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vryhof anchor manual 2005
Vryhof anchors
ACCREDITED BY THE DUTCH COUNCIL FOR CERTIFICATION Reg. No 24

p.o. box 105, 2920 AC krimpen ad yssel, the netherlands www.vryhof.com vryhof@vryhof.com

ISO-9001CERTIFICATED FIRM
DET NORSKE VERITAS INDUSTRY B.V., THE NETHERLANDS

Copyright © Vryhof anchors b.v., krimpen a/d yssel, the netherlands 2005. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by print, copy or in any other way without written permission of vryhof. Vryhof, Stevin, Stevpris, Stevshark, Stevtensioner and Stevmanta are registered trade marks. Vryhof reserves all intellectual and industrial property rights such as any and all of their patent, trademark, design, manufacturing, reproduction, use and sales rights thereto and to any article disclosed therein. All information in this manual is subject to change without prior notice. Vryhof anchors is not liable and/or responsible in any way for the information provided in this manual. First edition published 1984. Print run 7,500 copies. Second edition published 1990. Print run 7,500 copies. Reprint second edition print run 5,000 copies. Third edition published 2000. Print run 2,500 copies. Reprint third edition print run 1,500 copies. Second reprint third edition print run 1,000 copies. First print fourth edition print run 1,000 copies.

Introduction

3

A stone and something that looked like a rope. For millennia this was the typical anchor. Over the last 25 years of more recent history, vryhof has brought the art to a more mature status. They have grown into a world leader in engineering and manufacturing of mooring systems for all kinds of floating structures. In doing so the company has secured numerous anchor and ancillary equipment patents, and shared its experience with others. The company understands that the needs of the industry can not be satisfied by the supply of standard hard-ware only. Universal and tailored solutions rooted in proven engineering should be based on long practical experience. Vryhof has been and will be introducing new and original anchor designs well into the 21st century. With their products, advice and this manual, it shares this knowledge with those who are daily faced with complex mooring situations. This manual is intended as a means of reference for all who purchase, use, maintain, repair or are in any way involved with anchors. Though written from one anchor manufacturer’s standpoint, the information contained herein is applicable to many types of anchors. Total objectivity is, of course, impossible. It is hoped this manual will contribute to the work and success of all who work with anchors. They are the only fixed reference point for many of the floating structures on the world’s often turbulent waters.

1 General .

on ships and consisted of one or more lines connected to the bow or stern of the ship. Generally the ships stayed moored for a short duration of time (days).this type of mooring is generally used on FPSOs and FSOs in more harsh environments. The vessel connects to the buoy with a single line and is free to weathervane around the buoy. Numerous different mooring systems have been developed over the years. and are still used.generally the buoy will be moored using four or more mooring lines at equally spaced angles. semi-sub mooring typical turret mooring . Turret mooring . which come together at the turntable built into the FPSO or FSO. These systems were used. Multiple mooring lines are used. Semi-submersible drilling rig . Two mooring lines come together at each of the columns of the semi-submersible. a need for more permanent mooring systems became apparent. The mooring lines generally have a catenary shape.these types of buoys have a mooring that consists of a single mooring line attached to an anchor point on the seabed. When the exploration and production of oil and gas started offshore. The FPSO or FSO is able to rotate around the turret to obtain an optimal orientation relative to the prevailing weather conditions. SALM buoy . CALM buoy . underneath the buoy. The anchor point may be gravity based or piled.generally the semi-submersibles are moored using an eight point mooring. of which a short selection is presented here.Mooring systems 5 Mooring systems have been around just as long as man has felt the need for anchoring a vessel at sea.

For exploration and production in deep to ultra-deep water.generally used on FPSOs and FSOs in milder environments. When oil and gas exploration and production was conducted in shallow to deep water. the most common mooring line configuration was the catenary mooring line consisting of chain or wire rope. while in a catenary mooring the anchor point is only subjected to horizontal forces. most of the restoring forces are generated by the weight of the mooring line. In a catenary mooring. the mooring radius of the taut leg mooring will be smaller than the mooring radius of a catenary mooring for a similar application. 1-02).e. 1-01 taut leg system fig. i.Mooring systems 6 catenary system Spread mooring . The mooring lines are directly connected to the FPSO or FSO at both the stern and bow of the vessel. To overcome this problem new solutions were developed consisting of synthetic ropes in the mooring line (less weight) and/or a taut leg mooring system (fig. This means that in a taut leg mooring the anchor point has to be capable of resisting both horizontal and vertical forces. In a taut leg mooring. 1-02 . An advantage of a taut leg mooring over the catenary mooring is that the footprint of the taut leg mooring is smaller than the footprint of the catenary mooring. the weight of the mooring line starts to b e c o m e a limiting factor in the design of the floater. the taut leg mooring arrives at the seabed at an angle. the restoring forces are generated by the elasticity of the mooring line. 1-01 and fig. The major difference between a catenary mooring and a taut leg mooring is that where the catenary mooring arrives at the seabed horizontally. fig.

The synthetic fibre rope is generally terminated with a special spool and shackle for connection to the other components in the mooring system. while studless link chain is often used for permanent moorings (FPSOs. 1-04). closed spelter. Typical materials that can be used are polyester and high modulus polyethylene (Dyneema). The major advantage of synthetic fibre ropes is the light weight of the material and the high elasticity. 1-04 . for the same breaking load and a higher elasticity. The studlink chain is most commonly used for moorings that have to be reset numerous times during their lifetime. Mooring line Chain The most common product used for mooring lines is chain which is available in different diameters and grades. studlink and studless chain. 1-03 fig. wire rope has a lower weight than chain. buoys. fig. the connectors and the anchor point. Common wire ropes used in offshore mooring lines are six strand and spiral strand. Two different designs of chain are used frequently. A chain mooring line can be terminated in either a common link or an end link (fig. Wire rope When compared to chain.Mooring components 7 A typical mooring system can be divided in three different components. for instance semi-submersibles. The wire rope is terminated with a socket (for instance open spelter. Generally wire rope is more prone to damage and corrosion than chain (fig. Synthetic fibre rope A recent development is the use of synthetic fibre ropes as mooring line. FSOs). CR) for connection to the other components in the mooring system. 1-03). the mooring line.

1-05). The shackle can be used in both temporary and permanent moorings (fig. The major difference between the kenter type and the c type is the way that the connector is opened and closed. The connecting link kenter type has the same outside length as a chain link of the same diameter. 1-06). Many different types of shackles are available. depending on the application. 1-07 fig. 1-08 . which is closed by a pin. the pear shaped connecting links are not used in permanent mooring systems (fig. except that it is used for the connection of two pieces of mooring line with terminations that have different dimensions. 1-07). 1-05 fig. Connecting link kenter type The connecting link kenter type is most commonly used for the connection of two pieces of chain mooring line. 1-08). the connecting link c type is used for the connection of two pieces of mooring line with terminations that have the same dimensions. as they have a shorter fatigue life than the chain (fig. It consists of a bow. fig.Mooring components Connectors 8 Shackles The shackle is a connector that is very common in the offshore industry. where the terminations of the two pieces have the same dimensions. Connecting link c type Like the connecting link kenter type. This connector is generally not used in permanent moorings (fig. Connecting link pear shaped The pear shaped connecting link is similar to the connecting link kenter type. Like the connecting link kenter type. Generally connecting links kenter type are not used in permanent mooring systems. 1-06 fig.

A new development is swivels that are capable of swivelling under load. 1-10 . The holding capacity is generated by the weight of the material used and partly by the friction between the dead weight and the seabed. 1-10). generally of a temporary type. due to special bearing surfaces inside the mechanism (fig. There are many different types of swivels available. although it can also be placed between a section of chain and a section of wire rope. 1-09 Anchoring point Dead weight The dead weight is probably the oldest anchor in existence. The swivel is often placed a few links from the anchor point. 1-09). fig. fig.Mooring components 9 Swivels A swivel is used in a mooring system. although a disadvantage of most common swivels is that they may not function while under load. Common materials in use today for dead weights are steel and concrete (fig. to relieve the twist and torque that builds up in the mooring line. which is caused by high friction inside the turning mechanism.

1-12 . 1-11). fig. The pile is capable of resisting both horizontal and vertical loads (fig. The holding capacity of the pile is generated by the friction of the soil along the pile and lateral soil resist-ance. either partly of fully. The drag embedment anchor is very well suited for resisting large horizontal loads.Mooring components 10 Drag embedment anchor This is the most popular type of anchoring point available today. The holding capacity of the drag embedment anchor is generated by the resistance of the soil in front of the anchor. 1-12). Pile The pile is a hollow steel pipe that is installed into the seabed by means of a piling hammer or vibrator. The drag embedment anchor has been designed to penetrate into the seabed. Generally the pile has to be installed at great depth below seabed to obtain the required holding capacity. but not for large vertical loads although there are some drag embedment anchors available on the market today that can resist significant vertical loads (fig. 1-11 fig.

although the diameter of the pipe is much larger than that of the pile. creating a pressure difference. fig. 1-14 . 1-13). The suction anchor is capable of withstanding both horizontal and vertical loads (fig. The vertical load anchor is installed like a conventional drag embedment anchor. Vertical load anchor A new development is the vertical load anchor (VLA). The suction anchor is forced into the seabed by means of a pump connected to the top of the pipe.Mooring components 11 Suction anchor Like the pile. the pipe is sucked into the seabed. 1-13 fig. 1-14). The holding capacity of the suction anchor is generated by the friction of the soil along the suction anchor and lateral soil resistance. When pressure inside the pipe is lower than outside. the suction anchor is a hollow steel pipe. but penetrates much deeper. the anchor can withstand both horizontal and vertical loads (fig. When the anchor mode is changed from the installation mode to the vertical (normal) loading mode. After installation the pump is removed.

bags of sand or even logs of wood loaded with lead which were then fastened to lines. At that time the general tendency was to use large stones. It was this weight as well as a certain degree of friction on the bottom which secured a vessel in position. Yet these primitive anchors were of poor construction and often broke under pressure. A stockless anchor was invented in 1821 and became popular. A large number of anchor types has been designed and commercialised over the years. Another refinement in the 19th century was the elimination of the stock. With the introduction of iron into anchor construction. allowing penetration into the seabed. thus offering additional stability. Some have prospered. A short overview of the anchors in use today. the crosspiece at the top of an anchor which ensured that the positioning of the anchor would allow the flukes to penetrate the soil. the so-called ‘Admiralty Anchor’ was used for ships of the Royal Navy. Curved arms were introduced in 1813. though it is quite probable that they were used prior to this. is presented on the following pages. primarily as a result of the ease of handling and stowing.000 BC. The most recent designs are the results of vast experience and extensive testing. and from 1852.History of embedment anchors 12 History of drag embedment anchors History traces the use of anchors to China as far back as 2. and are far more efficient than their historical predecessors. teeth or flukes were built on the anchor. qualities still valued today. others not. baskets of stones. anchor shackle shank fluke stabilisers .

To allow a rough comparison of anchor type efficiency. Class A Stevpris Stevshark FFTS . shank.Characteristics of anchor types 13 Based upon certain charateristics such as fluke area. Class A efficiency range *33 to 55 slender anchors with ultra-penetration. an indication (*) is provided for a 10 t anchor as (HOLDING CAPACITY = WEIGHT * EFFICIENCY). it is possible to classify the various anchor types. stabilisers.

allowing for improved penetration.Characteristics of anchor types 14 Class B efficiency range *17 to 25 anchors with ‘elbowed’ shank. Class B Bruce SS Bruce TS Hook .

Class C Stevin Stevfix Stevmud Flipper Delta .Characteristics of anchor types 15 Class C efficiency range *14 to 26 anchors with open crown hinge near the centre of gravity and relatively short shank and stabilisers or built-in stabilisers.

Offdrill Boss .Characteristics of anchor types 16 Class D efficiency range *8 to 15 anchors with hinge and stabilisers at the rear and relatively long shanks and stabilisers. Class D Danforth LWT Moorfast .Stato .

more or less square-shaped shank. thick stabilisers. Class E AC14 Stokes Snugstow Weldhold .Characteristics of anchor types 17 Class E efficiency range *8 to 11 anchors with very short. hinge at the rear and a relatively short.

The stabilising resistance is built-in the crown. Class F US Navy Stockless Beyers Union Spek .Characteristics of anchor types 18 Class F efficiency range *4 to 6 anchors with square shank. no stock stabilisers.

Class G Single Fluke Stock Stock Dredger Mooring Anchor .Characteristics of anchor types 19 Class G efficiency range *<6 anchors with small fluke area and stabilisers at the front of the shank.

The Hook anchor: originally designed for permanent moorings. The wing was not yet enlarged. This design was surpassed in 1980 by the Stevpris design and is no longer manufactured.The Stevin anchor: The original design. Hook • 1974 .History of vryhof anchor designs 20 Stevin A brief chronological summary of the types of anchors vryhof has designed for use in the offshore and dredging industries: • 1972 . It is no longer manufactured. This anchor is still manufactured and in use in offshore and dredging activities. Stevin Mk3 . • 1977 . It was equipped with an enlarged crown and fluke area and a streamlined shank for more efficient penetration. The anchor had a square shank. It has all classification societies approvals.The Stevin Mk3 anchor: is the improved version of the original Stevin anchor.

The Stevshark anchor is a specially reinforced Stevpris anchor. such as coral types or sandstone. research and knowledge of the anchor designer. Stevmud • 1980 .The Stevmud anchor: the Stevmud is essentially the Stevin anchor with a considerably enlarged fluke area. It is no longer manufactured. The fluke points are specially reinforced to withstand high point loads. This anchor type was also surpassed by the Stevpris anchor and is no longer manufactured. • 1979 . but has been surpassed by the Stevpris anchor. equipped with a serrated shank and cutter-teeth for better penetration in hard soils.The Stevfix anchor: this anchor was designed with special fluke points for harder soils and a larger fluke area than the Stevin. and incorporating the latest experience. Stevpris .The introduction of the Stevpris and Stevshark anchors. surpassing the performance of all earlier designs in the vryhof range.History of vryhof anchor designs 21 Stevfix • 1978 . The Stevpris anchor is a deep penetrating anchor with a plough shaped shank.

By changing the point of pulling at the anchor. . vertical (or normal) loading of the fluke is obtained thus mobilising the maximum possible soil resistance. The Stevmanta VLA is a new design in which a traditionally rigid shank has been replaced by a system of wires connected to a plate. Consequently the anchor is ideal for taut-leg mooring systems. Improvements have concentrated on two features: higher holding capacity and easier handling. the Stevmanta VLA was developed.Introduction of the Stevmanta VLA (Vertical Load Anchor).The Stevpris 22 Stevshark Mk5 Mk5 and Stevshark Mk5 were introduced. Based on industry demand for an anchor that could withstand vertical loads.History of vryhof anchor designs •1990 . Stevmanta •1996 . The anchor is designed to accept vertical (or normal) loads and is installed as a conventional drag embedment anchor with a horizontal load to the mudline to obtain the deepest penetration possible. The improved versions of the original Stevpris and Stevshark anchors. As a VLA is deeply embedded and always loaded in a direction normal to the fluke. the load can be applied in any direction.

2 Theory .

It is by no means complete. type of mooring line. shank design. a much better understanding of anchor behaviour has been achieved. of which the following are only a few: fluke area and design. soil conditions. but it will give a better understanding of how an optimal anchor design can be achieved. In the last part of this chapter. The performance of an anchor is influenced by many different parameters. a few relevant test results are presented. complementing the experience of the anchor manufacturer. .Introduction 24 Theory Anchor design used to be based on practical experience of the anchor manufacturer only. load conditions. Based on test results. Nowadays. This chapter presents a short overview of how these parameters influence the performance of the anchor. both in the laboratory and in the field. science has become a major factor in the design process.

Shank shape A square shank.Anchor holding capacity 25 Criteria for anchor holding capacity The holding capacity of an anchor is governed by the following parameters: • The fluke area. the soil can more easily pass through and past the shank. 2-02 Streamlining of the anchor A streamlined anchor is very important for optimal penetration in the soil. In the following paragraphs. Bevelling the shank allows deeper penetration. will cause penetration resist-ance due to the fact that the soil can not pass easily past the shank. which is limited by the strength of the anchor design. the anchor type (design). an anchor which has protruding parts will encounter much more soil resistance and consequently will not penetrate as deep as a more streamlined anchor with the same fluke area. the influences on the anchor penetration are further clarified. the type of mooring line that is used (chain or wire rope) and the applied load. 2-04). A clod of soil will form underneath the shank. which is common for most older type single shank anchors. 2-03). fig. The penetration of the anchor is governed by the soil type (deep penetration in very soft clay and shallow penetration in sand). 2-01 and fig. effectively increasing the resistance of the soil (fig. An increase in fluke area or an increase in the penetration depth of the anchor results in a higher holding capacity. 2-01 fig. 2-03 fig. usually two thin parallel steel plates. and consequently the twin shank anchor can penetrate deeper (fig. As can be seen in fig. 2-04 .When the single shank is replaced by a twin shank construction (for instance Stevpris. FFTS). fig. 2-02. •The penetration of the anchor.

Anchor holding capacity 26 Mooring line An anchor connected to a wire rope mooring line will penetrate deeper than the same anchor connected to a chain mooring line (fig. 2-07 and fig. at shallow penetration a wedge shaped piece of soil (in front and above the anchor) will fail. The holding capacity of the anchor can then be described as a combination of the following parameters (fig. fig. but especially in very soft clay where very deep penetration can be obtained. 2-05 and fig. is larger than the holding capacity of a wire rope mooring line. • The friction of the soil in the failure wedge along fracture lines (C). • The friction of the mooring line in and on the soil (E). When an anchor reaches its ultimate holding capacity. 2-05 fig. 2-07 C fig. The holding capacity of a chain mooring line. • The weight of the soil in the failure wedge (B). 2-08): • The weight of the anchor (A). 2-06 B E D A fig. due to friction in and on the seabed. This effect is noticeable in all soil conditions. 2-08 . it will not resist any higher loads. This is caused by the higher lateral resistance (penetration resistance) along the chain mooring line. • Friction between fluke surface and soil (fluke area) (D).e. • The bearing capacity of shank and mooring line (E). 2-06). i.

Efficient stabilisers are an integral part of a good anchor design. retrieved and stored. n4/n3=n W 1/3 n3/n2=n W 1/3 . consequently. ranging from very soft clay to sand. • The anchor design must have optimal mechanical strength to fulfil requirements and stipulations of the classification societies. allowing the anchor to be quickly deployed in different soil conditions. its holding capacity. • The fluke/shank angle of the anchor should be easily adjustable. • The stability of an anchor encourages its penetration and. There are several attributes of an anchor which are crucial in assuring its effective performance: L A W P M I S M/S F/A n n2 n3 n n4 n4 n3 W 1/3 W 2/3 W W 1/3 W 4/3 W 4/3 W • The anchor must offer a high holding capacity. • The surface area of an anchor fluke is limited by the required structural strength of the anchor. • The design must be so conceived and produced that the high loads common in practice can be resisted and that the anchor can be easily handled.Criteria for good anchor design 27 Scale influence Model Reality Related to Weight Length Fluke area Weight Penetration Moment Moment of inertia Section Modulus Bending stress Shear strength table A Anchor parameters can be scaled from geometrically proportional anchors using the scale rules in table A. • The design of the anchor should be such that the anchor is capable of being used successfully in practically all soil conditions encountered over the world. • The anchor should be streamlined for low penetration resistance. • The anchor should be designed to ensure an optimum between structural strength of the anchor and holding capacity. corals and calcarenites. installed. • The shank must permit passage of the soil. a result of the fluke area and shank design in combination with penetration and soil type. Obstructing parts on the anchor should be avoided as much as possible. • The penetration of an anchor depends upon its shape and design.

For anchor design and installation.Aspects of soil in anchor design 28 Aspects of soil mechanics in anchor design Until the nineteen seventies anchor design was largely an empirical process. it is this volume which determines the UHC. the maximum attainable ultimate holding capacity with a certain anchor type and size is higher than the attainable ultimate holding capacity in very soft clay. The following are influenced by the soil conditions encountered: Anchor type . while others are more suited for hard soils (sand and hard clays). the availability of good soil data is of utmost importance as the soil is of great influence on anchor behaviour. The main problem is the prediction of the volume of soil mobilised by the anchor.in very soft clay the anchor will penetrate deeper than in harder soil like sand. more use of experience. Holding capacity . Detailed understanding of soil characteristics and behaviour is essential in the anchor design process and of increasing benefit in handling at sea. for instance. For example. To a large degree. the drag length of the anchor will also be longer in very soft clay than in hard soil. It is not easy.when an anchor is installed in very soft clay.some anchors are more suited for soft soil conditions (soft clay). Penetration and drag .in hard soil like sand and hard clay. There was not much science involved. the required retrieval forces will be higher than in hard soil like sand. It is this understanding which is the hallmark of a competent anchor designer and builder. . Retrieval forces . in very soft clay the required retrieval force of an anchor can be equal to 80%90% of the installation load while in hard soil (sand) the retrieval force might only be 20%-30% of the installation load. although there are a number of anchor types on the market that are suited for most soil conditions encountered. As a consequence. to calculate the Ultimate Holding Capacity (UHC) of an anchor from the commonly known soil mechanics formulas.

