The Complete Course for Beginners
Second edition
Philip Holmes and Gunilla Serin

Acknowledgements Using this book Pronunciation, stress and accents


7 20 30 43
57 72

1 Vem ar det?
Who is it?

2 Rebecca, en student
Rebecca, a student

3 Att resa

4 I SkBne
In S k h e

5 Matlagning

6 Nya mobler
New furniture

7 Pg stan
In town

100 114 129

8 P universitetet B
At the university

9 Sven miidde illa
Sven felt sick

1 0 Familjen Forsberg
The Forsberg family

1 1 Jockes kompisar
Jocke's friends

12 Bills krsngliga bilresa
Bill's dBcult car journey

13 Skogsvandring
A walk in the forest

1 4 Tidningar

1 5 Rebecca satter igBng och packar
Rebecca starts packing

16 Hos lakaren
At the doctor's

17 Tv5 skadade vid seriekrock
Two injured in multiple collision

18 TvB brev och ett vykdrt
Two letters and a picture postcard

Key to exercises Swedish-English glossary Concise English-Swedish glossary Grammatical index


We extend our grateful thanks to Olle Kjellin for advice on the presentation of stress, Gunnel Clarke for many valuable suggestions notably in the section on Accents, to Roger and Taija Nyborg for help with the stress markings and for proof-reading the text, to Michael Cooper for help with the vocabulary, to Oscar Forsberg for writing the letter from @ke in Lesson 18, and to Ian HinchliiXe for allowing us to f use ideas and examples from Essentials o Swedish Grammar. We thank all our students over the years for teaching us so much, and particularly Phil's first-year students who have taken such a positive interest in improving this book. Special thanks go to Wendy Davies for the user's insight. Phil Holmes and Gunilla Serin Hull and Stockholm February 1996

Using this book,

We have designed this book for anyone wishing to acquire basic conversational Swedish, that is the grammar, pronunciation and intonation as well as basic vocabulary and a range of phrases necessary for communicating digerent needs. We also provide you with some background information about Sweden, its regions, history, traditions and way of life. Each of the eighteen lessons contains three passages - a 'Text', a 'Dialogue' and a 'Factual text'. In the 'Text' you learn about the lives of a group of characters: Rebecca, an English student spending a year at Stockholm University, Bill Morris, an English export representative travelling in Sweden, and the Swedish Forsberg family of Jan, Eva and Joakim holidaying in the South of Sweden and then pursuing their daily lives. Other characters appear in the story from time to time The 'Dialogue' is to provide you with a number of ways of meeting conversational needs arising in everyday situations you are likely to encounter, such as, for example, 'Asking for things' or 'Expressing likes and dislikes'. It is often followed by fbrther notes on other constructions you can use. In each lesson you will find numbered language notes which explain, for example, aspects of word order, inflexion and agreement as well as providing all kinds of colloquial constructions and other useful information. By referring to the 'Grammatical index' you can use book as a concise reference grammar, though lack of space preclud great amount of detail. More detailed sources of reference are P Holmes and Ian HinchliEe, Swedish. A Comprehensive Gra Routledge, 1993, or Philip Holmes and Ian HinchliEe, Essenha Swedish Grammar, Hull Swedish Press, 1991. Another substan of exercises are Swedish Exercises for use on PCs by the same with Chris Hall, Hull Swedish Press, 1995. You are provided with a list of vocabulary after each dialogue. You should note particularly that a word is explaine

the first occasion it appears, though all the words used are to be found in the 'Swedish-English glossary' at the end of the book. A relatively large vocabulary is used in the book, and by the time you reach the end of the book you should have learned some 2,000 words in all. For these reasons it is a good idea to learn new words as they appear. About 1,000 words appear in the 'Concise English-Swedish glossary'. The 'Factual text' is primarily for reading comprehension and to provide you with some background on Sweden and its culture. You should not normally need to translate the text. It is sufficient for you to get the gist of the meaning and guess some of the words. Only the most dficult vocabulary is, therefore, provided after these texts. In the lessons there are exercises of many different kinds. Some 120 short exercises are to be found in the book which make use of the vocabulary employed in the texts. A 'Key to exercises' is found at the end of the book so that you can check your answers. In Lessons 1to 9 there are 'Pronunciation' exercises, which are also found on the cassette so you can compare your pronunciation with that of native speakers. A feature of Swedish that makes it relatively easy to learn is its vocabulary. There is a core vocabulary of Germanic words that are familiar to us (arm, fot, finger, knf, son, lamm, etc.) as well as many loanwords from German (fru, krig, betala, Gnster, spegel, sprik), English Cjobb, potatis, babh cykel, jeans) and French (trottoar, fitiilj, paraply, scen, frisiir). There are also a number of grammatical similarities with English: e.g. adjectives are placed before the noun: en kall vinter, den kalla vintern (a cold winter, the cold winter). Adjectives compare by adding an ending: rik - rikare - riltast (rich - richer - richest) or by using mer, mest: mer typisk, mest typisk (more typical, most typical). Verbs have a -dl-t ending in the past tense: vi badade, jag kysste Eva (we bathed, I kissed Eva), or change the stem vowel: de sitter, de satt (they sit, they sat). Swedish verbs are, incidentally, much simpler than those in most European languages in that they have the same form throughout each tense: jagldu/hanlhonlvi/ni/de simmar (I/yo~e/she/we/you/they swim). Some of the apparent problems in learning Swedish are:
Pronunciation - initially this appears difficult, but it is in fact very regular once you have learned a few rules. The differencebetween short

which words are stressed in the sentence . .and long vowels is crucial to accurate pronunciation. There is a general account of stress and accent at the l beginning of the book. and perhaps even ultimately to learn to write Swedish. etc. Note that in the vocabulary lists to these lessons on the contrary the pronunciation of the new words is shown as if these were pronounced individually (i.and accent Swedish has two word accents . These include only one new term. Stress . Lycka till! (Good luck!) Note on grammatical terms Most of the grammatical terms used in this book should be familiar to anyone who has learned the rudiments of a modem foreign language (or even English) at school. not a l of which you will need to assimilate immediately. not in a sentence). then it is necessary to devote some time to the problems of word order right from the start. Use the account at the beginning of the book for is possible to learn to speak Swedish and make oneself understood without paying any great attention to word order and different ways of constructing sentences. though we have adopted a rather more user-friendly approach.are the keys to your being clearly understood. In the text and dialogue in the first five lessons we have also marked the length of the vowels and consonants in those words in the sentence that receive stress. But if you wish to continue beyond a very basic level. You will find that pronunciation is also practised systematically in the early lessons. See the 'Note on grammatical terms' for a quick 'brush-up' on the basic terms used. object. but for those who feel the need of a quick 'brush-up' we provide some English examples marked with terms found in the book. It will then avoid real difXculties later.e. but which should prove useful to refer back to later. Word order and sentence structure .). This book is no exception. The teaching of Swedish word order is nowadays often based on a positional scheme originally produced by the Danish linguist Paul Diderichsen which breaks the sentence dawn into seven positions for diierent sentence elements (subject.

