the system. In practise a total of 5 to 7 yo-yos are required to reach the required proof tension load. The loading causes an inverse catenary of the mooring line in the soil. When the Stevtensioner is lifted from the seabed. each resulting in a higher tension. the passive and active mooring lines are also lifted from the seabed. Different methods can be applied to verify the tension in the chain.

other parameters measured during tensioning need to be incorporated in the calculation: • Height Stevtensioner above seabed. A hand winch with sliding contacts is used to veer and haul the umbilical without disconnecting the umbilical from the registration equipment. Besides known parameters such as submerged chain weight. This method is independent of the waterdepth. The measurement is insensitive for variations in cable length. All tensioning data are measured on deck and presented during tensioning on a chart recorder. The use of an umbilical is an effective method in waterdepths down to approximately 200 meters. The pin is connected to a tension read-out unit on the installation vessel by using an umbilical cable. the link breaks. Umbilical cable and measuring pin The chain tension can be measured with a measuring pin. The pin is connected to the passive chain. • Vertical pulling load. Consequently the passive chain falls to the bottom. When. By using this method the tension in the chain can be calculated at any height of the Stevtensioner above seabed. and the Stevtensioner can be retrieved. Beyond this depth it becomes more efficient to use either an acoustic system or computer calculations.The Stevtensioner 110 Computer calculations The tension in the chain can be calculated by means of computer catenary calculations. a predetermined load has been reached. The pin is part of the Stevtensioner housing and is equipped with strain gauges. during the tensioning operation. Break-link The passive chain can be attached to the Stevtensioner by a break-link. and the length of the mooring line. .

The Stevtensioner

111

Duration of pretensioning anchors and piles Once the required tension has been achieved, the tension has to be maintained for a certain duration. This period is described in the table below for various Certification Authorities. Certification Authority maintaining tension Lloyds Register of Shipping American Bureau of Shipping Det Norske Veritas (NMD) Required duration of 20 minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes

The Stevtensioner
Handling the Stevtensioner Handling operations can generally be described as follows:

112

• Positioning the anchors and paying out the chain • Hook-up all necessary hardware for tensioning operations on deck of
barge or AHV • Deployment Stevtensioner to the seabed and positioning of the installation vessel • First lift (yo-yo) • Series of yo-yo’s • Maintain required tension for a specified period of time • Retrieve the Stevtensioner and disconnect • Prepare for next tensioning A Stevtensioner can be deployed from a crane barge, Anchor Handling Vessel or any vessel having enough crane/winch capacity to lift the required vertical force. General tensioning procedures General tensioning procedures using crane barge or AHV for Stevtensioner models VA1000 and VA1250 are presented in fig. 3-110 and 3-111.

fig. 3-99

2 7 5

4

1 8 3

fig. 3-100

6

The Stevtensioner

113
5

2 7

Hook-up Pass the active chain (2) through the tensioner (1) on deck. Connect passive chain (3) to measuring pin shackle (8). Connect dislock wire (5) to shackle (4). Connect umbilical cable (7) to read-out system on deck and to the measuring pin (6). Lowering Fix active chain (2) to winch or crane hook. Slack dislock wire (5) and lower Stevtensioner to seabed. Stevtensioner will pass over active chain (2). Tensioning mode When Stevtensioner is on seabed, slack dislock wire (5) before the first yo-yo, and keep slack during all yo-yos! Tensioning is achieved by pulling on active chain (2). The mooring lines will be lifted from the seabed causing the anchors or piles to be loaded. After each yo-yo active chain is gained. The active chain can only pass through the Stevtensioner in one direction. Approximately 4 to 7 yo-yos are required to obtain the required pretension load (fig. 3-111).

4

1 8 3

fig. 3-100

6

4 x x x x x 1.5 6 9 VA 220 VA 500 VA 600 VA1000 VA1250 * The suitability only refers to the section of chain passing through the Stevtensioner.6 0. Stevtensioner will pass over chain (2).The Stevtensioner 114 Retrieving When tensioning is completed be sure to lower the Stevtensioner to seabed and slack off active chain (2) before retrieving Stevtensioner with dislock wire (5).0 2.5 x x x x x 1.87 102 .4 0.2 2. Chain or wire not passing through the Stevtensioner may have any dimension.9 Weight Stevtensioner [t] 5 20 2. .4 2.135 114 .8 0.2 3.117 114 .6 0.132 60 112 76 . Pull on dislock wire (5).2 1. Disconnect Stevtensioner on deck of the barge or AHV. Stevtensioner Product Range The following Stevtensioners are available from vryhof anchors. Stevtensioner model Maximum horizontal load [t] 220 500 600 1000 1250 Suitable* for chain Suitable* for chain size with Kenter size without Kenter shackle [mm] shackle [mm] 50 102 76 .152 Size Stevtensioner lxhxw [m] 2.9 1.1 3.84 102 .6 5.

to reduce winch wear and repair costs. An experienced crew will also make the handling easier. winches. depending on the use of other power consuming equipment such as bow (and sometimes) stern thrusters. The winch often causes confusion. etc.Supply/anchor handling vessels 115 These specialised anchor handling vessels (AHVs) now have: • A large deck space. • Space for drilling mud and fuel tanks for supply to drilling rigs. there was a call for specialised vessels. it is very important to be able to work quickly and effectively. Engine power has to be sufficient to handle chain and/or wire and anchors at the water depth concerned. The newest generation of AHVs has bollard pulls far in excess of 200 t. An AHV owner demonstrates maximum pulling capacity at the bare drum during the maiden trip. • An adapted seaworthy design and very manoeuvrable with bow and stern thrusters. but very soon. table P . but a contractor requires high winch output when the drum is 70 to 100% wound with wire under working conditions. Drilling rigs are generally moored with 8 to 12 anchors. The dynamic capacity of the winch brake is particul-arly important when a long heavy chain must be deployed. For handling chain. To ensure easy handling of chain and wire. For anchor handling vessels. • Large chain lockers. • Small auxiliary cranes. • A stern roller that sometimes consists of two individually rotating drums. with auxiliary winches to reel extra wires. Originally normal tugs were used for these operations. These are laid in a mooring pattern. for storage of the chain. It is also possible that an owner limits the pressure of the hydraulic system below factory limits. Some even with a dynamic positioning system. well-constructed tools are necessary. Hydraulically and electrically braked drums are more efficient than band brakes. Much depends on the expertise of the captain and crew. • Powerful winches. • One or two sets of towing pins and shark jaws. Care should be given to the rated maximum bollard pull which in reality might be less. • Large wire storage capacity. many supply vessels have chain lockers below decks and a wildcat above the chain locker. The equipment and its design are also extremely important. simple.

4 Product data .

To make the next edition of the anchor manual suit the requirements of the reader even better than this one. . Vryhof-specific. detailed handling recommendations and product data. we have given the reader as much information and data as we imagined would normally be needed. This can be obtained on request. while general information will also be provided if available. your suggestions of comments are much appreciated.Introduction 117 Product Data In this editon of the vryhof anchor manual. This can be vryhof-specific or general information. Undoubtedly some is missing. information can be related to brochures.

Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 118 B D C A Stevin Mk3 .

Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 119 S E L K Main dimensions Stevin Mk3 dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg weight A B C D E K L S 1000 2429 2654 1559 2023 737 1010 412 60 1500 2774 3038 1785 2316 843 1156 471 65 3000 3493 3828 2249 2918 1063 1456 594 80 5000 4120 4538 2667 3460 1260 1727 704 80 7000 4602 5077 2983 3871 1409 1932 788 90 9000 5012 5521 3244 4209 1533 2100 857 100 12000 5516 6076 3570 4632 1687 2312 943 110 15000 5942 6545 3846 4990 1817 2490 1016 120 20000 6372 6986 4100 5324 2048 2674 1083 160 30000 7289 7997 4694 6094 2345 3061 1240 180 Stevin Mk3 Note: The dimensions of the Stevin Mk3 anchor may be changed for specific applications .

Dimensions Main dimensions of vryhof anchor types 120 B H C A Stevpris Mk5 .

Dimensions Main dimensions of vryhof anchor types 121 S E T sand F mud Stevpris Mk5 Main dimensions Stevpris Mk5 dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg weight A B C E F H T S 1500 2954 3184 1812 1505 271 1230 493 80 3000 3721 4011 2283 1896 342 1550 622 90 5000 4412 4756 2707 2248 406 1837 738 110 8000 5161 5563 3166 2629 474 2149 862 130 10000 5559 5992 3410 2832 511 2315 929 140 12000 5908 6368 3624 3010 543 2460 988 150 15000 6364 6860 3904 3242 585 2650 1064 170 18000 6763 7290 4149 3446 622 2816 1131 180 20000 7004 7550 4297 3569 644 2917 1171 190 22000 7230 7794 4436 3684 665 3011 1209 200 25000 7545 8133 4629 3844 694 3142 1262 200 30000 8018 8643 4919 4085 737 3339 1341 220 65000 10375 11184 6365 5286 954 4321 1736 300 Note: The dimensions of the Stevpris Mk5 anchor may be changed for specific applications .