20 mm 20 .6 . mooring locations consisting of soils with grain sizes above 2 mm. American (ASTM) and British (BS) standards do not use identical values (table B).2 µm 2 .20 20 .6 mm 6 .60 mm 60 . the soil types encountered in anchor design are sand and clay (Grain diameter from 0.60 µm 60 . The consistency of clays is related to the undrained shear strength.25 25 .200 mm Soil description Clay Fine Silt Medium Silt Coarse Silt Fine Sand Medium Sand Coarse Sand Fine Gravel Medium Gravel Coarse Gravel Cobbles Boulders ASTM D-2488 0 . However. boulders.Soil classification 29 Undrained Shear Strength (kPa) Consistency of Clay Very soft Soft Firm Stiff Very stiff Hard Very hard table B Soil strength is generally expressed in terms of the shear strength parameters of the soil. However.6 µm 6 .600 > 600 IIn general.40 40 .20 µm 20 . .200 µm 200 . The undrained shear strength values Su can be derived in the laboratory from unconfined unconsolidated tests (UU).200 mm > .200 200 . the water content and the plasticity parameters.400 > 400 BS CP-2004 0 . rock and such. the submerged unit weight. also occur. Clay type soils are generally characterised by the undrained shear strength. such as gravel.75 75 .1 µm to 2 mm).2 mm 2 .50 50 .13 13 . cobbles. The soil type is classified mainly by grain size distribution.600 µm 0.100 100 .300 300 . Grain size < .150 150 .

200 > 200 table C UU kPa 0 .50 50 .100 100 .30 >-30 CPT MPa 0.85 35 .0 >3. indicating an undrained shear strength larger than 200 kPa. A classification system for soil based on the carbonate content and grain size of the soil (Clark and Walker). indicating an undrained shear strength between 100 kPa and 200 kPa.65 32 .200 200 .4 . An approxim-ate correlation between the angle ϕ and the relative density of fine to medium sand is given in table D. • Hard clay is indented with difficulty with the thumbnail. An approximate relation between shear strength and the test values are shown in table C.2 2. is shown on the laste page of this chapter.3.35 . The undrained shear strength of clayey soil can also be estimated based on manual tests. indicating an undrained shear strength between 25 kPa and 50 kPa.0.5 50 100 .4 0. ϕ.1.10 Medium dense 0.30 Dense 0. These parameters are established in the laboratory.5 5 .15 < 30 0.85 > 38 > 50 table D Descriptive term Compressive strength qu [MPa] < 1.38 30 .8 6 .32 4 .35 30 .15 .7 .10 10 . • Stiff clay will be easily indented with the thumb but penetration will require great effort.0 On site the values can be estimated from the results of the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) or Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT).20 > 20 • In soft clay the thumb will easily penetrate several inches.2 .0 .50 50 .0.0.4 Loose 0.0.13 13 .Soil classification 30 Su kPa 0 . Very loose < 0.15 15 .4 4.0.65 .5 – 50 – 100 – 200 > 200 Very weak Weak Moderately weak Moderately strong Strong Very strong Extremely strong table E 1.25 25 . indicating an undrained shear strength between 50 kPa and 100 kPa.2 0.25 25 .5 . • Very stiff clay is easily indented with the thumbnail.7 0. • In firm (medium) clay the thumb will penetrate several inches with moderate effort.25 – 5 – 12.0.25 5 12.15 15 .50 Very dense > 0.5 1. indicating an undrained shear strength smaller than 25 kPa. The mechanical resistance of sandy soils is predominantly characterised by the submerged unit weight and the angle of internal friction.100 100 .35 10 . Descriptive term Relative Density Angle ϕ SPT N CPT MPa 0. The rock strength can generally be described by its compressive strength (table E).400 > 400 SPT N 0.

the hinge and the fluke tip.) is not well defined. fall aside and slide along the seabed (Fig. Danforth etc. FFTS. If an anchor is used with the fluke/shank angle set at 500. The method for measuring the fluke/shank angle for fixed shank anchors (Stevpris. Some modern anchors. the rear of the fluke and the fluke tip. fig. The recommended fluke/shank angles for different soil conditions are presented in table F. but not all anchor manufacturers use the same definition. For instance at a location where the anchor has to pass through a layer of soft clay before penetrating into a layer of sand. have an additional intermediate fluke/shank angle of 41o.) the fluke/shank angle is the angle between the anchor shackle. an anchor with a fluke/shank angle of 320 will give the highest holding power. the anchor will fail to penetrate into the seabed and will begin to trip. etc. which can be used in intermediate or more complex soil conditions.Fluke/shank angle 31 The penetration of an anchor into a certain soil type is greatly influenced by the selected fluke/shank angle. If an anchor is used with an incorrect fluke/shank angle. like the Stevpris Mk5. 2-09 fig. In hard soil. 2-10 Soil type Approximate fluke/shank angle 50˚ 32˚ 32˚ Very soft clay Medium clay Hard clay and sand table F . For hinging anchor types (Stevin. This is the case for all anchor types. 2-9 and 2-10). it will negatively influence performance. Often it is the angle between the anchor shackle.

Consequently the holding capacity will be lower when the fluke/shank angle is set at 32o. however the penetration will be less than when a fluke/shank angle of 50o is used. sand angle mud angle fig. 2-11 . the anchor will penetrate into the seabed.Fluke/shank angle 32 If an anchor is used in very soft clay (mud) with the fluke/shank angle set at 32o. and the drag length longer (Fig. 2-11).

Some examples: Fig. it can be stated that two anchors of the same weight but of different type (for instance a Stevin anchor and a Stevpris Mk5 anchor). 2-12 shows a Stevpris Mk5 anchor and a Moorfast anchor. It demonstrates that in spite of being the same weight. Consequently. two anchors of the same weight but different type.5 times higher than that of the same weight Moorfast anchor. it can be useful to compare the fluke area of different anchor types that are available on the market today. 2-13 illustrates the difference in fluke area of the Stevpris Mk5 anchor in comparison with the Bruce FFTS Mk4 anchor.Fluke area 33 Because the fluke area of an anchor is of great influence on the holding capacity. do not necessarily have the same fluke area. the fluke areas differ substantially. fig. In general. 2-13 fig. 2-12 . both of which have identical weight. both of identical weight. Fig. will have different holding capacities. The ultimate holding capacity of the Stevpris Mk5 anchor is 4 to 8.

Strength of an anchor design

34

Anchors should be designed to withstand the loads applied on them in the different loading situations. Typical loading situations and areas of special attention for anchors are: • During the proof loading of the anchors in the factory, after construction has been completed. On basis of the proof load results, the classification societies issue the approval certificate. While embedded in the seabed • Depending on the soil conditions, different loading situations can occur on the anchor. In sands and clays, the load tends to be spread equally over the anchor, which generally presents no problems. Retrieval is also very simple, without excessive loads placed on the anchor. • In very hard soils, the anchor has to be able to withstand the load with only one or two of the fluke tips buried in the soil, as penetration in very hard soil conditions is generally shallow. • In very soft clays (mud) penetration of the anchor is uncomplicated. However, recovery of the anchor can cause high loads, sometimes exceeding the load that was used to install the anchor. • Sidewards forces on the top of (shallow) buried anchors can be so extreme that no anchor is capable of resisting them. During anchor handling • Care should be taken during the handling of the anchors, as the loads exerted by the winches, vessels and chain can sometimes exceed the structural strength of the anchor and cause damage. Anchor designers attempt to design the anchors for these high loads, however this is not always possible due to variations in the magnitude of the loads during handling operations.

Strength of an anchor design

35

• Large forces can be exerted on the anchor when high winch power is
used, the anchor is caught on the anchor rack or caught behind the stern roller of the AHV. • The use of an improper anchor/chaser combination. When a chaser is used that is either too small or too large, the chaser could jam on the shank of the anchor and cause damage. The strength of the Stevpris anchor is now more closely examined in the light of the remarks made before. Strength of the shank The prismatic shape of the Stevpris anchor not only ensures optimal penetration of the soil but also guarantees maximum strength. Although the Stevpris design also has limitations, it is one of the better designs to withstand sideward forces on the shank, a frequent occurrence in practice. When using an anchor in very soft clay (mud), the bending moment on the shank is low during the installation and when the anchor is in the soil. However, during the breaking out of the anchor, high bending moments could be introduced in the shank due to the high retrieval forces required in very soft clay. In extremely sticky soils, the breaking out force of the anchor can rise to 80% or 90% of applied anchor load; in certain instances, it can even exceed 100%. To reduce these forces the breaking out procedure is undertaken at low speed to allow time for the anchor to break out.

Strength of an anchor design

36

Strength of the fluke The strength of the fluke and especially the fluke points of an anchor are very important when working in extremely hard soils such as coral, limestone and other rock types. It is possible in such instances that the total holding capacity of the anchor will have to be sustained by the fluke points alone. This means the structure must be strong enough to withstand extreme bending forces. Loading in normal soil conditions is not a problem due to the fact that the load is equally spread over the fluke. In fig. 2-14, the different force points are shown for varying soil conditions. The location on the fluke where the proofload is applied, is also indicated. Strength in extremely hard soils In very hard soils such as calcarenite, coral and limestone, an anchor will not penetrate very deeply. Consequently the load applied to the anchor has to be held by the fluke tips of the anchor and a small portion of the fluke. This means that extremely high loads will be applied to the fluke tips, compared to normal soil conditions such as sand and clay. For use in very hard soil conditions, vryhof has designed the Stevshark anchor, a modified version of the Stevpris anchor. To create the Stevshark, the Stevpris anchor has been strengthened, consequently a Stevshark anchor having the same outside dimensions and holding capacity as a Stevpris anchor will be heavier. Strength calculations of the Stevshark design have been made to guarantee sufficient strength in the fluke points. The Stevshark anchor is designed to withstand the application of the main part of the load on just its fluke tips.

clay sand

proofload rock

fig. 2-14

. Ballast weight can also be added inside the hollow flukes of the anchor. i. This is important when working in very hard soil. the Stevshark anchor has a serrated shank and can be provided with cutter points on the fluke tips.Strength of an anchor design 37 To promote penetration.e. increased bearing pressure. where the anchor weight pressing on the fluke tips promotes penetration. up to 35% of the anchor weight.

39 20 39 . wind. Depending on the location of the floater in the world.5 1. the systems tend to move at a low frequency. The quasi-static load plus the individual wave forces is called the total dynamic load.6 1.41 Current m/s 1 1 0. See Fig. some extreme metocean conditions are presented for different areas. Location Waveheight m 8 – 10 11 15 . current and the frequency of the system.0 – 1.41 37 .9– 1.0 2000 1000 0 8300 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 9800 fig.Anchor loads and safety factors 38 Load in kN 4000 3895 Total dynamic Quasi static 2342 3000 The loads in a mooring system are caused by the wind.0 – 1.3 – 0.39 39 . 2-15 Time in seconds Campos Basin Gulf of Mexico Northern North Sea Porcupine Basin Vorine Basin West of Africa West of Shetlands .17 16 16 10 16 20 17 16 19 Windspeed m/s 25 44 . Generally the quasi-static loads will be equal to 50% to 90% of the total dynamic load.0 – 3. waves and current acting on the floater.48 38 .16 16 14 4 15 18 15 6 17 Wave period s 12 . different metocean conditions will prevail. 2-15 for an example of the difference between the quasi-static load and the total dynamic load. generally with a period of 140 to 200 seconds. On top of this quasi-static load there are the individ-ual wave forces causing a high frequency motion. The high frequency motion causes dynamic shock loads with a period of 10 to 14 seconds due to the rolling of the vessel and the movements of the anchor lines through the water.15 14 15 . In the table below. The quasi static load is the load due to the swell.5 0. The loads induced in the mooring system can be divided into quasi-static loads and total dynamic loads. For quasi-static loads.2 1.

0 1. The damaged load condition is the condition in which one of the mooring lines has broken. For VLAs.0 The quasi-static and total dynamic loads are generally calculated for the intact and damaged load condition.5 Intact load condition Damaged condition table I Mooring line safety factors Quasi-static load Dynamic load 1. it will continuously drag through the soil without generating additional holding capacity. From the quasi-static load and the total dynamic load.25 1. i. according to API RP 2SK.05 Intact load condition 2. the required holding capacity of the anchor can be calculated.67 1. When a VLA exceeds its ultimate pullout capacity.00 Damaged load condition 1. 1996).2 1. The factors of safety for VLAs are higher than the factors of safety required for drag embedment anchors. it will slowly be pulled out of the soil. This is called the ultimate holding capacity (UHC) for drag embedment anchors and the ultimate pull-out capacity (UPC) for VLAs. The intact load condition is the condition in which all the mooring lines are intact. When a drag embedment anchor reaches its ultimate holding capacity. In table J the safety factors according to API RP 2SK for the mooring line are presented for comparison purposes.5 1. Temporary mooring Quasi-static Total dynamic load load 0. the factors of safety are presented for the different load conditions for drag embedment anchors (for instance the Stevpris Mk5 anchor). In the tables G and H.8 1. The factors of safety used by the major classification societies are generally similar to those given in API RP 2SK (2nd edition. due to the difference in failure mechanisms.8 Not required Intact load condition 1. the recently used factors of safety suggested by ABS. the load will stay equal to the UHC.e. The required holding capacity is calculated by applying the factors of safety specified by the classification societies.Anchor loads and safety factors 39 Permanent mooring Intact load condition Damaged condition table G Quasi-static Total dynamic load load 1.43 Transient load condition 1. are presented in table I.0 Damaged condition Not required table H VLA Total dynamic load 2.18 table J .

Anchor behaviour in the soil 40 Classification society Required duration of maintaining tension 20 minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes Drag embedment anchors Drag embedment anchors are generally installed by applying a load equal to the maximum intact load. For permanent mooring systems the installation load should be held for the period specified by the classification societies (see table K). the bearing soil resistance to the fluke. Observations on anchors for drilling rigs and theoretical considerations for a 3 to 4 week consolidation time demonstrate a typical set-up effect factor =1. consequently the load at the shackle increases also with the setup factor. it takes a larger load to move the anchor again. increases. Equilibrium dictates that also the normal load. this takes from a few hours up to 1 month. The anchor will also have travelled a certain horizontal distance.e. the parallel soil resistance gains strength. Lloyd’s Register of Shipping American Bureau of Shipping Det Norske Veritas (NMD) table K .5. called the drag length. i. The anchor will then have penetrated to a certain depth. When the installation load is exceeded. The disturbance mainly reduces the soil resistance parallel to the fluke. With time. However. The penetrating anchor disturbs the soil and the soil temporarily loses strength. but will still be capable of further penetration because the ultimate holding capacity has not been reached. After installation the anchor is capable of resisting loads equal to the installation load without further penetration and drag. depending on the soil type. there are certain effects which allow the anchor to withstand forces larger than the installation load without further penetration and drag. These are: The set-up and consolidation effect Set-up and consolidation mainly occur in clayey soils. the set-up effect factor is less than the sensitivity index indicates. On reloading. the anchor will continue to penetrate and drag until the soil is capable of providing sufficient resistance or the ultimate holding capacity has been reached. Because not all the soil around the anchor is disturbed. the disturbed clay reconsolidates to its initial shear strength.

During installation (pull-in mode) the load arrives at an angle of approximately 45 to 500 to the fluke. being 33% to 40% of the required UPC. As a VLA is deeply embedded and always loaded in a direction normal to the fluke. viscous intergranular forces and inertia forces.8 0 200 400 600 800 1000 The rate effect An increased rate of loading increases the soil resistance. This change in load direction generates 2.1 1 0. For anchor behaviour the rate effect factor indicates how much higher the dynamic high frequency load may be without causing extra movement of the anchor once installed at the installation load. Time factor St fig. Consequently the anchor is ideal for taut-leg mooring systems.3 for total dynamic loads.5 to 3 times more holding capacity in relation to the installation load. Typical rate effect factors are 1. This means that once the required UPC of the VLA is known. 2-16 where the rate effect is presented for two different soil conditions (Su = 10 kPa and Su = 50 kPa). Vertical Load Anchors A VLA is installed just like a conventional drag embedment anchor. The rate of loading influences pore pressure variations. see Fig. consequently the anchor holding capacity increases. the required installation load for the VLA is also known. where generally the angle between mooring line and seabed varies from 25 to 450.2 1. the load can be applied in any direction.Rate effect factor Anchor behaviour in the soil 41 0 1. 2-16 Su=10 kPa Su=50 kPa .9 0. This must be taken into account with respect to total dynamic loads. the load always arrives perpendicular to the fluke. Using the rate effect and set-up factors. the behaviour of the anchor after installation can be predicted more accurately.1 to 1. After triggering the anchor to the normal load position.

A more detailed overview of HHP anchor proof loads is Anchor weight 1 5 7 10 15 20 table J Proof Load factor 26 79 99 119 155 187 t t t t t t Anchor weight 26 15 14 12 10 9 x x x x x x t t t t t t . The rules which did exist were often followed regardless of the type of vessel. See table J for some examples of HHP anchor proof loads. 2-17). nothing more. The vryhof anchor types have been approved by the following Classification Societies: fig. Some anchors were approved as ‘high holding power’ anchors.Proof loads anchors 42 Proof loads for high holding power anchors The proof load according to Classification Societies’ rules is applied at 1/3rd of the fluke length and is carried out immediately on fabrication of the anchor. It is obtained by placing the anchor in a test yoke in which a hydraulic cylinder applies the test loads. the anchor has proof tested in strict accordance with the rules. If an HHP anchor was requested by the owner. This socalled HHP approval was obtained after carrying out field tests in various types of soil in which it had to be shown that an anchor provided a holding power of at least twice that of a standard stockless anchor. 2-17 • The American Bureau of Shipping • Bureau Veritas • Det Norske Veritas • Germanischer Lloyd • Lloyd’s Register of Shipping • Registro Italiano Navale • USSR Register of Shipping • Nippon Kaiji Kyokai • Norwegian Maritime Directorate In the early days there were no specific regulations regarding the holding power and strength of mooring anchors. controlled by a calibrated manometer (fig.

the following properties may be required: 10 t Stevin Mk3 4. In fig. given in the product data section. 2-18 Proofload in t Balanced mooring system API RP 2SK Breakload chain Ultimate holding capacity anchor Damaged load floater Proofload chain Pretension load anchor Intact load floater Proofload anchor 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 fig. UHC=250 t.5 t Stevshark Mk5 4 t Stevpris Mk5 0 50 100 150 200 250 fig. 2-19 Load in % • Proof load of the anchors at 50% of the breaking load of the chain. If anchors need mobile offshore units certification. 2-19. • Submittal of a Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manual. The strength of the mooring line. holding capacity of the anchor and strength of the anchor are all in the correct proportion and comply with the rules. There are now special rules for ‘mobile offshore units’ and ‘permanently moored structures’. • A statement of documented holding power from the anchor supplier.Proof loads anchors 43 29 t Danforth Proofload HHP anchors. and the requirements have been substantially increased. 2-18. a mooring system is shown in which all of the components are balanced. see fig. • Submission of a strength calculation of the anchor to the classification society prior to commencing anchor production: this includes determining the mechanical strength of the anchor as well as proving that the applied material can withstand the proofload. . The use of the specified proof loads for HHP anchors can lead to situations where different types of anchors with the same holding capacity are proof loaded at different loads. Nowadays the rules and regulations are far more rigid. From this figure it can be concluded that the proof load of the anchors should preferably be related to the break-load of the mooring line on the vessel.

Like other companies. vryhof has become increasingly aware of the vital importance of managerial aspects and their influence on the total quality-assurance and control system. No 24 ISO-9001CERTIFICATED FIRM DET NORSKE VERITAS INDUSTRY B. Quality control is maintained throughout production. A compilation of certificates is presented to a client upon completion of a project. ACCREDITED BY THE DUTCH COUNCIL FOR CERTIFICATION Reg.Quality control 44 The application of more advanced and complex technology in anchor construction has brought about requirements for a systematic approach to quality. Vryhof anchors obtained the ISO 9001 certificate No.V. Initiated by various authorities they are continuously refined and followed up by operating companies such as vryhof anchor. Design and fabrication of anchors for permanent moorings are in accordance with the quality requirements of the Rules NS/ISO 9001 as described in our Quality Assurance Manual. QSC 3189 issued by Det Norske Veritas for ‘Design. THE NETHERLANDS .. and Sales of anchors and mooring components’. Manufacture of anchors.

deployed in sand. is capable of stopping a modern AHV at its full bollard pull. however. the better one can forecast the holding power and general behaviour in practice. which are not always available. anchor tests are one of the most reliable means of forecasting anchor performance and thus making a proper choice of anchor type and size. have not been very common. certain conclusions can be made: • Many tests were undertaken in which the results were recorded accurately. For example. • Detailed reports. Research into anchor behaviour and the ultimate holding capacity of anchors is often carried out by testing a model anchor. a 5 t Stevpris Mk5 anchor. • The more tests results are strictly compared to practical results. It is obvious that full-scale testing of anchors can be expensive. followed by full-scale tests with 1 t and 10 t anchors. Vryhof is in the perfect situation of having detailed test data available together with extensive practical data obtained during installation and use of anchors on projects on site. . The optimal anchor test consists of model tests with 10 kg anchors. Large AHVs. • Anchor tests of the past are not always easy to interpret or compare because of different soil and anchor types.Anchor tests 45 Introduction In addition to practical experience of users and associates. strong winches and strong mooring lines are required. • Test results have not always been interpreted independently. Examining anchor tests that have been carried out in the past. preferably followed by a full-scale test in the field. The anchors should be pulled until the ultimate holding capacity is reached.

2-20 Testing a 10 t Stevpris Mk5 anchor to its ultimate holding capacity in sand would require a horizontal pulling capacity of approximately 600 t. • Curve E is an anchor with a 32 fluke/shank angle in very soft clay. the following criteria: • An accurate and sophisticated measuring system should be used. Sample test curves are presented in Fig. • Curve G represents an anchor penetrating in a layer of stiff clay overlain by very soft clay. as a minimum.Anchor tests 46 Holding Capacity A G B C D E F fig. Drag • Curve A is very steep and represents a streamlined anchor in very stiff soil. Properly interpreted performance curves can explain a lot about anchor behaviour. • Curve C is a curve of an unstable anchor. Reading test curves The behaviour of an anchor during tensioning can be accurately interpreted from the holding capacity versus drag curve. • Curve F represents an anchor that is turning continuously. • Curve B is a normal curve for anchors in sand and medium clay. the testing program should preferably meet. . • The anchor should be held under tension with a blocked winch for 15 minutes. a short stabiliser or a fluke that is too long. • The anchors should be tested up to their ultimate holding capacity. to investigate any drop in holding capacity. If anchor tests are to be comparable. • Curve D is a normal curve for an anchor in very soft clay. This can be caused by a wrong fluke/shank angle setting. • Drag and penetration of the anchor should be recorded during testing. 2-20. This can be o caused by the absence of stabilisers. a too large fluke/shank angle or a low efficiency anchor at continuous drag.