In example 4 the verb has no object. The girl She SUBJECT is is VERB a student young. often describing the subject. Try taking it out! The football SUBJECT hit VERB him.g. (TIME) Eva SUBJECT walked VERB (MANNER) quickly h@T-EXPR. MPT-EXPRESSION (MANNER) MPT-expressions are words or phrases denoting Manner. Subordinate (sub) clauses are groups of words (which also usually contain a subject and verb) which form part of a main clause sentence: . OBJECT Not all grammatical subjects. VERB Yesterday MPT-EXPR. Not all grammatical objects are things. MPT-EXPRESSION (TIME) fitting the adverb into this sentence changes the meaning of the entire sentence. COMPLEMENT at the university. e.Parts of the sentence John SUBJECT searched VERB the room OBJECT with great care. where or when the action takes place.e. Place or Time. Main clauses and sub(ordinate) clauses Main clauses are groups of words (usually containing a minimum of a subject and verb) that may stand on their own as a sentence: She SUBJECT walked. It SUBJECT never ADVERB rained VERB in summer. MPT-EXPR. i. 'becomes'. m-EXPRESSION (PLACE) A complement is an adjective or noun.are people. to school. which is necessaly to complete the sense of the sentence after an 'empty' verb. how. Both subjects and objects can be pronouns. in example 5 the verb must have an object. (PLACE) Examples 1-5 above are also main clause sentences. 'is'.

SUB CLAUSE The headmistress. SUB CLAUSE Some sub clauses describe part of the main clause sentence (often its subject or object) and may therefore come in the middle of the sentence. ending) en figel figeln fliglar fhgel -n fhglar man. . saw her. SUB CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE SENTENCE When she saw the headmistress she walked faster. such as the one in examples 8 and 9 which is itself an h4PT-expression (time). She saw the headmistress who was standing by the gym. Note on forms used in vocabulary lists The vocabulary lists after the texts and dialogues provide key information about the different forms of the Swedish words: Nouns In vocabulary lists: Indefinite singular Singular + end article (definite) Indefinite plural klocka -n -or bil -en -ar tipple -t -n hus -et - en klocka en bil ett apple ett hus klockan bilen applet huset klockor bilar ipplen hus (no pl. can be placed at the beginning or end of the main clause sentence.She walked faster when she saw the headmistress. who was standing by the gym. man For irregular nouns all forms are given. SUB CLAUSE Some sub clauses. mannen.

present and past tense endings are given. An index is now included. breda For irregular adjectives all forms are given hotald -t -de For past participle forms: stem + ending inskrivlen -et -na For past participle forms: stem + ending - Verbs The verb stem (= imperative form) is indicated with I and the infinitive. . In vocabulary lists: InJinitive Present Past (to call) (calVs) Supine for perfect. had called) kallal -r -de kalla kallar kallade kallat biijla e r -de biija biijer blijde blijt kiipla e r -te k8pa kiiper kiipte kiipt trol -r -dde tro tror trodde trott skrivla e r skrev skriva skriver skrev skrivit gY -r gick gPtt For irregular verbs the supine is also given. pluperfect) (called) (has. and the tapes have been re-recorded with new material. e. from which it is possible to predict the remaining forms.w Adjectives In vocabulary lists: rolig -t -a gratis Indefinite with N-wordr rolig gratis Indefinite with T-words roligt gratis Plural & definite roliga gratis (indeclinable) bred. brett. Note on the second edition (1996) A number of alterations have been made to the texts and dialogues which include updating of facts in the factual texts and inclusion of a new exercise on nouns with end articles in Lesson 5.g.

and these different letters all come at the end. Notice the order: abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz1a8 Of these. stress and accents The Alphabet m The Swedish alphabet has 29 letters. 3 Long o and long u have extreme lip-rbunding causing a w-like endphase.Pronunciation. very long. Words beginning with w are found under v in dictionaries. wellpapp. Notice first that: 1 The distinction between long and short stressed vowels is great: long vowels are very. the letter w (pronounced as v) is found only in names and foreign loan words: Wasa. WC. . Pronunciation Vowels Swedish has a large number of Werent vowel sounds. Both long i and long y have very high and front tongue positions. What follows deals with stressed vowels only. Long i has a j-like end-phase. three more letters than the English alphabet. 4 Pronunciation of a and 8 before r is more open than in other positions. 2 1and ii both have lip rounding. short ones quite short. Long y has open lip founding and a j-like end-phase (Note: Swedish j sounds like the 'y' in English 'beyond').

Cf Gennan 'ii'in 'Tiir'. lax lip-rounding fug No equivalent. moon' with extreme bgt lip-rounding and w-like end-phase (see also note on 0. p. best' (same as short e) Ig H 'ea' in English 'beat' but longer. though much shorter short vowel Birgit Iarid B riaa bYt bm nijt niiu Practise saying the following personal names and place names: long vowel Frida Lisa Siv e long vowel Eva :grit Stgn short vowel Bern Jegs Peger . The long segments are shown by underlining in this book. hand' 'a' in English 'all' but with lip-rounding '0' in English 'hot' hat hag m& i m Age '00' in English 'doom. Pronunciation of stressed vowels .approximate equivalents: long a short a long ih short % long o short o long u short u long e short e long % short H long i short i 10% Y short y long 6 short 6 i 'a' in English 'father. German 'ii' in 'diinn' No equivalent.French '6' in '6t6' f 'e' in English 'pen. Cf. best' 4 vgt vetJ lit 'ea' in English 'bear'. but longer 'e' in English 'pen.5 Stressed syllables are always long: short stressed vowel + long consonant (two or more consonants) or long stressed vowel + short consonant. unstressed syllables are always short.fgl rounding and w-like end-phase 'u' in English 'full'. Cf. Open lip-rounding with j-like end-phase No equivalent. p. dark' open 'a' in Northern English 'hat.9) 'oo' in English 'book' with slightly less bog extreme lip-rounding (see also note on o. more closed fin and with j-like end-phase 'i' in English 'hit. C . French 'eu' in 'peu' but much longer with lip-rounding 'u' in English 'hurt'.9) Something like 'u' in French 'lu' but with lip. miss' f i ~ s No equivalent.