Dimensions Transport dimensions of vryhof anchor types 122 U V W W Stevpris Mk5 .

Dimensions Transport dimensions of vryhof anchor types H 123 F C D B T T Stevpris Mk5 Transport dimensions Stevpris Mk5 dimensions in mm weight in kg weight anchor fluke shank B C D H T U V W 1500 600 900 3184 1812 2367 1232 494 3294 1221 984 3000 1300 1700 3999 2283 2969 1538 623 4141 1526 1240 5000 2100 2900 4750 2707 3529 1831 739 4913 1817 1470 8000 3400 4600 5550 3166 4122 2140 864 5747 2120 1719 10000 4300 5700 5980 3411 4442 2301 930 6190 2285 1852 12000 5200 6800 6348 3625 4714 2443 989 6578 2422 1968 15000 6400 8600 6848 3904 5087 2642 1065 7090 2618 2120 18000 7700 10300 7278 4149 5407 2808 1132 7533 2783 2253 20000 8600 11400 7547 4297 5609 2920 1172 7806 2891 2334 22000 25000 30000 9400 10700 12900 12600 14300 1 7100 7799 8123 8650 4436 4629 4919 5799 6035 6431 3016 3135 3345 1210 1263 1342 8060 8406 8936 2994 3108 3321 2409 2514 2671 65000 27900 37100 11193 6365 8322 4328 1737 11563 4297 3456 Note: The dimensions of the Stevshark Mk5 anchor may be changed for specific applications .

Dimensions Main dimensions of vryhof anchor types 124 B H C Stevspris New Generation .

Dimensions Main dimensions of vryhof anchor types 125 S E sand F A midd le mu d Stevspris New Generation Main dimensions Stevpris New Generation dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg weight A B C E F H S 1500 2797 3059 1981 1321 641 1170 65 3000 3523 3870 2495 1664 808 1490 80 5000 4178 4602 2958 1973 958 1781 100 8000 4886 5390 3460 2308 1120 2090 120 10000 5263 5807 3728 2486 1206 2253 130 12000 5593 6171 3961 2642 1282 2394 140 15000 6025 6679 4267 2846 1381 2610 160 18000 6402 7101 4534 3024 1468 2777 170 20000 6631 7368 4696 3132 1520 2890 180 22000 6845 7625 4848 3234 1569 3002 190 25000 7143 7962 5059 3374 1637 3138 200 30000 7591 8451 5376 3586 1740 3324 210 Note: The dimensions of the Stevpris New Generation anchor may be changed for specific applications .

69 2.54 1.26 4.26 2.70 2.96 5.37 4.21 0.47 1.43 2.78 1.42 2.00 1.87 2.84 1.11 1.59 6.36 1.61 1.01 3.14 1.53 30000 8.25 1.50 6.69 4.99 3000 3.95 2.89 7.93 1.42 25000 7.84 3.69 Note: The dimensions of the Stevpris New Generation anchor may be changed for specific applications .05 5.73 10000 5.79 1.40 2.35 22000 7.23 2.72 3.88 2.95 3.16 1.09 1.45 3.17 1.63 4.90 1.10 4.65 6.60 2.25 5000 4.17 0.62 2.52 1.31 5.86 2.92 2.32 2.52 4.27 20000 7.68 1.39 3.04 4.97 2.83 1.09 2.49 2.80 3.Dimensions Transport dimensions of vryhof anchor types 126 W U Stevspris New Generation Transport dimensions Stevpris New Generation dimensions in m anchor weight in kg weight B Ct Cs H Tt Ts U V W 1500 3.78 0.48 8000 5.22 4.86 12000 6.45 5.23 2.98 0.15 1.98 15000 6.89 1.78 1.17 3.84 4.81 3.14 3.70 6.78 1.06 1.69 2.68 4.96 1.39 1.46 1.13 18000 7.36 5.65 2.55 1.46 1.59 2.32 1.49 2.78 7.88 3.32 3.49 0.39 5.02 2.98 1.58 3.99 1.

Dimensions Transport dimensions of vryhof anchor types 127 H H B B truck Tt Cs sh ip Ts Ct Stevspris New Generation .

Dimensions 128 B H C A Stevshark Mk5 .

Dimensions 129 S E T sand F mud Main dimensions Stevshark Mk5 dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg weight A B C E F H T S 1500 2862 3085 1755 1458 263 1192 478 80 3000 3605 3886 2212 1837 332 1502 603 90 5000 4275 4608 2622 2178 393 1780 715 110 8000 4999 5389 3067 2547 460 2082 836 130 10000 5385 5805 3304 2743 495 2243 900 140 12000 5723 6169 3511 2915 526 2383 957 150 15000 6165 6645 3782 3140 567 2567 1031 160 18000 6551 7062 4019 3337 602 2728 1095 170 20000 6785 7314 4163 3457 624 2826 1135 180 22000 7004 7550 4297 3568 644 2917 1171 190 25000 7309 7879 4484 3723 672 3044 1222 200 30000 7767 8373 4765 3957 714 3235 1299 210 65000 10051 10834 6166 5120 924 4186 1681 300 Note: The dimensions of the Stevshark Mk5 anchor may be changed for specific applications .

permanent .Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 130 B D H T C Stevmanta VLA .

Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 131 E1 E0 T F Stevmanta VLA .permanent Main dimensions Stevmanta VLA dimensions in mm area in m2 area B C D E0 E1 F H T 5 3143 2976 1945 3075 3371 172 1459 639 8 3975 3765 2460 3890 4264 217 1845 809 10 4445 4209 2750 4349 4767 243 2063 904 12 4869 4611 3013 4764 5222 266 2260 991 15 5443 5155 3368 5326 5839 298 2527 1107 17 5795 5488 3586 5670 6216 317 2690 1179 20 6286 5953 3890 6150 6742 344 2918 1279 Note: The dimensions of the Stevmanta VLA anchor may be changed for specific applications .

MODU .Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 132 B D H C Stevmanta VLA .

MODU Main dimensions Stevmanta VLA dimensions in mm area in m2 area B C D E0 E1 F H T 5 3143 2976 1945 3075 3371 172 1459 639 8 3975 3765 2460 3890 4264 217 1845 809 10 4445 4209 2750 4349 4767 243 2063 904 12 4869 4611 3013 4764 5222 266 2260 991 15 5443 5155 3368 5326 5839 298 2527 1107 17 5795 5488 3586 5670 6216 317 2690 1179 20 6286 5953 3890 6150 6742 344 2918 1279 Note: The dimensions of the Stevmanta VLA anchor may be changed for specific applications .Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 133 E1 E0 T F Stevmanta VLA .

Dimensions other anchor types 134 A D D A C B Flipper Delta weight lb. kg 2205 1000 5512 2500 11023 5000 16535 7500 22046 10000 26455 12000 33069 15000 44092 20000 71650 32500 88185 40000 Danforth weight lb. kg 1000 454 2500 1134 5000 2268 10000 4536 12000 5443 14000 6350 16000 7257 20000 9072 25000 11340 30000 13608 B C A mm 2605 3150 3945 4565 5040 5335 5735 6405 7320 7850 B mm 1960 2660 3300 3850 4270 4530 4845 5410 6200 6650 C mm 740 1005 1260 1435 1600 1705 1830 2010 2310 2480 D mm 1560 2130 2660 3080 3400 3600 3875 4320 4930 5290 A mm 1830 2260 2780 3510 3730 3920 4100 4370 4710 5000 B mm 1580 2140 2700 3330 3540 3720 4000 4150 4470 4750 C mm 410 560 710 890 945 995 1040 1110 1195 1270 D mm 1100 1350 1650 2100 2240 2360 2470 2620 2820 3000 .

1000 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 60000 kg 454 2268 4536 6804 9072 11340 13608 15876 18144 27216 A mm 1905 2997 3658 3988 4394 4851 5029 5283 5537 6350 B mm 1803 2845 3480 3791 4166 4521 4801 5055 6096 7061 C mm 622 984 1245 1362 1499 1708 1715 1803 1905 2184 D mm 1168 1829 2235 2438 2692 2946 3073 3226 3327 3810 Moorfast weight lb.Dimensions other anchor types 135 A D D A B B C C LWT weight lb. kg 1000 454 6000 2722 10000 4536 12000 5443 16000 7257 20000 9072 30000 13608 40000 18144 50000 22680 60000 27216 A mm 1549 2565 3327 3531 3886 4166 4801 5436 5639 5893 B mm 1905 3632 3988 4242 4750 4978 5512 6299 6528 6883 C mm 483 787 1041 1092 1219 1295 1499 1600 1676 1778 D mm 940 1549 2032 2159 2388 2591 2997 3226 3353 3556 .

kg 3000 1361 6000 2722 9000 4082 15000 6804 20000 9072 25000 11340 30000 13608 35000 15876 40000 18144 60000 27216 AC14 weight lb.Dimensions other anchor types 136 A D D A B C B Stato weight lb. 2844 1290 4630 2100 6746 3060 12368 5610 18298 8300 23149 10500 29762 13500 41447 18800 44092 20000 50706 23000 C A mm 3277 3658 4064 5182 5334 5740 5969 6299 6553 7540 B mm 2769 3632 4318 5690 5842 6248 6528 6883 7188 8120 C mm 860 960 1090 1370 1420 1540 1570 1670 1750 2000 D mm 1829 2337 2540 3200 3277 3480 3683 3886 4064 4570 A mm 2025 2382 2700 3305 3793 4073 4429 4946 5049 5290 B mm 1568 1844 2091 2559 2916 3154 3249 3829 3909 4095 C mm 470 553 627 768 875 946 1029 1149 1173 1229 D mm 1067 1255 1423 1741 1984 2146 2333 2606 2660 2787 . kg.

kg 1000 454 5000 2268 10000 4536 15000 6804 20000 9072 25000 11340 30000 13608 35000 15876 40000 18144 60000 27216 A mm 1072 1854 2337 2680 2946 3175 3372 3550 3708 4775 B mm 841 1437 1810 2089 2280 2456 2608 2743 2872 3194 C mm 521 889 1121 1295 1413 1522 1616 1703 1778 2218 D mm 772 1319 1661 1861 2094 2256 2394 2523 2619 3375 .Dimensions other anchor types 137 A D B C US Navy Stockless weight lb.