Although the construction would took place at one location. 8 m soft clay on rock 50 25 soft clay 0 10 20 30 40 fig. E and G show a very stable rising line. sizes and soil conditions. The purpose of these tests was to determine the correct anchor type and size for the mooring system of the Gullfaks A platform during the construction of the platform at Digernessundet. The data has been interpreted and afterwards incorporated in the ultimate holding capacity. which indicates that the anchor builds up its holding capacity constantly until the ultimate holding capacity has been reached. has been frequently used in anchor design. 102 t in the very soft clay and 150 t in the layer of mud on rock. Norwegian Contractors (1984) In 1984 Norwegian Contractors carried out tests at Digernessundet. 40 t Stevpris (sand location) and 60 t Stevshark (mud on rock location) were selected for the final mooring. The other curves are largely self-explanatory. while fig. a 65 t Stevpris (mud location). soft mud and an 8 m mud layer on rock. Norway. After the initial trials the Stevpris anchor was selected for further testing. Stord. D. 2-22 shows the result of the tensioning of the final anchors with a load of 820 t. produced a maximum holding capacity of 150 t in the sand. 2-21 Drag in meters Full scale Gullfaks A anchors 800 700 600 Holding capacity in t A 500 400 300 B* C Survival load = 1500 ton 200 100 0 20 40 60 80 A = 40 t Stevpris in sand B = 60 t Stevshark in mud on rock C = 65 t Stevpris in mud * Final pretension load on site fig. The 3 t Stevpris anchor that was used for the tests at a 3. after which the anchor shows continuous drag.Holding capacity in t Anchor tests 47 150 Sand 100 Curves A. drag and penetration graphs of the Stevin Mk3 and Stevpris Mk5 anchor as well as in the ultimate pull-out capacity graph of the Stevmanta VLA. it was known that three different types of soil conditions would be encountered: sand. Data has been obtained from practice. Test results Vryhof’s extensive database of test results with different anchor types.30 pulling angle. B. Fig. scale models and from third parties. 2-22 Drag in meters . 2-21 shows the test results of the 3 t Stevpris anchor. As the mooring system required a survival load of 1500 t.

Horizontal load in kips Anchor tests 48 700 600 Large scale anchor test jip . tests were performed with 2 t and 7 t Stevpris Mk5 anchors.7 & 2 t 7-3 Large scale anchor tests in the Gulf of Mexico In 1990. 500 400 300 200 100 7-2 7-1 7-4 2-1 2-2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 fig. Based on the results of tests. the ultimate holding capacity of the 7 t Stevpris anchor was calculated to be larger than 338 t (745 kips) (fig. Due to insufficient pulling capacity. as part of an anchor test Joint Industry Project (JIP). the 7 t Stevpris anchor could not be pulled up to its ultimate holding capacity. 2-23 Drag distance in feet . 2-23). The anchors were tested using a wire rope forerunner. The 2 t Stevpris anchor was tested up to its ultimate holding capacity of 107 t (235 kips).

the anchor line arrives at the anchor shackle at an angle of 20o to 30o with the mud line. 2-24 Line length pulled in feet Line angle vs mudine 35 000 60 . Once the anchor is installed. The maximum resistance was obtained for 18o uplift at mud line. Line load in lbs 30 000 25 000 20 000 = dyn load = pull angle 50 40 30 15 000 10 000 20 18˚ 5 000 0 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 fig. Anchors in sand and firm to hard clays do not penetrate very deeply and only take small uplift loads. 2-24). a typical penetration for a 15 t anchor is 15 to 25 meters. a load making an angle up to 20o with the horizontal at mud line will not change the loading direction at the anchor! A Stevpris anchor has been tested in the Gulf of Mexico with gradually increasing pull angle (fig.Anchor tests 49 Uplift Stevpris anchors are well capable of resisting uplift loads when they are deeply embedded. Due to the inverse catenary in the soil. Stevpris anchors installed in very soft clay and mud penetrate deeply.

5. 2-25 Time in seconds . Although the maximum cyclic load was less than the initial installation load. the static load applied after the cycling phase revealed 25 to 50% larger anchor resistance than the initial installation load (fig. 1993.1 Increased capacity vs initial static Cycling 0. the static anchor resistance after some storm loading improves by the cyclic effect factor of 1.0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 fig. Applying this knowledge to the anchors. Anchor resistance in kN Initial static capacity 0. This effect is explained by further penetration of the anchor. Exxon performed cyclic tests on anchors reported by Dunnavent and Kwan.15 0.Anchor tests 50 Cyclic effect factor The loading at the anchor is cyclic.25 to 1. 2-25).

200 Line load in % Block winch 150 100 Change mode 50 900 pulling angle with seabed in normal loading mode 25 30 35 0 0 5 10 15 20 fig. then loaded vertically to a load equal to 1. accepted a vertical load to the anchor of up to 2 times F! Amongst the many tests the anchor relaxation was measured.13 m2 was pulled in at 0o pull angle (fig. The anchor with a fluke area of 0.Anchor tests 51 Tests with Stevmanta anchors Tests have been performed in the Gulf of Mexico and offshore Brazil. 2-26). 2-26 Line length pulled in feet . At this load the winch was blocked. The Stevmanta anchor being pulled in with a load equal to F.6 times the maximum installation load.

00 6. as the observed decrease in tension was due to movement of the winch. 2-27 Time in hours .00 0 20.00 fig.00 0. The results show that the holding capacity of the anchor does not change significantly during continuous loading. 200 Line load in % 150 Block winch 100 50 Change from pull-in to normal mode 900 pulling angle with seabed in normal loading mode 4. the full plate capacity (2 x installation load) could be reached.00 22.Anchor tests 52 This permitted the monitoring of the load with time (fig. Continuous pulling caused the anchor to loose resistance and break out.00 8. The subsequent pulling at 7:00 AM showed that for only a small movement. 2-27) as what would be expected in real circumstances at a constant loaded anchor line.00 2.

The behaviour is similar to the earlier vertical pull test. The graphs clearly show this effect and that the anchor can be used for substantial horizontal loads. the anchor was installed with a horizontal pull. 2-28 Line length pulled in feet .Anchor tests 53 To demonstrate that the feature of these anchors is not only a vertical resistance. for the 30o pull angle the anchor did not break out but moved slowly along the pulling direction through the soil. the mode changed to the normal (vertical) mode and the anchor subsequently pulled with an uplift angle of 30o (fig. 2-28). 200 150 100 50 Change from pull-in to normal mode 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 300 pulling angle with seabed in normal loading mode Line load in % 0 fig. However.

Conglom. Silica silt Silica sand Calcarenite (carb. Calystone) Clayey calcilutute Siltstone) Siliceous calcisiltite Calcisiltite (carb. Sandstone) Siliceous calcarenite 50 Silica gravel Calcirudite (carb.063 mm 2 mm 60 mm Carbonate gravel 90 Carbonate clay silt sand Siliceous carbonate Siliceous carbonate Mixed carbonate and non-carbonate gravel Calcareous clay Calcareous silica silt Calcareous silica sand 10 Very weak Clay Calcilutite (carb. Or Breccia Conglomeratic calcirudite Calcareous sandstone Calcareous conglomerate Siltstone Sandstone Conglomerate or breccia Detrital limestone Conglomerat limestone Fine-grained agrillaceous limestone Calcareous claystone Claystone Fine-grained siliceous limestone Calcareous siltstone Siltstone Siliceous detrital limestone Calcareous sandstone Sandstone Conglomerate limestone Calcareous conglomerate Conglomerate of Breccia 10 90 90 Cementation of soil Very weak to firmly cemented soil Weak to moderately weak Well cemented soil Claystone Fine-grained limestone Moderately strong to strong (well cemented) rock Strong to extemely strong Calcareaous claystone Calcareous siltstone Crystalline limestone or marble Increasing lithification Conventional metamorphic nomenclature applies in this section Total carbonate content % 50 10 54 50 50 . Rock strength 0.002 mm Carbonate silt Carbonate sand 0.Soil table Increasing grain size of particulate deposits Approx.

3 Practice .

The following handling procedures are by no means complete. but they do give some suggestions which can be applied to each anchor handling procedure and adapted for specific circumstances and locations. various types of support equipment are necessary or beneficial. An anchor manual would be incomplete without consideration of these auxiliary items. their operation and the advantages and drawbacks involved. the depth of the water. Without proper anchor handling. the weather conditions. . It is for these reasons that anchor handling is a subject which requires careful consideration. chasers. In the process of handling anchors. the nature of the soil. the Stevtensioner. Anchor handling is a critically important and often complicated process.Introduction 56 Practice Although theoretical knowledge of anchors is essential for good anchor design and selection. the available handling equipment and the type and weight of mooring line. The handling of an anchor and the selection and use of support equipment is of equal importance. Some of the topics covered in this chapter are: requirements for a soil survey. connection of the anchor to the mooring line. It is influenced by such factors as the weight and shape of the anchor. anchor handling/supply vessels. This chapter gives an overview of the recommended procedures that should be followed for anchor handling and the types and use of the support equipment during the handling operations. handling the Stevmanta anchor. optimal performance of an anchor is not possible. the practical issues are just as important. the reasons for their use. handling the Stevpris anchor.

When choosing between anchor pile. cone penetration tests or a combination of these. The soil investigation can consist of boreholes. For suction anchor design therefore a more extensive soil investigation is generally required when compared to drag embedment anchors. while in anchor pile design deep boreholes are required. but they should be accompanied by at least one vibrocore or sample borehole per site to obtain a description of the soil. • Specific gravity. Depending upon the type of survey performed and the soil conditions encountered.Soil survey 57 Typical contents survey report • Cone penetration resistance. the site-specific soil data should be compared with soil data of previous drag embedment anchor (test) sites. each anchor location should ideally be surveyed. A typical soil survey for drag embedment anchor design requires a survey depth of twice the length of the fluke in sand and 8 times the fluke length in very soft clay. . • Undrained shear strength. the survey report should present the test results obtained on site and in the laboratory including the points as shown in table K. For advice on specifying drag embedment anchor type/size and calculating expected behaviour. • RQD index. • Unconfined compression tests. The ‘lack’ of soil data can be compensated by choosing a conservative (larger) anchor size. The soil survey requirement for the design of drag embedment anchors usually consists of only shallow boreholes. although in very soft clay a reconnaissance depth of 20 to 30 meters should be considered. rock quality designation. • SPT values. In most cases a depth of 8 to 10 meters is sufficient. For optimal drag embedment anchor dimensioning. vibrocores. • Normalised rock hardness test (point load test). suction anchor and drag embedment anchor the financial implications of the soil survey should be taken into account. • Wet and dry densities. • CaCO3 content. • Angularity and porosity. • Plasticity limits. • Sleeve friction. • Drained and undrained triaxal tests. Cone penetration tests including sleeve friction are preferred. • Cementation. • Shell grading. • Compressibility. the availability of site-specific soil data is important. It is possible to dimension the drag embedment anchors based on limited soil information (for instance fewer boreholes). • Pore pressure. • Granulometry and percentage fines. also remoulded. • Water content. table K For the dimensioning of drag embedment anchors.

Pile or anchor 58 Description Pile Suction Anchor pile + + + + + + + + + + + + + + The choice between piles and anchors is only possible for permanent systems. also for MODU applications. experience has shown that the choice between anchor and pile is merely a matter of economics. To allow drag of the anchors during pretensioning. The disadvantage is the cost of the pile itself and the cost of the installation. Piles require a follower and a pile hammer. anchor removal is much cheaper than removal of installed piles. a crane barge with support spread versus the two anchor handling vessels. The weather downtime for a spread involving a crane vessel is much longer than when AHVs are used.more expensive . The installation spread for piles is much more significant. However. The table L can help in estimating the costs for the two alternatives. The survey work for anchors is generally much simpler than for piles. extra chain length is required. The required pile weight for a system is equal to the required weight of a Stevpris anchor. Piles cost about 40% of equivalent capability anchors. Soil survey Procurement Installation spread Installation time Pile hammer Follower Pump unit Pretensioning Extra chain Rest value pile/anchor Removal of anchor point ROV + less expensive table L + + + + + . anchors that are properly pre-tensioned on site will also not drag. Sometimes the pretension load for piles is much less than for anchors. But the choice is often made for piles on emotional grounds. The choice between piles and anchors strongly depends upon the circumstances. Piles are not a good investment when an anchored entity must be moved. Suction piles are an alternative for drag embedment anchors and piles. the installation costs for piles are much higher. The advantage is the accurate positioning of the suction piles. a pile does not drag! However. When abandoning a field. While it is a psychologically loaded subject.

Remove the split pins and open the locking plates B1 and B2.Mounting instructions Stevpris / Stevshark Mk5 59 A1 pin 1 A2 pin 2 B1 pin 3 B2 pin 4 Plate A1 & A2 Pin 1&2 Forward fluke-shank connection Remove the locking plates A1 and A2 which are tack-welded to the fluke Plate B1 & B2 Pin 3&4 Aft fluke-shank connection Move the pins 1 and 2 to the outer side. . Move the pins 3 and 4 to the outside.

Move pins 3 and 4 back into position. Vryhof recommended welding procedure for locking plates A1 and A2 Fillet weld with electrode acc. Manoeuvre the rear shank lugs with the notch into the gap in the flukes. Move pins 1 and 2 back into position. See Middle welding detail Sand below. Attention Make sure the serial number of the shank corresponds with the serial number of the fluke for reason of identification and certification. Align pins 1 and 2 with the forward shank eyes.AWS. middle or mud position.E7018 Welding process SMAW electrode welding position 2F material S355J2G3 (St52-2N) preheat material 50° C interpass temp max 250° C Serial number Sand angle Middle angle Mud angle Locking plate . Align pins 3 and 4 with the rear shank lugs.Mounting instructions Stevpris / Stevshark Mk5 60 Fit the rear shank lugs into the fluke by means of a crane. Place the shank in the sand. rotate the shank forward to align the front pins with the shank. Fit and weld the locking plates A1 and A2 Mud on the fluke. When in position. as indicated in the figures. Close the locking plates B1 Notch and B2 and secure with split pins.

Mounting instructions Stevpris New Generation 61 A1 pin 1 A2 pin 2 pin 3 pin 4 Plate A1 & A2 Pin 1&2 Forward fluke-shank connection Remove the locking plates A1 and A2 which are tack-welded to the fluke. Remove the splitpins and nuts from pins 3 and 4 and move the pins 3 and 4 to the outside. . 1 2 3 4 Aft fluke-shank connection Move the pins 1 and 2 to the inner side.

middle or mud position.AWS. Align pins 1 and 2 with the forward shank eyes. as indicated in the figures.E7018 Welding process SMAW electrode welding position 2F material S355J2G3 (St52-2N) preheat material 50° C interpass temp max 250° C Locking plate Sand angle Middle angle Mud angle Mud eye Mid eye Sand eye . Vryhof recommended welding procedure for locking plates A1 and A2 Fillet weld with electrode acc. See welding detail below. Tighten the bolts and insert splitpins 3 and 4. Fit and weld the locking plates A1 and A2 on the fluke. Manoeuvre the rear shank lugs into the gap in the flukes. rotate the shank forward to align the front pins with the shank.Mounting instructions Stevpris New Generation 62 Fit the rear shank lugs into the fluke by means of a crane. Align pins 3 and 4 with the rear shank lugs and insert them in the lugs. Attention Make sure the serial number of the shank corresponds with the serial number of the fluke for reason of identification and certification. Move pins 1 and 2 back into position. When in position. Place the shank in the sand.

3-01). an anchor with a fluke/shank angle of 32o will give the highest holding power. do not weld them to the pins (fig.Setting the fluke/shank angle 63 fluke angle too large in hard soil ! Introduction In soil such as sand and medium to hard clay. no penetration ! fig. Change from mud to sand angle by removing the locking plates and the two rear pins in (B). 3-02 Soil type Optimal fluke/shank angle setting 500 410 * 320 Very soft clay (mud) Certain layered soils Medium to hard clay or sand * Stevpris Mk5 only table M . Seal weld the lock-ing plates. An anchor with a 32 o fluke/shank angle will penetrate less and generate lower holding capacity in mud(fig. decrease the fluke/shank angle by hauling the cable (C). Connect a tugger wire (C) to the holes (D) on the bottom side of the fluke. 3-01 change from mud to sand angle fig. Secure the anchor on deck. 3-02). If used in mud a 50o fluke/shank angle is appropriate. which can be adopted in certain layered soil conditions (table M). Reinstall the pins and locking plates in (A). An anchor with a 50o fluke/shank angle in this soil will not penetrate but will drag along the seabed. Changing the fluke/shank angle on the Stevpris Mk3 This can be carried out within half an hour with the Stevpris anchor upside down on deck. The Stevpris Mk5 anchor has an additional fluke/shank angle setting of 41o.

Veering and hauling (C) to change the fluke/shank angle as above. 3-03 change fluke/shank angle Stevpris Mk5 fig. the pin however remains in (A). increase angle by veering (C). No welding required. the locking plate is secured by means of a cotter pin (fig. Changing the fluke/shank angle on the Stevpris Mk5 Changing the fluke/shank angle on the Stevpris Mk5 anchor is even quicker. 3-04). No special welding requirements (fig. fig. 3-04 . 3-03).Setting the fluke/shank angle 64 change from sand to mud angle Change from sand to the mud position. change over pin and locking plates from (A) to (B).

The swivel is connected to the anchor shackle (fig. J swivel shackle.The swivel is part of a forerunner connected to the anchor shackle. A common link Type II . several different configurations are possible.The swivel is connected directly to the shank of the anchor thus omitting the anchor shackle (fig. which can result in damage or even breakage. 3-07). A common link. H swivel. 3-08 . swivels are only designed to withstand longitudinal forces. there will be high bending forces on the swivel. 3-06). B enlarged link. B enlarged link. C end link. B enlarged link. 3-05). A common link Type IV . 3-05 J C B A fig. In general. some of the configurations mentioned above are more suitable than others. 3-08). K special end link. 3-06 K J C B A fig. When a chaser is used in combination with the Stevpris and swivel. The design of the chaser tends to stop it at the swivel. C end link. for instance the forerunners VA02. Consequently.The swivel is connected to the anchor shackle via a special design end link (fig. VA04 and VA 06 described in the product data section (fig. and are usually not designed for use in combination with chasers. These are: Type I . PL pear link.Connecting a swivel 65 Connecting a swivel to the Stevpris anchor To connect a swivel to the Stevpris anchor. C end link. 3-07 PL A B H B A fig. A common link Type III . J C B A fig. J swivel shackle. B enlarged link. J swivel.

it is best when the swivel is fitted some distance from the anchor when a chaser is used. When the swivel (or swivel forerunner) is connected to the anchor shackle by means of an end shackle and a chaser is used. (See next page for fig. The chaser can then pass the swivel and stop on the anchor shank. 3-09 through fig. 3-12 . the end shackle and the anchor shackle should be connected bow through bow instead of pin through bow as is normal practice. NO ! fig. 3-11 fig. The illustrations fig. 3-14 show how and how not to connect the swivel to the Stevpris anchor when using a chaser. This means that in combination with the use of a chaser. the configuration type III and type IV are preferred. 3-13 and 3-14). the swivel is only loaded longitudinally.Connecting a swivel 66 damage possible! Generally. 3-09 fig. 3-10 damage possible! NO ! fig. This to minimise the chance of damage to the shackles. When a load is applied to the chaser.

NO ! fig. 3-14 . 3-13 fig.Connecting a swivel 67 damage possible! The best method for chasing with a swivel in the system is to maintain the tension of the anchor line as much as possible during chasing. This will make the chaser pass more easily over the swivel.

Their function was to ensure both installation and break-out of the anchor without having to use a pendant line/buoy.Chasers 68 Chasers and their application To facilitate handling. The buoys would then float free and the anchors are much more difficult to recover. The chaser system thus totally eliminates buoys. resulting in longer. heavier pendant wires and consequently larger buoys. In deeper water higher anchor break-out forces are encountered. To overcome this. It is therefore extremely important from an operator’s viewpoint that chasers do not inflict damage to the mooring lines. These were rings ‘chased’ along the cable towards the anchor and back again to a rig or handling vessel. chasers were introduced. These wires are connected to a pendant eye situated on the anchor and equipped with a buoy for picking up. Due to wear caused by the continuous movement of the buoy by the waves. these pendants will break close to the buoy. pendant wires may be applied to retrieve the anchor. . partly eliminates cables and reduces wear on the system. The cost of a chaser is small when compared to the cost of a mooring line.

must result in wear. when chasing a Chasing operations are best carried out on mooring lines which are fully tensioned. There are many different types of chaser available on the market today. A selection of the different chaser types is described in more detail on the following pages. There is little need for the application of high interface pressure while chasing. the permanent chaser is captive on the mooring line and. For optimum chasing operations. The chasers vryhof recommends are manufactured in a material that is softer than the steel used for the mooring line. the length of the chaser pendant line should be at least 1. high interface pressures.5 times the waterdepth. High interface pressure can arise from: • Pulling the chaser along a slack mooring line.Chasers 69 Towing a chaser along mooring lines with. Chaser wear is induced by the application of high interface pressure between the mooring line and the chaser. . It is thus essential that such wear is taken by the chaser and not the mooring line. will not become disengaged due to a slack work wire. • Maintaining high tension in the chaser workwire tensioned mooring line. at times. unlike the J-chaser.

