Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's water is found in oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapour, clouds as formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air, and precipitation. Only 2.5% of the Earth's water is fresh water, and 98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Water on Earth moves continually through the hydrological cycle of evaporation and transpiration, condensation, precipition, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land.

Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah (PSIS) is the 17th polytechnic that had been established under Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE). It was officially operated on May 16, 2003 and formally was known as Polytechnic Sabak Bernam. The main purpose of Polytechnic is to produce qualified semi-professional students fulfill the needs in the working field of public and private sectors as well as to meet the mission and vision of our nation towards years 2020. There is a man-made lake

2 in Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah. This man- made lake is to collect all the runoff water from the surface and drainage to prevent flood occur.

Wastewater treatment is one of the important phase in water quality management and treatment that requires careful investigation, water sampling (often over several seasons), and an understanding of the water resource and distribution system. All wastewaters are different, it is necessary to work with a team that can combine comprehensive knowledge with practical experience in the all fields especially in chemistry, biology, hydraulics, mechanical processes or equipment, instrumentation and control, materials handling and plant layout.

3 1.2 Objectives

1. To collect and test water samples from 4 different points. 2. To identify the current status of the lake water by using water quality index (WQI) method. 3. To analyse and provide suggestions.

4 1.3 Problem statements

Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah (PSIS) has a huge artificial lake which is built since the existence of this polytechnic. The sources of PSIS lake water is from the surface runoff rainwater.

The first problem that was identified is the unpleasant odour from the lake, especially in the morning and sunny day. Secondly, the growth of algae and aquatic plants are increase through the years. Furthermore, the colour of the lake water is cloudy and greenish. From the previous experiments carried out, the results shown that the pH parameters of the lake water are alkaline, it is caused by detergent consumption. Due to the low Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), it had caused the death of aquatic life in the middle of the year 2009.

Line with the pillars of Green Technology policy for water and waste water management by adopting Green Technology and the use of water resources, sewage treatment, solid waste and landfill. This study is suggested to conserve and minimize the impact to the environment in line with the policy recommended by the Green Technology, Department of Environment (DOE).

Green Technology is a development and product application, equipment and system to protect environment including minimizing the negative effect from human activities. Green Technology refers to products, equipments or system to fulfill certain aspects, firstly minimize the digression of environment quality; that are low or zero green house gas, safe to use and to get better environment. Secondly is to save energy and natural sources. Lastly is to encourage new methods.

5 1.4 Scope

The scope of this study is on upgrading the quality of PSIS lake water. In order to provide a good suggestions and recommendations to improve the quality of the water collecting and testing of water samples are needed to be performed.

The parameters that are to be tested includes temperature, pH, DO (Dissolve Oxygen), BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solid) and Ammonia Nitrogen.

Four points had being selected as sampling points. The first sampling point is at the jetty of the lake. Lake wetland area being marked as second point. The third point is one of the drainage that being mark as the dirtiest drainage through observation. The fourth and the last sampling point is the drainage behind the wastewater treatment plant. This point is being considered because the water will be discharge to the river.

The suggestions and recommendations that will be proposed are to provide a better environment for the lake. Besides, pH of lake water can be neutralized. Odour and suspended solid also can be reduced.





Surface runoff water

Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah (PSIS) drainage system has been in a good condition since it was opened in 2003. After 9 years of operation in PSIS, the drainage system will not function properly year after year. Water sump in the drain does not flow in good condition and start blocking in some areas. It filters the rubbish and some of areas were noticed to be filled with soil and water plants. (Abdul Hafidz b. Kamaruddin, 2007)



Water and wastewater are two important components to the environment. Every living needs water to survive. It is estimated that between 70-80% of the water used become waste water in various forms. Water is being use for washing clothes, cooking, bathing and etc and being released into the environment in the form of waste water.

7 2.3 Water quality index (WQI)

A water quality index provide a single number (like a grade) that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of WQI is to turn complex water quality data into information that is understandable and useable by the public. This type of index is similar to the index developed for air quality that shows if it’s a red or blue air quality day. The use of an index to "grade" water quality is a controversial issue among water quality scientists. A single number cannot tell the whole story of water quality as there are many other water quality parameters that are not included in the index. The index presented here is not specifically aimed at human health or aquatic life regulations. However, a water index based on some very important parameters can provide a simple indicator of water quality. It gives the public a general idea the possible problems with the water in the region. (Mitchell Mark K. and Stapp William B, 2000)


Lake pollution

Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah lake pollution contributes to the poor quality of water life, it will cause the water life like fish to die. (Nor Aminadia Bt Baharuddin, 2007 )

8 2.5 pH, power of Hydrogen

Measurement of the amount of free hydrogen ions in water is known as pH. Specifically, pH is the negative logarithm of the molar concentration of hydrogen ions. pH is measured on a logarithmic scale, an increase of one unit indicates an increase of ten times the amount of hydrogen ions. A pH of 7 is considered to be neutral. Acidity increases as pH values decrease, and alkalinity increases as pH values increase. Most natural waters are buffered by a carbon-dioxide-bicarbonate system, since the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere serves as a source of carbonic acid.

This reaction tends to keep pH of most waters around 7 - 7.5, unless large amounts of acid or base are added to the water. Most streams draining tend to be slightly acidic (6.8 to 6.5) due to organic acids produced by the decaying of organic matter. Natural waters in the Piedmont of Georgia also receive acidity from the soils. In waters with high algal concentrations, pH varies diurnally, reaching values as high as 10 during the day when algae are using carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. pH drops during the night when the algae respire and produce carbon dioxide.

The pH of water affects the solubility of many toxic and nutritive chemicals; therefore, the availability of these substances to aquatic organisms were affected. As acidity increases, most metals become more water soluble and more toxic. Toxicity of cyanides and sulfides also increases with a decrease in pH (increase in acidity). Ammonia, however, becomes more toxic with only a slight increase in pH.