8 132 133.5 12.4 112.2 7.8 39.4 118.5 110 111.3 54.2 134.7 304.2 9.1 41.5 21.5 26.7 23 24.2 95.8 361.9 97.7 18.7 341.4 375.2 50.5 130.5 107 108.4 122.2 296.3 8.7 102.3 43.9 326.4 115.7 136.1 34.4 256.8 400.8 48.6 .4 135.8 194.3 222.2 15.8 289.5 184.2 348 354.7 124.9 312.1 19.7 120 121.9 11.5 94.2 282.1 9.9 277.9 230.6 27.9 114.2 214.9 14.5 99.3 103.2 20.8 174.8 128.3 25.9 105.1 125.4 126.9 333.1 100.Proof load test Proof load test for HHP anchors (US units) anchor weight lbs 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 proof load kips 6.9 138 anchor weight lbs 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31000 32000 33000 34000 35000 36000 37000 38000 39000 40000 42000 proof load kips 165.3 318.5 anchor weight lbs 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 proof load kips 92.5 16.9 29.9 239 245 250.2 129.5 45.8 28.5 36.6 368.2 382 388.9 117.7 205.3 52.7 263.5 270.8 32.

1 139 anchor weight lbs 44000 46000 48000 50000 52000 54000 56000 58000 60000 62000 64000 66000 68000 70000 75000 80000 82500 proof load kips 411.3 530.3 80.7 143.Proof load test Proof load test for HHP anchors (US units) anchor weight lbs 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 proof load kips 56.3 496.5 425.2 541 551.9 562.7 72.6 58.6 141.8 66.6 74.2 154.6 60.3 155.1 152.9 83.4 519.7 144.7 85.8 64.8 70.2 89 90.2 156.7 146.1 460.3 140.9 149 150 151.8 68.4 78.1 437 449.5 508.1 139.7 anchor weight lbs 7300 7400 7500 7600 7700 7800 7900 8000 8100 8200 8300 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 8900 9000 9500 proof load kips 138.7 145.1 81.2 153.8 590 617 630 .6 142.8 62.5 87.2 161.4 472 484.5 76.8 147.

3 450 466 480.7 1300 1340 1380 1410 1450 1483.7 44 47.7 666.3 677 687 696.3 1210 1240 1266.3 706 715.7 1132 1148 1162.3 1686.7 68.3 1520 1553.Proof load test Proof load test for HHP anchors (SI units) anchor weight kg 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 proof load kN 29.7 1620 1653.7 98 104.7 760 769 777 786 140 anchor weight kg 7000 7200 7400 7600 7800 8000 8200 8400 8600 8800 9000 9200 9400 9600 9800 10000 10500 11000 11500 12000 12500 13000 13500 14000 14500 15000 15500 16000 16500 17000 17500 18000 proof load kN 970.3 80 85.3 110.7 725.4 73.3 1586.7 495 509.3 987 1002 1018 1034 1050 1066 1078 1088.3 537 550.7 735 742.7 1720 .7 577 589 601 613 625 635.7 anchor weight kg 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 proof load kN 434.7 34 35.3 63.3 132 137.7 1099.3 563.3 143 155 166 177.3 1110 1120.3 37 39 40.7 645 655.3 116 122 127.3 188 199 210.3 751.7 1173.7 91.7 31.3 53 58.7 524.

7 936 944.7 384 401 418.3 836.3 2730 .7 2016.7 866.3 926.3 262 272.3 2356.7 2070 2130 2190 2250 2303.3 339.3 845 855.7 252.7 292 302 311.3 877 887 897.7 2410 2463.3 1780 1800 1833.7 349 366.3 anchor weight kg 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 proof load kN 797.3 808.3 1900 1956.7 818 827.3 908 917.3 2516.7 2623.7 321 330.3 231 241.7 282.7 953 961 141 anchor weight kg 18500 19000 19500 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31000 32000 34000 36000 proof load kN 1753.Proof load test Proof load test for HHP anchors (SI units) anchor weight kg 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 proof load kN 221.

Dimensions vryhof tensioners

142

H

L

B

Main dimensions Stevtensioner dimensions in m. weight in t Stevtensioner model VA220 VA500 L 2.6 5.4 B 1.0 2.4 H 1.2 2.6 weight 5 20

Dimensions vryhof tensioners

143

H

L

B

Main dimensions Stevtensioner dimensions in m. weight in t Stevtensioner model VA600 VA1000 VA1250 L 2.2 3.1 3.5 B 0.6 0.8 0.9 H 0.9 1.2 1.4 weight 2.5 6 9

Proof load/break
Proof load/break load of chains (in US units)
diameter
R4-RQ4

144

Proof load
R3S R3 RQ3-API R4-RQ4

Break load
R3S R3 RQ3-API

Weight stud kips 73 86 128 162 198 238 282 329 379 432 489 518 548 579 611 643 676 744 815 852 889 965 1044 1084 1125 1167 1209 1251 1295 1383 1428 1473 1566 1613 1660 1708 1756 1855 1955 lbs/ft 5 6 10 12 15 18 21 25 29 33 38 40 43 45 48 51 54 59 65 69 72 79 86 89 93 97 100 104 108 116 121 125 134 138 143 147 152 162 172 studless lbs/ft 5 6 9 11 14 16 20 23 27 31 35 37 39 42 44 46 49 54 60 63 66 72 78 81 85 88 92 95 99 106 110 114 122 126 130 135 139 148 157

stud inches 3 /4 13 /16 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 2 1/16 2 1/8 2 3/16 2 1/4 2 5/16 2 3/8 2 1/2 2 5/8 2 11/16 2 3/4 2 7/8 3 3 1/16 3 1/8 3 3/16 3 1/4 3 5/16 3 3/8 3 1/2 3 9/16 3 5/8 3 3/4 3 13/16 3 7/8 3 15/16 4 4 1/8 4 1/4 kips 75 88 131 165 203 244 289 337 388 443 500 531 561 593 625 658 692 762 835 872 910 988 1069 1110 1152 1194 1237 1281 1325 1416 1462 1508 1603 1651 1699 1749 1798 1899 2001

studless kips 66 77 116 146 179 216 255 298 343 391 443 469 496 524 553 582 612 674 738 771 805 874 945 982 1019 1056 1094 1133 1172 1252 1292 1334 1417 1460 1503 1546 1590 1679 1770

stud kips 62 73 110 138 169 203 241 281 323 369 417 442 468 494 521 549 577 635 696 727 758 823 891 925 960 995 1031 1068 1105 1180 1218 1257 1336 1376 1416 1457 1498 1582 1668

studless kips 60 71 106 133 163 197 233 271 313 357 403 427 452 478 504 530 558 614 672 702 733 796 861 894 928 962 997 1032 1068 1140 1177 1215 1291 1330 1369 1409 1448 1529 1612

stud stud studless studless kips kips 54 49 63 57 95 85 119 107 147 132 176 158 208 187 243 218 280 252 320 287 361 324 383 344 405 364 428 384 452 405 476 427 500 449 550 494 603 541 630 565 657 590 714 640 772 693 802 719 832 747 863 774 894 802 925 830 957 859 1022 918 1056 947 1089 977 1158 1039 1192 1070 1227 1101 1263 1133 1299 1165 1371 1231 1445 1297

stud and studlless kips 95 111 167 210 257 310 366 427 492 562 635 673 712 752 793 835 878 967 1059 1106 1154 1253 1356 1408 1461 1515 1570 1625 1681 1796 1854 1913 2033 2094 2156 2218 2281 2409 2538 kips 86 101 152 191 234 281 333 388 447 510 577 612 647 684 721 759 798 878 962 1005 1049 1139 1232 1280 1328 1377 1427 1477 1528 1632 1685 1739 1848 1903 1959 2016 2073 2189 2307 kips 77 90 136 171 210 252 298 348 401 457 517 548 580 612 646 680 715 787 862 900 940 1020 1103 1146 1189 1233 1278 1323 1368 1462 1509 1557 1655 1704 1754 1805 1856 1960 2066