Very soon afterwards the pear-shaped chaser with shackle eye was introduced. In other cases the J-chaser is used simply to keep a chain free from a pipeline during deployment of the anchors. these were followed by special cast oval rings which were attached to a pendant by a ‘bight’ of chain and shackle. Originally. or the normal recovery mechanism has failed. The chaser is towed across the mooring catenary until it catches the chain. simple shackles were used.Chaser types 70 The J-chaser The J-chaser (fig. It is then towed into contact with the anchor shank/fluke for anchor break-out and retrieval. the permanent chain chaser (fig. 3-16 . fig. The design of these chasers offers superior sliding and penetration properties. 3-15) is used on mooring lines where the anchor has to be recovered and no permanent chaser has been installed. The permanent chain chaser As a practical alternative to the buoy and pendant. 3-15 fig. The chaser is deployed over the stern roller of an AHV at approximately 1/3 of the water depth. 3-16) was introduced.

because the rocker is easily removable. The permanent wire chaser is easily detachable by removal and re-assembly of the hinge bolt and rocker. Detachable chain chasers (fig. and because of their size. The material of the rocker is not as hard as the material of the wire. 3-18 . and composite wire/chain mooring systems became necessary. replacement is relatively inexpensive. They are consequently larger. The permanent wire chaser The permanent wire chaser (fig. fig. Some designs of wire chaser incorporate fully rotating rollers over which the mooring wire passes. heavier and much more costly than the permanent wire chasers discussed above. 3-18) was introduced when rigs moved to deeper waters. This means that wear is taken by the rocker without damage to the wire and. The withdrawal and replacement of the single bolt permits easy assembly of the chaser on the mooring cable. The rocker has two opposing grooves. and when the chaser is engaged with the mooring line. they require more power at the AHV to penetrate the seabed and reach the anchor. The large radius at the base of the groove assists in reducing wear of the rocker and avoids severe ‘opening’ of the lay of the wire if a loop of wire is pulled during the handling process. The chaser incorporates a ‘rocker’ which is centrally mounted on a hinge bolt. the wire slides through one of these grooves irrespective of the angle which the chaser makes with the mooring. 3-17 fig. 3-17) were introduced to satisfy this need.Chaser types 71 The detachable chain chaser For rigs in service it is sometimes preferred to equip the mooring with a chaser which does not require the anchor chain to be broken and re-made. To be effective such rollers need to be of a large diameter and require to be supported by bearings.

The J-lock chaser can help in such an instance. the chaser locks on the chain and does not slide any further. The well-balanced and ‘guiding’ design of the chaser enables catching the chain when the chaser approaches a mooring at a point where the catenary angle is as high as 450.Chaser types 72 The J-lock chaser The J-lock chaser (fig. 3-19 . Consequently. the forces required do not increase. This means that the tension in the mooring line can be wholly transferred from the rig to the chaser. the J-lock chaser prevents the permanent chaser from sliding away from the anchor. The J-lock chaser is stopped at the permanent chaser. It is released from a second AHV and slides along the chain towards the anchor. and the anchor can easily be broken out. the J-lock chaser can be released again. This chaser can also be used when a very heavy chain has to be installed. This means that this chaser can be used to assist in unforeseen circumstances. there is the chance that the AHV cannot break out the anchor by means of the chaser. The J-shape permits catching the anchor chain after the anchor has been installed. After this operation. It assists during installation by lifting the chain. If the winch pull of both tugs is now increased. When a normal permanent chaser is used under unforeseen conditions. fig. The design prevents the J-lock chaser from sliding back. 3-19) has been designed so that it can slide along the chain in one direction and when the pulling direction is reversed.

with the chain between the flukes (fig. 3-23 .Stevpris installation Stevpris deployment for MODUs 73 chaser Introduction Typical methods for deployment and retrieval of Stevpris anchors with an anchor handling vessel (AHV) are described. Deployment procedures for the Stevpris anchor will also be given for permanent moorings where chasers are normally not used. Laying anchors It is preferred. 3-21 quickly pass drum fig. Allow the anchor some speed to negotiate the bump at the change-over from the deck on to the roller (fig. and by some operators required. 3-21). Alternatively the chaser can be kept on deck/roller. focusing on the use of chasers for handling the anchor (fig. 3-23). Run the anchor line out the full distance with anchor on deck or on roller. triangular plates on drum fig. Handling using permanent pendant lines is similar. 3-22). keep triangular plates below the main shackle on the drum for stability of the anchor. Boat increases power until anchor line tension rises on rig winch tension meter. veer pendant till anchor arrives at roller. to deck the anchor before run out to check the jewellery. 3-22 If anchor is kept on roller. fig. This is the most common practice on mobile drilling rigs (MODUs). In this situation the propeller thrust passes underneath the anchor and does not influence the fluke (fig. When rig gives order to lower the anchor. 3-20). 3-20 always deck anchor with chain between flukes fig.

e. Stay above or behind the anchor. i. 3-24). Stop lowering when anchor hangs 10 to 15 meter above the bottom and advise rig.e. keep chaser on anchor head for control of anchor orientation and lower anchor (fig. 3-25 wait for signal rig fig. AHV increases power till tension is again seen to rise at the rig. i. 3-26 . Rig commences to pull in slowly. AHV immediately stops the propulsion and is consequently pulled backwards. 3-26). 3-24 fig. AHV further increases power until tension rises further at rig winch. If this method is employed. At this moment rig orders AHV to lay the anchor.5 times the water depth in shallow water (100m) and 1. make sure that at all times the anchor is correctly oriented in the chaser.Stevpris installation 74 Reduce propulsion momentarily when anchor passes the propeller thrust. AHV pays out pendant and maintains paying out pendant after anchor has landed on the bottom till a wire length of 1. Enough slack wire must be paid out not to disturb the anchor during buoying off or waiting.4 to 1. anchor remains in the chaser and orientation of the anchor is correct (fig. 3-25).3 to 1.4 times in deeper water. the load in the line is larger than the chain-soil friction (fig. reactivate and maintain propeller thrust to well above 30 tons. Note: In some circumstances AHVs prefer to run the anchor hanging from the pendant line below the propeller wash approximately 60 to 80 meter above the seabed. STOP ! fig. Once below the propeller wash zone. Keep constant tension in order to ensure anchor does not fall through chaser. Keep constant tension in the pendant line to prevent the anchor from falling through the chaser and possibly turn.5 to 2 times the water depth is out. This method requires less power on the winch during the actual laying of the anchor. Rig now instructs AHV to pay out until pendant line is 1.

While chasing. Retrieving anchors The chaser should be brought to the anchor with a pendant of at least the length of 1. 3-29 patience in very soft soils ! fig. 3-27 do not pull after landing ! fig. 3-28). 3-29). do not wait. to give another pull once the anchor is on bottom. A too short pendant and/or too little tension in the cable results in a situation as sketched (fig. Now the AHV can retrieve the chaser and return to the rig. Moorfast. rig hauls AHV slacks fig. a rerun can be made immediately. Once the anchor hits bottom.5 to 2 times the water depth. the rig should maintain tension of 60 to 70% of the pre-load tension. 3-27). Suggestion: pre-load the anchors to the maximum required pretension load as soon as the chaser is 100 meter or more ahead of the anchor. 3-30). This also gives stability to the anchor when the AHV strips the chaser back or buoys off the pendant. otherwise anchor could land upside down! (fig. Pendant line must remain slack. the rig can tension up to the full pretension load directly (fig.e. If circumstances allow. 3-30 . If anchor has not been laid correctly. measured from the stern roller. increase thrust and keep thrust while heaving.e. No tension in pendant to ensure smooth passing over the chain. Do not do this with Stevpris anchors. slack in the pendant line. Chaser should hang freely down from the anchor line till the bottom is reached. No extra pull after landing! It is customary with older anchors such as Danforth. especially in rough water (fig. When chaser is pulled into contact with anchor shank. equal to the total chain/soil friction plus 50 t to embed the anchor fully and create confidence in good setting. AHV should not pull again. i. etc. i. 3-28 wrong ! keep cable under tension fig.Stevpris installation 75 Rig continues heaving the cable to a sufficient load.

Decking the Stevpris anchor If anchor is not correctly oriented.Stevpris installation 76 The motion of the vessel itself now helps gradually to break the anchor loose. on deck the anchor lays on its back with shackle towards AHVs bow and cable between the upwards directed fluke points. the anchor has to be pulled back to the stern roller and orientation checked (fig. 3-34 . It is important to control the anchor orientation at all times for easy racking. The rig can help and speed-up the operation by hauling the anchor line at the same time! Once the anchor is off bottom. laying and decking of the anchor. Anchors in very soft clay can be buried very deep. 3-31). 3-33 wrong ! anchor cannot deck ! fig. Anchor orientation The anchor flukes are always oriented towards the rig. rig hauls keep pulling fig. 3-32).e. 3-32 keep tension ! fig. keep pendant line under tension while working the anchor. If the anchor slides through the chaser. 3-34). take your time and be gentle with the equipment. the anchor will come. i. Rotation is easier while near the rig where all loads are lower (fig. 3-31 always deck anchor with chain between flukes fig. keep the chaser in contact with the bow shackle by maintaining sufficient thrust (fig. Check jewelry (fig. 3-33). Sequentially with the vessels motion the pendant is shortened gradually. reduce propulsion and let anchor slide down through the chaser. Have patience.

Stevpris installation 77 Turn the anchor with a shot of propeller wash. Increase propulsion moving AHV forward pulling chaser in contact with the anchor. make sure anchor is below the propeller wash away from the propeller influence zone (fig. allow the anchor to turn with its back on the roller. Then pull further on deck (fig. 3-37 . 3-36). 3-35 turn STOP ! stop / reduce propulsion fig. Then pay out pendant. the chain directing between the fluke points (fig. With sufficient bollard pull haul pendant. stop/reduce thrust for only a few seconds when anchor passes the propeller wash onto the drum. 3-37). fig. 3-36 fig. Pull anchor on the drum. 3-35). fluke points up. Make sure the stern roller is perpendicular to the chain.

Before rotating the anchor. the chain hangs steep against the fluke points and anchor cannot rotate easily (A). pull on the cable.Stevpris installation 78 With little tension in the line. Mind. 3-39 . 3-39). the anchor will be free to turn (B) and (C) (fig. If required. 3-38 fig. With anchor on the stern roller reactivate propulsion. fig. stiff clay or sand with a fluke angle set for mud! (fig. For inspection anchor can be pulled on deck. 3-38). change fluke angle to 32 degrees for hard soil or to 50 degrees for very soft soil. every anchor type will be unstable and drag in hard soil.

3-43). The relative weight of the anchor increased by the thrust force on the fluke will cause the anchor and the cable to slide down through the chaser and control of anchor orientation is lost (fig. 3-41).Stevpris installation 79 What not to do! The anchor is approaching the drum. 3-40 and rotate ! fig. the water flow will push the fluke (fig. thrust on anchor makes it swing ! fig. the thrust risks turning the anchor around the cable then acting as a shaft (fig. 3-42 damage ! fig. 3-41 anchor slides through chaser fig. 3-43 . 3-40). Boarding will be difficult now. If the propeller is not stopped. If the AHV maintains thrust. the cable prevents the anchor to turn on its back at the stern roller. The anchor could pass the stern roller on its side and get damaged! So stop/reduce the thrust just before the anchor passes the propeller wash (fig. When the thrust is maintained while hauling in the chaser. 3-42).

reduce tension to 15 tons. 3-46). chaser remains in tight contact with anchor. rotate anchor with fluke points directing outwards and keep chaser tight on the anchor (fig. 3-47). If this occurs. If tension is not sufficient. The AHV maintains sufficient tension while pulling the anchor to the stern roller. pulling AHV towards it. 3-44 keep tension ! At some distance from the rig. Rig hauls. 3-46 keep tension ! fig. 3-47 . keep tension ! fig. Anchor flukes point towards the rig. As soon as anchor is resting on bolsters. fig. 20 to 30 tons or more as required to maintain the chaser on the head of the anchor. AHV pays out winch wire while keeping sufficient bollard pull (at least 1.5 times anchor weight) to keep chaser on anchor head. 3-45 wrong ! risk losing control over anchor orientation fig. bring anchor to the stern of the AHV. 3-44). AHV veers while keeping some tension in the pendant line transferring the anchor to the bolster. anchor remains correctly oriented (fig. Deploying Stevpris from the anchor rack AHV receives pendant from rig and connects to AHV winch wire. Stop winch and keep sufficient tension. The direction of the anchor cable must now be perpendicular to the rack (fig. slack pendant wire completely. AHV keeps sufficient tension in pendant. 3-45).Stevpris installation 80 Racking the Stevpris Rig heaves in anchor line. Reduce the power of the propeller as anchor passes the wash zone and bring anchor on roller for inspection and reactivate thrust (fig. Only now rig pays out cable while AHV hauls in on the winch. AHV moves to a position at a good distance but less than the water depth (for instance 50 meter dependent on weather) from the rig. anchor falls out of control of the chaser and might rotate and make racking difficult. When anchor arrives at bolster.

It happens that the anchor is accidentally pulled over the roller on its side. 3-50 large weight fig. 3-50). It is recommended to board the anchor with the chain between the fluke. If this is not possible or allowed for some reason. anchor weight high tension fig. For line loads larger than 8 times the anchor weight the anchor could be pulled against the chaser as illustrated. This can be done by lifting the anchor line using a lock chaser or grapnel handled by a second vessel (fig.Stevpris installation 81 Boarding the anchor in deep water In deep water the weight of the anchor line becomes of predominant importance. allowing the boarding of the anchor near the rig where loads are smaller. 3-48). another solution is to reduce the weight that is hanging from the anchor. Due to the large forces damage to shank and fluke might occur when the chain is hanging over the anchor (fig. it could even position itself upside down! In such cases boarding the anchor is difficult and damage might occur (fig. 3-49 8 x anchor weight fig. 3-51). 3-51 . The anchor fluke is generally designed to withstand loads up to 8 times the anchor weight (fig. 3-49). The best and preferred solution is to pull the anchor from the bottom and have the rig haul the anchor line. 3-48 lock chaser fig.

3-52 Ballast in fluke Using a wire rope forerunner and ballast material placed inside the hollow fluke. the anchor may not topple over with the fluke points directed downwards. make sure that before boarding. the vessel is turned to free the anchor line from the anchor and haul gently. wire chain with ballast in fluke use chain forerunner fig. this situation should be avoided as damage may occur (fig. When the fluke is ballasted.Stevpris installation 82 If boarding the anchor on its side is inevitable. the weight of a chain forerunner will cause the shackle to nose down and bring the fluke in penetration position (fig. 3-53 . However. The chain will pass the stern roller next to the anchor. A wire anchor line might be too light to position the anchor correctly and the anchor may not topple over. 3-52). 3-53). the anchor could skid over the seabed and prevent penetration. fig.

Stevpris installation

83

pendant line force

Chaser equilibrium To control the anchor, the chaser collar must always be on the anchor head. The tension in the anchor cable must be equal or larger than 1.5 times the weight of the anchor. If not, the anchor slides through the chaser and the orientation is not controlled (fig. 3-54). Equilibrium forces determine if chaser is in contact with the anchor. Near bottom, the vertical load at the chaser from the anchor line Flv is small. The chaser remains only in contact with the anchor if the bollard pull Fph is larger than the horizontal line load Flh which in turn must be larger than the anchor weight W (if not the anchor will slide down). The angle of the pendant line must be larger than 45° (fig. 3-55).

anchor line tension

anchor weight
fig. 3-54

Fp

Fpv

Flh Fph Flv
fig. 3-55

Fl

W

Recommendation: Bollard pull must always be equal or larger than the line tension, i.e. use a minimum bollard pull of 20 to 30 tons for a 12 to 15 ton anchor. Use a minimum pendant line length of 1.4 to 1.5 times the water depth in shallow water (100m) and 1.3 to 1.4 times the depth in deeper water (fig. 3-56).

chaser

fig. 3-56

Stevpris installation
Deployment for permanent moorings

84

The simplest deployment procedure for the Stevpris anchor is to lower the anchor to the seabed using the mooring line. When the anchor is nearly on the seabed, the AHV should start moving slowly forward to ensure that the anchor lands correctly on the seabed (fig. 3-57). Another option for the deployment of the Stevpris anchor is to connect a temporary installation bridle (wire rope) to the anchor. The bridle is connected to the padeyes situated at the back of the shank of the anchor. The AHV then lowers the anchor overboard while paying out the mooring line and the bridle simultaneously (fig. 3-58).

fig. 3-57

temporary bridle mooring line

fig. 3-58

To recover a Stevpris anchor after it has been installed, the AHV should take the mooring line and pull it in the opposite direction that the anchor was installed in, generally away from the centre of the mooring. The AHV should recover the mooring line till a length of approximately 1.5 times the water depth is still overboard. When only 1.5 times the water depth of mooring line is left overboard, the AHV should block the winch and keep a constant tension on the mooring line equal to the pre-load tension. Once the anchor starts to move in the soil, a lower tension in the mooring line can be used (fig. 3-59).

fig. 3-59

Piggy-backing

85

Introduction Piggy-back is the practice of using two or more anchors in order to obtain holding power greater than can be achieved with one only. Piggy-backing is used when anchors are employed with insufficient holding capacity. This can be caused by improper design for the particular environment or insufficient anchor size. In some soil conditions, the use of two smaller anchors in piggy-back can offer an advantage over the use of one larger anchor. This can be the case when the anchor has to hold in a certain layer and holding capacity in the underlying layer is uncertain. Considerations to remember on piggy-backing: •Installing a piggy-back system is more costly than the installation of a single anchor. •If the mooring line of the second anchor is connected to the rear of the first anchor, the stability, penetration and holding capacity of the first anchor may be less than is the case for a single anchor. The force from the second anchor may tend to pull the fluke of the first anchor closed (hinging type anchors). •If the piggy-back anchor is connected to the first anchor by means of a chaser, the chaser may obstruct penetration of the first anchor. • Both anchors must be exactly in line with the mooring line load. The lead anchor may become unstable if a lateral load is applied. •Two hinging anchors in piggy-back do not provide 2 times but only 1 to 1.6 times the individual holding capacity of the two anchors, for reasons described in second point above.

the Stevpris is main anchor and the Stevin is back-up.Piggy-back methods 86 •If the first anchor is not influenced by the pull from the second anchor. Here.5 times the holding capacity of the individual anchors. In such a case the Stevpris can better be placed as the second anchor. the holding capacity of the 2 anchors may be up to 2. 3-60). the piggy-back anchor makes the main anchor unstable. For optimal performance of the combination. Note: if the piggy-back anchor can not be laid in line with the mooring load. due to the extra penetration of the second anchor. 3-60 . The pendant line is connected to the padeye near the anchor shackle so performance is not reduced. Piggy-backing involving hinging anchors Since there is little difference between handling one hinging anchor or two. the first method is described with a Stevin anchor (hinging) in combination with a Stevpris anchor (non-hinging). This is the best solution when using a fixed shank anchor as the fluke of the Stevpris anchor can not be pulled closed. to promote penetration and obtain better holding capacity (fig. the pendant line between the two anchors should be wire rope. and the second anchor (fixed fluke/shank type anchors) is connected at 3 to 4 shank lengths distance from the first anchor. fig.

3-61). • To lower the second Stevpris anchor to the seabed. 3-62). • Using the second pendant line. Piggy-backing with two Stevpris anchors When two Stevpris anchors are used in piggy-back. the Stevpris anchors are lowered to the seabed and positioned and buoyed off. • Lower the piggy-back anchor and tension the mooring line again. 3-62 . • Bring the anchor to its location. a second pendant line is connected to the padeye behind the anchor shackle. fig. • The Stevpris anchors are then tensioned by pulling on the mooring line (fig. the holding capacity of the combination may be equal or higher than the sum of the individual holding capacities of the anchors. • Provide the pendant of the second anchor with a buoy for easy retrieval. • Connect the second anchor to the pendant line. with the mooring line connected to the anchor shackle and the pendant line (wire rope for optimal performance and approximately three times the shank length of the first Stevpris anchor) connected to the padeye behind the anchor shackle. • Tension the mooring line until the anchor slips. • Connect the other end of the pendant line to the anchor shackle of the second Stevpris anchor (fig.Piggy-back methods 87 The installation procedure is described as follows: • Pay out the main anchor as usual. The installation procedure of two Stevpris anchors in piggy-back is as follows: • Pay out the main Stevpris anchor.

The installation procedure described for two Stevpris anchors is also applicable when a chaser is used for the connection. 3-61 fig. 3-63 . 3-63). fig. although a pendant line connected directly to the padeye behind the main anchor shackle of the first anchor is prefered. care must be taken that anchors are installed in line with the load.Piggy-back methods 88 Piggy-backing by using a chaser Sometimes chasers are used to connect the piggy-back anchor to the first anchor (fig. During the deployment of the piggy-back combination.

however because this is very similar to the double line installation method with Stevtensioner. • Single line installation method using the shear pin angle adjuster. it is not presented here. It is also possible to use the Stevtensioner with the single line installation method. 3-64 normal mode fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 89 installation mode shear pin Introduction The Stevmanta VLA consists of an anchor fluke which is connected with wires to the angle adjuster. The most efficient methods are based on two different principles: • Double line installation method using the fixed angle adjuster. 3-65 . The following three typical methods for installing the Stevmanta VLA are discussed: • Single line installation method. There are many options to install VLA anchors. fig. • Double line installation method. The double line installation method is typically used when it is preferable to install the anchor with a steel wire rope installation line instead of using the actual mooring line (for example polyester). • Double line installation method using the Stevtensioner. The angle adjuster is responsible for changing the anchor from the installation mode to the vertical (or normal) loading mode.