Alkalinity is the capacity to neutralize acids, and the alkalinity of natural water is derived principally from the salts of weak acids. Hydroxide carbonates, and bicarbonates are the dominant source of natural alkalinity. A reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium or magnesium carbonate in the soil creates considerable amounts of bicarbonates in the soil. Organic acids such as humic acid also form salts that increase alkalinity. Alkalinity itself has little public health significance, although highly alkaline waters are unpalatable and can cause gastrointestinal discomfort. (Watershed Protection Plan Development Guidebook)

9 2.6 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the amount of oxygen that bacteria will consume while decomposing organic matter under aerobic conditions. Biochemical oxygen demand is determined by incubating a sealed sample of water for five days and measuring the loss of oxygen from the beginning to the end of the test. Samples often must be diluted prior to incubation or the bacteria will deplete all of the oxygen in the bottle before the test is complete. The main focus of wastewater treatment plants is to reduce the BOD in the effluent discharged to natural waters. Wastewater treatment plants are design to function as bacteria farms, where bacteria feed oxygen and organic waste. The excess bacteria grown in the system are removed as sludge, and this “solid” waste is then disposed of on land. (Watershed Protection Plan Development Guidebook)


Chemical oxygen demand (COD)

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) does not differentiate between biologically available and inert organic matter, and it is a measure of the total quantity of oxygen required to oxidize all organic material into carbon dioxide and water. COD values are always greater than BOD values, but COD measurements can be made in a few hours while BOD measurements take five days. (Watershed Protection Plan Development Guidebook)

10 2.8 Total suspended solid (TSS)

Total Suspended Solids (TSS) is comprised of organic and mineral particles that are transported in the water column. TSS is closely linked to land erosion and to erosion of river channels. TSS can be extremely variable, ranging from less than 5 mg/L to extremes of 30,000 mg/L in some rivers. TSS is not only an important measure of erosion in river basins, it is also closely linked to the transport through river systems of nutrients (especially phosphorus), metals, and a wide range of industrial and agricultural chemicals.



Metabolic rate and the reproductive activities of aquatic life are controlled by water temperature. Metabolic activity increases with a rise in temperature, thus increasing the demand for oxygen for the aquatic life. However, an increase in stream temperature also causes a decrease in DO (dissolve oxygen), limiting the amount of oxygen available to these aquatic organisms. With a limited amount of DO available, the fish in this system will become stressed. A rise in temperature can also provide conditions for the growth of disease-causing organisms.

Water temperature varies with season, elevation, geographic location, and climatic conditions and is influenced by stream flow, streamside vegetation, groundwater inputs, and water effluent from industrial activities. Water temperatures rise when streamside vegetation is removed. When entire forest canopies were removed, temperatures in Pacific Northwest streams increased up to 8 oC above the previous highest temperature. Water temperature also increases when warm water is discharged into streams from industries. (Watershed Protection Plan Development Guidebook)

11 2.10 Ammonia nitrogen

Ammonia nitrogen is present in various concentrations in many surface and ground water supplies. Any sudden change in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in water supply is cause for suspicion. A product of microbiological activity, ammonia nitrogen is sometimes accepted as chemical evidence of pollution when encountered in natural waters.

Ammonia is rapidly oxidized in natural water systems by special bacterial groups that produce nitrite and nitrate. This oxidation requires that dissolved oxygen be available in the water. Ammonia is an additional source of nitrogen as a nutrient which may contribute to the expanded growth of undesirable algae and other forms of plant growth that overloads the natural system and cause pollution.


Dissolved oxygen, DO

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium. It depends on physical, chemical and biological activities in water which caused increase DO by agitation of the water surface. (Watershed Protection Plan Development Guidebook)

12 2.12 Oil and grease

Oil and grease are found in wastewater either as an emulsion or as freefloating agglomerates. Chemicals, such as detergents and solvents, and mechanical agitation can cause oil and grease to become emulsified. Triglycerides are glycerol esters of fatty acids. Fats are mixtures of various triglycerides, with a small percentage of monoglycerides and diglycerides. Triglycerides that are liquid at room temperature are often referred to as oils. According to the Water Environment Federation’s Pretreatment of Industrial Wastes, Manual of Practice FD-3, “Grease is a general classification for grouping such materials as fats, oils, waxes, and soaps according to their effect on wastewater collection and treatment systems or their physical (semisolid) forms.” For the purpose of this document, the acronym “FOG” will be used as a general term for fats, oil, and grease.

By its very nature, grease will adhere to many types of surfaces, with sewers especially vulnerable to grease build-up. The cool internal surfaces of sewers provide ideal locations on which thin layers of grease can build up. While a large clump of grease will not attach itself to a sewer, it will leave a tiny portion of itself if it does come into contact with the sewer. Over a period of time, subsequent “touches” by clumps of grease will build up to the point that the sewer is completely choked by a “grease log.” Grease also accumulates due to cooling and dilution of surfactants, that allows the grease to separate and collect on all sewer system surfaces, including wet wells at pump stations, where controls can become fouled and prevent pumps from operating properly.

When sewage can no longer get past a grease build-up, it must go somewhere. Sewage will seek the nearest outlet, which may be a manhole or a service lateral, sometimes backing up into a house or business. Regardless where the sewage goes, the sewer agency is responsible for any damage that occurs. If that damage results in a violation of a permit that is issued by this department, enforcement action against the sewer agency is a distinct possibility. (Jennifer Peters Dodd & Roger D. Lemasters)

13 2.13 Nitrate

Nitrates are naturally present in soil, water, and food. In the natural nitrogen cycle, bacteria convert nitrogen to nitrate, which is taken up by plants and incorporated into tissues. Animals that eat plants use the nitrate to produce proteins. Nitrate is returned to the environment in animal feces, as well as through microbial degradation of plants and animals after they die.

