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# A.

Design of a Thickener With the use of the batch sedimentation data collected from the column with slurry of concentration 100g/L CaCO3, the continuous thickener parameters calculated were as follows:

Table 5. Continuous Thickener Design Parameters

Feed concentration (g CaCO3/L) Feed rate (kg dry solids/hr) Underflow concentration (g CaCO3/L) Thickener Cross-sectional Area Diameter of Cylindrical Thickener (D) Volume of Compression Zone Height of Compression Zone Total Height of the Thickener (H)

100 30000 350 455.8957 m2 24.10 m 240.1858 m3 0.5268 m 2.2032 m

**The unit area requirement for a certain concentration may be calculated using Equation 1 (Perry,2008).
**

⁄ ⁄

Equation 1 and is the

Where a is the unit area,

is the concentration at the interfacial velocity

concentration of the underflow. From the unit areas calculated, the largest value is used for the calculation of the cross-sectional area of the thickener. Theory holds that for any specific sedimentation set up, there exists a critical concentration which limits the settling rate of solids in the fluid (Perry, 2008). Thus, in designing thickeners, the settling rates at different concentration are considered to ensure that the area of the thickener is sufficient for satisfactory clarification of the overflow and concentration of the underflow. A rate limiting layer is identified and is used as the basis for the calculations. This layer corresponds to the layer in the sedimentation set up that has the lowest capacity for the passage of the solid particles (Foust, 1980) and thus requires the largest area.

Table 6. Unit Area at Different Concentrations

Time, tl (min) 10 30 40 50

Concentration of Slurry, cl (g/cm3) 0.1000 0.1057 0.1232 0.1542

Settling Velocity, vl (cm/min) 1.3000 1.0767 0.7625 0.4520

Unit Area, a (cm2 min/g) 5.4942 6.1348 6.9006 8.0227

. ( ( ) ) Equation 4 Where z is the height of the interface at time t and is the height at infinite time. the largest unit area is 9.1306 -17. Equation 2 is used. The plot of the height of the interface of the supernatant liquid and the slurry versus time may be described by Equation 4.1935 0.7494 9.1681 0.0622 0. This is equal to the sum of the volume occupied by the solids plus the volume of the associated fluids.2140 0.2536 0.0277 8.2481 0.8768 From the calculated values. then the time required for the slurry in the batch test to pass from the critical concentration to the desired underflow concentration is the retention time of the solids in the continuous thickener (Brown.9306 -3.1479 0.2329 0.1179 9.3250 0. The volume required for the compression zone in the continuous thickener is given by Equation 3 (Brown. 1950). ( ) ∫ Equation 3 where V L S = the volume of the compression zone = mass of solids per unit time = time in which the solids have reached the desired underflow concentration =time when all solids at critical concentration go to compression =mass of liquid in compression zone =mass of solid in compression zone With the assumption that the concentration of the solids in the compression zone of a continuous thickener at any time is the same as the average concentration of the compression zone of the batch test at time equal to the retention time of the solids in the continuous thickener.3756 0.5443 7. To solve for the final thickener area.0357 8. 1950).2011 0. Equation 2 where is the mass feed rate of dry solids per unit time.4505 0.1179 cm2 min/g.1754 0.60 70 90 108 120 138 150 0.

3048-0. storage capacity and for the submergence of feed were added to the initial computed height (Foust. 1950). Since the initial concentration of the slurry in the experimental batch sedimentation was not at c c.6096 m 0. To obtain the volume of the compression zone. the area under the curve in Figure 10 is obtained and values were inputted to Equation 3. The tc obtained from the batch test was 9.If the batch sedimentation basis has an initial slurry concentration at its critical concentration.9144 m . then tc is determined by extrapolating the compression curve from the critical point to zero time and then locating the time when the upper interface is at a height halfway between the initial slurry height z0 and the extrapolated zero-time compression zone height z0’ (Brown.3048-0.0831 g/cm3 as well as the feed rate at 30000 kg/hr.4 min from Figure--. then plotting ( ( which is the height of the compression zone at critical ) ) versus time would give a straight line. that is when t0 corresponds to concentration cc. 1980) to get the total height of the thickener. Suggested allowances are given below: For the pitch of the bottom For the storage capacity to cover interruptions or irregularities in discharge For submergence of feed 0.6096 m 0. The height was obtained by dividing the volume of the compression zone to the area. The density of the slurry is constant at 1.3048-0. Height allowances for the bottom pitch of the thickener.