The mode of the anchor changes when the shearpin breaks at a load equal to the required installation load. i. Connect the installation/mooring line to the angle adjuster on the Stevmanta on the AHV.e. The AHV starts paying out the installation/ mooring line while slowly sailing away from the Stevmanta (fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 90 Single line installation procedure This procedure requires only one AHV for installation of the Stevmanta. Installation procedure In the installation procedure an optional tail has been included on the Stevmanta. 3-67). When the shear pin breaks. The Stevmanta will decend tail first. Lower the Stevmanta overboard. the Stevmanta changes from the installation mode to the normal (vertical) loading mode (fig. 3-66 tail for orientation recovery ROV Show movie in browser . The tail assists in orientation of the Stevmanta on the seabed. an ROV can optionally inspect the anchor (position and orientation). 3-65). The Stevmanta is deployed with the shearpin angle adjuster. the tail will be the first part to reach the seabed (fig. 3-67 fig. 3-66). 3-64 and fig. When the Stevmanta is on the seabed. fig.

the shearpin in the angle adjuster fails. the AHV can continue to increase the tension in the (taut-leg) installation/mooring line up to the required proof tension load (fig. 3-69 . as the AHV will stop moving forward due to the sudden increase in holding capacity. the AHV starts increasing the tension in the installation line. triggering the Stevmanta into the normal (vertical) loading mode.Stevmanta VLA installation 91 When enough of the installation/mooring line has been paid out. Now that the Stevmanta is in the normal (vertical) loading mode. This can be clearly noticed on board the AHV. 3-68). 3-68 fig. When the predetermined installation load has been reached with the AHVs bollard pull. fig. The Stevmanta will start to embed into the seabed (fig. 3-69).

fig. for easy connection later on (fig. Stevmanta retrieval The Stevmanta is easily retrieved by pulling on the ‘tail’. 3-71 . the installation/mooring line can be attached to the floater. Connection to the tail can be achieved either with a grapnel or by using an ROV (fig. 3-70 fig. In case of a pre-laid mooring.Stevmanta VLA installation 92 After the Stevmanta has been proof tensioned to the required load. 3-70). the mooring line can be buoyed off. 3-71).

so that it can be retrieved with a load equal to about half the installation load (fig. Once the mooring line has been pulled back. 3-72).e. The recovery system consists of two special sockets which connect the front wires to the fluke. 3-72 retrieval fig. away from the centre of the mooring. This reduces the resistance of the anchor. To recover the anchor. 3-73).Stevmanta VLA installation 93 pull for retrieval Alternatively the Stevmanta can be equipped with an optional recovery system. the mooring line is pulled backwards. i. the front sockets will disconnect from the fluke (fig. The Stevmanta VLA is now pulled out of the soil using just the rear wires. fig. 3-73 .

The mode of the anchor (installation mode or normal (vertical) loading mode) is chosen by pulling on either the installation line or the mooring line. The Stevmanta is in the normal (vertical) loading mode when the mooring line is tensioned. the line on the front of the angle adjuster (fig.e. 3-76). In the installation procedure an optional subsea recovery buoy can be included in the installation line. the line on the rear of the angle adjuster (fig. The recovery buoy is connected to the installation line via a delta plate at approximately 90 m from the Stevmanta (fig. i. 3-74 normal mode mooring line installation line fig. fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 94 installation mode mooring line installation line Double line installation procedure This procedure requires two AHVs.e. The Stevmanta is deployed with the fixed angle adjuster. 3-75). During the installation AHV1 handles the steel installation line and AHV2 handles the mooring line. 3-77). The Stevmanta is in the installation mode when the installation line is tensioned. for instance polyester (fig. 3-75 AHV2 AHV1 fig. 3-74). i. 3-76 AHV2 AHV1 Show movie in browser fig. 3-77 .

Stevmanta VLA installation 95 AHV2 AHV1 Connect the installation line to the angle adjuster on the Stevmanta on board AHV1. 3-80 . When enough of the installation line has been paid out. the breaking device is placed on the delta plate connecting it to the installation line and AHV1. AHV1 starts increasing the tension. 3-78 AHV2 AHV1 break link breaks fig. 3-80). 3-79 AHV2 pretension load recovery line fig. AHV1 is now no longer connected to the Stevmanta and the installation line can be recovered on deck (fig. Pass the mooring line from AHV2 to AHV 1 and connect it to the angle adjuster. AHV2 keeps the mooring line slack by keeping the same distance from AHV1. 3-79). 3-78). If more bollard pull is required than one AHV can deliver. AHV2 slackens the tension in the mooring line and AHV1 starts paying out the installation line while slowly sailing away from the Stevmanta (fig. the breaking device in the installation line fails (break shackle connecting the installation line to the delta plate). When the predetermined installation load has been reached. fig. The Stevmanta will start to embed into the seabed. freeing the installation line from the Stevmanta (fig. an ROV can inspect the anchor’s position and orientation. Lower the Stevmanta VLA overboard by keeping tension on both the installation line (AHV1) and the mooring line (AHV2). AHV2 can buoy off the mooring line and pull with AHV1 in tandem. If the optional recovery buoy is used. When the Stevmanta is on the seabed.

for easy connection later on (fig. In case of a pre-laid mooring. 3-82 . the mooring line can be buoyed off. 3-81). 3-82). AHV2 fig. the mooring line can be attached to the floater. AHV1 can be connected in tandem to AHV2 to generate additional bollard pull. the anchor is easily retrieved (fig. 3-81 After the Stevmanta has been proof tensioned to the required load. If AHV2 can not generate enough bollard pull to reach the required proof tension load.Stevmanta VLA installation 96 AHV2 AHV2 can now start increasing the tension in the mooring line. fig. Stevmanta retrieval The Stevmanta is recovered from the seabed by returning to ‘installation mode’ instead of the normal (vertical) loading mode. The AHV picks up the recovery buoy from the seabed and by pulling on the installation load at an angle of approximately 450 with the seabed.

When the shear pin breaks. The Stevmanta VLA will be going downwards tail first. i. consisting of a length of wire with approximately 5 m of chain on the end) has been included on the Stevmanta VLA. The tail assures correct orientation of the Stevmanta VLA on the seabed. Connect the tail to the rear of the fluke of the Stevmanta VLA #1.e. In the installation procedure a tail (approximately 30 m length. The mode of the anchor changes when the shearpin breaks at a load equal to the required installation load.Stevmanta VLA installation 97 Single line installation with Stevtensioner The Stevmanta VLA is deployed with the shearpin angle adjuster. Connect the forerunner to the angle adjuster of the Stevmanta VLA on the AHV. the Stevmanta VLA changes from installation mode to the normal (vertical) loading mode. 3-83 . Lower Stevmanta VLA #1 overboard (fig. Connect the tensioning chain to the forerunner on Stevmanta VLA #1 using the subsea connector and pass the other end through the Stevtensioner. 3-83). fig. the tail will be the first part that reaches the seabed. This end of the chain is terminated with a male part of the subsea connector.

The male part of a subsea connector is connected to the third hole of the tri-plate. 3-85).Stevmanta VLA installation 98 Connect the forerunner of Stevmanta VLA #2 to the passive side of the Stevtensioner. Deploy the Stevtensioner and Stevmanta VLA #2 overboard by slacking the AHV workwire (fig. 3-85 . As part of the forerunner a tri-plate is included with a breaklink between the Stevtensioner and the tri-plate. Connect the AHV work-wire to the tail of Stevmanta VLA #2 using a subsea connector. fig. 3-84 fig. 3-84 and fig.

The purpose of the applied tension is to ensure that Stevmanta VLA #1 is embedding properly and to take the slack out of the system. 3-87). the AHV stops the winch and increases the tension in the mooring system (fig. the AHV can lay down Stevmanta VLA #2 on the seabed. 3-86 fig. 3-86). When Stevmanta VLA #2 is near the seabed.Stevmanta VLA installation 99 When the tail of Stevmanta VLA #1 touches the seabed. This will start to embed Stevmanta VLA #1. The AHV places the Stevmanta on the seabed and continues with the deployment of the rest of the system (Stevtensioner and Stevmanta VLA #2) (fig. fig. the resistance of the tail will orient the Stevmanta in the heading of the AHV which is moving forward slowly. 3-87 . When a tension of approximately 1000 kN has been reached.

3-89 fig. 3-89 and fig. The female part of the subsea connector (connected to the work wire) is then moved to the male part of the subsea connector connected to the tensioning chain above the Stevtensioner (fig. 3-90). 3-88 With the work wire now connected to the tensioning chain. fig. the AHV can start the tensioning operation. (fig. This will generally consist of 4 to 7 yo-yo procedures to reach the required tension at the anchors. 3-90 . fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 100 When Stevmanta VLA #2 has been placed on the seabed. the AHV stops paying out the work wire and the ROV is sent down to disconnect the subsea connector from the tail on Stevmanta VLA #2. When this has been accomplished. 3-88). the AHV continues to deploy the work wire until the tail and the subsea connector are on the seabed.

With the tensioning of the anchors completed. 3-93 .Stevmanta VLA installation 101 When the tension in the system reaches the break load of the shear pins in the angle adjuster of the Stevmanta VLAs. 3-93). When the AHV continues to increase the tension in the system. 3-91). the anchors will be proof loaded in their normal loading mode. these will break and trigger the Stevmanta VLAs to their normal loading mode (fig. After the proof loading of the anchors. The tensioning of the anchors is now complete. The AHV can start recovering the Stevtensioner with the tensioning chain by winching in the work wire (fig. fig. The anchor forerunners are now no longer connected to the Stevtensioner. The ROV can be used to connect the mooring lines (with separate female connectors) to the male connectors on the anchor forerunners. the ROV disconnects the subsea connector between Stevmanta VLA #1 and the Stevtensioner (fig. 392). the AHV increases the tension in the system up to the point were the breaklink connecting the passive line to the Stevtensioner fails. 3-91 fig. 3-92 fig.

The installation procedure with the Stevtensioner requires a reaction anchor (the typical use of the Stevtensioner is presented in the next chapter). fig. for instance polyester (fig. The Stevmanta is in the installation mode when the installation line is tensioned. For now a Stevpris is shown as reaction anchor and is to be on the active side of the Stevtensioner.e. the line at the rear of the angle adjuster. 3-95). In this case the reaction anchor can be either a Stevpris or Stevmanta.e. 3-94). The Stevmanta is in the normal (vertical) loading mode when the mooring line is tensioned.Stevmanta VLA installation 102 installation mode mooring line installation line Double line installation with Stevtensioner The Stevmanta is deployed with the fixed angle adjuster. the line on the front of the angle adjuster (fig. 3-83 normal mode mooring line installation line fig. i. 3-84 Show movie in browser . During the installation AHV1 handles the installation line (preferably chain and steel wire) and AHV2 handles the mooring line. The mode of the anchor (installation mode or normal (vertical) loading mode) is chosen by pulling on either the installation line or the mooring line. i.

Connect the installation line to the passive side of the Stevtensioner. 3-86 .Stevmanta VLA installation 103 AHV2 tensioner AHV1 Connect the installation line to the angle adjuster on the Stevmanta on AHV1. 3-96). Pass the installation line through the Stevtensioner (fig. 3-85 AHV2 work chain stopper AHV1 fig. Lower the Stevmanta to the seabed by keeping tension on both the installation line and mooring line. A break link can be installed between the Stevtensioner and the installation line on the passive side (fig. Pass the mooring line from AHV2 to AHV1 and connect it to the angle adjuster. fig. Connect the installation line to the reaction anchor. 3-97).

AHV1 sails to tensioning point and starts taking in the slack of the tensioning line (fig. 3-99). the installation line of the Stevmanta has to be paid out (fig. 3-98). 3-88 AHV2 AHV1 wire stopper tensioner stopper chain fig. During the movement of AHV1. Buoy off the retrieval line (or mooring line) of the reaction anchor. 3-87 AHV2 AHV1 wire stopper tensioner stopper chain fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 104 Sail to set-down position of the reaction anchor (AHV1 only). AHV2 shark jaws wire stopper tensioner AHV1 chain fig. 3-89 . 3-100). AHV2 stays above the Stevmanta. Lower the Stevtensioner and reaction anchor to the seabed (fig.

3-91 . 105 The break link will break on the Stevmanta when the required installation load has been reached (fig. 3-101). AHV2 wire stopper tensioner chain AHV1 stopper fig. 3-102).Stevmanta VLA installation Start the tensioning procedure (yo-yoing) (fig. 3-90 AHV2 wire stopper tensioner break link breaks chain AHV1 stopper fig.

Instead of using a reaction anchor. 3-93 . 3-104). After completion of the tensioning (yo-yoing). AHV2 can now proof tension the Stevmanta and then buoy off the mooring line. two Stevmantas can also be installed at the same time. This Stevmanta can then also be proof tensioned (fig. AHV2 pretension load chain tensioner wire AHV1 stopper fig. Installation of the Stevmanta is now complete (fig. AHV2 proof tensions one Stevmanta while AHV1 recovers the Stevtensioner and disconnects it from the installation line of the other Stevmanta. the installation line and the reaction anchor to AHV1. 3-92 AHV2 AHV1 wire stopper tensioner stopper chain fig.Stevmanta VLA installation 106 Recover the Stevtensioner. 3-103).

VA1000 and VA1250 can handle chain diameter ranging from 76 mm up to 152 mm. but heavy enough to easilty slide down the mooring line. The existing models VA220 and VA500 were designed for handling a single size of chain. FPS. he working principle of the tensioner The Stevtensioner is based on the principle that a vertical load to a horizontal string causes high horizontal loads. by air. 2V H fig. The Stevtensioner is generally used for the installation of (semi) permanent floating structures such as the SPM buoy. The umbilical cable connections are protected against handling and lifting operations. • Due to economical volume/weight ratio. The Stevtensioner can be deployed from a crane barge. FPSO. • Designed to smoothly guide at least 5 links and therefore prevent chain getting stuck inside. AHV or any vessel having enough crane/winch capacity to pull the required vertical force. TLP. STL. fig. reduced weight and improved handling. These connections may be used for acoustic transfer of the signals. 3-94 The new Stevtensioner models offer the following features: • Smaller dimensions. 3-95 . 3-105). for rush deliveries. After the tensioning operations the Stevtensioner is demobilised and ready for the next project. the vertical pulling force only needs to be 40% of this pretension. 3-106). Because of this variety in chain sizes additional work chain may not be required (fig. • Load measuring pin is equipped with two independent sets of strain gauges. the new Stevtensioner models allow for containerised freight by either sea or.The Stevtensioner 107 Introduction The Stevtensioner is used for cross tensioning of diametrically opposed anchor legs moored by drag anchors or anchor piles. The new Stevtensioner models VA600. The Stevtensioner can however also be used for permanent tensioning purposes. • The integrated shape allows for smooth passage over stern roller. etc. To achieve the required horizontal pretension load at the anchor points. The anchor line tension is measured by a measuring pin located inside the Stevtensioner and as such well protected against damage caused by handling and lifting operations (fig. becoming a part of the mooring system.

Generally the required horizontal load is achieved after 5 to 7 steps. Once tensioning is completed. 3-107 chain locks fig. In other words: chain length is gained. 3-107). Tensioning starts by applying the yo-yo movement to the active line (fig. Lowering the Stevtensioner slackens the anchor lines and allows it to slide down over the active chain. the Stevtensioner is recovered by pulling the lifting/pennant wire making it disengage. When the Stevtensioner is lifted from the seabed. The oppos-ite anchor line (active line) passes through the Stevtensioner. the horizontal load on the anchor points increases. the passive and active mooring lines are also lifted.The Stevtensioner 108 One anchor line (passive line) is attached to the tension measuring pin at the Stevtensioner. Consequently the anchors or piles are loaded and cause an inverse catenary of the mooring line in the soil. This allows the Stevtensioner to slide up along the active chain to the surface (fig. When the Stevtensioner is lifted by the active chain. By repeating this several times (called the yo-yo movement). passive chain active chain fig. it blocks the chain. 3-108 . 3-108). as well as causing the anchor to drag and embed.

in other words: chain length is gained. 3-98 30 time in minutes 60 90 120 .The Stevtensioner 109 Measurement of the tensions applied Fig. When the Stevtensioner is lifted from the seabed. When lowering to seabed the gain in chain length (slack) is won by the Stevtensioner sliding down the chain (approximately 5 to 8 links). The loading causes an inverse catenary of the mooring line in the soil. 3-109 shows the curve recorded during tensioning of chains connected to piles for the Coveñas Pipeline Project in Colombia. the passive and active mooring lines are also lifted from the seabed. These are discussed below. The graph shows a total of 5 heaves (yo-yo’s). and also causes the anchor to drag and embed. tension force in t 250 125 0 0 tension on anchor lifting force fig. In practise a total of 5 to 7 yo-yos are required to reach the required proof tension load. Different methods can be applied to verify the tension in the chain. The next heave (yo-yo) will therefore create a higher tension in the system. Consequently the anchors or piles are loaded. each resulting in a higher tension.

other parameters measured during tensioning need to be incorporated in the calculation: • Height Stevtensioner above seabed. A hand winch with sliding contacts is used to veer and haul the umbilical without disconnecting the umbilical from the registration equipment. Beyond this depth it becomes more efficient to use either an acoustic system or computer calculations. The measurement is insensitive for variations in cable length. The use of an umbilical is an effective method in waterdepths down to approximately 200 meters. during the tensioning operation.The Stevtensioner 110 Computer calculations The tension in the chain can be calculated by means of computer catenary calculations. the link breaks. . and the Stevtensioner can be retrieved. Break-link The passive chain can be attached to the Stevtensioner by a break-link. This method is independent of the waterdepth. The pin is part of the Stevtensioner housing and is equipped with strain gauges. Umbilical cable and measuring pin The chain tension can be measured with a measuring pin. Consequently the passive chain falls to the bottom. a predetermined load has been reached. When. All tensioning data are measured on deck and presented during tensioning on a chart recorder. By using this method the tension in the chain can be calculated at any height of the Stevtensioner above seabed. and the length of the mooring line. • Vertical pulling load. The pin is connected to a tension read-out unit on the installation vessel by using an umbilical cable. The pin is connected to the passive chain. Besides known parameters such as submerged chain weight.

The Stevtensioner

111

Duration of pretensioning anchors and piles Once the required tension has been achieved, the tension has to be maintained for a certain duration. This period is described in the table below for various Certification Authorities. Certification Authority maintaining tension Lloyds Register of Shipping American Bureau of Shipping Det Norske Veritas (NMD) Required duration of 20 minutes 30 minutes 15 minutes

The Stevtensioner
Handling the Stevtensioner Handling operations can generally be described as follows:

112

• Positioning the anchors and paying out the chain • Hook-up all necessary hardware for tensioning operations on deck of
barge or AHV • Deployment Stevtensioner to the seabed and positioning of the installation vessel • First lift (yo-yo) • Series of yo-yo’s • Maintain required tension for a specified period of time • Retrieve the Stevtensioner and disconnect • Prepare for next tensioning A Stevtensioner can be deployed from a crane barge, Anchor Handling Vessel or any vessel having enough crane/winch capacity to lift the required vertical force. General tensioning procedures General tensioning procedures using crane barge or AHV for Stevtensioner models VA1000 and VA1250 are presented in fig. 3-110 and 3-111.

fig. 3-99

2 7 5

4

1 8 3

fig. 3-100

6

The Stevtensioner

113
5

2 7

Hook-up Pass the active chain (2) through the tensioner (1) on deck. Connect passive chain (3) to measuring pin shackle (8). Connect dislock wire (5) to shackle (4). Connect umbilical cable (7) to read-out system on deck and to the measuring pin (6). Lowering Fix active chain (2) to winch or crane hook. Slack dislock wire (5) and lower Stevtensioner to seabed. Stevtensioner will pass over active chain (2). Tensioning mode When Stevtensioner is on seabed, slack dislock wire (5) before the first yo-yo, and keep slack during all yo-yos! Tensioning is achieved by pulling on active chain (2). The mooring lines will be lifted from the seabed causing the anchors or piles to be loaded. After each yo-yo active chain is gained. The active chain can only pass through the Stevtensioner in one direction. Approximately 4 to 7 yo-yos are required to obtain the required pretension load (fig. 3-111).

4

1 8 3

fig. 3-100

6

2 3.1 3.6 0.0 2.2 2.2 1. Stevtensioner Product Range The following Stevtensioners are available from vryhof anchors.5 6 9 VA 220 VA 500 VA 600 VA1000 VA1250 * The suitability only refers to the section of chain passing through the Stevtensioner. Disconnect Stevtensioner on deck of the barge or AHV. Stevtensioner will pass over chain (2).9 1.117 114 . Stevtensioner model Maximum horizontal load [t] 220 500 600 1000 1250 Suitable* for chain Suitable* for chain size with Kenter size without Kenter shackle [mm] shackle [mm] 50 102 76 .6 0.4 2. Pull on dislock wire (5).8 0.4 x x x x x 1.135 114 . .6 5.The Stevtensioner 114 Retrieving When tensioning is completed be sure to lower the Stevtensioner to seabed and slack off active chain (2) before retrieving Stevtensioner with dislock wire (5).132 60 112 76 .152 Size Stevtensioner lxhxw [m] 2.9 Weight Stevtensioner [t] 5 20 2. Chain or wire not passing through the Stevtensioner may have any dimension.5 x x x x x 1.84 102 .87 102 .4 0.

• Space for drilling mud and fuel tanks for supply to drilling rigs. Some even with a dynamic positioning system. The newest generation of AHVs has bollard pulls far in excess of 200 t. • Powerful winches. • Small auxiliary cranes. simple. The equipment and its design are also extremely important. etc. • A stern roller that sometimes consists of two individually rotating drums. Engine power has to be sufficient to handle chain and/or wire and anchors at the water depth concerned. Care should be given to the rated maximum bollard pull which in reality might be less. It is also possible that an owner limits the pressure of the hydraulic system below factory limits. there was a call for specialised vessels. The winch often causes confusion. Drilling rigs are generally moored with 8 to 12 anchors. To ensure easy handling of chain and wire. • Large wire storage capacity. These are laid in a mooring pattern. table P . An AHV owner demonstrates maximum pulling capacity at the bare drum during the maiden trip. for storage of the chain. Originally normal tugs were used for these operations. many supply vessels have chain lockers below decks and a wildcat above the chain locker. to reduce winch wear and repair costs. but a contractor requires high winch output when the drum is 70 to 100% wound with wire under working conditions.Supply/anchor handling vessels 115 These specialised anchor handling vessels (AHVs) now have: • A large deck space. The dynamic capacity of the winch brake is particul-arly important when a long heavy chain must be deployed. with auxiliary winches to reel extra wires. For handling chain. Hydraulically and electrically braked drums are more efficient than band brakes. An experienced crew will also make the handling easier. • One or two sets of towing pins and shark jaws. it is very important to be able to work quickly and effectively. depending on the use of other power consuming equipment such as bow (and sometimes) stern thrusters. but very soon. well-constructed tools are necessary. Much depends on the expertise of the captain and crew. winches. • Large chain lockers. For anchor handling vessels. • An adapted seaworthy design and very manoeuvrable with bow and stern thrusters.