Microorganisms can convert nitrate or the ammonium ion (which is a nitrogen atom combined with four hydrogen atoms) to nitrite; this reaction occurs in the environment as well as within the digestive tract of humans and other animals. After bacteria convert (reduce) nitrate to nitrite in the environment, the nitrogen cycle is completed when they then convert the nitrite to nitrogen.

Normally, this natural cycling process does not allow excessive amounts of nitrates or nitrites to accumulate in the environment. However, human activities have increased environmental nitrate concentrations, with agriculture being the major source. This includes increased use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers as well as concentrated livestock and poultry farming; the latter two produce millions of tons of nitrate-containing manure each year. Nitrate and nitrite compounds are very soluble in water and quite mobile in the environment. They have a high potential for entering surface water when it rains, as nitrates in applied fertilizers can dissolve in runoff that flows into streams or lakes; they also have a high potential for entering groundwater through leaching. The concentration associated with soil particles has been estimated to be about half the concentration in interstitial water (the water in the pore spaces between the soil particles).

14 2.14 Phosphorus

Phosphorous is a multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group. It is found in nature in several allotropic forms, and is an essential element for the life of organisms. There are several forms of phosphorous, called white, red and black phosphorous, although the colours are more likely to be slightly different. White phosphorous is the one manufactured industrial; it glows in the dark, is spontaneously flammable when exposed to air and is deadly poison. Red phosphorous can vary in color from orange to purple, due to slight variations in its chemical structure. The third form, black phosphorous, is made under high pressure, looks like graphite and, like graphite, has the ability to conduct electricity.

In the natural world phosphorous is never encountered in its pure form, but only as phosphates, which consists of a phosphorous atom bonded to four oxygen atoms. This can exists as the negatively charged phosphate ion (PO43-), which is how it occurs in minerals, or as organophosphates in which there are organic molecules attached to one, two or three of the oxygen atoms.

The amount of phosphorous that is naturally present in food varies considerably but can be as high as 370 mg/100 g in liver, or can be low, as in vegetable oils. Foods rich in phosphorous include tuna, salmon, sardines, liver, turkey, chicken, eggs and cheese (200 g/ 100 g).

There are many phosphate minerals, the most abundant being forms of apatite. Fluor apatite provides the most extensively mined deposits. The chief mining areas are Russia, USA, Morocco, Tunisia, Togo and Nauru. World production is 153 million tones per year. There are concerns over how long these phosphorous deposits will last. In case of depletion there could be a serious problem for the worlds food production since phosphorus is such an essential ingredient in fertilizers.

In the oceans, the concentration of phosphates is very low, particularly at the surface. The reason lies partly within the insolubility of aluminum and calcium phosphates, but in any case in the oceans phosphate is quickly used up and falls into

15 the deep as organic debris. There can be more phosphate in rivers and lakes, resulting in excessive algae growth. For further details go to environmental effects of phosphorous. (Lenntech B.V, 1998-2011)


Acceptable conditions of sewage discharge

Table 2.1: Acceptable conditions of sewage discharge of Standard A and B

New sewage treatment system
Standard Parameter (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) Temperature pH value BOD5 at 20oC COD Suspended solids Oil and grease Ammoniacal Nitrogen Nitrogen Phosphorus Unit

A 40 6.0-9.0 20 120 50 5.0 5.0 10.0 5.0

B 40 5.5-9.0 50 200 100 10.0 5.0 10.0 10.0

C -

mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L

(Environmental Quality Acts, 1974 (Act 127), Environmental Quality Regulation (Sewage), 2009*)






Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah (PSIS) has a huge artificial lake which is built since the existence of this polytechnic. The sources of PSIS lake water is from the surface and the drainages runoff rainwater. Most of the waste water that produced and discharged is send to the water treatment plant in the Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah. After the waste water undergoes treatment, the water is ensured to reach the standard that require before being release. Therefore, the drainages do not carry any waste water. However, the lake water still becoming more and more polluted year after year.

For this project, the work procedure is done step by step in a systematic plan called methodology. Starting from planning of the project until the end of project which are conclusion and recommendation. A gantt chart also had been made as the guide line in order to obey the period of work research.

17 3.2 Work procedure

1) Identification of points for water sampling

4 point will be taken (lake and drainage points)

Parameters : 2) Collect water sampling from identified points           BOD COD pH TSS Temperature Ammonia Nitrogen DO Oil and grease Nitrate Phosphorus

3) Testing of water samples

4) Collection and comparison of data/ result with standard parameters

5) Suggestions and recommendations

Figure 3.1 : Flow chart of work procedure of this project

18 Table 3.1 : Scheduled of work progression
WEEK/ ACTIVITY Project Briefing Submission of proposed project title Proposal submission Guidance & discussion Project work development & second report draft (50%) Guidance & discussion Project work development & second report draft (75%) Preparation of presentation & submission of final report (Level 100%) Project presentation


W2 W3 W4 W5 W6





W8 W9 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17 W18 W19 W20

19 3.3 Project Description


Identification of points for water sampling

In this study, four points had been identified which are the main lake as point one, wetland of the lake as point two, outlet from the treatment plant as point three and one of the drainage that near to lake is mark as point four.


Collect water sampling from identified points

Water samples had been collected from all four points. There are ten parameters at each point. The parameters are oil and grease, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, temperature, phosphate, nitrate, and ammonical nitrogen (NH3-N).

20 3.3.3 Testing of water samples Ammoniacal nitrogen by APHA 2450 D method

Sample and blank sample preparation

1. Pour 25 ml of sample into a 25 ml mixing graduated cylinder (the prepared sample). 2. Pour 25 ml of deionized water into a second cylinder (the blank). 3. Add the contents of one Ammonia Salicylate Reagent Powder Pillow to each cylinder. Stopper. Shake to dissolve. 4. After three minutes, add the contents of one Ammonia Cyanurate Reagent Powder Pillow to each cylinder. Stopper. Shake to dissolve.