many words with o s p e l t i are pro no^ with a short b: Oka. R w Roqpeby.g. * Vowel length Rules for determining the length of stressed vowels from written Swedish: Vowels followed by a single consonant letter are long: I&Vowels followed by a double consonant or two consonant letters (denoting a voiceless cluster) are short and the consonant(s) long: gill Vowels not followed by a consonant (open syllable) are long: & But note the following points: . 0s-lsar). Rghd When long the pronunciation o is m r common (e.a Iong vowel K-arin JF i Karl Skara u long vowel Rut Sgne gno -re 3 long vowel Syen Myaren short vowel Damar Annika Jwe Halland short vowel y - long vowel Tyra Lydia R Y ~ Ystad short vowel Yme Ylva Sylvia YxsjiJ short vowel Mhs & e! s HAIland T&~P short vowel St@et Ogten short vowel Mfsrtsunda m a G. Mona. StoeBho!m. Mcrn). Some are pmmuncedwith a long P: @Inn. u ml Lu& short vowel Rii-~k S3me short vowel M8Ga short vowel Bo~x Blowen Ole i* long vowel H&an &a Smgland 3 longvowel Stjdra Oland - 8 before r long vowel Par o* Iong vowel Mgra Baen Ola - ii before r long vowel Ttjreboda Unlike the examples given here. when short the pronunciation P oe is more common (e.g. b.

'Soft' g-. k. stjila. d. Some specific problem consonants and consonant groups are dealt with in the lessons. f.97.go words beginning with sj-. 'Hard' g-. 'er' in English 'father'. den. skall. In this book you will sometimes see the symbol a.pronunciation depending on dialect and speaker. sk. 1. but learners should note the following for now: 1 Pronunciation of g-. etc.These rules do not apply to words ending in -m. u. k-. kfra. Lars. p. never voiced 'z'. k-.varies according to the type of vowel following. -n where the m and n are often long already (= mm. i. m. This represents the unstressed sound of 'a' in English 'about'. gymnasium. a. 2 s is always unvoiced 's'. 'keep'. god.8: i g. pronounced as Swedish j or English consonant 'y' in 'yell': Giiran. skjorta. The common words a m c h a m a@ete have short a. skj-. hem and see p. y. cf. something like 'ch' in English 'church'. liisa. k a . as in 'please': Lisa. skiin. musik. sk. t. stum. the e [a] in riiker. a.precedes the vowels e. ros. 3 -rs is like 'sh' in English 'rush' but with lip-rounding: fors. stiirst. Like sk. kaka. There are large variations of sk. %: These are pronounced as in English 'gate'. These include: b. 'skill': gata. h. nn). though softer: something like English 'sh' in 'shirt' but with distinct liprounding: skina. sk. sk. skor. . as in English 'loss'. Compare the pronunciation of English 'arm'. i . stj-: sju. n. p l .precedes the vowels 0. Consonant sounds Many of the consonant letters are pronounced approximately as in English. kyrka. gin. v. skfra. ko. k-. Unstressed vowels are always short: the a in skriva.

This is known as word stress. Only the stressed words in the sentence are marked. 5 t is always pronounced far forward. titta. stor. I): What follows is a series of lists for reference: of those types of words in the sentence which have sentence stress (and therefore long or short stressed vowels) of those types of words which are usually unstressed of two-word stress of stressed and unstressed syllables of stressed and unstressed prefixes and suExes nitJon &r hon. But different syllables within these stressed words may also be stressed. fart. She is 19 years in English . Stress LLJ In Swedish . Thus in this example: The long consonant tt follows a short stressed vowel i: The short consonant r follows a long stressed vowel 8: Unstressed vowels are not marked (here o. iir . kiirt. but with the tongue further back against the palate with lips rounded: bort. with the tongue just behind the front teeth: bott. All the words that are significant for the meaning are stressed (see list below).4 -rt is like 't' in English 'daughter'. and these words are indicated in the text and dialogue to Lessons 1-5 (sometimes also in vocabulary lists) to help students to acquire the rhythm of natural spoken Swedish. This is called sentence stress.there is an important distinction between words that have stress in the sentence and those that do not. The method shown for marking stress on words in the texts is illustrated here: Hon Ir nitJon ir.

time (MPTexpressions) Ng bor hon i Sto&hoh. han. vi. place. de). Verbs When there is no object. dc @ron. hon. it. du. OBJ Eva is eating and drinking. place. det (pron. you. dom) (I. He is a policeman. MPT Now she lives in Stockholm. Eva drinks coffee. COMP She fell ill. we.ja). Hgset har en altg. den. ni.gter och dri&er. and: Hon blev sjgk. they) . Han Ir polis. she. Does the shop shut early today? MPT S t a s e r afftjren tidigt idgg? MPT MPT Unstressed in the sentence Pronouns and v-words (interrogatives) jag (pron. he. it. time (MPT-expression): Eva . Anna has bought a house. complement or expression of manner. Eva drickcr kaffe. Expressions of manner. The house has a balcony. you.Stressed in the sentence Nouns A@a har kiipt ett h g . COMP Note: iir is pronounced lie Swedii short e.

Adverbs inte. dess. if. ju Hon vilJ inte. Two-word stress Where two or more words belong together in one unit of meaning the last word in the phrase is stressed. Him I love. n k vem. att (pron. you. but. your. their one. er. er. hur Vad s_adu? I love him. nir. De f r inte h e ~ a . en. sej).. ens. probably. hennes. when. when.which om. its. what. They aren't home. He said that he drank gin and tonic. his. ) .. of course She doesn't want to. dem (pron. vil. sig (pron. dej). hans. They're coming today. that. her. v9r. nog. dig (pron. them) (except when they come at the front of the sentence or for contrast: Jag P m a r honom. (Titta) i bgken. one. deras man.mig (pron. honom. one's. you. not. din. surely. henne. H o e m Zlskar jag. my. r Han k o ~ enog. us. va). A men. som Han s& att han drack giz och to&. . sin. oss. vad (pron. himself etc. his etc. dirf"or. %). how What did you say? Conjunctions och (pron. He will probably come. because. her. dom) (me. you. our. Look in the book. him. nir. some who. min. mej). Preposition + Noun @e kommer) i d a . and.