Proof load/break Proof load/break load of chains (in US units) diameter R4-RQ4 145 Proof load R3S R3 RQ3-API R4-RQ4 Break load R3S R3 RQ3-API Weight stud kips 2057 2160 2265 2372 2480 2589 2700 2812 2925 3039 3154 3270 3387 3504 3623 3742 3861 3981 4102 4223 4344 4465 4586 4708 lbs/ft 182 192 203 214 226 238 250 262 274 287 301 314 328 342 356 371 386 401 417 433 449 466 482 500 studless lbs/ft 166 176 186 196 206 217 228 239 251 262 275 287 299 312 325 339 353 367 381 395 410 425 440 456 stud inches 4 3/8 4 1/2 4 5/8 4 3/4 4 7/8 5 5 1/8 5 1/4 5 3/8 5 1/2 5 5/8 5 3/4 5 7/8 6 6 1/8 6 1/4 6 3/8 6 1/2 6 5/8 6 3/4 6 7/8 7 7 1/8 7 1/4 kips 2105 2211 2319 2428 2538 2650 2764 2878 2994 3111 3228 3347 3467 3587 3709 3830 3953 4076 4199 4323 4447 4571 4695 4820 studless kips 1862 1955 2050 2147 2245 2344 2444 2545 2647 2751 2855 2960 3066 3172 3279 3387 3495 3604 3713 3822 3932 4042 4152 4262 stud kips 1754 1843 1932 2023 2115 2209 2303 2398 2495 2592 2690 2789 2889 2989 3090 3192 3294 3396 3499 3602 3706 3809 3913 4016 studless kips 1696 1781 1868 1956 2045 2135 2226 2319 2412 2506 2601 2696 2793 2890 2987 3086 3184 3283 3383 3482 3582 3682 3782 3882 stud stud studless studless kips kips 1521 1365 1597 1433 1675 1503 1753 1574 1833 1645 1914 1718 1996 1791 2079 1865 2162 1940 2247 2016 2332 2093 2417 2170 2504 2247 2591 2325 2678 2404 2766 2483 2855 2562 2944 2642 3033 2722 3122 2802 3211 2882 3301 2963 3391 3043 3481 3124 stud and studlless kips 2671 2805 2941 3080 3220 3362 3506 3651 3798 3946 4095 4246 4398 4551 4704 4859 5014 5170 5327 5483 5641 5798 5956 6114 kips 2427 2549 2673 2799 2926 3055 3186 3318 3451 3586 3722 3859 3997 4135 4275 4416 4557 4698 4841 4983 5126 5269 5412 5556 kips 2174 2283 2394 2507 2621 2736 2853 2971 3091 3211 3333 3456 3579 3704 3829 3954 4081 4208 4335 4463 4591 4719 4847 4976 .

Proof load/break Proof load/break load of chains (in SI units) diameter R4-RQ4 146 Proof load R3S R3 RQ3-API R4-RQ4 Break load R3S R3 RQ3-API Weight stud kN 324 376 431 511 598 691 790 895 1007 1124 1248 1377 1513 1654 1800 1952 2110 2273 2441 2615 2794 2978 3166 3360 3559 3762 3970 4291 4621 4847 5194 5550 5916 6289 6544 6932 7195 7596 7868 kg/m 8 9 11 13 15 17 20 22 25 28 32 35 39 42 46 50 55 59 64 69 74 79 84 90 95 101 107 117 126 133 144 155 166 177 185 198 206 219 228 studless kg/m 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 23 26 29 32 35 39 42 46 50 54 58 63 67 72 77 82 87 92 98 107 116 122 131 141 151 162 169 181 188 200 208 stud mm 19 20.5 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 73 76 78 81 84 87 90 92 95 97 100 102 kN 331 385 442 524 612 707 809 917 1031 1151 1278 1410 1548 1693 1843 1999 2160 2327 2499 2677 2860 3048 3242 3440 3643 3851 4064 4392 4731 4962 5317 5682 6056 6439 6699 7096 7365 7776 8054 studless kN 293 340 390 463 541 625 715 811 911 1018 1130 1247 1369 1497 1630 1767 1910 2058 2210 2367 2529 2695 2866 3042 3221 3406 3594 3884 4183 4388 4702 5024 5355 5693 5923 6275 6513 6876 7122 stud kN 276 320 368 436 510 589 674 764 859 959 1065 1175 1290 1411 1536 1666 1800 1939 2083 2231 2383 2540 2701 2867 3036 3209 3387 3660 3942 4135 4431 4735 5046 5365 5582 5913 6138 6480 6712 studless kN 267 310 356 422 493 570 651 738 830 927 1029 1136 1247 1364 1485 1610 1740 1874 2013 2156 2304 2455 2611 2771 2935 3102 3274 3538 3811 3997 4283 4577 4878 5187 5396 5716 5933 6264 6488 studstudstud and studlless studless studless kN kN kN kN kN 239 215 420 382 342 278 249 488 443 397 319 286 560 509 456 378 339 664 604 541 442 397 776 706 632 511 458 897 815 730 584 524 1026 932 835 662 594 1163 1057 946 744 668 1308 1188 1064 831 746 1460 1327 1188 923 828 1621 1473 1319 1018 914 1789 1625 1456 1118 1004 1964 1785 1599 1223 1097 2147 1951 1748 1331 1194 2338 2124 1903 1443 1295 2535 2304 2063 1560 1400 2740 2490 2230 1681 1508 2952 2682 2402 1805 1620 3170 2881 2580 1933 1735 3396 3086 2764 2066 1854 3628 3297 2953 2201 1976 3867 3514 3147 2341 2101 4112 3737 3347 2484 2230 4364 3965 3551 2631 2361 4621 4200 3761 2782 2496 4885 4440 3976 2935 2634 5156 4685 4196 3172 2847 5572 5064 4535 3417 3066 6001 5454 4884 3584 3216 6295 5720 5123 3840 3446 6745 6130 5490 4104 3683 7208 6550 5866 4374 3925 7682 6981 6252 4650 4173 8167 7422 6647 4838 4342 8497 7722 6916 5125 4599 9001 8180 7326 5319 4774 9343 8490 7604 5616 5040 9864 8964 8028 5817 5220 10217 9285 8315 .

Proof load/break Proof load/break load of chains (in SI units) diameter R4-RQ4 147 Proof load R3S R3 RQ3-API R4-RQ4 Break load R3S R3 RQ3-API Weight stud kN 8282 8561 9130 9565 10005 10452 10753 11057 11516 11981 12294 13085 13887 14700 15522 16352 17188 17693 18199 18707 19386 19896 20236 21087 kg/m 241 251 270 285 300 315 326 337 353 370 382 411 442 473 506 540 575 596 618 640 671 694 710 750 studless kg/m 221 229 246 260 274 288 298 308 323 338 348 375 403 432 462 493 525 545 564 585 613 634 648 685 stud mm 105 107 111 114 117 120 122 124 127 130 132 137 142 147 152 157 162 165 168 171 175 178 180 185 kN 8478 8764 9347 9791 10242 10700 11008 11319 11789 12265 12585 13395 14216 15048 15890 16739 17596 18112 18631 19150 19845 20367 20715 21586 studless kN 7497 7750 8265 8658 9057 9461 9734 10009 10425 10846 11129 11844 12571 13306 14051 14802 15559 16016 16474 16934 17548 18010 18318 19088 stud kN 7065 7304 7789 8159 8535 8916 9173 9432 9824 10221 10488 11162 11847 12540 13241 13949 14663 15094 15525 15959 16538 16972 17263 17989 studless kN 6829 7060 7529 7887 8251 8619 8868 9118 9497 9880 10138 10790 11452 12122 12800 13484 14174 14590 15008 15427 15986 16407 16687 17389 studstudstud and studless studless kN kN kN kN 6123 5495 10754 9773 6330 5681 11118 10103 6750 6058 11856 10775 7071 6346 12420 11287 7397 6639 12993 11807 7728 6935 13573 12334 7950 7135 13964 12690 8175 7336 14358 13048 8515 7641 14955 13591 8858 7950 15559 14139 9089 8157 15965 14508 9674 8682 16992 15441 10267 9214 18033 16388 10868 9753 19089 17347 11476 10299 20156 18317 12089 10850 21234 19297 12708 11405 22320 20284 13081 11739 22976 20879 13455 12075 23633 21477 13831 12412 24292 22076 14333 12863 25174 22877 14709 13201 25836 23479 14961 13427 26278 23880 15590 13991 27383 24884 studlless kN 8753 9048 9650 10109 10574 11047 11365 11686 12171 12663 12993 13829 14677 15536 16405 17282 18166 18699 19234 19771 20488 21027 21387 22286 .

1D VA-02 4.2D VA-03 PL A A A A A A A A A .4D F C B A E A A A A A 3.96D B 1.6D A D VA-01 4.35D F C B H B A E A A A 4D C 1.Chain components Chain components and forerunners 148 4D 3.