Analysis was conducted using DR3000 HACH SPECTROPHOTOMETER

1. Enter the stored program number for ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), salicylate method. Press: 385 READ/ENTER, the display will show: DIAL nm TO 655 2. Rotate the wavelength until displays shows: 655 nm. 3. Press: READ/ENTER, the display will show: mg/l NH3 Salic 4. Pour the blank into a sample cell. Place the cell into the cell holder. Close the light shield. 5. Press ZERO. The display will show: WAIT, then: 0.00 mg/l N-NH3 Salic. 6. Fill a second cell with the prepared sample. Place the cell into the cell holder. Close the light shield. 7. Press: READ/ENTER, the display will show: WAIT, then the result in mg/l ammonia as nitrogen (NH3-N) will be displayed.

21 *Adapted from Clin.Chim. Acta., 14 403 (1966) HACH Water Analysis Handbook. NITROGEN, AMMONIA (0 to 0.50 mg/l NH3-N) for water, wastewater and seawater Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by incubation at 20oC for 5 days method

1. Fill 2 oxygen reaction bottles each time with pretreated sample and 2 glass bead to overflowing. Close bubble-free with the slanted ground-glass stoppers. 2. Fill 2 oxygen reaction bottles each time with inoculated nutrient-salt solution and 2 glass bead to overflowing. Close bubble-free with the slanted groundglass stoppers. 3. Use one bottle of pretreated sample and one inoculated nutrient-salt solution for the measurement of the initial oxygen concentration. 4. Incubate one bottle of pretreated sample and one inoculated nutrient-salt solution closed in a thermostatic incubation cabinet 20 + 1°C for 5 days. 5. To determine the concentration of oxygen, select method 070 on Merck Spectroquant Multy. 6. Add to each oxygen reaction bottle 5 drops of BSB-1K and then 10 drops of BSB-2K close bubble-free, and mix for approx 10 seconds. 7. Add to each oxygen reaction bottle 10 drops of BSB-3K, reclose and mix 8. Transfer each solution into a separate 16-mm cell, close with the screw cap. 9. Fill approximately 10 ml of distilled water into 16-mm cell (do not add any reagent!). Close with screw cap (Blank Cell) 10. Insert the cell containing the blank into the cell compartment. Align the 11. mark on the cell with that on the photometer. Press Zero. 12. Insert the cell containing the sample into the cell compartment. Align the 13. mark on the cell with that on the photometer. Press Test

22 Chemical oxygen demand (COD) by reactor digestion method

1. Carefully pipette 2.0 ml of distilled water into a second reaction cell ,close tightly with the screw cap, and mix vigorously. 2. Carefully pipette 2.0 ml of the sample into a reaction cell, close tightly with the screw cap,and mix vigorously. 3. Heat both cells in the thermoreactor at 148 °C for 2 hours. 4. Remove both cells from the thermoreactor and place in the cell rack to cool. 5. Swirl both cells after 10 minutes. 6. Replace both cells in the rack for complete cooling to room temperature. 7. Select method 1 6 2. 8. Insert the cell containing the blank into the cell compartment. Align the mark on the cell with that on the photometer. Press Zero. 9. Insert the cell containing the sample into the cell compartment. Align themark on the cell with that on the photometer. Press Test. Total suspended solids (TSS) by vacuum filtration and heat method

Preparation step 1. Firstly prepare a filter paper 2. The filter paper then put on the filtration apparatus 3. Then on the vacuum pump to create suction and wash the filter paper with 20ml of distill water type 3 for three times. The suction continues until the water is fully drained. 4. After that transfer the filter paper from filtration apparatus to one `planchet` stainless steel aluminum. 5. Dry it in the oven at the temperature ranging from 103oc to 105oc for one hour. 6. Keep the filter paper in the dessicator until it is needed to be used.

23 Procedure 1. Weight the filter paper that was kept in dessicator and record the reading 2. Put the filter paper on membrane filter funnel 3. Take 10ml of water sample and filter it vacuum pressure. 4. Rinse the filter paper with distil water three time and continue it with vacuum pressure for 3 minute until the filtration process is complete. 5. Move the filter paper carefully from the filter funnel and place it on an aluminum `planchet` or a stainless steel. 6. The filter paper in the oven at the temperature ranging from 103oc to 105oc for one hour. 7. After that the filter paper is removed from the oven and weight again. 8. Repeat step 1 to 7 to the rest of the sample. Oil and grease by extraction/gravimetric method

1. Dry distillation flask constantly by 70°C in the drying oven for 24 hours. After 24 hours drying, weight the distillation flask using analytical balance. This weight will be sign as W1 (weight of dry distillation flask without oil/grease). 2. Take a water sample by filling a clean 500 ml graduated separatory funnel to the 500 ml mark. 3. Using a pipet, add 4 ml of sulphuric acid standard solution, 14.5 N to the separatory funnel. Stopper and shake. 4. Add 30 ml of n-Hexane to the separatory funnel. 5. Shake the stoppered separatory funnel vigorously for two minutes. 6. Stand the separatory funnel upright in a support. Wait 10 minutes. 7. Insert a small cotton plug soaked with n-Hexane into the delivery tube of the separatory funnel. Drain the n-Hexane layer into the distillation flask. 8. Repeat steps 4 to 7 three times, then, discard the water layered.

24 9. Rinse the separatory funnel with n-Hexane to remove any oil film left on the funnel walls. 10. Place the flask, which contain of oil/grease and n-Hexane into the drying oven for 24 hour. 11. After 24 hour, weight the distillation flask using analytical balance. This weight will be sign as W2 (weight of oil/grease + dry distillation flask). 12. Then, the calculation of test result as follow:

Weight total (mg/l) =

W2- W1 Sample volume in litre

W2 = Weight of oil/grease + dry distillation flask W1 = Weight of dry distillation flask without oil/grease

*Adapted from Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater Method 1664, Revision A: N-Hexane Extractable Material (HEM; Oil and Grease) and Silica Gel Treated N-Hexane Extractable Material (SGT-HEM; Non-polar Material) by Extraction and Gravimetry, February 1999. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C Nitrate by photometer method

1. Fill the Nitratest Tube with sample to the 20 ml mark. 2. Add one level spoonful of Nitratest Powder and one Nitratest tablet. Do not crush the tablet. Replace screw cap and shake tube well for one minute. 3. Allow tube to stand for about one minute then gently invert three or four times to aid flocculation. Allow tube to stand for two minutes or longer to ensure complete settlement. 4. Remove screw cap and wipe around the top of the tube with clean tissue. Carefully decant the clear solution into a round test tube, filing to the 10 ml marks.