He is tall. (Han) i r ]A=.Indefinite article en bil a car + Noun ett bgs a house Verb ut go out + Particle hSsa p& visit Verb. She is a student. anlsom + the word compared (Ban Ir lika ung) som hon. Measurement klockan trg three o'clock (tv8) koppar kaffe two cups of coffee . De hade k o m i t . Pronoun det bar this + Pronoun min =en my o m Time. (Ban Hr lbgre) & O I m He is taller than Olle. + Verb. They had arrived. Jag ska g_% I'll go Infinitive marker att & to go + Verb att k o m a to come Verb + Complement @on) Pr student. He is as young as she is.

musikanJ (musician). fdrsijk (attempt). betala (pay). Compounds (words made up of two (or more) words) have stress on the first and last part of the compomd. about two-thirds have stress on the first syllable and one third on a different syllable. universitgt (university). revy (revue). sax Sra: parkera (park). Stress on first syllable: n y a e l (key). (study). Stress on another syllable: 2 : prefixes bc-. halon (raspberry). foreign loans: restaura= (restaurant). vifiter (winter). k 9 e r (buys). Rr-: bestrida (deny). gymnag (gymnast). studera. the last stress has a rising tone: a hgsnyael (house key) Y a Y a centrgllasarea Metalindustriarbetaflorbundet (central hospital) (Metal Workers' Union) Some problem words Many words that are familiar from English (some of which are found in this book) are stressed differently from English: . foreign suffixes: regissijr (director).Numeral trettiofiga thirty-eight + Numeral + Surname First name Lasse Nihson Stressed/unstressed syllables Of non-compounds with more than one syllable. In Stockholm-Swedish the first stress has a falling tone.

elegant formeb kommentgra universitgt kvalifikation. upp-. inter-. -e& -& -ik. intressgrad. referens. skriven fliaor. demonstration.i s . im-. miljon. . *s. programrestauraz. -s(s)ion. firde-. -&k. -tion. -mmig. journalist. -er (noun plural endings) -it (verb supine) -is. *n. sjgkdoa storlgk. -a&ig. p a a e r spruxit a d i s . -isk. -n at -at.fami& f i e r . -en (verb past participle) -or. -else -are. gv-. -dam. kon-. frisgr prinsega Unstressed prefixes be-. trans-.chauffor Stressed pre f i e s o-. gn-. presyn-. monopol Unstressed suffixes -ig. a-.a ~ . parkgring larare.i ~ a-ega . sam-. is-. -sam -hgt. demokrgt. choklsd. vegetation. -21. stir-. monobetgla.mig-. -er (verb present) sandig. . 5. a n k o a a saaarbgta avlga. passaErare. studenttoale& traditioneb universitgt. -lig. -iker. -ell. -re (comparative). u d till-. katolsk. usderolyalig. *r. klimgt. -era. k e r . . in-. -skg. -(n)ing. portion.i m 4% -it. bro&lighgt. -erst -en (end article). -ar. . religion. -ar. Ever& - Stressed suffiires -bar. bilar. van-. IZtJast tgla.litteratg. Ever-. fdrstg intressant syntgs. -ande. ko-. -i&. jgli. -itst. snde. trggisk bilen. kultgr. institution. -ast -a (verb).

These words have only one rise (Accent 1). a gamal old Y a fli&a girl Y Z ya tgla speak Y X svezska Swedish stglar chairs The rise on the unstressed syllable makes the words sound Swedish. In Central Sweden the voice goes down on the first stress and up on the last. it is true. which is unusual in languages that have stress (jou can hear it in English as spoken in Wales). they take on a special tone pattern. This means that the melody rises on an unstressed syllable after the stressed syllable. a bwen the car However. These include words that have become two-syllable words because the definite ending (end article) -en or -et has been added to the noun.Accents hgslny&el house key m centralllasarefi central hospital sterlstfidslparti city PW We saw above that compound words always have two stresses: When two stresses occur in one word. u a hgslny&el house key y a skgllbek school book a barnlmgt baby food a lokfillt& local train Quite a number of words other than compounds also have this melody when they are stressed. This 'melody' is different in different parts of the country. Listen for this rise when you hear Swedes speak. but often learners of Swedish make the mistake of thinking that every stressed word should have this word melody. but as many do not. It is this falling-rising melody that makes Swedes sound as if they are singing when they speak! It is generally called Accent 2. it is as if this ending were not part of the word. in the word a hgslet the house a barnten the children a fli&a/n the girl . In fact. Many words of two syllables do.

For now. B e y p a n ) and towns (e. Kfirlstad. listen especially for how people pronounce names (e. which we started with. Exland. But if you learn not to use Accent 2 (falling-rising) in the names of countries (e. bicycle7with Accent 1(a single rise): Words (other than compounds) where the stress comes on a syllable other than the first generally have Accent 1 as in the words for 'try. Another syllable that does not permit the falling-rising tone is the present tense ending e r : These words only have a single rise (Accent 1). always have a fall and a rise. learn to pronounce the words for 'sugar. So you will be right most of the time if you use the falling-rising tone in two-syllable words with a stressed syllable. park.which contained two syllables even before the -n was added (see above) the falling-rising tone remains. Notice that there may be a long wait before the rise: a skrgt1bilen the scrap car Y. Other words that end in -er (also in e n and -el) have to be learnt individually. Persson. There are exceptions among compounds as well. Visby. water. cigarettes7.g. Svegsson. a smygllfiser reads secretly a Y a chokladlcigareger chocolate cigarettes Metalllindustrilarbetarlf6rbuglet Metal Workers7Union This is because here the rise comes.g. whatever their lengths and shapes.g. but on the last part of the compound. not on the 'forbidden' syllables. a GrsQka \$ " a parkera a cigarreaer -4 Compounds. Fra~krike). but remember that the definite ending and the present tense ending -er do not allow this. . Sveyige.

ocsdag. tisdag. Iijrdag. and use Accent 1 in the words trgdgird (garden) and verkstad (workshop). frgdag.Dglsbo). torsdag. then you will do nearly as well as any Swede any day of the week (micdag. siigdag also with Accent I)! .

. What's Rebecca doing? She is studying. Vad &r Sveg? Ran lger.1 Vem ar det? Who is it? In this lesson we will look at: verbs in the present tense personal pronouns gender of nouns two types of question how to give short answers pronunciation of vowel sounds how to ask for things and say thanks how rarely Swedes use capital letters Text 1 Vem ar det? Who is it? Vem ar det? l Det Zr Sveg. And who is that? It's Rebecca. Ar de pi% fabrik? en Nej. Are they in a factory? No. they're not. What's Sven doing? He's reading. They are at a university. det gr de iute. en Vad &r R e b e ~ a ? Hon studpar. De Ir pi% h&sk$la. Och vem B dgt? r Det i r Rebecca. Who is it? It's Sven.