52D C PL A B H B A E A A A B D A E PL VA-05 650 mm K C B A E A A A A A 390 mm K 95 mm VA-06 K C B H B A E A A A .Chain components Chain components and forerunners 149 4D 4.2D E D VA-04 1.

3D 1.2D I 5.4D .8D 4.4D 0.65D 1.45D 4D 3.4D 3.6D 1.4D 4D 7.Chain components Chain components and forerunners 13.2D 3.7D 2.15D 2.2D 8D 1.15D 3.8D 1.3D 4.7D 3.1D 1.2D 2.35D 1.2D 150 6.7D H 1.8D 1.2D 8.1D G 1.8D 9.8D 1.8D 2.3D A = B = C = E = F = G = PL = H = I = K = common link enlarged link end link joining shackle kenter type anchor shackle D type joining shackle D type pear link swivel swivel shackle special end link 4.6D 1.2D 1.7D F 1.4D 5.

Connecting links C H K B 151 F G J D A E Pear shaped anchor connecting link (pearlink) dimensions in mm NO 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 chain size 32 42 52 62 81 94 97 103 .108 A 298 378 454 562 654 692 889 940 B 206 260 313 376 419 435 571 610 C 59 76 92 117 133 146 190 203 D 40 51 60 79 92 98 121 127 E 48 64 76 95 124 130 165 175 F 83 100 121 149 149 159 190 203 G H J 26 32 37 48 54 57 73 76 K 43 52 64 76 79 83 108 111 kg 13 27 49 94 149 236 386 418 44x 44 56 51x 60 74 62x 73 88 85x 79 111 111x 102 130x133 124x 137 141 130 181 156 200 .79 .40 .95 .51 .60 .102 .92 .

92 94 .0 45.5 73.70 71 .44 46 .5 210 229 248 267 286 305 324 343 362 381 400 419 438 457 476 495 514 537 552 571 590 607 B 127 140 152 165 190 184 197 210 221 234 246 246 275 283 295 308 320 332 350 356 368 381 394 C 44 49 53 57 62 64 64 67 71 78 79 83 92 94 95 102 103 107 116 119 122 127 132 D 32 35 38 41 44 48 51 54 57 60 64 67 73 73 76 79 83 86 92 92 95 98 102 E 35 39 43 50 51 55 59 64 67 70 73 78 83 85 90 92 92 100 105 106 114 117 119 F 39 42 46 50 56 60 64 67 71 75 78 79 90 93 94 96 103 107 114 116 119 121 122 G 21 23 25 27 30 31 33 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 55 57 59 61 62 67 68 weight kg 4.5 116.67 68 .79 81 .86 87 .64 66 .5 16.5 54.5 14.83 84 .0 23.5 97.5 48.8 10.5 93.0 7.48 50 .5 62.Connecting links D E F E G B C 152 A Detachable chain connecting link (C-connector) dimensions in mm chain size 30 .89 90 .5 20.98 100 .54 56 .58 59 .0 123.32 33 .102 A 190.38 40 .76 78 .42 43 .5 6.0 .51 52 .0 130.5 27.95 97 .5 32.0 12.35 36 .0 37.0 80.60 62 .73 74 .

16 0.38610 645.Conversion table to convert from length millimetres mm metres m kilometres km kilometres km inches in feet ft miles mi nautical miles nmile area square millimetres mm2 square metres m2 square kilometres km square inches in square feet ft 2 2 153 multiply by 0.28084 0.06243 16.26417 35.31467 16.62137 0.852 0.45359 0.03937 3.38706 3.10231 0.01846 millilitres ml litres l cubic metres m3 cubic inches in 3 gallons (US) gal cubic feet ft3 mass kilograms kg metric tons t pounds lb short tons US ton density kilograms per cubic metre kg/m3 pounds per cubic foot lb/ft 3 .06102 0.78541 0.76391 0.90718 0.60934 1.4 0.20462 1.58999 0.53996 25.02832 2.09290 2 to obtain inches in feet ft miles mi nautical miles nmile millimetres mm metres m kilometres km kilometres km square inches in2 square feet ft2 square miles mi2 square millimetres mm2 square metres m2 square kilometres km2 cubic inches in3 gallons (US) gal cubic feet ft3 millilitres ml litres l cubic metres m3 pounds lb short tons US ton kilograms kg metric tons t pounds per cubic foot lb/ft3 kilograms per cubic metre kg/m3 2 square miles mi volume 2.30480 1.00155 10.

51444 0.94384 2.22481 0.Conversion table to convert from force or weight kilonewtons kN kilonewtons kN metric tons t kips kip metric tons t kips kip pressure or stress kilopascals kPa megapascals MPa pounds per square foot psf kips per square inch ksi velocity metres per second m/s metres per second m/s knots kn miles per hour mph temperature degrees celsius ˚C degrees fahrenheit ˚F 154 multiply by 0.44822 9.89472 1.23694 0.80665 0.44704 multiply by 1.555 to obtain kips kip metric tons t kips kip kilonewtons kN kilonewtons kN metric tons t pounds per square foot psf kips per square inch ksi kilopascals kPa megapascals MPa knots kn miles per hour mph metres per second m/s metres per second m/s degrees fahrenheit ˚F degrees celsius ˚C .14504 0.04788 6.45359 20.10197 2.20462 4.88555 0.8 then add 32 subtract 32 then multiply by 0.

. The part of the mooring line that is suspended in the water will take on a catenary shape. 4-01 for a clarification of the symbols used. part of the mooring line will lay on the seabed and part of the mooring line will be suspended in the water. The angle is the angle between the mooring line at the fairlead and the horizontal. F = 300 t X. the length of the suspended mooring line (S in [m]) can be calculated with: s v d j fig. the weight of the mooring line and the force applied to the mooring line at the fairlead. F = 50 t S. 4-01 1600 2xF -d W with d : the waterdepth plus the distance between sealevel and the fairlead in [m] F : the force applied to the mooring line at the fairlead in [t] and w : the unit weight of the mooring line in water in [t/m] The horizontal distance (X in [m]) between the fairlead and the touchdown point of the mooring line on the seabed can be calculated with: F X = w -d xe log S= { } length S and X in meters √dx 1200 800 400 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 depth in meters fig. F = 100 t S. F = 300 t { } { } S + F w F d w - The weight of the suspended chain (V in [t]) is given by: V=wxS See fig. F = 100 t X.Mooring line catenary 155 X F When the mooring line of a floater is deployed. F = 250 t S. Depending on the waterdepth. 4-02 S. F = 150 t X. F = 200 t S. F = 100 t X. F = 150 t S. F = 50 t X. F = 200 t X.

100 60 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 depth in meters fig.Mooring line catenary 156 weight catenary chain in t 180 140 Example In fig. 4-03. The submerged unit weight of the 76 mm chain is 0.110 t/m. The suspended weight of the mooring line is plotted in fig. 4-03 F = 50 t F = 250 t F = 100 t F = 300 t F = 150 t F = 200 t . the suspended length S and the horizontal distance X are plotted for a 76 mm chain for different loads F (ranging from 50 t to 300 t). 4-02.

.Mooring line holding capacity 157 Mooring line holding capacity on the seabed The holding capacity (P) in [t] of the part of the mooring line that is laying on the seabed.6 0. can be estimated with the following equation: P=fxlxw with f : friction coefficient between the mooring line and the seabed l : the length of the mooring line laying on the seabed in [m] w : the unit weight of the mooring line in water in [t/m] If no detailed information on the friction coefficient is available. the following values can be used: mooring line type chain wire rope friction coefficient starting sliding 1.25 The values for the friction coefficient given under starting can be used to calculate the holding capacity of the mooring line.0 0.7 0. while the values given under sliding can be used to calculate the forces during deployment of the mooring line.

Shackles A 158 A D O D B C Chain shackle B E C Anchor shackle E .

federal specification (RR-C-271) dimensions in mm SWL t A B C D chain shackle 43 51 59 73 85 90 94 115 127 149 171 190 203 230 267 400 500 540 600 650 700 700 730 730 750 750 840 840 D anchor shackle 51 64 76 83 95 108 115 133 146 178 197 222 254 330 381 400 500 540 600 650 700 700 730 730 750 750 840 870 E 159 2 3.79 3.44 0.65 29.S.Shackles Chain shackle and anchor shackle According to U.38 0.3 109.88 2.26 1.82 18.5 9.16 27.5 12 13.74 6.8 5.59 3.5 55 85 120 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1500 13 16 19 22 25 28 32 35 38 45 50 57 65 75 89 102 120 125 135 165 175 195 205 210 220 230 250 260 16 19 22 25 28 32 35 38 42 50 57 65 70 80 95 108 130 140 150 175 185 205 215 220 230 240 280 325 22 27 31 36 43 47 51 57 60 74 83 95 105 127 146 165 175 200 200 225 250 275 300 300 320 340 400 460 32 38 44 50 56 64 70 76 84 100 114 130 140 160 190 216 260 280 300 350 370 410 430 440 460 480 560 650 O anchor shackle 32 43 51 58 68 75 83 92 99 126 138 160 180 190 238 275 290 305 305 325 350 375 400 400 420 420 500 600 Weight Chain shackle KG 0.26 7 8.1 60 93 145 180 225 305 540 580 850 920 990 1165 1315 1700 2500 Weight anchor shackle KG 0.6 12.5 160 235 285 340 570 685 880 980 1110 1295 1475 1900 2800 .25 4.8 15 20.79 1.19 7.3 41 62.75 6.34 4.5 17 25 35 42.05 1.66 1.5 8.8 35.46 2.