25 5. Add one Nitricol tablet, crush and mix to dissolve. 6. Stand for 10 minutes to allow full colour development. 7. Select wavelength 570 nm on Photometer. 8. Take Photometer reading in the usual manner (see Photometer instructions). 9. Consult Nitratest calibration chart (Transmittance-display photometer only).

Table 3.2: Nitrate comparison

NITRATEST %T 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 9 .018 .055 0.10 0.15 0.21 0.30 0.43 0.75 8 .021 .059 0.10 0.15 0.22 0.31 0.45 0.80 7 .024 .063 0.11 0.16 0.22 0.32 0.47 0.85 6 -

Nitrate mg/l N 5 .000 .032 .072 0.12 0.17 0.24 0.34 0.53 0.95 4 .003 .036 .076 0.12 0.18 0.24 0.35 0.55 1.00 3 .006 .040 .080 0.13 0.18 0.25 0.37 0.58 2 .009 .043 .085 0.13 0.19 0.26 0.38 0.60 -

570 nm 1 .012 .047 .089 0.14 0.20 0.27 0.40 0.65 0 .015 .051 .094 0.14 0.20 0.28 0.42 0.70 -

.028 .068 0.11 0.17 0.23 0.33 0.50 0.90 Phosphate LR by photometer method

1. Fill the test tube with sample to 10 ml mark. 2. Add one Phosphate NO. 1 LR tablet, crush and mix to dissolve. 3. Add one Phosphate NO.2 LR tablet, crush and mix to dissolve. 4. Stand for 10 minutes to allow full colour development. 5. Select wavelength 640 nm on Photometer. 6. Take Photometer reading in the usual manner. 7. Consult Phosphate LR calibration chart.

26 3.3.4 Collection and comparison of data/ result with standard parameters

All the data of experiments will be record. In order to let the readers to understand the result easily, the result will be present in table form. In this project, two type of standards being selected. Firstly, water quality index (WQI). Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, temperature and ammonical nitrogen (NH3-N) are the parameters that to determine the standard of WQI. Secondly is new sewage treatment system standard. oil and grease, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, temperature, phosphate, nitrate, and ammonical nitrogen (NH3-N) are the parameters that to compare with this standard which is stated in Environmental Quality Act 1974 (ACT 127), regulations, rules and orders.


Suggestions and recommendations

From this study, parameters that do not achieve the standard and the quality of the water will be furthered for future treatment or study, some suggestions and recommendations will be provided in order to improve the quality of the PSIS lake water.






This chapter showed about the data of laboratory test for the sampling water. The parameters are oil and grease, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, temperature, phosphate, nitrate, and ammonical nitrogen (NH3-N). The analysis results are base on Water Quality Index (WQI) and new sewage treatment system standard.

Four points that had been selected in this study are PSIS lake as P1, wetland of PSIS lake as P2, drainage beside futsal court which near to the hostel as P3 and drainage behind the PSIS water treatment plant as P4.

28 4.2 Analysis of pH parameter

Table 4.1: Result of pH Test 1st reading 6.20 6.27 6.32 7.77 2nd reading 6.30 6.13 6.52 7.96 3rd reading 6.30 6.06 6.52 7.90

Point P1 P2 P3 P4

Average 6.30 6.15 6.45 7.87

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

pH Result


total of pH






Figure 4.1: Graft of pH test

The pH scale of acidic is less than 6.5 averages, for neutral between 6.5 – 9.0 and alkaline pH is more than 9.0. The parameters of pH result in good condition, because the reading for the four points is in the neutral range of scale. When the test does in sunny day, it influenced the reading too.

29 4.3 Analysis of temperature test (C)

Table 4.2: Result of temperature test 1st reading 27.8 27.3 28.2 29.7 2nd reading 27.9 27.1 28.2 29.7 3rd reading 28.1 27.2 28.2 29.2

Point P1 P2 P3 P4

Average 27.9 27.2 28.2 29.5

Metabolic rate and the reproductive activities of aquatic life are controlled by water temperature. Metabolic activity increases with a rise in temperature, thus increasing a fish’s demand for oxygen; however; an increase in stream temperature also causes a decrease in DO, limiting the amount of oxygen available to these aquatic organisms. With a limited amount of DO available, the fish in this system will become stressed. A rise in temperature can also provide conditions for the growth of disease-causing organisms. The temperature tests in sunny day influence the temperature too. The result shows at point 4 have a high temperature compare with other points.

30 4.4 Analysis of dissolved oxygen (DO)

Table 4.3: The result of dissolved oxygen 1st reading 9.80mg/l 0.22mg/l 0.45mg/l 14.16mg/l 2nd reading 9.70mg/l 0.13mg/l 0.33mg/l 13.90mg/l 3rd reading 9.59mg/l 0.11mg/l 0.27mg/l 13.83mg/l

Point P1 P2 P3 P4

Average 9.697mg/l 0.153mg/l 0.350mg/l 13.960mg/l

Point four shows the highest of dissolved oxygen with the average reading 13.960 mg/l and the lowest reading at point two with average 0.153 mg/l. Point four source from effluent of water treatment plant PSIS and point two at wetlands of PSIS lake. From the observation DO at points 2 in low reading because of the many aquatic plant and algae.