Is he eating a sandwich too? Yes. dgensm611gAg Notice that de (they) is pronounced d d g but det is pronounced dg. han i t e r ett pgron och en pesika. pron.pron. ja): Vad g6r Rebecca? (What is Rebecca doing?. He's hungry. pron.) are ni i r he is de i r she is it is (with N-words . pron.see below) one is we are you @I. ?) Verbs and pronouns Swedish verbs are the same throughout each tense and do not change for person or number: Singular jagir du i r han Ir hon i r den i r det i r man i r Plural Iam vi i r you (sing. Bter han en srniir&s ocksi? Ja. run the words together: Det H en smiirgis. va it. it's a large sandwich. de fr och idare. Is he eating an apple? No. he is.see below) it is (with T-words . det @ r han.h e r han ett i ~ l e ? Nej. pron. . Notice also pronunciation of giir where the g sounds like an English 'y' or Swedish j (cf. va yer . Br det en liten sm8ggk? Nej. Han f r husrig. Some final consonants are dropped Notice the following words in which the last consonant is not pronounced: vad det what. e and. . he's eating a pear and a peach. r It is a sandwich.) are they are . Is it a small sandwich? No. % Having dropped these particular final consonants. det f r en stgr smii~gk.

e. D d Pr ett Bpple. The gender. therefore. or if the noun is given in the sentence. then it must agree in gender: Han fter en smiirgis. It's big. When the word 'it' (dentdet) refers back to a noun already mentioned. Vem Pr det? D d B Rebecca. r It's a little boy. Three-quarters of all nouns in Swedish are N-gender. But if the gender is not known. days and parts of the day. Det B stort. Vad 8r det? Det Iir en sm6rgis. It's big. then det is used irrespective of gender: r Who is it? It's Rebecca. Question Ar det en liten pojke? Is it a little boy? . r Hon Bter eft Bpple. there are two types of question. higher animals. as are most nouns describing people. She is eating an apple. Nouns that take en have N-gender (also called non-neuter gender or en-gender). Two types of question Exactly as in English. He is eating a sandwich. and nouns that take ett have T-gender (also called neuter gender or ett-gender). It is useful. has two forms. which corresponds to 'a(n)' in English. to learn the gender (i. But nouns describing things may be of either gender. determines other grammatical forms we will look at later. but ett plron. and their gender is unpredictable from their meaning. Later more clues will be learned to help you predict the gender. It's an apple. D b fir stor. One simply changes the order of verb and subject around (inversion): Statement Det B en liten pojlte. en and ett. N or T. The indefinite article. the indefinite article) with each noun.Pronunciation when stressed: jag is pronounced han is pronounced hon is pronounced ja hn an horn ma@ man is pronounced det is pronounced de de is pronounced d i m (sometimes also written dom) N-words and T-words Swedes say en fabrik and en smiirgh. What is it? It's a sandwhich.

4 Has she got an apple? 5 Is it a university? 6 No. The other kind of question also changes the order of subject and verb. it's a factory. read. is doing has. What is he doing? Hon studerar. i. study. studera/. it's Sven. is coming lives. live.Hon har ett rum. Har hon ett rum? Has she a room? These are called yedno questions as the answer is ofien yes or no (Swedish jafnej). Giir is irregular in that its stem already ends in -r: gar/. but begins with an interrogative pronoun or v-word (most of them begin with a v in Swedish). come. These are called v-questions: Vad What V-WORD lir is VERB det? it? SUBJECT Vad What heter are du? you called? SUBJECT V-WORD VERB Vem Who V-WORD lir is VERB det? it? SUBJECT Exercise 7 Translate into Swedish: 1 Is it a pear? 2 What's that? 3 It's a peach. lit/.the present tense studies. is having eats. Vad giir han? I . do. 13~1.e. have. She has a room. is eating reads. Notice that there is no continuo1s tense in Swedish: i She is studying (= She studies). 7 It's an apple. so no extra r is added for the present tense. is reading present tense in -r present tense in s r present tense in -r present tense in -r present tense in -r present tense in s r present tense in s r Most verbs end in -(e)r in the present tense: studerdr kommter bo/r giirl hafr iitler lisler The part of the verb to which the present tense ending and other endings are added is called the stem. 8 Is it Rebecca? 9 No. 10 Is he hungry? Verbs . is living does. eat. is studying comes.

Exercise 2 Make these statements into yedno questions: 1De studerar. If the verb in the question is not the verb 'to be' (vara). 4 No. 2 Hon kommer. 3 Yes. 2 We are studying. 3 Ni har ett piiron. 5 Yes. of course. Structure: JalNej. I have. Ar du hungrig? 5 Ja. Translate into Swedish: 1 Yes. 6 No. No. 5 Det & en stor hugskola.) studying? 5 Are they coming? Short answers If someone asks you 'Is it a factory?'. it's a factory' or you may give a short answer 'Yes. det Iir d e t Nej. Yes. I am. det bar han. Exercise 3 Translate into Swedish: 1 They are reading. I'm not. det + verb + subject pronoun (+ inte). 8 No. we haven't. or 'No. Ja. 4 Det iir Sven. 7 Yes. Nej.g. it is. it is. Nej. 3 She is living in (Swedish: i) Stockholm. vill) then the short answer uses a form of giira: Talar du svenska? Do you speak Swedish? Exercise 4 Ja. 2 No. it is'. 'to have' (ha) or a modal verb (e. det i r jag. Im not. I do. it isn't.' Notice how these are constructed in Swedish: Yes. Are you hungry? Yes. they're not. it isn't. 4 Are you (sing. he hasn't. ska. he has. No. you may. det Iir jag inte. she hasn't. det bar han inte. det g6r jag. he is. No. answer 'Yes. B a r han ett rum? Ja. you are. det i r det inte. Has he got a room? Yes. ' .

tack. A A o A bal bA1 miis mos m b mon bada bAda gAta bAda Boda gata hh 3U( ok hav r b ron tag bas bA s tA r Tor I bita Lisa silar ris tider - Y byta lysa sylar rYS tyder Y ~YS - U lus truta tur brun utan tr~ta tYr bryn ytan Dialogue 1 m Pa" kafeterian In the cafe A group of students are having a coflee break Jag skulle vilja ha en kopp w e och en bulje. LISA: Vad kostar en ski&smbgAs? EWEDITEN: j g o kronor. Ja. NILS: Kan jag fa ett glas lam1 och en s m 6 g h med agg och ansjgvis. 4 ha w e . T LISA: D trjag en kopp tg och en k-&a. Jag tar en la& och en ogsmor&s. Do not worry about the meaning of the words. Erik? ERIK: Nej. Vad vill dg ha. Vill du o a . Nik? MATMAS:H a r n i a ? EWEDITEN: lam1 har vi. A a SVEN: .Pronunciation 1 Vowels Practise saying the following pairs of words with long vowels.