4 Product data .

your suggestions of comments are much appreciated. To make the next edition of the anchor manual suit the requirements of the reader even better than this one. while general information will also be provided if available. Vryhof-specific. we have given the reader as much information and data as we imagined would normally be needed. detailed handling recommendations and product data. Undoubtedly some is missing. This can be vryhof-specific or general information. This can be obtained on request. . information can be related to brochures.Introduction 117 Product Data In this editon of the vryhof anchor manual.

Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 118 B D C A Stevin Mk3 .

Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 119 S E L K Main dimensions Stevin Mk3 dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg weight A B C D E K L S 1000 2429 2654 1559 2023 737 1010 412 60 1500 2774 3038 1785 2316 843 1156 471 65 3000 3493 3828 2249 2918 1063 1456 594 80 5000 4120 4538 2667 3460 1260 1727 704 80 7000 4602 5077 2983 3871 1409 1932 788 90 9000 5012 5521 3244 4209 1533 2100 857 100 12000 5516 6076 3570 4632 1687 2312 943 110 15000 5942 6545 3846 4990 1817 2490 1016 120 20000 6372 6986 4100 5324 2048 2674 1083 160 30000 7289 7997 4694 6094 2345 3061 1240 180 Stevin Mk3 Note: The dimensions of the Stevin Mk3 anchor may be changed for specific applications .

Dimensions Main dimensions of vryhof anchor types 120 B H C A Stevpris Mk5 .

Dimensions Main dimensions of vryhof anchor types 121 S E T sand F mud Stevpris Mk5 Main dimensions Stevpris Mk5 dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg weight A B C E F H T S 1500 2954 3184 1812 1505 271 1230 493 80 3000 3721 4011 2283 1896 342 1550 622 90 5000 4412 4756 2707 2248 406 1837 738 110 8000 5161 5563 3166 2629 474 2149 862 130 10000 5559 5992 3410 2832 511 2315 929 140 12000 5908 6368 3624 3010 543 2460 988 150 15000 6364 6860 3904 3242 585 2650 1064 170 18000 6763 7290 4149 3446 622 2816 1131 180 20000 7004 7550 4297 3569 644 2917 1171 190 22000 7230 7794 4436 3684 665 3011 1209 200 25000 7545 8133 4629 3844 694 3142 1262 200 30000 8018 8643 4919 4085 737 3339 1341 220 65000 10375 11184 6365 5286 954 4321 1736 300 Note: The dimensions of the Stevpris Mk5 anchor may be changed for specific applications .

Dimensions Transport dimensions of vryhof anchor types 122 U V W W Stevpris Mk5 .

Dimensions Transport dimensions of vryhof anchor types H 123 F C D B T T Stevpris Mk5 Transport dimensions Stevpris Mk5 dimensions in mm weight in kg weight anchor fluke shank B C D H T U V W 1500 600 900 3184 1812 2367 1232 494 3294 1221 984 3000 1300 1700 3999 2283 2969 1538 623 4141 1526 1240 5000 2100 2900 4750 2707 3529 1831 739 4913 1817 1470 8000 3400 4600 5550 3166 4122 2140 864 5747 2120 1719 10000 4300 5700 5980 3411 4442 2301 930 6190 2285 1852 12000 5200 6800 6348 3625 4714 2443 989 6578 2422 1968 15000 6400 8600 6848 3904 5087 2642 1065 7090 2618 2120 18000 7700 10300 7278 4149 5407 2808 1132 7533 2783 2253 20000 8600 11400 7547 4297 5609 2920 1172 7806 2891 2334 22000 25000 30000 9400 10700 12900 12600 14300 1 7100 7799 8123 8650 4436 4629 4919 5799 6035 6431 3016 3135 3345 1210 1263 1342 8060 8406 8936 2994 3108 3321 2409 2514 2671 65000 27900 37100 11193 6365 8322 4328 1737 11563 4297 3456 Note: The dimensions of the Stevshark Mk5 anchor may be changed for specific applications .

Dimensions Main dimensions of vryhof anchor types 124 B H C Stevspris New Generation .

Dimensions Main dimensions of vryhof anchor types 125 S E sand F A midd le mu d Stevspris New Generation Main dimensions Stevpris New Generation dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg weight A B C E F H S 1500 2797 3059 1981 1321 641 1170 65 3000 3523 3870 2495 1664 808 1490 80 5000 4178 4602 2958 1973 958 1781 100 8000 4886 5390 3460 2308 1120 2090 120 10000 5263 5807 3728 2486 1206 2253 130 12000 5593 6171 3961 2642 1282 2394 140 15000 6025 6679 4267 2846 1381 2610 160 18000 6402 7101 4534 3024 1468 2777 170 20000 6631 7368 4696 3132 1520 2890 180 22000 6845 7625 4848 3234 1569 3002 190 25000 7143 7962 5059 3374 1637 3138 200 30000 7591 8451 5376 3586 1740 3324 210 Note: The dimensions of the Stevpris New Generation anchor may be changed for specific applications .

49 2.39 1.49 0.72 3.88 3.83 1.50 6.65 2.96 1.88 2.16 1.06 1.59 2.84 1.39 3.31 5.15 1.68 4.39 5.09 2.54 1.78 1.02 2.62 2.27 20000 7.86 12000 6.80 3.69 4.52 1.60 2.69 Note: The dimensions of the Stevpris New Generation anchor may be changed for specific applications .10 4.11 1.55 1.48 8000 5.89 7.78 1.53 30000 8.17 1.14 1.84 4.26 4.01 3.98 0.36 5.47 1.32 1.73 10000 5.97 2.95 2.45 5.17 3.70 6.95 3.99 1.98 1.32 2.22 4.81 3.17 0.46 1.42 2.63 4.89 1.35 22000 7.84 3.69 2.96 5.99 3000 3.78 1.86 2.46 1.78 7.04 4.26 2.21 0.52 4.25 1.90 1.37 4.69 2.23 2.98 15000 6.36 1.05 5.Dimensions Transport dimensions of vryhof anchor types 126 W U Stevspris New Generation Transport dimensions Stevpris New Generation dimensions in m anchor weight in kg weight B Ct Cs H Tt Ts U V W 1500 3.87 2.13 18000 7.93 1.25 5000 4.59 6.45 3.42 25000 7.65 6.32 3.78 0.00 1.43 2.79 1.09 1.92 2.70 2.40 2.23 2.14 3.58 3.61 1.68 1.49 2.

Dimensions Transport dimensions of vryhof anchor types 127 H H B B truck Tt Cs sh ip Ts Ct Stevspris New Generation .

Dimensions 128 B H C A Stevshark Mk5 .

Dimensions 129 S E T sand F mud Main dimensions Stevshark Mk5 dimensions in mm anchor weight in kg weight A B C E F H T S 1500 2862 3085 1755 1458 263 1192 478 80 3000 3605 3886 2212 1837 332 1502 603 90 5000 4275 4608 2622 2178 393 1780 715 110 8000 4999 5389 3067 2547 460 2082 836 130 10000 5385 5805 3304 2743 495 2243 900 140 12000 5723 6169 3511 2915 526 2383 957 150 15000 6165 6645 3782 3140 567 2567 1031 160 18000 6551 7062 4019 3337 602 2728 1095 170 20000 6785 7314 4163 3457 624 2826 1135 180 22000 7004 7550 4297 3568 644 2917 1171 190 25000 7309 7879 4484 3723 672 3044 1222 200 30000 7767 8373 4765 3957 714 3235 1299 210 65000 10051 10834 6166 5120 924 4186 1681 300 Note: The dimensions of the Stevshark Mk5 anchor may be changed for specific applications .

permanent .Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 130 B D H T C Stevmanta VLA .

permanent Main dimensions Stevmanta VLA dimensions in mm area in m2 area B C D E0 E1 F H T 5 3143 2976 1945 3075 3371 172 1459 639 8 3975 3765 2460 3890 4264 217 1845 809 10 4445 4209 2750 4349 4767 243 2063 904 12 4869 4611 3013 4764 5222 266 2260 991 15 5443 5155 3368 5326 5839 298 2527 1107 17 5795 5488 3586 5670 6216 317 2690 1179 20 6286 5953 3890 6150 6742 344 2918 1279 Note: The dimensions of the Stevmanta VLA anchor may be changed for specific applications .Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 131 E1 E0 T F Stevmanta VLA .

Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 132 B D H C Stevmanta VLA .MODU .

MODU Main dimensions Stevmanta VLA dimensions in mm area in m2 area B C D E0 E1 F H T 5 3143 2976 1945 3075 3371 172 1459 639 8 3975 3765 2460 3890 4264 217 1845 809 10 4445 4209 2750 4349 4767 243 2063 904 12 4869 4611 3013 4764 5222 266 2260 991 15 5443 5155 3368 5326 5839 298 2527 1107 17 5795 5488 3586 5670 6216 317 2690 1179 20 6286 5953 3890 6150 6742 344 2918 1279 Note: The dimensions of the Stevmanta VLA anchor may be changed for specific applications .Dimensions Dimensions of vryhof anchor types 133 E1 E0 T F Stevmanta VLA .

kg 2205 1000 5512 2500 11023 5000 16535 7500 22046 10000 26455 12000 33069 15000 44092 20000 71650 32500 88185 40000 Danforth weight lb. kg 1000 454 2500 1134 5000 2268 10000 4536 12000 5443 14000 6350 16000 7257 20000 9072 25000 11340 30000 13608 B C A mm 2605 3150 3945 4565 5040 5335 5735 6405 7320 7850 B mm 1960 2660 3300 3850 4270 4530 4845 5410 6200 6650 C mm 740 1005 1260 1435 1600 1705 1830 2010 2310 2480 D mm 1560 2130 2660 3080 3400 3600 3875 4320 4930 5290 A mm 1830 2260 2780 3510 3730 3920 4100 4370 4710 5000 B mm 1580 2140 2700 3330 3540 3720 4000 4150 4470 4750 C mm 410 560 710 890 945 995 1040 1110 1195 1270 D mm 1100 1350 1650 2100 2240 2360 2470 2620 2820 3000 .Dimensions other anchor types 134 A D D A C B Flipper Delta weight lb.

1000 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 60000 kg 454 2268 4536 6804 9072 11340 13608 15876 18144 27216 A mm 1905 2997 3658 3988 4394 4851 5029 5283 5537 6350 B mm 1803 2845 3480 3791 4166 4521 4801 5055 6096 7061 C mm 622 984 1245 1362 1499 1708 1715 1803 1905 2184 D mm 1168 1829 2235 2438 2692 2946 3073 3226 3327 3810 Moorfast weight lb.Dimensions other anchor types 135 A D D A B B C C LWT weight lb. kg 1000 454 6000 2722 10000 4536 12000 5443 16000 7257 20000 9072 30000 13608 40000 18144 50000 22680 60000 27216 A mm 1549 2565 3327 3531 3886 4166 4801 5436 5639 5893 B mm 1905 3632 3988 4242 4750 4978 5512 6299 6528 6883 C mm 483 787 1041 1092 1219 1295 1499 1600 1676 1778 D mm 940 1549 2032 2159 2388 2591 2997 3226 3353 3556 .

2844 1290 4630 2100 6746 3060 12368 5610 18298 8300 23149 10500 29762 13500 41447 18800 44092 20000 50706 23000 C A mm 3277 3658 4064 5182 5334 5740 5969 6299 6553 7540 B mm 2769 3632 4318 5690 5842 6248 6528 6883 7188 8120 C mm 860 960 1090 1370 1420 1540 1570 1670 1750 2000 D mm 1829 2337 2540 3200 3277 3480 3683 3886 4064 4570 A mm 2025 2382 2700 3305 3793 4073 4429 4946 5049 5290 B mm 1568 1844 2091 2559 2916 3154 3249 3829 3909 4095 C mm 470 553 627 768 875 946 1029 1149 1173 1229 D mm 1067 1255 1423 1741 1984 2146 2333 2606 2660 2787 . kg 3000 1361 6000 2722 9000 4082 15000 6804 20000 9072 25000 11340 30000 13608 35000 15876 40000 18144 60000 27216 AC14 weight lb.Dimensions other anchor types 136 A D D A B C B Stato weight lb. kg.

kg 1000 454 5000 2268 10000 4536 15000 6804 20000 9072 25000 11340 30000 13608 35000 15876 40000 18144 60000 27216 A mm 1072 1854 2337 2680 2946 3175 3372 3550 3708 4775 B mm 841 1437 1810 2089 2280 2456 2608 2743 2872 3194 C mm 521 889 1121 1295 1413 1522 1616 1703 1778 2218 D mm 772 1319 1661 1861 2094 2256 2394 2523 2619 3375 .Dimensions other anchor types 137 A D B C US Navy Stockless weight lb.

7 304.4 118.8 128.6 368.7 120 121.4 115.9 11.2 134.7 136.2 50.7 23 24.2 9.5 12.9 97.6 .8 132 133.2 282.2 20.9 114.9 326.1 125.8 289.4 135.2 15.2 296.5 anchor weight lbs 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 proof load kips 92.1 34.9 14.3 54.5 21.2 7.7 18.2 348 354.4 112.2 214.9 230.5 184.3 103.5 94.3 43.4 126.9 138 anchor weight lbs 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31000 32000 33000 34000 35000 36000 37000 38000 39000 40000 42000 proof load kips 165.7 341.5 26.3 8.Proof load test Proof load test for HHP anchors (US units) anchor weight lbs 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 proof load kips 6.9 277.8 48.7 205.9 312.5 16.2 129.5 36.3 318.5 110 111.9 117.8 194.4 122.1 41.7 263.1 19.6 27.9 105.3 25.8 39.9 333.4 375.5 107 108.3 222.5 130.8 32.2 95.5 99.2 382 388.7 102.8 361.5 270.7 124.1 100.8 400.8 174.9 239 245 250.1 9.8 28.5 45.9 29.3 52.4 256.

1 437 449.3 530.8 62.8 68.4 519.2 156.2 154.7 143.6 58.3 140.6 60.9 83.8 70.5 508.2 89 90.7 85.5 76.5 87.2 153.9 149 150 151.3 496.5 425.1 152.7 145.2 161.7 146.3 155.1 139.6 141.9 562.8 147.2 541 551.7 72.6 74.1 139 anchor weight lbs 44000 46000 48000 50000 52000 54000 56000 58000 60000 62000 64000 66000 68000 70000 75000 80000 82500 proof load kips 411.1 81.4 78.3 80.1 460.8 64.8 590 617 630 .7 anchor weight lbs 7300 7400 7500 7600 7700 7800 7900 8000 8100 8200 8300 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 8900 9000 9500 proof load kips 138.7 144.6 142.8 66.Proof load test Proof load test for HHP anchors (US units) anchor weight lbs 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 proof load kips 56.4 472 484.

3 450 466 480.Proof load test Proof load test for HHP anchors (SI units) anchor weight kg 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 proof load kN 29.7 98 104.7 577 589 601 613 625 635.7 1173.7 735 742.3 1586.3 1686.3 706 715.3 1110 1120.3 563.7 1099.3 37 39 40.7 91.3 987 1002 1018 1034 1050 1066 1078 1088.7 34 35.7 1620 1653.7 1300 1340 1380 1410 1450 1483.7 68.3 63.7 495 509.3 1210 1240 1266.3 132 137.7 1132 1148 1162.4 73.7 645 655.3 116 122 127.3 80 85.3 677 687 696.7 1720 .7 524.3 110.3 53 58.3 1520 1553.7 31.7 666.3 143 155 166 177.7 anchor weight kg 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 proof load kN 434.3 751.7 44 47.3 537 550.3 188 199 210.7 725.7 760 769 777 786 140 anchor weight kg 7000 7200 7400 7600 7800 8000 8200 8400 8600 8800 9000 9200 9400 9600 9800 10000 10500 11000 11500 12000 12500 13000 13500 14000 14500 15000 15500 16000 16500 17000 17500 18000 proof load kN 970.

7 818 827.Proof load test Proof load test for HHP anchors (SI units) anchor weight kg 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 proof load kN 221.3 926.7 252.7 2070 2130 2190 2250 2303.3 836.7 384 401 418.7 282.7 349 366.7 2623.3 808.7 2016.3 231 241.7 866.3 845 855.7 953 961 141 anchor weight kg 18500 19000 19500 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31000 32000 34000 36000 proof load kN 1753.7 321 330.3 2516.3 908 917.7 936 944.3 339.3 1780 1800 1833.3 262 272.3 877 887 897.3 anchor weight kg 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 proof load kN 797.3 2730 .3 1900 1956.3 2356.7 2410 2463.7 292 302 311.

Dimensions vryhof tensioners

142

H

L

B

Main dimensions Stevtensioner dimensions in m. weight in t Stevtensioner model VA220 VA500 L 2.6 5.4 B 1.0 2.4 H 1.2 2.6 weight 5 20

Dimensions vryhof tensioners

143

H

L

B

Main dimensions Stevtensioner dimensions in m. weight in t Stevtensioner model VA600 VA1000 VA1250 L 2.2 3.1 3.5 B 0.6 0.8 0.9 H 0.9 1.2 1.4 weight 2.5 6 9

Proof load/break
Proof load/break load of chains (in US units)
diameter
R4-RQ4

144

Proof load
R3S R3 RQ3-API R4-RQ4

Break load
R3S R3 RQ3-API

Weight stud kips 73 86 128 162 198 238 282 329 379 432 489 518 548 579 611 643 676 744 815 852 889 965 1044 1084 1125 1167 1209 1251 1295 1383 1428 1473 1566 1613 1660 1708 1756 1855 1955 lbs/ft 5 6 10 12 15 18 21 25 29 33 38 40 43 45 48 51 54 59 65 69 72 79 86 89 93 97 100 104 108 116 121 125 134 138 143 147 152 162 172 studless lbs/ft 5 6 9 11 14 16 20 23 27 31 35 37 39 42 44 46 49 54 60 63 66 72 78 81 85 88 92 95 99 106 110 114 122 126 130 135 139 148 157

stud inches 3 /4 13 /16 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 2 1/16 2 1/8 2 3/16 2 1/4 2 5/16 2 3/8 2 1/2 2 5/8 2 11/16 2 3/4 2 7/8 3 3 1/16 3 1/8 3 3/16 3 1/4 3 5/16 3 3/8 3 1/2 3 9/16 3 5/8 3 3/4 3 13/16 3 7/8 3 15/16 4 4 1/8 4 1/4 kips 75 88 131 165 203 244 289 337 388 443 500 531 561 593 625 658 692 762 835 872 910 988 1069 1110 1152 1194 1237 1281 1325 1416 1462 1508 1603 1651 1699 1749 1798 1899 2001

studless kips 66 77 116 146 179 216 255 298 343 391 443 469 496 524 553 582 612 674 738 771 805 874 945 982 1019 1056 1094 1133 1172 1252 1292 1334 1417 1460 1503 1546 1590 1679 1770

stud kips 62 73 110 138 169 203 241 281 323 369 417 442 468 494 521 549 577 635 696 727 758 823 891 925 960 995 1031 1068 1105 1180 1218 1257 1336 1376 1416 1457 1498 1582 1668

studless kips 60 71 106 133 163 197 233 271 313 357 403 427 452 478 504 530 558 614 672 702 733 796 861 894 928 962 997 1032 1068 1140 1177 1215 1291 1330 1369 1409 1448 1529 1612

stud stud studless studless kips kips 54 49 63 57 95 85 119 107 147 132 176 158 208 187 243 218 280 252 320 287 361 324 383 344 405 364 428 384 452 405 476 427 500 449 550 494 603 541 630 565 657 590 714 640 772 693 802 719 832 747 863 774 894 802 925 830 957 859 1022 918 1056 947 1089 977 1158 1039 1192 1070 1227 1101 1263 1133 1299 1165 1371 1231 1445 1297

stud and studlless kips 95 111 167 210 257 310 366 427 492 562 635 673 712 752 793 835 878 967 1059 1106 1154 1253 1356 1408 1461 1515 1570 1625 1681 1796 1854 1913 2033 2094 2156 2218 2281 2409 2538 kips 86 101 152 191 234 281 333 388 447 510 577 612 647 684 721 759 798 878 962 1005 1049 1139 1232 1280 1328 1377 1427 1477 1528 1632 1685 1739 1848 1903 1959 2016 2073 2189 2307 kips 77 90 136 171 210 252 298 348 401 457 517 548 580 612 646 680 715 787 862 900 940 1020 1103 1146 1189 1233 1278 1323 1368 1462 1509 1557 1655 1704 1754 1805 1856 1960 2066

Proof load/break Proof load/break load of chains (in US units) diameter R4-RQ4 145 Proof load R3S R3 RQ3-API R4-RQ4 Break load R3S R3 RQ3-API Weight stud kips 2057 2160 2265 2372 2480 2589 2700 2812 2925 3039 3154 3270 3387 3504 3623 3742 3861 3981 4102 4223 4344 4465 4586 4708 lbs/ft 182 192 203 214 226 238 250 262 274 287 301 314 328 342 356 371 386 401 417 433 449 466 482 500 studless lbs/ft 166 176 186 196 206 217 228 239 251 262 275 287 299 312 325 339 353 367 381 395 410 425 440 456 stud inches 4 3/8 4 1/2 4 5/8 4 3/4 4 7/8 5 5 1/8 5 1/4 5 3/8 5 1/2 5 5/8 5 3/4 5 7/8 6 6 1/8 6 1/4 6 3/8 6 1/2 6 5/8 6 3/4 6 7/8 7 7 1/8 7 1/4 kips 2105 2211 2319 2428 2538 2650 2764 2878 2994 3111 3228 3347 3467 3587 3709 3830 3953 4076 4199 4323 4447 4571 4695 4820 studless kips 1862 1955 2050 2147 2245 2344 2444 2545 2647 2751 2855 2960 3066 3172 3279 3387 3495 3604 3713 3822 3932 4042 4152 4262 stud kips 1754 1843 1932 2023 2115 2209 2303 2398 2495 2592 2690 2789 2889 2989 3090 3192 3294 3396 3499 3602 3706 3809 3913 4016 studless kips 1696 1781 1868 1956 2045 2135 2226 2319 2412 2506 2601 2696 2793 2890 2987 3086 3184 3283 3383 3482 3582 3682 3782 3882 stud stud studless studless kips kips 1521 1365 1597 1433 1675 1503 1753 1574 1833 1645 1914 1718 1996 1791 2079 1865 2162 1940 2247 2016 2332 2093 2417 2170 2504 2247 2591 2325 2678 2404 2766 2483 2855 2562 2944 2642 3033 2722 3122 2802 3211 2882 3301 2963 3391 3043 3481 3124 stud and studlless kips 2671 2805 2941 3080 3220 3362 3506 3651 3798 3946 4095 4246 4398 4551 4704 4859 5014 5170 5327 5483 5641 5798 5956 6114 kips 2427 2549 2673 2799 2926 3055 3186 3318 3451 3586 3722 3859 3997 4135 4275 4416 4557 4698 4841 4983 5126 5269 5412 5556 kips 2174 2283 2394 2507 2621 2736 2853 2971 3091 3211 3333 3456 3579 3704 3829 3954 4081 4208 4335 4463 4591 4719 4847 4976 .