Analysis of phosphate test

Table 4.4: The result of phosphate test 1st reading 157mg/l 5mg/l 7mg/l 7mg/l 39mg/l 2nd reading 161mg/l 6mg/l 8mg/l 8mg/l 42mg/l 3rd reading 164mg/l 7mg/l 8mg/l 21mg/l 44mg/l

Point Blank P1 P2 P3 P4


160.7mg/l 6.00mg/l 7.67mg/l 12mg/l 41.67mg/l

31 Table 4.5: Phosphate LR (test for low levels of Phosphate in natural and drinking water)

Point Blank P1 P2 P3 P4

Total of Phosphate (mg/l) 160.7 6.00 7.67 12 41.67

Total of Phosphate LR (mg/l) 0.00 4.00 4.00 3.75 1.30


Analysis of ammonical nitrogen (NH3-N)

Table 4.6: The result of ammonical nitrogen

APHA method 2450D Point P1 P2 P3 P4 Result mg/l 0.62 3.84 1.84 2.70

4.5 4 3.5 3

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Blank P1 P2 P3 P4

Total of Phosphate LR (mg/l) NH3-N (mg/l)

Figure 4.2: Total of phosphate LR and NH3-N versus total average (mg/l) The graft shows the result of Phosphate and Ammonical Nitrogen at point 2 is highest. It is because the location for the test at the wetland of lake PSIS. The different average of Phosphate and NH3-N at point one very apparent. The rating highest of Phosphorus in the lake makes growth of algae bloom. Ammonical Nitrogen happen when the highest of effluent in the lake.

33 4.7 Analysis of total suspended solid (SS)

Table 4.7: The result of total suspended solid (SS)

Clarification Weight paper (x) Weight paper +

Point 1

Point 2 0.00927g

Point 3 0.0928g

Point 4 0.0921g

filter 0.0917g

filter 0.0918g dry




sample (y) Weight of dry 0.0001g sample (y-x) **Total suspended solids **total suspended solid = (y-x)g x 106 volume (ml) @ 10ml 10g/ml 10g/ml 200g/ml 170g/ml 0.0001g 0.0020g 0.0017g

34 4.8 Analysis of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

Table 4.8: The result of BOD

Point P1 P2 P3 P4

Result mg/l 1.48 0.04 0.02 2.30

From observation for the BOD result for the four points in still standard class II for Water Quality Index.


Analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD)

Table 4.9: The result of COD 1st reading 0 91mg/l 63mg/l 66mg/l 48mg/l 0 91mg/l 63mg/l 66mg/l 48mg/l 2nd reading 0 91mg/l 63mg/l 66mg/l 48mg/l 3rd reading 0 91mg/l 63mg/l 66mg/l 48mg/l

Point Blank P1 P2 P3 P4


Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) use to determine organic substances in lake water. From the result for this parameter shows the average of COD in class IV in Water Quality Index (WQI). The table shows the result condition in highest pollution.

35 4.10 Analysis of nitrate (test for nitrate in natural, drinking and waste water)

Table 4.10: The result of nitrate 1st reading 161mg/l 85mg/l 106mg/l 89mg/l 108mg/l 2nd reading 164mg/l 80mg/l 107mg/l 91mg/l 112mg/l 3rd reading 162mg/l 82mg/l 82mg/l 91mg/l 114mg/l

Point Blank P1 P2 P3 P4

Average of Nitrate Test 162.3mg/l 82.3mg/l 98.3mg/l 90.3mg/l 111.3mg/l

Table 4.11: The result of Nitratest

Point Blank P1 P2 P3 P4

Total of Nitrate (mg/l) 162.3mg/l 82.3mg/l 98.3mg/l 90.3mg/l 111.3mg/l

Total of Nitratest (mg/l) 0.000 0.043 0.000 0.015 0.000

36 4.11 Analysis of Oil and Grease

Table 4.12: The result of oil and grease

Extraction/gravimetric method Point P1 P2 P3 P4 Result mg/l 0.0184 0 0.0102 0.0498

The table shows for all the points of the study have are low rate of oil and grease except at point two, this is because of the point are wetland of the lake and have are many aquatic plant to absorb the oil and grease.

37 4.12 DOE water quality index (WQI)

Table 4.13: Water quality index (WQI) that use in Malaysia


UNIT CLASS I II 0.1 0.3 mg/l <1 1-3 III - 0.3 0.9 3–6 IV - 0.9 2.7 6 - 12 > 12 V - > 2.7

Ammonical Nitrogen Biochemical Oxygen Demand Chemical Oxygen Demand Dissolved Oxygen pH Total Suspended Solid Water


< 0.1


< 10

10 25

- 25 50 3–5 5–6 - 50 150

– 50 100

- > 100







>7 < 25

6-7 25 50



– 150 - > 300 300

Quality -

< 92.7

76.5 - 51.9 - 31.0 - > 31.0 92.7 76.5 51.9

Index (WQI)

38 4.12.1 DOE water quality classification based on water quality index

Table 4.14: Sub index and water quality index






Biochemical Demand(BOD) Ammonical Nitrogen(NH3-N) Suspended Solids(SS) Water Quality Index(WQI)

SLIGHTLY POLLUTED POLLUTED Oxygen 91 - 100 80 – 90 0 - 79 92 - 100 71 – 91 76 - 100 70 – 75 81 - 100 60 – 80 0 - 70 0 - 69 0 - 59

4.12.2 Water classes and uses

Table 4.15: Description of water quality index classes


USES Conservation of natural environment.

Water Supply I - Practically no treatment necessary. Fishery I - Very sensitive aquatic species. Class IIA Water Supply II Conventional treatment.

Fishery II - Sensitive aquatic species. Class IIB Class III Recreational use body contact. Water Supply III - Extensive treatment required. Fishery III - Common, of economic value and tolerant species; livestock drinking. Class IV Class V Irrigation None of the above.