anchovy ski$smfirgis -en -ar. group rw student -en -er. cup bulle -n -ar. kafd or 'fik') and for a meal choose a restaurang. cd EXPEDITEN: in bestdllningen) V . cost tg -et. order varsiad. tack. ham sandwich krona -n -or. When you have collected your food you stop at the kassa. For simple fare you can choose a korvkiosk which sells varmkow among other things or a gatukiik which may have a wider range. can. light beer im kan jag f& can I have k u ~ kag k u ~ d kumat. The best buy may be dagens rEtt often med smiir. but you will probably have to stand outside.CARINA: Jag tar o c en kopp te. soft drink mgd. student aka/ -r -de (colloquial). egg ansjgvis -en -ar. eight ko@l -r -de. cheese sandwich -en 8 4. pleaselthank you o*i. with ogsrn6r~~is -ar. in kafetgria -n -or.d g ~ d ! (tar ERIK: Ta& d my&et! Vocabulary p& at. glass @a. cafe g u -en er. mycket @ron. also fa/ -r t g .bees 1 li 1 -et. For a coffee or tea and a seat go to a konditori (kondis. briid. here you are ta& sQmy&et. be a e able d& then iigg -et -. my&e) Exercise 5 When looking for somewhere to eat you may see the sign Servering which generally means 'cafeteria'. unit o currency (100 f ore = 1krona) gigs -et -. ~ememker look at the matsedel first to and to take your bricka. Inside you may have to queue at the sjtilvservering. cafeteria. meJ. tea kaka -n -or. sandwich a Iii& -en. take s m i i e s -en -ar. have kage -t. bun ta&. bring in bestiianing -en -ar. glas and bestick. have a coffee break skuae vilia ha-would like vma vi!! viie vglat. What must . want (to) h g -r hade haft. cake t d tar t g in. thank you very much Pronunciation: med (pron. mjiilk eller I8ttiil eller kaffe. coffee kow -en -ar. tallrik.

. Tack s l mycket! Thank you so not do under the sign R8kning farbjuden? Do not forget when leaving to go to the Brickinlflmning. tack? Can I have a cup of coffee. . or otherwise expects you to do something. .. ? Can I have . . holding a door open.. please. Thank you very much.. . Ja. I will have lit. It can also be used impolitely in a demand: Varslgod ock giir som jag sflger! Do as I say! .? Have you got ...... ' Can you guess what these things are in English? How to ask for things Notice the different ways used in the dialogue for asking for things: ? Har ni (du) Kan jag f l tack? Jag skulle vilja ha. tack Nej. .'please'.. . Some of these are: Kan jag f l en kopp kaffe. take . . thank you. . Tack ska du ha! the end of a sentence . Please help yourself! Do please come in! Please take a seat. Notice also: Vad kostar What does . please? Tack. No. tack! Thank you. please? Iwant . Jag t a r . . . which means both 'thank you' and . H i r har du kaffe. tack Varslgod! like the German 'Bitte!' indicates that someone is giving you something.. . cost? VarsZigod! Tack! There are many variations on the theme of tack. . Varsigod! Varsigod och stig in! Varsigod och sitt! Here's the coffee.

Wales och Nordirland. . Sverige k ett industriland. a cheese sandwich and a glass of beer. Storbritannien har ganska lite skog. men det omfattar England. No genitive 'of' with quantities With quantities English has 'of. a cup of coffee and a cake. I Storbritannien bor engelsmiin. och de talar mest engelska. Say 'Here you are' and 'Thank you very much'.Exercise 6 Ask politely in Swedish for: a ham sandwich and a glass of beer. Sveriges huvudstad heter Stockholm. I Sverige har man ofta mycket sn6 p i vintern. skottar. Sverige har mycket skog. Storbritannien har en drottning. Storbritanniens huvudstad heter London. Skottland. I Sverige bor svenskar. but Swedish has no genitive: en kopp kaffe ett glas vin en flaska 61 ett kilo ost en liter fil a cup of coffee a glass of wine a bottle of beer a kilo of cheese a litre of yoghurt Compound nouns Two ways of saying the same thing are: en smbrgAs med ost en sm6rgAs med skinka 5 en ostsm6rgis en skinksmijrg&s Note: -a is dropped at the end of the f& noun in the last example and similar cases Factual text 1 Sverige Sweden m Storbritannien k ett land. walesare och irliindare. och de talar mest svenska. Sverige har en kung. a cup of tea and a bun. Storbritannien iir ockd ett industriland.

I Storbritannien har man d l a n mycket sn6 p i vintern. I Sverige har man ibland sol p i sommaren. I Storbritannien har man regn bide p i vintern och p i sommaren!

omfattd -r -de, comprise svensk -en -ar, Swede tala/ -r -de, speak mest, mostly svenska -n, Swedish (language) drottning -en -ar, queen huvudstad -en -stPder, capital kung -en -ar, king hetta -er hette hetat, be called mycket, a lot, much skog -en -ar, forest ganska, rather, quite siillan, rarely, seldom (en) sol, sun ibland, sometimes b i d e . . och .,both. . . and. .



Exercise 7

Answer in Swedish (using, where applicable, short answers):
1h Sverige ett land? 2 Vad k Storbritannien?3 Vad talar engelsmiin? 4 Vad talar svenskar? 5 Har Sverige en kung? 6 Vad heter Sveriges hwudstad? 7 h Sverige ett industriland? 8 Har Storbritannien mycket skog? 9 Har Sverige snt) pi%vintern? 10 Har England sn6 p i vintern? 11Har man mycket sol i Storbritannienp i sommaren?

Capital letters
Notice that small letters are used in Swedish in many cases where English has a capital: weekdays, months, festivals: mPndag (Monday), januari (January), midsommar wdsummer) nouns and adjectives denoting nationality, language, religion and political affiliation: engelsman (Englishman), amerikan (American), svensk (Swede), katolik (Catholic), socialdemokrat (Social Democrat) titles with names: herr Ek ( r Ek), doktor Lind @r Lind)' M

2 Rebecca, en student
Rebecca, a student

I this lesson we will look at: n verbs in the infinitive and present tense the gender of nouns and the articles time expressions straight and inverted word order numerals from 1 to 12 the pronunciation o g-, k-, skf how to say yes and no how to greet people word order in questions patterns in statements and questions a country in the north


Text 2


Rebecca, en student
Rebecca, a student

Rebec~a studeg. Hon L n&on &roch kommer fib Ellgland. HO; iir 1r sveska p& universitgtet i Lo~~don, just nu bor hon i men Sto&hoh~ har en lkenhgt p i Fltjtvgen i RinJeby. P i mogonen Hon Aker hon melb-ana till universitgtet. Vad g6r hon dgr? Hon g8r ph en i3relBning eller sitter pi% bibliotgket och %lad skriver hon @ en umsats eller g6r en ijversZItJning. Ofja b6jar hon redan klockan i ph mogonen. Rebec- Qtar vBckark1occka.n. Den ri-gner klockan sex.