5 weight kg 65 87 146 194 354 410 .5 604 676 754.5 924 1075.Shackles A 160 D G B C F E Heavy duty shackle double nut dimensions in mm SWL t 60 85 110 130 175 225 rope dia inch 12-13” 14-15” 16-18” 19-21” 22-23” 24”-> A 65 80 90 100 125 130 B 76 90 102 114 133 146 C 175 220 254 280 300 333 D 350 390 430 480 600 720 E 165 178 210 235 265 305 F 305 380 434 480 550 593 G 535.

Shackles 161 F E D B A C A Sling shackle dimensions in mm SWL t 75 125 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 A 70 85 89 100 110 122 145 160 170 190 200 220 240 260 280 B 70 80 95 105 120 134 160 180 200 215 230 255 270 300 320 C 105 130 140 150 170 185 220 250 275 300 325 350 380 430 460 D 290 365 390 480 540 600 575 630 700 735 750 755 760 930 950 E 186 220 250 276 300 350 370 450 490 540 554 584 614 644 680 F 120 150 170 205 240 265 320 340 370 400 420 440 460 530 560 weight kg 67 110 160 220 320 350 635 803 980 1260 1430 1650 2120 2400 2980 .

0 39.2 119.5 43.7 Submerged nominal weight kg/m 23.5) (4.1 42.1 86.75) (4) (4.3 68.75) (6) MBL kN Axial Stiffness MN Nominal Weight in kg/m Unsheathed 28.Wire rope 162 Depending on the required service life of the mooring system.5) (5. the following types of wire rope are recommended: Design life recommended product type Up to 6 years Six strand Up to 8 years Six strand c/w zinc anodes Up to 10 years Six strand c/w ‘A’ galvanised outer wires & zinc anodes 10 years plus Spiral strand 15 years plus Spiral strand c/w Galfan coated outer wires 20 years plus Spiral strand c/w HDPE sheathing The two rope constructions have differing properties.2 72.9 44.6 59.1 48.4 81.5 102.25) (4.7 95.3 76.0 53.6 91.5) (3.1 55.5 64.5 105.5 127 133 141 146.4 110.2 79.75) (5) (5.9 51.1 114.9 48.25) (5.8 27.5 102 108 114 121.4 37.25) (3.8 97.4 33.0 72.5 Nominal Steel Area mm2 3377 3917 4747 5341 6139 6834 7640 8589 9403 10314 11609 12515 13616 Sheathing Thickness mm 8 8 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 5647 6550 7938 8930 10266 11427 12775 14362 15722 17171 19180 20469 22070 557 627 760 855 982 1093 1222 1353 1481 1599 1799 1940 2110 .5 153 (3) (3.3 61.7 66. The advantages of each of the rope types are presented in the following table: Spiral strand six strand Higher strength/weight ratio Higher elasticity Higher strength/diameter ratio Greater flexibility Torsionally balanced Lower axial stiffness Higher corrosion resistance Properties of spiral stand wire rope Nominal Diameter mm (inch) 76 82 90 95.5 33.5 87.4 35.5 83.5 Sheathed 30.6 57.

5 59.8 55.8 65.3 22.8 573.5 8.3 18.9 7.50 3.0 278.5 35.9 35.0 40.25 4.5 44.1 8.5 49. Higher fatigue resistance .8 80.8 6.9 1006.3 6.25 5.0 775.1 9.3 20.5 2.7 73.7 10.2 10.Wire rope Properties of six strand wire rope Diameter mm (inch) MBL kN Axial Stiffness MN Rope weight kg/m 163 Submerged rope weight kg/m 15.6 9.75 5 5.2 64 71 77 83 89 96 102 108 114 121 127 133 140 2.0 30.9 Note: MBL based on 10 years design life.75 3 3.6 11.3 60. Torque factor presented in the last column is an approximate value at 20% applied load.3 43.5 71.7 39.2 5.7 5.7 866.5 642.2 483.8 25.7 Torque Factor Nm/kN 4.75 4 4.50 4.50 3360 3990 4767 5399 6414 6965 7799 8240 9172 10055 11134 11728 12925 189.9 48.7 415.1 17.7 26.6 912.8 319.7 29.6 67.1 707.4 233.25 3.8 53.

e.5) Where : D = sheave diameter mm W = line load N d = sheathed cable diameter mm t = sheathing radial thickness mm σb = maximum bearing pressure N/mm2 The above formula ensures no damage to the sheathing through bending. The minimum bending diameter permitted can be calculated using the following formula: π D = (4 x W) / (π x σb x {d x 0.15 x t}0. . The maximum bearing pressure (σb) on the sheath is limited to 21 N/mm2 to avoid permanent deformation. the minimum bending diameter is 24 times the unsheathed cable diameter..Wire rope 164 Installation of sheathed spiral strand The limiting factors for the installation of a sheathed spiral strand are defined by the properties of the sheathing. In addition to prevent damage to the cable within the sheathing. i. D > 24 x (d – 2 x t).

144 145 .130 131 .94 95 .Wire rope sockets 165 G D1 B A X Closed spelter socket dimensions in mm NO 428 430 431 433 440 445 450 MBL t 650 820 1000 1200 1500 1700 1900 for wire dia.84 85 .104 105 .114 115 .160 A 360 400 425 500 580 625 700 B 375 410 450 500 570 630 700 D1 150 175 205 230 260 300 325 F 350 380 400 500 600 680 725 G 150 170 200 210 225 240 275 X 1110 1250 1400 1570 1800 1940 2150 . mm 75 .

1 7/8 2 .6 0/0 6 1/2 7 A B C D E F G Weight kg 101 114 127 139 152 165 190 216 228 248 279 305 330 356 381 450 500 580 675 90 103 116 130 155 171 198 224 247 270 286 298 311 330 356 425 475 550 600 33 36 39 43 51 54 55 62 73 79 79 83 102 102 108 120 120 150 175 24 28 32 38 41 44 51 57 63 73 79 86 92 99 108 125 138 160 175 47 57 63 70 79 82 89 96 108 140 159 171 184 197 216 235 260 300 325 92 104 114 127 136 146 171 193 216 241 273 292 311 330 362 405 515 510 600 38 44 51 57 63 70 76 82 92 102 124 133 146 159 178 190 210 250 300 4 6.48 49 .2 5/8 2 3/4 .39 40 .26 27 .80 81 .115 122 .30 31 .155 158 .75 76 .3 5/8 3 3/4 .51 55 .3 3/8 3 1/2 .36 37 .2 3/8 1 2 /2 .1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 3/4 .Wire rope sockets F E C G 166 B A D Closed spelter socket dimensions in mm NO MBL tons 201 204 207 212 215 217 219 222 224 226 227 228 229 230 231 233 240 250 260 45 70 100 125 150 200 260 280 360 450 480 520 600 700 875 1100 1250 1400 1600 Rope diameter mm 20 .102 108 .2 7/8 3 .5 7.60 61 .22 23 .2 1/8 2 1/4 .4 0/0 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 .86 87 .3 1/8 3 1/4 .5 50 65 93 110 142 170 225 340 - .68 69 .5 11 13 17 24 36.167 inch /8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 .130 140 .93 94 .42 43 .

Wire rope sockets 167 C D1 B A J X Open spelter socket dimensions in mm NO 338 340 344 346 350 370 380 MBL t 650 820 1000 1200 1500 1700 1900 for wire dia.144 145 .114 115 . mm 75 .130 131 .104 105 .94 95 .160 A 375 410 425 500 580 625 700 B 298 320 343 500 580 625 700 C 296 340 362 440 580 625 680 D1 140 152 178 200 250 280 300 J 159 171 191 200 220 230 250 X 1050 1170 1300 1570 1800 1940 2150 .84 85 .

36 37 .3 1/8 3 1/4 .5 40.42 43 .54 55 .68 69 .155 158 .102 108 .60 61 .3 5/8 3 3/4 .48 49 .39 40 .5 60.80 81 .8 24 27.Wire rope sockets L2 K J K D1 B L1 A 168 C D Open spelter socket dimensions in mm NO MBL tons 100 104 108 111 115 118 120 125 128 130 132 135 138 140 142 144 146 150 160 170 32 45 70 100 125 150 200 260 280 360 450 480 520 600 700 875 1100 1250 1400 1600 Rope diameter mm 17 .86 87 .2 3/8 2 1/2 .115 122 .5 11.22 23 .30 31 .93 94 .26 27 .5 90 122 157 195 221 281 397 570 980 - .167 inch /4 /8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 -1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 3/4 .4 0/0 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 .19 20 .1 7/8 2 .7 7.2 5/8 2 3/4 .2 1/8 2 1/4 .75 76 .130 140 .2 4.2 7/8 3 .6 0/0 6 1/2 3 7 A B C D D1 J K Weight kg 89 101 114 127 139 152 165 190 216 228 248 279 305 330 356 381 460 500 580 675 76 89 101 114 127 162 165 178 228 250 273 279 286 298 318 343 480 500 500 600 80 90 120 130 144 160 176 200 216 236 264 276 284 296 340 362 440 560 600 650 21 24 28 32 38 41 44 51 57 63 73 79 86 92 99 108 125 138 160 175 35 41 51 57 63 70 76 89 95 108 121 127 133 140 152 178 190 250 275 290 38 44 51 57 63 76 76 89 101 113 127 133 146 159 171 191 208 210 230 230 16 19 22 25 28 30 33 39 46 53 60 73 76 79 83 89 101 120 140 175 3.6 16.3 3/8 3 1/2 .