39 4.12.3 WQI formula and calculation

Table 4.16: Formula for water quality index

FORMULA WQI = (0.22* SIDO) + (0.19*SIBOD) + (0.16*SICOD) + (0.15*SIAN) + (0.16 * SISS) + (0.12 * SI pH) where; SIDO = Sub index DO (% saturation) SIBOD = Sub index BOD SICOD = Sub index COD SIAN = Sub index NH3-N SISS = Sub index SS SI pH = Sub index pH 0 ≤ WQI ≤ 100 BEST FIT EQUATIONS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF VARIOUS SUBINDEX VALIES Sub index for DO (In % saturation) SIDO = 0 SIDO = 100 SIDO = -0.395 + 0.030x2 - 0.00020x3 for x ≤8 for x ≤92 for 8 < x < 92

Sub index for BOD SIBOD = 10 .4 - 4.23x SIBOD = 108* exp (-0.055x) - 0.1x D Sub index for COD SICOD = -1.33x + 99.1 SICOD = 103* exp (-0.0157x) - 0.04x for x ≤ 20 for x > 20 for x ≤ 5 for x > 5


Sub index for NH3-N SIAN = 100.5 - 105x SIAN = 94* exp (-0.573 ) - 5* I x - 2 I SIAN = 0 for x ≤ 0.3 for 0.3 < x < 4 for x ≥ 4

Sub index for SS SISS = 97.5* exp(-0.00676x) + 0.05x SISS = 71* exp(-0.0061x) + 0.015x SISS = 0 for x ≤ 100 for 100 < x < 1000

Sub index for pH SI pH = 17.02 - 17.2x + 5.02x2 SI pH = -242 + 95.5x - 6.67x2 SI pH = -181 + 82.4x - 6.05x2 SI pH = 536 - 77.0x + 2.76x2 for x < 5.5 for 5.5 ≤ x < 7 for 7 ≤ x < 8.75 for x ≥ 8.75

Note: *means multiply with

41 4.12.4 Analysis of the lake water quality result with WQI

Table 4.17: The result of sub index for each point

Total Sub Index DO BOD COD NH3-N SS pH WQI

Point 1 0.022% 94 mg/l -3.6 mg/l 7.09 mg/l 0 mg/l 95 29.75

Point 2 0% 100 mg/l -2.5 mg/l -9.19 mg/l 0 mg/l 93 28.38

Point 3 0% 100 mg/l -2.6 mg/l 0.80 mg/l 0 mg/l 96 30.22

Point 4 0.049% 91 mg/l -1.8 mg/l -3.49 mg/l 0 mg/l 96 28.00

100 90 80 70

28.38 30.22 28 WQI

60 50
40 30 20 10 0 point 1 point 2

point 3

point 4

Figure 4.3: Graft of Lake Water Quality with DOE Water Quality Classification based on Water Quality Index

42 The result shows the total of sub index calculation. From the sub index parameters calculation the result compare with the DOE Water Quality Classification based on Water Quality Index, table shows the reading for four points get polluted. PSIS lake is in ranking class II.


New sewage treatment system

Table 4.18: Result of the each parameters according to new sewage treatment system standard Parameter
Temperature pH value BOD5 at 20oC COD Suspended solids Oil and grease Ammoniacal Nitrogen Nitrogen Phosphorus mg/L mg/L 10.0 10.0


Standard B
40 5.5-9.0 50 200 100 10.0 5.0

P1 27.9 6.30 1.48 91 10 0.0184 0.62 0.043 4.00

P2 27.2 6.15 0.04 63 10 0 3.84 0.000 4.00

P3 28.2 6.45 0.02 66 200 0.0102 1.84 0.015 3.75

P4 29.5 7.87 2.3 48 170 0.0498 2.7 0.000 1.30

C -

mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L

Standard B had been choose for the comparison because standard B is applicable to any other inland water or Malaysian waters. Standard A is not selected because standard A is applicable to discharge into any inland water within catchment area. There is no any catchment area near to Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah. According to Standard B, all parameters at each points are in standard B expect suspended solids (SS) at point three and four.






Lake is one of the recreation areas in Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah (PSIS). After few years of this polytechnic being in operation, the quality of lake water has been affected due to the pollution and high effluent from the environment.

Through the knowledge of learning and observation, the PSIS lake is currently undergoing eutrophication process. The study of water quality parameters and indices (WQI) found that the lake is in class five which is extremely polluted compare to normal class. With the observations and examinations that had been gone through the growth of algae, aquatic plants, aquatic life, death and decomposition of manure and vegetation in the vicinity of the lake, eutrophication process was occurred in disturbing the process of ecosystem of the lake.

Furthermore, according to the development officer of PSIS, Mr. Yuzha bin Usoff, who works at the unit maintenance of Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah, the sediments will deposited in the lake and soil erosion will happen when heavy rain comes thus will cause the lake becomes shallower year after year. Therefore, sediments and soil must be controlled from entry to the lake to avoid effluent from the lake. Besides, Mr. Yuzha also commented that the death of aquatic life was

44 caused by lack of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the lake. On the otherhand, odor pollution was a problem caused by the residents in PSIS.

Eutrophication is caused by the increase of chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus, in an ecosystem. It may occur on land or in water. Nitrogen is not readily available in soil because N2 (a gaseous form of nitrogen) is very stable and unavailable directly to higher plants. Terrestrial ecosystems rely on microbial nitrogen fixation to convert N2 into other physical forms (such as nitrates). However, there is a limit to how much nitrogen can be utilized. Ecosystems receiving more nitrogen than the plants require are called nitrogen-saturated.

Standards for runoff water quality are based on the Water Quality Index (WQI) which is measured in terms of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ammonical Nitrogen (NH3-N), pH and the presence of heavy metals. BOD is caused by organic pollution mostly from domestic effluents, TSS from soil erosion and sedimentation and NH3-N from sewage and animal waste. These measurements are consolidated into an overall water quality index to classify rivers as clean, slightly polluted and extremely polluted.