e b a, an (with N-words) student -en er, student hob she iir, islare nigon, nineteen ir -et -,year k o m a , k o ~ e rk, o come ~ fdn, fiom lijsla e r -te, read, study universitgt e t -, university me5 but just a& at present bgl -r -fie, live laenhgt e n er, flat p i moaonen (pron. morronnen), i n the morning iWa e r -te, travel (by) t u ~ e l b g n a tube,underground -n, ti& to @ria @r gjgrde g j o a do, make dir, there g& gi& pi, go to -r fdirelijsning-en -ar, lecture elJer, or sitt/a e r sa& sit bibliotgk -et -,libmy a ~ t e ~ k n a -de, make notes -r l shIv1a -er skrgv, write i b l a a sometimes u a s a h e n -er, essay iiversiittning -en -ar, translation b6rja/ -r -de, begin rgdan, as early as klockan i a at eight o'clock s, hgtal -r -de, hate vii&arklo&a -n -or, alarm clock deb it r i w a e r -de, ring seg six




Verbs, present and infinitive
As has been shown in Lesson 1, in the present tense Swedish verbs nearly always end in -r. A l regular verbs end in -r or -er throughout l the present tense:
When the stem ends in a vowel the verb adds +r: bbrjalr (begins), gUr (goes), bo/r (lives). When the stem ends in a consonant the verb adds +er: Wer (travels), skrivter (writes). Regular infinitive forms end either in -a or another vowel: bbrjal (to begin), M a (to travel), I W a (to read), bo/ (to live). Notice the irregular intinitive of the verb vara (to be), prese and the irregular present tense of g6rla (to do, make), i.e. gar/, which already has -r in the stem.

Rebecca s route to the University on the Stockho/m Metro


DK ~ N G S T R ~ ~ ~ E N

Exercise 7

Fill in the missing verb forms:


... ...


Exercise 2

Present tense har laser hatar €!fir

Infinitive Present tense komma . . . heta ... Aka ... skriva ...

What is the Swedish for:
1 He's reading. 2 He's a student. 3 They're travelling. 4 We live in Stockholm. 5 I live in England. 6 I'm travelling to London. 7 We have a flat. 8 I'm studying Swedish. 9 They come from London. 10 The alarm clock rings at eight o'clock. 11 She starts at six o'clock in the morning. 12 They hate the alarm clock.

Nouns, gender and articles
The indefinite articles (English 'a', 'an') are en (with ~lwords) ett or (with T-words):
en student en liigenhet

a student a flat

@A r

eit universitet

ayear a university

To say 'the flat', 'the year' add the definite article e n or s t (Note: one t!) to the end of the noun. It is, therefore, known as the end article. liigenheten the flat %ret the year

Notice that if the noun ends in a vowel the end article added is -nor -t: en tunnelbana tunnelbanan a tube the tube ett schema schemat a timetable the timetable

No article is used before nouns denoting a person's nationality7 occupation, religious or political aftiliation: Nils H Ifirare. r Olof H svensk r Anders H katolik. r Eva H socialdemokrat. r Nils is a teacher. Olof is a Swede. Anders is a Catholic. Eva is a Social Democrat.

This applies to all nouns referring to a person or object representing a class or group: Har du bil? Have you got a car?

But an article is used in cases where the noun is qualified, i.e. made more precise:

H n fir en god katoliW en a
duktig lfirare. Han har en ny bil.

He is a good Catholic1 a good teacher. He has a new car.

Exercise 3
Fill in the missing forms of the nouns:
lndefnite Form with end article Indefinite Form with end article fabriken bullen drct skinkan pojken industrin tunnelbanan klockan vinet

en uppsats en ligenhet ett land en dag ett apple en flicka en kaka ett kilo en kopp

Time expressions
pi% morgonen (pron. mo~onnen) in the morning(s) p i eftermiddagen @ran. eftermiddann) in the aftemoon(s) pd kvzillen in the evening@) pd natten during the night at eight o'clock klockan Ptta before clock times.) (No preposition is used in ~Gedish

Word order, straight and inverted
Compare the following statements:
Front Verb (Subject) etc. i London. i Stockholm. till universitetet. klockan itta.

(a) Hon (b) Just nu (c) P i morgonen (d) Ofta

bor bor hon Aker hon biirjar hon

If the sentence begins with the subject (as in (a)) this is called straight word order, i.e. subject -verb. If it begins with a non-subject (as in (b), (c), (d)) the subject is placed immediately after the verb and this is called inverted word order. The most common non-subjects beginning

ett* 2 tv8 3 tre 4 fyra 5 fem 6 sex 7 sju 8 itta 9 nio (pron. Gfighok. tia) 11 elva 12 tolv tv&. tre * ~ o t e :Because ofthe two genders. English also begins sentences w t non-subjects. 4 In the mornings she studies Swedish. 3 She travels by tube. skPractise saying the followingwords.. GfCWde. (c)). k-. Pronunciation 2 m Cofisonants g-. 6 She is beginning just now. 2 OEten she travels to Stockholm. but does not invert after them: ih Often she begins at 8 o'clock. . nia) 10 ti0 (pron. Gaorp. 7 Sometimes she sits in the library.. Qdby. When counting: ett. 9 At six o'clock the alarm clock rings. 'sofl' gplace names: Qrum. all personal names and place names. GuUI=en. q t e b o a personal names: GeG. Gusty. 5 Just now she is at the university. SUBT VERB Translate the following statements into Swedish: 1 She comes from England. G g d ~ nGrgta . M@a.the sentence are expressions of time and place (as in (b). r a n q 'hard 'gplace names: Gaglleby. Giglavgd. Grisstad personal names: Gogrid. 8 At 8 o'clock she takes the tube. . Numerals (1-1 2) 0 no11 1 en.