60 61 .Wire rope sockets 169 F E C B A D CR-socket dimensions in mm NO 522 524 526 527 528 529 530 531 533 MBL t 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 rope dia mm 49 . • Integrated non rotating stopper system which prevents the tamp from turning or slipping out of the cone. • An open-widow side for easy rope handling. 27 Joule at -40˚C.102 108 .54 55 .75 76 .115 A 215 230 250 280 310 340 360 380 450 B 125 145 160 175 190 205 220 240 260 C 55 65 75 80 85 100 105 110 125 D 57 63 73 79 86 92 99 108 120 E 115 135 150 165 175 200 205 225 240 F 200 230 270 300 325 350 360 380 420 weight kg 30 46 62 87 110 135 160 208 270 Advantages of the CR socket • Guaranteed high breaking load. .68 69 .86 87 . • No rings in the cone to a give a maximum rope/socket connection. • Impact value of min.93 94 .80 81 . • A high performance connection for the right combination with a detachable link.

7 D According to insulating tube thickness 1.4 D According to wire rope diameter According to wire rope diameter Note : D is the nominal diameter of the chain that connects to the socket.Wire rope sockets 170 A B C X Y Forged eye socket Dimension A B C X Y Size 1. .

Thimbles 171 F E K D C A B Main dimensions bellmouth thimble dimensions in mm For wire dia. 10”-12” 15”-16” 18”-21” A 366 440 454 B 606 746 844 C 277 352 352 D 480 608 660 E 195 248 300 F 166 191 226 K 85 105 118 weight kg 80 125 175 .

Thimbles H2 A H1 172 C X E D F B G Main dimensions tubular thimble dimensions in mm For wire dia. 12” 15” 18” 21” 24” 27” A 521 625 727 829 930 1035 B 420 510 610 740 880 1020 C 260 312 368 415 465 517 D 194 194 219 219 273 273 E 144 144 169 169 201 201 F 130 150 175 200 225 250 G 20 25 30 30 30 30 H1 130 158 183 206 229 260 H2 140 168 194 219 245 273 X 10 40 40 40 40 40 weight kg 50 80 140 180 260 380 .

floating 145° C Excellent Good Medium Excellent < 0.975 .5% + / .30% Wet strength equals to dry strength 173 Dyneema High Modulus PolyEthylene Parallel strand construction Composite yarn White 0.sinks 251° C Excellent Excellent Workable at sub-zero temperatures Good < 0.Synthetic ropes Rope properties Polyester Material Construction Protective cover Color of rope Specific gravity Melting point Abrasion resistance UV resistance Temperature resistance Chemical resistance Water absorption/fibers Water uptake Dry & weight conditions Polyester Parallel strand construction Polyester White with marker yarns 1.05% n. The properties of various rope sizes are presented in the following tables.38 .a Wet strength equals to dry strength Production and construction in accordance with recognized standards. .

7 11.1 18.39e + 05 4.80e + 05 2.1 5.4 5.1 EA e 1 Stiffness kN EA2 8.53e + 05 3.38e + 05 1.2 32.68e + 05 4.83e + 05 e EA3 1.6 13.2 21.50 % MBL .0 8.11e + 05 8.1 3.27e + 05 Note : Minimum Breaking Load (MBL) in spliced condition.9 3.30e + 05 1.9 4.7 @20% MBL 8.8 9.08e + 05 6.2 35.2 19.3 16.9 2.5 7.89e + 05 8.28 9.6 4.8 6.92e + 05 1.59e + 05 4.2 24.30 % MBL 2 cycling between 20 .38e + 05 174 Note : MBL in spliced condition.5 22.30 4.5 6.22e + 05 1.2 7.18e + 05 1.24 10.99e + 05 3.74e + 05 3.35e + 05 2.40e + 05 2.22e + 05 3.84e + 05 2.7 5.10e + 04 1.Synthetic ropes HMPE Diameter mm 81 93 108 117 129 137 147 154 163 169 177 182 187 MBL k/N 3649 5108 7298 8757 10946 12406 14595 16055 18244 19703 21893 23352 24812 Weight kg/m 3.76e + 05 2.0 13.9 16.0 15.03e + 05 2.43 + 04 1.19e + 05 4.2 12. Weights are presented for a rope loaded to 2% and 20% of MBL 1 cycling between 10 .14e + 05 3.2 stiffness EA k/N 2.3 17.1 3.83 8.9 Submerged weight kg/m @2% MBL 2.9 15.4 9.01e + 05 1.79e + 05 5.30e + 05 2.7 @20% MBL 1.2 27. Polyester mooring line: strength table Diameter mm 113 137 154 169 183 195 207 227 245 MBL k/N 3723 5754 7446 9138 10830 12522 14215 17261 20307 Total weight kg/m @2% MBL 8.05e + 05 4.0 40.0 29.87e + 05 6.34 5.09e + 05 1.99e + 05 7.84e + 05 4.57e + 05 1.14e + 05 3.85 6.8 26.19 + 04 1.30 % MBL 3 cycling between 40 .96e + 05 2.6 37.8 12.

• Fibre ropes should not be run over surfaces which have sharp edges. • Chasers should not be used on fibre ropes. • Care should be taken that ropes do not get knotted or tangled. unless a minimum line tension of 5% (for polyester) of the MBL is maintained. drum.Synthetic ropes 175 Recommended practise for handling fibre rope mooring lines before and during installation • Ropes should not be permanently installed around bollards or fairleads. to avoid pulling the rope into the underlying layer. • Abrasion or fouling of the mooring line with other anchoring equipment such as anchor. nicks or other abrasive features. • Pre-deployed lines should not be left buoyed at the surface waiting connection to the platform. • Care should be taken when applying shearing forces to the rope. • It should be avoided that the ropes undergo more than 1000 loadcycles with a line tension smaller than 5% of the MBL. chain and connectors must be avoided. • When unreeling the rope. • If the fibre rope is laid on the seabed. • Frictional heat from excessive slippage of the fibre rope over a capstan. maximum line tension should be observed. must be avoided. • There should be no “hot work” such as welding in the vicinity of the rope. • Torque or twist in the rope should be avoided. steel wire rope. • A minimum bending radius should be observed. grooves. • Rope contact with sharp gritty materials should be avoided. The minimum bend radius (D/d) with very low line tensions should be larger than 6. etc. . • Shark jaw stoppers designed for use with steel wire rope or chain should not be used for handling fibre ropes. it must be protected against external abrasion and ingress of abrasive particles.

Approximate elongation at first loading (brokenin rope.2 14.5 12.7 7.4 176 Circular braided nylon Ndbs t 205 256 307 358 406 454 501 547 597 644 Nwbs t 195 244 292 341 387 433 477 521 569 614 1.8 17.3 15.4 15.9 10.7 6.3 8. inch 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Diameter mm 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 Ndbs t 208 249 288 327 368 419 470 521 577 635 Nwbs t 198 236 273 311 349 398 446 495 548 603 1.14 260˚C weight kg/m 5.9 10.2 11.7 Deltaflex 2000 Ndbs = nwbs t 217 258 297 339 378 423 468 523 578 636 1.4 12. dry and wet condition) At 20% of MBL At 50% of MBL At break Circular braided nylon (double braided is similar) Deltaflex 2000 ± 16% ± 22% ± >40% ± 19% ± 26% ± 33% .4 9.0 7.9 16.8 14.14 250˚C weight kg/m 5.9 Specific gravity Melting point Note : ndbs = new dry break strength in spliced condition nwbs = new wet break strength in spliced condition Deltaflex 2000 in 8 strand plaited construction.8 14.14 215˚C weight kg/m 5.7 6.3 15.8 8.7 7.5 10.8 8.7 12.0 13.0 6.Mooring hawsers Double braided nylon Circ.2 11.