To prevent eutrophication phenomena happens faster than natural process, control and conservation measures should be implemented immediately to stop or slow down the chances of a normal lake into the process of eutrophication. The control measures and recommendations are as follow:

45 5.2.1 Admission control effluent and surface water runoff

The entry of effluent into the lake, identified from the rubbish bin waste water located at the hostel blocks. Follow by the waste management from the student hostel blocks needs to be more concerned about the condition of surface water that flows into the drain. As the waste water will pass into drain and flow directly into the lake. Therefore, leachate is formed and flow into the lake. Waste management from the hostel blocks and the entry of the effluents should be managed thoroughly before the waste water is entered into the drainage that connected with the lake.

Besides, the inclusive of nutrients from the surface runoff can be controlled by constructing drains that can suitable filter out the waste garbage and lead the surface runoff to a suitable location in order to prevent from entering the lake. As a result, slowly or decrease the insertion of outside effluent precipitation and soil erosion to the lake when heavy rains. Therefore, silt traps should be installed.

Natural elements such as twigs, grass and effluent manure between the elements should be take it seriously. With the inclusive of those effluents can significantly influence the value of the nutrient and phosphorus in the lake. Grass cutting should be punctuated by cleaning up the lake areas to avoid the wastage from entering the lake.


Figure 5.1: Household waste sites located at the hostel blocks

Figure 5.2: Waste water gathered from the garbage containers near the garbage house


Figure 5.3: Waste water from the garbage containers flows into the drains that directly link with the lake without any filters

Figure 5.4: The waste water from the basins was direct discharge into the drain

48 5.2.2 Artificial ventilation

Method of artificial ventilation is performed below the surface of water to reduce the eutrophication process. It is a process to increase the DO content and to create balance in the ecosystem of the lake as the DO is an important parameter of aquatic life.


Method of sediment

Excavation, ventilation and closure of the sediment are the methods that can be implemented to remove the nutrients that exist on the lake. This is because; sediment plays an important role in nutrient cycles and eutrophication processes.

One of the methods of sediment was dredged sediment control. This method has proven effective for small lakes such as PSIS lake. Sediment can be removed to deepen the lake and the entry of nutrients can be controlled. In addition, the inclusive of phosphorus resulting from the sediment can be prevented from sediment aeration. To contain the exchange of nutrients and slows the growth of rooted aquatic macro fit closing the cover of sediment to the lake can be used. However, problems arise in the event of damage to the cover sheet of the sediment.

49 5.2.4 An awareness campaign

Those recommendations measure would cost high. Therefore, high awareness from the PSIS residents is needed to reduce the eutrophication of the lake. Most of the residents lack of awareness, particularly forming the solid waste that discharge into the lake. Activities like awareness campaigns should be carried out by the residents. Figure 5.5 and figure 5.6 showed the lack of environmental cleanliness awareness from the residents.

Figure 5.5: Rubbish and grass that flow into the drains

Figure 5.6: Rubbish that had been collected at the drainage

50 5.3 Suggestions to further this study in the future

Improvements can be done in this project. Suggestions in improving for the upcoming project will be related as follow:

a) Make sure all the apparatus or machines are calibrated before using it. b) More sampling points to be carry out to represent all areas to get a better data.
c) Carry out sampling for twice or three times to have a better view of data.



1. Abdul Hafidz b. Kamaruddin, 17DKA04F512, Sesi Julai 2007, Mengenalpasti Masalah Longkang Statik di Kawasan Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah.

2. Ahmad Ismail & Ahmad Badri Mohammad, 1995, Ekologi Air Tawar, Kuala Lumpur : Dewan Bahasa & Pustaka. 3. Barnes, K.H., J.L. Meyer, and B.J. Freeman, 1998. Sedimentation and Georgia’s Fishes: An analysis of existing information and future research. 1997 Georgia Water Resources Conference, March 20-22, 1997, the University of Georgia, Athens Georgia.

4. Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127), Regulations, rules & orders (As at 25th June 2011) International law book services, (369pg).

5. Davis, ML & D.A Cornwell (1991), Introduction to Environment Engineering, Boston Massachussetts, P.W.S.

6. Helmut Klapper (1991), Control of Eutrophication in Inland Waters

7. Holmbeck-Pelham, S.A. and T.C. Rasmussen. 1997. Characterization of temporal and spatial variability of turbidity in the Upper Chattahoochee River. K.J. Hatcher, ed. Proceedings of the 1997 Georgia Water Resources Conference. March 20-22, 1997, Athens, Georgia. 8. Jennifer Peters Dodd & Roger D. Lemasters – Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation.

52 9. Kajian Tahap Pencemaran Tasik Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah, Nor Aminadia Bt Baharuddin, 17DKA04F002, Sesi Januari 2007

10. Mengenalpasti Masalah Longkang Statik di Kawasan Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah, Abdul Hafidz b. Kamaruddin, 17DKA04F512, Sesi Julai 2007

11. MERCANTE, CABIANCA, SILVA, COSTA & ESTEVES, 2004, Water quality in fee-fishing ponds located in the metropolitan region of São Paulo city, Brazil: an analysis of the eutrophication process.

12. Nor Aminadia Bt Baharuddin, 17DKA04F002, Sesi Januari 2007, Kajian Tahap Pencemaran Tasik Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah.

13. Stuart harrad and lesley batty, university of birmingham,uk. George arhonditsis and miriam diamond, university of toronto, canada, (2007). “student projects in environmental science”. John wiley & sons.wiley. England.

14. Ruth F. Weiner, Robin A. Matthews, P. Aarne Vesilind, Environmental Engineering.

15. Watershed Protection Plan Development Guidebook, Northeast Georgia Regional Development Center.


54 Appendix A: Four points selected for water sampling

First point (main lake)

Second point (wetland of the lake)

Third point (drainage beside futsal court oppressive hostel)

Fourth point (outlet from PSIS waste water treatment plant)


Appendix B: The plan of Polytechnic Sultan Idris Shah

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