Proof load/break Proof load/break load of chains (in SI units) diameter R4-RQ4 146 Proof load R3S R3 RQ3-API R4-RQ4 Break load R3S R3 RQ3-API Weight stud kN 324 376 431 511 598 691 790 895 1007 1124 1248 1377 1513 1654 1800 1952 2110 2273 2441 2615 2794 2978 3166 3360 3559 3762 3970 4291 4621 4847 5194 5550 5916 6289 6544 6932 7195 7596 7868 kg/m 8 9 11 13 15 17 20 22 25 28 32 35 39 42 46 50 55 59 64 69 74 79 84 90 95 101 107 117 126 133 144 155 166 177 185 198 206 219 228 studless kg/m 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 23 26 29 32 35 39 42 46 50 54 58 63 67 72 77 82 87 92 98 107 116 122 131 141 151 162 169 181 188 200 208 stud mm 19 20.5 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 73 76 78 81 84 87 90 92 95 97 100 102 kN 331 385 442 524 612 707 809 917 1031 1151 1278 1410 1548 1693 1843 1999 2160 2327 2499 2677 2860 3048 3242 3440 3643 3851 4064 4392 4731 4962 5317 5682 6056 6439 6699 7096 7365 7776 8054 studless kN 293 340 390 463 541 625 715 811 911 1018 1130 1247 1369 1497 1630 1767 1910 2058 2210 2367 2529 2695 2866 3042 3221 3406 3594 3884 4183 4388 4702 5024 5355 5693 5923 6275 6513 6876 7122 stud kN 276 320 368 436 510 589 674 764 859 959 1065 1175 1290 1411 1536 1666 1800 1939 2083 2231 2383 2540 2701 2867 3036 3209 3387 3660 3942 4135 4431 4735 5046 5365 5582 5913 6138 6480 6712 studless kN 267 310 356 422 493 570 651 738 830 927 1029 1136 1247 1364 1485 1610 1740 1874 2013 2156 2304 2455 2611 2771 2935 3102 3274 3538 3811 3997 4283 4577 4878 5187 5396 5716 5933 6264 6488 studstudstud and studlless studless studless kN kN kN kN kN 239 215 420 382 342 278 249 488 443 397 319 286 560 509 456 378 339 664 604 541 442 397 776 706 632 511 458 897 815 730 584 524 1026 932 835 662 594 1163 1057 946 744 668 1308 1188 1064 831 746 1460 1327 1188 923 828 1621 1473 1319 1018 914 1789 1625 1456 1118 1004 1964 1785 1599 1223 1097 2147 1951 1748 1331 1194 2338 2124 1903 1443 1295 2535 2304 2063 1560 1400 2740 2490 2230 1681 1508 2952 2682 2402 1805 1620 3170 2881 2580 1933 1735 3396 3086 2764 2066 1854 3628 3297 2953 2201 1976 3867 3514 3147 2341 2101 4112 3737 3347 2484 2230 4364 3965 3551 2631 2361 4621 4200 3761 2782 2496 4885 4440 3976 2935 2634 5156 4685 4196 3172 2847 5572 5064 4535 3417 3066 6001 5454 4884 3584 3216 6295 5720 5123 3840 3446 6745 6130 5490 4104 3683 7208 6550 5866 4374 3925 7682 6981 6252 4650 4173 8167 7422 6647 4838 4342 8497 7722 6916 5125 4599 9001 8180 7326 5319 4774 9343 8490 7604 5616 5040 9864 8964 8028 5817 5220 10217 9285 8315 .

Proof load/break Proof load/break load of chains (in SI units) diameter R4-RQ4 147 Proof load R3S R3 RQ3-API R4-RQ4 Break load R3S R3 RQ3-API Weight stud kN 8282 8561 9130 9565 10005 10452 10753 11057 11516 11981 12294 13085 13887 14700 15522 16352 17188 17693 18199 18707 19386 19896 20236 21087 kg/m 241 251 270 285 300 315 326 337 353 370 382 411 442 473 506 540 575 596 618 640 671 694 710 750 studless kg/m 221 229 246 260 274 288 298 308 323 338 348 375 403 432 462 493 525 545 564 585 613 634 648 685 stud mm 105 107 111 114 117 120 122 124 127 130 132 137 142 147 152 157 162 165 168 171 175 178 180 185 kN 8478 8764 9347 9791 10242 10700 11008 11319 11789 12265 12585 13395 14216 15048 15890 16739 17596 18112 18631 19150 19845 20367 20715 21586 studless kN 7497 7750 8265 8658 9057 9461 9734 10009 10425 10846 11129 11844 12571 13306 14051 14802 15559 16016 16474 16934 17548 18010 18318 19088 stud kN 7065 7304 7789 8159 8535 8916 9173 9432 9824 10221 10488 11162 11847 12540 13241 13949 14663 15094 15525 15959 16538 16972 17263 17989 studless kN 6829 7060 7529 7887 8251 8619 8868 9118 9497 9880 10138 10790 11452 12122 12800 13484 14174 14590 15008 15427 15986 16407 16687 17389 studstudstud and studless studless kN kN kN kN 6123 5495 10754 9773 6330 5681 11118 10103 6750 6058 11856 10775 7071 6346 12420 11287 7397 6639 12993 11807 7728 6935 13573 12334 7950 7135 13964 12690 8175 7336 14358 13048 8515 7641 14955 13591 8858 7950 15559 14139 9089 8157 15965 14508 9674 8682 16992 15441 10267 9214 18033 16388 10868 9753 19089 17347 11476 10299 20156 18317 12089 10850 21234 19297 12708 11405 22320 20284 13081 11739 22976 20879 13455 12075 23633 21477 13831 12412 24292 22076 14333 12863 25174 22877 14709 13201 25836 23479 14961 13427 26278 23880 15590 13991 27383 24884 studlless kN 8753 9048 9650 10109 10574 11047 11365 11686 12171 12663 12993 13829 14677 15536 16405 17282 18166 18699 19234 19771 20488 21027 21387 22286 .

Chain components Chain components and forerunners 148 4D 3.2D VA-03 PL A A A A A A A A A .6D A D VA-01 4.35D F C B H B A E A A A 4D C 1.1D VA-02 4.96D B 1.4D F C B A E A A A A A 3.

Chain components Chain components and forerunners 149 4D 4.52D C PL A B H B A E A A A B D A E PL VA-05 650 mm K C B A E A A A A A 390 mm K 95 mm VA-06 K C B H B A E A A A .2D E D VA-04 1.

15D 3.8D 9.3D 4.4D 4D 7.2D I 5.65D 1.45D 4D 3.2D 1.7D 3.8D 4.4D 0.35D 1.2D 2.Chain components Chain components and forerunners 13.1D 1.8D 1.4D 3.4D 5.3D A = B = C = E = F = G = PL = H = I = K = common link enlarged link end link joining shackle kenter type anchor shackle D type joining shackle D type pear link swivel swivel shackle special end link 4.7D 2.4D .1D G 1.7D H 1.7D F 1.15D 2.2D 8D 1.6D 1.8D 2.2D 3.8D 1.2D 150 6.2D 8.8D 1.3D 1.6D 1.

92 .95 .40 .108 A 298 378 454 562 654 692 889 940 B 206 260 313 376 419 435 571 610 C 59 76 92 117 133 146 190 203 D 40 51 60 79 92 98 121 127 E 48 64 76 95 124 130 165 175 F 83 100 121 149 149 159 190 203 G H J 26 32 37 48 54 57 73 76 K 43 52 64 76 79 83 108 111 kg 13 27 49 94 149 236 386 418 44x 44 56 51x 60 74 62x 73 88 85x 79 111 111x 102 130x133 124x 137 141 130 181 156 200 .79 .102 .51 .60 .Connecting links C H K B 151 F G J D A E Pear shaped anchor connecting link (pearlink) dimensions in mm NO 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 chain size 32 42 52 62 81 94 97 103 .

73 74 .67 68 .5 62.86 87 .5 93.0 12.54 56 .0 .70 71 .0 37.0 7.5 73.64 66 .0 123.32 33 .Connecting links D E F E G B C 152 A Detachable chain connecting link (C-connector) dimensions in mm chain size 30 .51 52 .5 14.79 81 .0 23.48 50 .76 78 .5 97.44 46 .35 36 .5 16.0 130.0 80.58 59 .5 210 229 248 267 286 305 324 343 362 381 400 419 438 457 476 495 514 537 552 571 590 607 B 127 140 152 165 190 184 197 210 221 234 246 246 275 283 295 308 320 332 350 356 368 381 394 C 44 49 53 57 62 64 64 67 71 78 79 83 92 94 95 102 103 107 116 119 122 127 132 D 32 35 38 41 44 48 51 54 57 60 64 67 73 73 76 79 83 86 92 92 95 98 102 E 35 39 43 50 51 55 59 64 67 70 73 78 83 85 90 92 92 100 105 106 114 117 119 F 39 42 46 50 56 60 64 67 71 75 78 79 90 93 94 96 103 107 114 116 119 121 122 G 21 23 25 27 30 31 33 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 55 57 59 61 62 67 68 weight kg 4.42 43 .5 6.60 62 .5 20.95 97 .98 100 .0 45.5 48.92 94 .38 40 .102 A 190.5 32.8 10.89 90 .5 116.83 84 .5 27.5 54.

01846 millilitres ml litres l cubic metres m3 cubic inches in 3 gallons (US) gal cubic feet ft3 mass kilograms kg metric tons t pounds lb short tons US ton density kilograms per cubic metre kg/m3 pounds per cubic foot lb/ft 3 .20462 1.06243 16.Conversion table to convert from length millimetres mm metres m kilometres km kilometres km inches in feet ft miles mi nautical miles nmile area square millimetres mm2 square metres m2 square kilometres km square inches in square feet ft 2 2 153 multiply by 0.53996 25.03937 3.38706 3.00155 10.26417 35.58999 0.06102 0.4 0.90718 0.02832 2.38610 645.852 0.76391 0.28084 0.30480 1.62137 0.09290 2 to obtain inches in feet ft miles mi nautical miles nmile millimetres mm metres m kilometres km kilometres km square inches in2 square feet ft2 square miles mi2 square millimetres mm2 square metres m2 square kilometres km2 cubic inches in3 gallons (US) gal cubic feet ft3 millilitres ml litres l cubic metres m3 pounds lb short tons US ton kilograms kg metric tons t pounds per cubic foot lb/ft3 kilograms per cubic metre kg/m3 2 square miles mi volume 2.16 0.31467 16.10231 0.78541 0.60934 1.45359 0.

80665 0.8 then add 32 subtract 32 then multiply by 0.10197 2.51444 0.45359 20.04788 6.94384 2.14504 0.44704 multiply by 1.22481 0.23694 0.Conversion table to convert from force or weight kilonewtons kN kilonewtons kN metric tons t kips kip metric tons t kips kip pressure or stress kilopascals kPa megapascals MPa pounds per square foot psf kips per square inch ksi velocity metres per second m/s metres per second m/s knots kn miles per hour mph temperature degrees celsius ˚C degrees fahrenheit ˚F 154 multiply by 0.89472 1.88555 0.44822 9.555 to obtain kips kip metric tons t kips kip kilonewtons kN kilonewtons kN metric tons t pounds per square foot psf kips per square inch ksi kilopascals kPa megapascals MPa knots kn miles per hour mph metres per second m/s metres per second m/s degrees fahrenheit ˚F degrees celsius ˚C .20462 4.

F = 250 t S. 4-01 for a clarification of the symbols used. . F = 200 t X. The part of the mooring line that is suspended in the water will take on a catenary shape. F = 50 t X. F = 150 t X. 4-02 S. F = 100 t S. F = 150 t S. F = 200 t S. Depending on the waterdepth. F = 300 t X. F = 100 t X. F = 100 t X. part of the mooring line will lay on the seabed and part of the mooring line will be suspended in the water. F = 300 t { } { } S + F w F d w - The weight of the suspended chain (V in [t]) is given by: V=wxS See fig. the weight of the mooring line and the force applied to the mooring line at the fairlead.Mooring line catenary 155 X F When the mooring line of a floater is deployed. F = 50 t S. The angle is the angle between the mooring line at the fairlead and the horizontal. 4-01 1600 2xF -d W with d : the waterdepth plus the distance between sealevel and the fairlead in [m] F : the force applied to the mooring line at the fairlead in [t] and w : the unit weight of the mooring line in water in [t/m] The horizontal distance (X in [m]) between the fairlead and the touchdown point of the mooring line on the seabed can be calculated with: F X = w -d xe log S= { } length S and X in meters √dx 1200 800 400 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 depth in meters fig. the length of the suspended mooring line (S in [m]) can be calculated with: s v d j fig.

110 t/m. 4-03 F = 50 t F = 250 t F = 100 t F = 300 t F = 150 t F = 200 t .Mooring line catenary 156 weight catenary chain in t 180 140 Example In fig. the suspended length S and the horizontal distance X are plotted for a 76 mm chain for different loads F (ranging from 50 t to 300 t). 4-02. 4-03. The submerged unit weight of the 76 mm chain is 0. The suspended weight of the mooring line is plotted in fig. 100 60 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 depth in meters fig.

Mooring line holding capacity 157 Mooring line holding capacity on the seabed The holding capacity (P) in [t] of the part of the mooring line that is laying on the seabed. while the values given under sliding can be used to calculate the forces during deployment of the mooring line. the following values can be used: mooring line type chain wire rope friction coefficient starting sliding 1. .0 0.6 0.7 0.25 The values for the friction coefficient given under starting can be used to calculate the holding capacity of the mooring line. can be estimated with the following equation: P=fxlxw with f : friction coefficient between the mooring line and the seabed l : the length of the mooring line laying on the seabed in [m] w : the unit weight of the mooring line in water in [t/m] If no detailed information on the friction coefficient is available.

Shackles A 158 A D O D B C Chain shackle B E C Anchor shackle E .

federal specification (RR-C-271) dimensions in mm SWL t A B C D chain shackle 43 51 59 73 85 90 94 115 127 149 171 190 203 230 267 400 500 540 600 650 700 700 730 730 750 750 840 840 D anchor shackle 51 64 76 83 95 108 115 133 146 178 197 222 254 330 381 400 500 540 600 650 700 700 730 730 750 750 840 870 E 159 2 3.26 1.05 1.5 12 13.26 7 8.6 12.65 29.S.5 8.44 0.79 1.5 160 235 285 340 570 685 880 980 1110 1295 1475 1900 2800 .38 0.25 4.59 3.1 60 93 145 180 225 305 540 580 850 920 990 1165 1315 1700 2500 Weight anchor shackle KG 0.Shackles Chain shackle and anchor shackle According to U.75 6.3 41 62.34 4.88 2.5 17 25 35 42.19 7.3 109.8 15 20.8 35.5 55 85 120 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1500 13 16 19 22 25 28 32 35 38 45 50 57 65 75 89 102 120 125 135 165 175 195 205 210 220 230 250 260 16 19 22 25 28 32 35 38 42 50 57 65 70 80 95 108 130 140 150 175 185 205 215 220 230 240 280 325 22 27 31 36 43 47 51 57 60 74 83 95 105 127 146 165 175 200 200 225 250 275 300 300 320 340 400 460 32 38 44 50 56 64 70 76 84 100 114 130 140 160 190 216 260 280 300 350 370 410 430 440 460 480 560 650 O anchor shackle 32 43 51 58 68 75 83 92 99 126 138 160 180 190 238 275 290 305 305 325 350 375 400 400 420 420 500 600 Weight Chain shackle KG 0.16 27.5 9.8 5.79 3.82 18.66 1.74 6.46 2.

5 924 1075.5 604 676 754.Shackles A 160 D G B C F E Heavy duty shackle double nut dimensions in mm SWL t 60 85 110 130 175 225 rope dia inch 12-13” 14-15” 16-18” 19-21” 22-23” 24”-> A 65 80 90 100 125 130 B 76 90 102 114 133 146 C 175 220 254 280 300 333 D 350 390 430 480 600 720 E 165 178 210 235 265 305 F 305 380 434 480 550 593 G 535.5 weight kg 65 87 146 194 354 410 .

Shackles 161 F E D B A C A Sling shackle dimensions in mm SWL t 75 125 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 A 70 85 89 100 110 122 145 160 170 190 200 220 240 260 280 B 70 80 95 105 120 134 160 180 200 215 230 255 270 300 320 C 105 130 140 150 170 185 220 250 275 300 325 350 380 430 460 D 290 365 390 480 540 600 575 630 700 735 750 755 760 930 950 E 186 220 250 276 300 350 370 450 490 540 554 584 614 644 680 F 120 150 170 205 240 265 320 340 370 400 420 440 460 530 560 weight kg 67 110 160 220 320 350 635 803 980 1260 1430 1650 2120 2400 2980 .

0 72.5 Nominal Steel Area mm2 3377 3917 4747 5341 6139 6834 7640 8589 9403 10314 11609 12515 13616 Sheathing Thickness mm 8 8 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 5647 6550 7938 8930 10266 11427 12775 14362 15722 17171 19180 20469 22070 557 627 760 855 982 1093 1222 1353 1481 1599 1799 1940 2110 .3 61.5) (3.9 48.25) (4.1 42.5 43.5) (4.8 97.75) (6) MBL kN Axial Stiffness MN Nominal Weight in kg/m Unsheathed 28.4 81.5 33.7 95.0 53.5 87.1 48.3 76.25) (5.9 44.5 153 (3) (3.5) (5.75) (4) (4.7 Submerged nominal weight kg/m 23.8 27.5 102 108 114 121.5 105.5 64.75) (5) (5.5 83.2 79. The advantages of each of the rope types are presented in the following table: Spiral strand six strand Higher strength/weight ratio Higher elasticity Higher strength/diameter ratio Greater flexibility Torsionally balanced Lower axial stiffness Higher corrosion resistance Properties of spiral stand wire rope Nominal Diameter mm (inch) 76 82 90 95.1 114.2 72.7 66.4 35.1 55.Wire rope 162 Depending on the required service life of the mooring system.4 110. the following types of wire rope are recommended: Design life recommended product type Up to 6 years Six strand Up to 8 years Six strand c/w zinc anodes Up to 10 years Six strand c/w ‘A’ galvanised outer wires & zinc anodes 10 years plus Spiral strand 15 years plus Spiral strand c/w Galfan coated outer wires 20 years plus Spiral strand c/w HDPE sheathing The two rope constructions have differing properties.6 57.2 119.4 33.0 39.6 91.5 Sheathed 30.5 102.25) (3.1 86.6 59.5 127 133 141 146.3 68.4 37.9 51.

8 573.50 3.3 60.8 319.5 35.5 59.2 10.2 64 71 77 83 89 96 102 108 114 121 127 133 140 2.7 Torque Factor Nm/kN 4.6 9.2 483.7 10.75 3 3.3 22.5 642.9 1006.9 7.1 17.7 26.7 415. Torque factor presented in the last column is an approximate value at 20% applied load.Wire rope Properties of six strand wire rope Diameter mm (inch) MBL kN Axial Stiffness MN Rope weight kg/m 163 Submerged rope weight kg/m 15.8 53.5 49.8 65.3 43.9 Note: MBL based on 10 years design life.5 71.5 2.3 6.8 6.7 39.0 30. Higher fatigue resistance .0 278.7 5.1 707.6 11.6 67.7 29.50 3360 3990 4767 5399 6414 6965 7799 8240 9172 10055 11134 11728 12925 189.0 40.25 4.8 25.0 775.75 4 4.4 233.5 8.3 18.75 5 5.5 44.7 866.6 912.2 5.7 73.25 5.1 8.8 55.8 80.1 9.9 48.3 20.25 3.50 4.9 35.

In addition to prevent damage to the cable within the sheathing. D > 24 x (d – 2 x t). i.5) Where : D = sheave diameter mm W = line load N d = sheathed cable diameter mm t = sheathing radial thickness mm σb = maximum bearing pressure N/mm2 The above formula ensures no damage to the sheathing through bending..Wire rope 164 Installation of sheathed spiral strand The limiting factors for the installation of a sheathed spiral strand are defined by the properties of the sheathing. the minimum bending diameter is 24 times the unsheathed cable diameter. The minimum bending diameter permitted can be calculated using the following formula: π D = (4 x W) / (π x σb x {d x 0.e. The maximum bearing pressure (σb) on the sheath is limited to 21 N/mm2 to avoid permanent deformation. .15 x t}0.