The elongation and TCLL values of both construction types are the same. • No water absorption. This means that when the overbraiding is damaged due to chafing or other reasons. a Deltaflex 2000 hawser has the folowing advantages: • Equal strength in dry and wet conditions. • Strength is 10% to 20% higher than wet double braided nylon. Advantages of Deltaflex 2000 When compared to nylon hawsers. but the important difference is that where the overbraiding of the double braided construction is load bearing. which means that the circular braided construction can be more budgetary attractive. while the double braided construction should be considered as structurally damaged (loss of stability and a lower break load). the overbraiding of the circular braided construction is just there for protection.Mooring hawsers 177 Double braided construction versus circular braided construction The circular braided construction can be defined as a recent alternative for the double braided construction. • One of the highest TCLL (thousand cycle load level) values of all synthetic ropes. The efficiency (breaking load/raw material) of the circular braided construction is however much higher. Both construction types have an overbraided jacket as part of their construction. the stability and break load of the circular braided construction will remain unchanged. . • High energy absorption and elastic recovery.

Main dimensions chasers G H G H F 178 G G H D D A A A C B B E E D B E J-Chaser VA 101 G H J-Lock Chaser VA 115 G Permanent Wire Chaser VA 210-213-214-215 H A C A C F D B E D B E F Permanent Chain Chaser VA 102-106-110-112 Detachable Chain Chaser VA 107-108-111 .

Main dimensions chasers Main dimensions chasers dimensions in mm Type VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA 101 102 106 107 108 110 111 112 115 210 213 214 215 A 2483 1657 1702 1886 1931 1867 1994 2210 2083 2073 1962 2318 2051 B 1829 1143 1168 1143 1168 1245 1245 1384 1486 1245 1099 1308 1168 C 991 991 1080 1067 1130 1130 1397 1203 1086 1397 1060 D 699 762 762 762 762 838 838 953 711 838 692 902 711 E 305 305 381 305 381 330 330 356 533 432 445 508 445 F 191 203 191 203 203 203 260 305 330 330 330 356 179 G 124 124 130 124 130 130 130 130 124 130 130 130 178 H 86 86 99 86 99 99 99 99 86 99 99 99 127 proofload t 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 400 weight kg 1882 1088 1451 1238 1656 1433 1742 2064 1778 1959 1846 2530 2495 .

15.NI-1.55. the built-up zone and surrounding area should be insulation wrapped to permit slow cooling.15.W. Restoration of worn chaser profiles Worn profiles may be restored by application of a weld deposit.ENI-CL.3.FE. • On completion of welding.W.S. • Each successive layer of weld must be cleaned and hammered. 8C.I. • The initial layer of weld deposit should be effected by a high nickel electrode such as: Metrode C.A5.S. Care must be taken to ensure a satisfactory bond between parent material and the weld deposit and to avoid the generation of a brittle structure in the area of repair.C A. A5.Main dimensions chasers 180 Note: the VA115 is available in two versions: the VA 115/35 for 21/2” to 31/2” chain and the VA115/45 for 33/4” to 41/2” chain. The following procedure is recommended: • The area to be welded must be cleaned to a bright metal finish.O. . No. No.I.2FE A. the parent material should be pre-heated to 180-200 ˚C and the pre-heat temperature is to be maintained during welding. • Prior to the commencement of welding.CI. • Subsequent layers of welding may be laid using a less noble electrode such as: Metrode CI special cast Ni Fe – FE.ENI. softlow nickel – N.

The medium clay design line represents soils such as silt and firm to stiff clays. In sand and hard clay the optimal fluke/shank angle is 32°.92 with UHC as the Ultimate Holding Capacity in tonnes and A a parameter depending on soil. with Su in kPa and z being the depth in meters below seabed. and loose and weak silts.Stevin Mk3 Stevin Mk3 UHC chart 181 Ultimate Holding Capacity The prediction lines above represent the equation UHC= A*(W)0. anchor and anchor line with values between 16 and 31.5*z. In very soft soils the optimum fluke/shank angle is typically 50 deg. Stevin Mk3 size in t . The design line sand represents competent soils. The fluke/shank angle should be set at 32° for optimal performance.5 kPa per meter depth or in the equation Su = 4+1. such as medium dense sands and stiff to hard clays and is based on a silica sand of medium density. y m e u di m ft cla cla y ve ry so typical Ultimate Holding Capacity (UHC) in t n sa d an d ha rd cla y The Stevin Mk3 design line very soft clay represents soils such as very soft clays (mud). The line is applicable in soil that can be described by an undrained shear strength of 4 kPa at the surface increasing by 1.

anchor load as % of UHC 70 60 50 40 30 drag % max drag 48 37 27 18 9 penetration as % max penetration 80 68 55 42 23 drag pen in tion et r a very soft clay m ediu in m tion etra pen clay tion etra pen and in s Stevin Mk3 size in t typical drag and penetration in meters anchor loaded to ultimate holding capacity (UHC) .Stevin Mk3 Stevin Mk3 drag and penetration chart 182 drag penetration clay soft ery in v g dra lay mc ediu in m drag nd in sa Example: loading 70% of ultimate holding capacity corresponds with 48% of maximum drag and 80% of maximum penetration at ultimate holding capacity.

Stevpris Mk5 Stevpris Mk5 UHC chart 183 Ultimate Holding Capacity The prediction lines above represent the equation UHC= A*(W)0.92 with UHC as the Ultimate Holding Capacity in tonnes and A a parameter depending on soil. and loose and weak silts. The medium clay design line represents soils such as silt and firm to stiff clays. The line is applicable in soil that can be described by an undrained shear strength of 4 kPa at the surface increasing by 1. Stevpris Mk5 size in t . y cla um i ed y m cla ft so ry ve s d an an d r ha d cla y typical Ultimate Holding Capacity (UHC) in t The Stevpris Mk5 design line very soft clay represents soils such as very soft clays (mud). In very soft soils the optimum fluke/shank angle is typically 50 deg. anchor and anchor line with values between 24 and 110.5 kPa per meter depth or in the equation Su = 4+1.5*z. The fluke/shank angle should be set at 32° for optimal performance. such as medium dense sands and stiff to hard clays and is based on a silica sand of medium density. with Su in kPa and z being the depth in meters below seabed. In sand and hard clay the optimal fluke/shank angle is 32°. The design line sand represents competent soils.

clay d ra g nd in sa and h a rd pen e ion tra t in ve ry so ft cla y pen e tra tio m n in ediu m cla y pen e tra tion in an sand d ha rd c lay Stevpris Mk5 size in t typical drag and penetration in meters anchor loaded to ultimate holding capacity (UHC) anchor load as % of UHC 70 60 50 40 30 drag % max drag 48 37 27 18 9 penetration as % max penetration 80 68 55 42 23 .Stevpris Mk5 Stevpris Mk5 drag and penetration chart 184 drag penetration in v ery soft clay drag dr m ag in ediu m cla y Example: loading 70% of ultimate holding capacity corresponds with 48% of maximum drag and 80% of maximum penetration at ultimate holding capacity.

in ve cla ry soft y 70 60 50 40 30 48 37 27 18 9 80 68 55 42 23 . anchor load as % of UHC drag % max drag penetration as % max penetration d mr rag in t. in m edium clay d mrt rag in . in sa nd & hard clay ft ery so n in v tratio pene clay p atio enetr n in m edium clay pen ion in etrat sand an d h ard c lay Stevpris NG weight in metric tons in meters drag in mrt .Stevpris New Generation Stevpris New Generation UHC chart y cla rd ha & y nd cla sa in ium d C ) me UH ud in (m HC lay U c ft so ry ve n Ci UH 185 drag in metric tons penetration Example: loading 70% of ultimate holding capacity corresponds with 48% of maximum drag and 80% of maximum penetration at ultimate holding capacity.

Stevmanta VLA Stevmanta VLA UPC chart Typical Ultimate Pull-out Capacity (UPC) The prediction lines on the “UPC chart” can be expressed in the equations as stated below: 186 2000 1800 600 D = 1. A ø 76 mm B ø 121 mm C ø 151 mm Spiral strand Six strand & spiral strand typical installation load in t where. Undrained Shear Strength clay [kPa] Stevmanta fluke area [m2] C 600 200 The UPC graph incorporates a Nc.7 *A *tan (α) 0. The graph clearly illustrates the influence of the diameter of the mooring line or installation line. α-value of 50 degrees and k-value of 2.5 *k *d 0.Ultimate Pull-out Capacity in t 1200 400 1000 300 800 UPC = Nc *Su *A where.6 -0. 400 200 B A 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 Stevmanta Fluke Area (m2) Mooring lines in diameters. D = Stevmanta penetration depth [m] k = quotient Undrained Shear Strength clay [kPA] and depth [m] d = mooring line or installation line diameter [m] A = Stevmanta fluke area [m2] α = Stevmanta fluke / shank angle [deg] 500 1400 . The typical installation load to obtain a specified UPC is presented on the right vertical axis of the graph.3 1. UPC = Nc = Su = A = Ultimate Pull-out Capacity [kN] Bearing Capacity Factor (k *D).value of 10.7 1600 typical UPC . and whether six strand or spiral strand is used.

mooring line types Comparson chart weight of various mooring line types 800 187 700 600 weight [kg/m] 500 D 400 300 200 100 E B C A 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 diameter [mm] A polyester B spiral strand C six strand D chain E hmpe mbl of various mooring line types 30000 25000 D 20000 MBL [kN] 15000 B C A E 10000 5000 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 diameter [mm] A polyester B spiral strand C six strand D chain K4 E hmpe .

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