84 85 .104 105 .114 115 .144 145 .160 A 360 400 425 500 580 625 700 B 375 410 450 500 570 630 700 D1 150 175 205 230 260 300 325 F 350 380 400 500 600 680 725 G 150 170 200 210 225 240 275 X 1110 1250 1400 1570 1800 1940 2150 . mm 75 .Wire rope sockets 165 G D1 B A X Closed spelter socket dimensions in mm NO 428 430 431 433 440 445 450 MBL t 650 820 1000 1200 1500 1700 1900 for wire dia.94 95 .130 131 .

48 49 .155 158 .68 69 .39 40 .51 55 .86 87 .167 inch /8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 .1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 3/4 .26 27 .6 0/0 6 1/2 7 A B C D E F G Weight kg 101 114 127 139 152 165 190 216 228 248 279 305 330 356 381 450 500 580 675 90 103 116 130 155 171 198 224 247 270 286 298 311 330 356 425 475 550 600 33 36 39 43 51 54 55 62 73 79 79 83 102 102 108 120 120 150 175 24 28 32 38 41 44 51 57 63 73 79 86 92 99 108 125 138 160 175 47 57 63 70 79 82 89 96 108 140 159 171 184 197 216 235 260 300 325 92 104 114 127 136 146 171 193 216 241 273 292 311 330 362 405 515 510 600 38 44 51 57 63 70 76 82 92 102 124 133 146 159 178 190 210 250 300 4 6.3 5/8 3 3/4 .5 50 65 93 110 142 170 225 340 - .75 76 .5 7.4 0/0 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 .1 7/8 2 .3 1/8 3 1/4 .22 23 .2 5/8 2 3/4 .36 37 .115 122 .93 94 .5 11 13 17 24 36.42 43 .2 1/8 2 1/4 .2 7/8 3 .2 3/8 1 2 /2 .130 140 .80 81 .60 61 .3 3/8 3 1/2 .102 108 .30 31 .Wire rope sockets F E C G 166 B A D Closed spelter socket dimensions in mm NO MBL tons 201 204 207 212 215 217 219 222 224 226 227 228 229 230 231 233 240 250 260 45 70 100 125 150 200 260 280 360 450 480 520 600 700 875 1100 1250 1400 1600 Rope diameter mm 20 .

mm 75 .104 105 .114 115 .144 145 .130 131 .94 95 .Wire rope sockets 167 C D1 B A J X Open spelter socket dimensions in mm NO 338 340 344 346 350 370 380 MBL t 650 820 1000 1200 1500 1700 1900 for wire dia.160 A 375 410 425 500 580 625 700 B 298 320 343 500 580 625 700 C 296 340 362 440 580 625 680 D1 140 152 178 200 250 280 300 J 159 171 191 200 220 230 250 X 1050 1170 1300 1570 1800 1940 2150 .84 85 .

60 61 .5 40.26 27 .75 76 .6 16.130 140 .1 7/8 2 .102 108 .2 4.5 11.54 55 .155 158 .3 1/8 3 1/4 .80 81 .2 7/8 3 .2 3/8 2 1/2 .8 24 27.2 5/8 2 3/4 .30 31 .5 60.115 122 .4 0/0 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 .7 7.42 43 .86 87 .167 inch /4 /8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 -1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 3/4 .48 49 .36 37 .39 40 .6 0/0 6 1/2 3 7 A B C D D1 J K Weight kg 89 101 114 127 139 152 165 190 216 228 248 279 305 330 356 381 460 500 580 675 76 89 101 114 127 162 165 178 228 250 273 279 286 298 318 343 480 500 500 600 80 90 120 130 144 160 176 200 216 236 264 276 284 296 340 362 440 560 600 650 21 24 28 32 38 41 44 51 57 63 73 79 86 92 99 108 125 138 160 175 35 41 51 57 63 70 76 89 95 108 121 127 133 140 152 178 190 250 275 290 38 44 51 57 63 76 76 89 101 113 127 133 146 159 171 191 208 210 230 230 16 19 22 25 28 30 33 39 46 53 60 73 76 79 83 89 101 120 140 175 3.2 1/8 2 1/4 .22 23 .19 20 .68 69 .3 3/8 3 1/2 .5 90 122 157 195 221 281 397 570 980 - .93 94 .3 5/8 3 3/4 .Wire rope sockets L2 K J K D1 B L1 A 168 C D Open spelter socket dimensions in mm NO MBL tons 100 104 108 111 115 118 120 125 128 130 132 135 138 140 142 144 146 150 160 170 32 45 70 100 125 150 200 260 280 360 450 480 520 600 700 875 1100 1250 1400 1600 Rope diameter mm 17 .

80 81 . • Impact value of min.102 108 .Wire rope sockets 169 F E C B A D CR-socket dimensions in mm NO 522 524 526 527 528 529 530 531 533 MBL t 250 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 rope dia mm 49 .93 94 . • An open-widow side for easy rope handling. . • No rings in the cone to a give a maximum rope/socket connection. • Integrated non rotating stopper system which prevents the tamp from turning or slipping out of the cone.54 55 .115 A 215 230 250 280 310 340 360 380 450 B 125 145 160 175 190 205 220 240 260 C 55 65 75 80 85 100 105 110 125 D 57 63 73 79 86 92 99 108 120 E 115 135 150 165 175 200 205 225 240 F 200 230 270 300 325 350 360 380 420 weight kg 30 46 62 87 110 135 160 208 270 Advantages of the CR socket • Guaranteed high breaking load.75 76 .60 61 . 27 Joule at -40˚C. • A high performance connection for the right combination with a detachable link.86 87 .68 69 .

7 D According to insulating tube thickness 1.Wire rope sockets 170 A B C X Y Forged eye socket Dimension A B C X Y Size 1.4 D According to wire rope diameter According to wire rope diameter Note : D is the nominal diameter of the chain that connects to the socket. .

Thimbles 171 F E K D C A B Main dimensions bellmouth thimble dimensions in mm For wire dia. 10”-12” 15”-16” 18”-21” A 366 440 454 B 606 746 844 C 277 352 352 D 480 608 660 E 195 248 300 F 166 191 226 K 85 105 118 weight kg 80 125 175 .

Thimbles H2 A H1 172 C X E D F B G Main dimensions tubular thimble dimensions in mm For wire dia. 12” 15” 18” 21” 24” 27” A 521 625 727 829 930 1035 B 420 510 610 740 880 1020 C 260 312 368 415 465 517 D 194 194 219 219 273 273 E 144 144 169 169 201 201 F 130 150 175 200 225 250 G 20 25 30 30 30 30 H1 130 158 183 206 229 260 H2 140 168 194 219 245 273 X 10 40 40 40 40 40 weight kg 50 80 140 180 260 380 .

a Wet strength equals to dry strength Production and construction in accordance with recognized standards.38 .5% + / .Synthetic ropes Rope properties Polyester Material Construction Protective cover Color of rope Specific gravity Melting point Abrasion resistance UV resistance Temperature resistance Chemical resistance Water absorption/fibers Water uptake Dry & weight conditions Polyester Parallel strand construction Polyester White with marker yarns 1. .floating 145° C Excellent Good Medium Excellent < 0.05% n.30% Wet strength equals to dry strength 173 Dyneema High Modulus PolyEthylene Parallel strand construction Composite yarn White 0.sinks 251° C Excellent Excellent Workable at sub-zero temperatures Good < 0. The properties of various rope sizes are presented in the following tables.975 .

1 EA e 1 Stiffness kN EA2 8.1 3.39e + 05 4.2 27.01e + 05 1.6 4.85 6.74e + 05 3.2 stiffness EA k/N 2.9 16.87e + 05 6.84e + 05 2.92e + 05 1.1 5.76e + 05 2.50 % MBL .28 9.2 21.03e + 05 2.7 11.14e + 05 3.08e + 05 6.2 19.11e + 05 8.1 3.27e + 05 Note : Minimum Breaking Load (MBL) in spliced condition.14e + 05 3.2 35.34 5.1 18.0 40.6 13.10e + 04 1.5 6.4 5.80e + 05 2.83 8.3 17.8 12.59e + 05 4.79e + 05 5.43 + 04 1.8 26.35e + 05 2.9 3.5 22.9 15.68e + 05 4.2 7.22e + 05 3.6 37.96e + 05 2.53e + 05 3.4 9.0 29. Weights are presented for a rope loaded to 2% and 20% of MBL 1 cycling between 10 .8 9.9 2.Synthetic ropes HMPE Diameter mm 81 93 108 117 129 137 147 154 163 169 177 182 187 MBL k/N 3649 5108 7298 8757 10946 12406 14595 16055 18244 19703 21893 23352 24812 Weight kg/m 3.9 Submerged weight kg/m @2% MBL 2. Polyester mooring line: strength table Diameter mm 113 137 154 169 183 195 207 227 245 MBL k/N 3723 5754 7446 9138 10830 12522 14215 17261 20307 Total weight kg/m @2% MBL 8.30 % MBL 2 cycling between 20 .30 % MBL 3 cycling between 40 .7 @20% MBL 1.22e + 05 1.24 10.2 24.2 12.7 @20% MBL 8.99e + 05 3.9 4.19 + 04 1.0 13.7 5.83e + 05 e EA3 1.57e + 05 1.09e + 05 1.5 7.30e + 05 1.40e + 05 2.89e + 05 8.99e + 05 7.05e + 05 4.30e + 05 2.30 4.38e + 05 174 Note : MBL in spliced condition.84e + 05 4.3 16.0 15.18e + 05 1.8 6.38e + 05 1.2 32.0 8.19e + 05 4.

• It should be avoided that the ropes undergo more than 1000 loadcycles with a line tension smaller than 5% of the MBL. • Rope contact with sharp gritty materials should be avoided. • Abrasion or fouling of the mooring line with other anchoring equipment such as anchor. nicks or other abrasive features. The minimum bend radius (D/d) with very low line tensions should be larger than 6. • If the fibre rope is laid on the seabed. • Care should be taken that ropes do not get knotted or tangled. it must be protected against external abrasion and ingress of abrasive particles. • Chasers should not be used on fibre ropes. • Fibre ropes should not be run over surfaces which have sharp edges. • Pre-deployed lines should not be left buoyed at the surface waiting connection to the platform. to avoid pulling the rope into the underlying layer. chain and connectors must be avoided. drum. unless a minimum line tension of 5% (for polyester) of the MBL is maintained. • Shark jaw stoppers designed for use with steel wire rope or chain should not be used for handling fibre ropes. • Torque or twist in the rope should be avoided. . • Frictional heat from excessive slippage of the fibre rope over a capstan. • When unreeling the rope. etc. maximum line tension should be observed. steel wire rope. • Care should be taken when applying shearing forces to the rope.Synthetic ropes 175 Recommended practise for handling fibre rope mooring lines before and during installation • Ropes should not be permanently installed around bollards or fairleads. • There should be no “hot work” such as welding in the vicinity of the rope. • A minimum bending radius should be observed. must be avoided. grooves.

8 14.14 250˚C weight kg/m 5.3 15.7 Deltaflex 2000 Ndbs = nwbs t 217 258 297 339 378 423 468 523 578 636 1. dry and wet condition) At 20% of MBL At 50% of MBL At break Circular braided nylon (double braided is similar) Deltaflex 2000 ± 16% ± 22% ± >40% ± 19% ± 26% ± 33% .0 6.7 6.4 12.5 12.8 14.8 8. inch 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Diameter mm 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 Ndbs t 208 249 288 327 368 419 470 521 577 635 Nwbs t 198 236 273 311 349 398 446 495 548 603 1.3 8.4 9.8 17.3 15.2 14.7 7.9 16.0 7.14 260˚C weight kg/m 5.Mooring hawsers Double braided nylon Circ.4 15.0 13.2 11.9 10.7 6.7 7.9 Specific gravity Melting point Note : ndbs = new dry break strength in spliced condition nwbs = new wet break strength in spliced condition Deltaflex 2000 in 8 strand plaited construction.4 176 Circular braided nylon Ndbs t 205 256 307 358 406 454 501 547 597 644 Nwbs t 195 244 292 341 387 433 477 521 569 614 1.8 8.7 12. Approximate elongation at first loading (brokenin rope.5 10.9 10.14 215˚C weight kg/m 5.2 11.

. • One of the highest TCLL (thousand cycle load level) values of all synthetic ropes. the overbraiding of the circular braided construction is just there for protection. The elongation and TCLL values of both construction types are the same. This means that when the overbraiding is damaged due to chafing or other reasons. while the double braided construction should be considered as structurally damaged (loss of stability and a lower break load). the stability and break load of the circular braided construction will remain unchanged. but the important difference is that where the overbraiding of the double braided construction is load bearing. Advantages of Deltaflex 2000 When compared to nylon hawsers. Both construction types have an overbraided jacket as part of their construction. • Strength is 10% to 20% higher than wet double braided nylon. which means that the circular braided construction can be more budgetary attractive. a Deltaflex 2000 hawser has the folowing advantages: • Equal strength in dry and wet conditions.Mooring hawsers 177 Double braided construction versus circular braided construction The circular braided construction can be defined as a recent alternative for the double braided construction. • High energy absorption and elastic recovery. • No water absorption. The efficiency (breaking load/raw material) of the circular braided construction is however much higher.

Main dimensions chasers G H G H F 178 G G H D D A A A C B B E E D B E J-Chaser VA 101 G H J-Lock Chaser VA 115 G Permanent Wire Chaser VA 210-213-214-215 H A C A C F D B E D B E F Permanent Chain Chaser VA 102-106-110-112 Detachable Chain Chaser VA 107-108-111 .

Main dimensions chasers Main dimensions chasers dimensions in mm Type VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA 101 102 106 107 108 110 111 112 115 210 213 214 215 A 2483 1657 1702 1886 1931 1867 1994 2210 2083 2073 1962 2318 2051 B 1829 1143 1168 1143 1168 1245 1245 1384 1486 1245 1099 1308 1168 C 991 991 1080 1067 1130 1130 1397 1203 1086 1397 1060 D 699 762 762 762 762 838 838 953 711 838 692 902 711 E 305 305 381 305 381 330 330 356 533 432 445 508 445 F 191 203 191 203 203 203 260 305 330 330 330 356 179 G 124 124 130 124 130 130 130 130 124 130 130 130 178 H 86 86 99 86 99 99 99 99 86 99 99 99 127 proofload t 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 400 weight kg 1882 1088 1451 1238 1656 1433 1742 2064 1778 1959 1846 2530 2495 .

I.A5.FE. the parent material should be pre-heated to 180-200 ˚C and the pre-heat temperature is to be maintained during welding.S.CI.W. The following procedure is recommended: • The area to be welded must be cleaned to a bright metal finish. • On completion of welding. • Subsequent layers of welding may be laid using a less noble electrode such as: Metrode CI special cast Ni Fe – FE.Main dimensions chasers 180 Note: the VA115 is available in two versions: the VA 115/35 for 21/2” to 31/2” chain and the VA115/45 for 33/4” to 41/2” chain.O.C A. . A5.ENI.3. • The initial layer of weld deposit should be effected by a high nickel electrode such as: Metrode C. No. • Prior to the commencement of welding. the built-up zone and surrounding area should be insulation wrapped to permit slow cooling.15. Care must be taken to ensure a satisfactory bond between parent material and the weld deposit and to avoid the generation of a brittle structure in the area of repair. 8C. Restoration of worn chaser profiles Worn profiles may be restored by application of a weld deposit.W.NI-1.15. No.I. • Each successive layer of weld must be cleaned and hammered.ENI-CL.55.2FE A. softlow nickel – N.S.

The line is applicable in soil that can be described by an undrained shear strength of 4 kPa at the surface increasing by 1.92 with UHC as the Ultimate Holding Capacity in tonnes and A a parameter depending on soil. The medium clay design line represents soils such as silt and firm to stiff clays. Stevin Mk3 size in t . The design line sand represents competent soils. anchor and anchor line with values between 16 and 31. with Su in kPa and z being the depth in meters below seabed.5 kPa per meter depth or in the equation Su = 4+1. such as medium dense sands and stiff to hard clays and is based on a silica sand of medium density.Stevin Mk3 Stevin Mk3 UHC chart 181 Ultimate Holding Capacity The prediction lines above represent the equation UHC= A*(W)0. and loose and weak silts.5*z. In sand and hard clay the optimal fluke/shank angle is 32°. y m e u di m ft cla cla y ve ry so typical Ultimate Holding Capacity (UHC) in t n sa d an d ha rd cla y The Stevin Mk3 design line very soft clay represents soils such as very soft clays (mud). The fluke/shank angle should be set at 32° for optimal performance. In very soft soils the optimum fluke/shank angle is typically 50 deg.

Stevin Mk3 Stevin Mk3 drag and penetration chart 182 drag penetration clay soft ery in v g dra lay mc ediu in m drag nd in sa Example: loading 70% of ultimate holding capacity corresponds with 48% of maximum drag and 80% of maximum penetration at ultimate holding capacity. anchor load as % of UHC 70 60 50 40 30 drag % max drag 48 37 27 18 9 penetration as % max penetration 80 68 55 42 23 drag pen in tion et r a very soft clay m ediu in m tion etra pen clay tion etra pen and in s Stevin Mk3 size in t typical drag and penetration in meters anchor loaded to ultimate holding capacity (UHC) .

5*z. In sand and hard clay the optimal fluke/shank angle is 32°. The line is applicable in soil that can be described by an undrained shear strength of 4 kPa at the surface increasing by 1.92 with UHC as the Ultimate Holding Capacity in tonnes and A a parameter depending on soil. y cla um i ed y m cla ft so ry ve s d an an d r ha d cla y typical Ultimate Holding Capacity (UHC) in t The Stevpris Mk5 design line very soft clay represents soils such as very soft clays (mud).Stevpris Mk5 Stevpris Mk5 UHC chart 183 Ultimate Holding Capacity The prediction lines above represent the equation UHC= A*(W)0. such as medium dense sands and stiff to hard clays and is based on a silica sand of medium density. with Su in kPa and z being the depth in meters below seabed. Stevpris Mk5 size in t . The medium clay design line represents soils such as silt and firm to stiff clays.5 kPa per meter depth or in the equation Su = 4+1. The design line sand represents competent soils. and loose and weak silts. In very soft soils the optimum fluke/shank angle is typically 50 deg. anchor and anchor line with values between 24 and 110. The fluke/shank angle should be set at 32° for optimal performance.

clay d ra g nd in sa and h a rd pen e ion tra t in ve ry so ft cla y pen e tra tio m n in ediu m cla y pen e tra tion in an sand d ha rd c lay Stevpris Mk5 size in t typical drag and penetration in meters anchor loaded to ultimate holding capacity (UHC) anchor load as % of UHC 70 60 50 40 30 drag % max drag 48 37 27 18 9 penetration as % max penetration 80 68 55 42 23 .Stevpris Mk5 Stevpris Mk5 drag and penetration chart 184 drag penetration in v ery soft clay drag dr m ag in ediu m cla y Example: loading 70% of ultimate holding capacity corresponds with 48% of maximum drag and 80% of maximum penetration at ultimate holding capacity.

Stevpris New Generation Stevpris New Generation UHC chart y cla rd ha & y nd cla sa in ium d C ) me UH ud in (m HC lay U c ft so ry ve n Ci UH 185 drag in metric tons penetration Example: loading 70% of ultimate holding capacity corresponds with 48% of maximum drag and 80% of maximum penetration at ultimate holding capacity. in m edium clay d mrt rag in . in sa nd & hard clay ft ery so n in v tratio pene clay p atio enetr n in m edium clay pen ion in etrat sand an d h ard c lay Stevpris NG weight in metric tons in meters drag in mrt . anchor load as % of UHC drag % max drag penetration as % max penetration d mr rag in t. in ve cla ry soft y 70 60 50 40 30 48 37 27 18 9 80 68 55 42 23 .

α-value of 50 degrees and k-value of 2.Stevmanta VLA Stevmanta VLA UPC chart Typical Ultimate Pull-out Capacity (UPC) The prediction lines on the “UPC chart” can be expressed in the equations as stated below: 186 2000 1800 600 D = 1.value of 10. and whether six strand or spiral strand is used. D = Stevmanta penetration depth [m] k = quotient Undrained Shear Strength clay [kPA] and depth [m] d = mooring line or installation line diameter [m] A = Stevmanta fluke area [m2] α = Stevmanta fluke / shank angle [deg] 500 1400 . Undrained Shear Strength clay [kPa] Stevmanta fluke area [m2] C 600 200 The UPC graph incorporates a Nc. 400 200 B A 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 Stevmanta Fluke Area (m2) Mooring lines in diameters.7 *A *tan (α) 0. The typical installation load to obtain a specified UPC is presented on the right vertical axis of the graph.5 *k *d 0. A ø 76 mm B ø 121 mm C ø 151 mm Spiral strand Six strand & spiral strand typical installation load in t where. UPC = Nc = Su = A = Ultimate Pull-out Capacity [kN] Bearing Capacity Factor (k *D).6 -0.Ultimate Pull-out Capacity in t 1200 400 1000 300 800 UPC = Nc *Su *A where. The graph clearly illustrates the influence of the diameter of the mooring line or installation line.3 1.7 1600 typical UPC .

mooring line types Comparson chart weight of various mooring line types 800 187 700 600 weight [kg/m] 500 D 400 300 200 100 E B C A 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 diameter [mm] A polyester B spiral strand C six strand D chain E hmpe mbl of various mooring line types 30000 25000 D 20000 MBL [kN] 15000 B C A E 10000 5000 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 diameter [mm] A polyester B spiral strand C six strand D chain K4 E hmpe .

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