Kglmirden.'sojl ' k- place names: Kedjeben. Men du firs@ v a svegska? . V@An i Ealand k o m e r du? BracJford. Sveg heter j . . Kristina 'sojl ' sk\ place names: 'hard' skplace names: Skemsvik. personal name: Kecstin Kygkhub. Kire. SkilJingaryd. Men nu bor du i S t o ~ c & oeller h g ? b Ja. K u ~ l aK61ered personal names: Karin. Rebesa? Jag prgar ju med dig. a Hej. Jag. Jaha. V g i Sto~khom? Jag bor i Riaeby. K5Wk. va? Nej. -k. jag komrner frAn Exland. place names: Kalmar. Ja vist. Skinela Dialogue 2 Ett mote pa" universitetet A meeting at the university Sven a s h Rebecca about herqelf Hej. lite g r a ~Jag studerar svegska i Logdon. SW-orp. Kograd. Du iir inte svegsk. Sksby. Kfilby 'hard'k. S k i ~ i n g e . Skiilde Skara. Varfdr sitter du egeNigen h3. Vad hgter du forresten? Rebecca Wood. Jasi. KuLf. Skgup. Vad l&er du? Jag laser svegska.

where? jghg. by the way. f o ? rm eller hgr here: don't you (cf. . On parting. French 'n'est-ce p s ' a?) js yes vgr. actually hgr. of course (see p. incidentally ege. hej. what first3 -r forstgd. 'Be seeing you7. godda) 'How do you do?' or 'Good morning' etc. are found in the .Vocabulary m@e -t -a. Note also: j0 Lfiser du inte svenska? Jo. use hej d& hej. is the formal equivalent. aj6J 'Goodbye' is the formal equivalent.where . study japi. oh. or interrogative pronouns. m e i g etn hei.lit. or hej sH lhge 'Bye for now'. hello va.tligen. here petal -r -de. 125) dig @on. talk ju. lite g r a s a little. Goddag (pron. a bit studgd -r -de. of course (stronger agreement) oh really/I m o u don't say (registers surprise) oh really (registers merely that you are listening) yes (answering a negative question. 'Hi there' is the usual friendly greeting. . really n e j no vgrifen. &i). French 'si'): Don't you study Swedish? Y s I do! e. (object) you Yes. I see forregten. cf. V-words (interrogatives) Some v-words. no There are a number of words for agreement and disagreement in the dialogue: ia nej javisst jasl jaha Yes no yes. det g6r jag! Greetings Hej 'Hello'. Adjii @on. understand ja v i ~ t of course .

. ifrin?. .e. . from? where? who? how? when? Others are: var? vem? hur? nir? Notice also the following interrogatives. what? where . . Notice that in English questions often involve 'do' or 'does'. va) varifrb? var.subject) word order. Notice the clBerence however: yes/no questions (to which the answer is jalnej): Verb Subject du du student? svenska? Ar Lfser In yestno questions the verb comes at the beginning.from? where. without v-: Word order in questions The two types of question both have inverted (i. while Swedish requires only a simple verb form: Do you read Swedish? Does she live in Stockholm? v-questions (using a v-word): Front Var Vad Varifran Verb bor giir kommer Subject du? du? du? Liser du svenska? Bor hon i Stockholm? In v-questions the v-word comes at the beginning. .. verb .vad? @on. .

. . i StockhoIm.. which will help you to create Swedish sentences with accurate word order: Sentence Front Verb (Subject) etc. Exercise 5 Translate the following questions into Swedish: 1Are they reading? 2 Do they live in Stockholm? 3 Do you understand? 4 What are they called? 5 Where are you staying? 6 What are you reading? 7 What are they doing? 8 Where does he come from? 9 Who is she? 10 When are they coming? 11Are you speaking to Rebecca? 12 Is she reading'? 13 Does he understand Swedish? Exercise 6 Complete your part of the following conversation: B J ~ : Hej! B J ~Vad heter du? : Du:. Inverted V-questions Inverted Yedno questions Inverted Commands Nu Var bor V-WORD Bor Sk~v i Stockholm? - till henne! Note: 1 In statementsand vquestions the verb c m sswmd a h either a subject or anonoe subject.Patterns in statements and questions Statements and questions fit into a pattern for the sentence. w: Statements Straight Hon SUBJECT bor bor hon hon? hon i Stockholm.. Du:.. 2 I y sw questiw the verb comes f d and is not p m a M by a subject or wen el subject.

over 50% av landet ilr [rckt av skog.. men det k till ytan ett mycket stort land. Du: . Sverige k ett lbgt och smalt land. men p vintern & det m6rkt h a n&stan hela dagen och A mycket kallt. the Faroes liggla -er lig. be (lie) Norden. Sverige har amr. few mlnniska -n -or.. . Sverige har glaciker i norr och hdga fjal det hogsta berget. l 2 finns m h g a iUvar och sjoar bland dem tre av Europas st6rsta . - Vocabulary Farijarna. Vattern och Waren.. I norr kan man se midnattssolen varje sommar. Finland. som k en del av norm Europa. som hela den norm delen av Sverige heter.BrORN: Vad studerar du? BC R :HUT JZN gamma1 (='old') k du? BJBRN: kornmer du ifrh? Var BIBRN: var bor du? Och Du:. k 2117 meter . D n a k Island och Fiir6arna. between som. that del -en -ar. Stora sader k Stockholm (700 OOO).. Det k mycket stora skillnader mellan norr och dder.VWern. H&uppe kan man se jmar. tvA och en halv gbnger d stort som Storbritannien.inhabitant till ytan. I Norrland. Du:.. Sverige k o c W ett skogsland . bara 8.75 miljoner invhare. people . . 75% av alla svenskar bor i stlider och byar med mer iin 200 i n v h . I soder k Mimatet mildare och vegetationen rikare. Kebnekajse. time skillnad -en s r . Du:. only invHnare -n -. bland dem m h g a sarher och finnar. part fi. Andra nordiska lhder a Norge. person. big gHng -en -er.. bj6rnar och vargar. Scandinavia bara. De ligger i s(ldra och mellersta Sverige. bor mycket fi 31 landet ligger mest under 300 meter. which. Mhga turister tycker att det k ett vackert land. difference mellan. Goteborg (450 000) och Malm6 (250 000). Factual text 2 Eft land i norr A country in the north Sverige ligger i Norden. in area stor -t -a.

central smal -t -a. rfitt (right) fel (wrong) I norr kan man se midnattssolen vaje sommar. Kebnekajse iir 220 meter h6gt. Sami by -n -ar. mountain. dark niisten hela dagen. Sverige ligger i siidtaEuropa. fell hiigst -a. among same -n -r. Det finns &ga Uvar och sj6ar i landet. almost all day j i i -en -ar. richer QPll e t -. village mellersta. Lapp. VUem heter en av Europas st6rsta sj6ar. Den norra delen av Sverige heter Norrland. river sj5 -n -ar. milder rikare.highest berg e t -. covered with tycWa e r -te. narrow varje. biggest tiickt av. G6teborg och Malm6 ligger i s(idra Sverige.bland. consider vacker -t vackra. bear varg e n -ar. every miirk -t -a. beautiful Exercise 7 SZtt ett kryss i rutan: (Place a cross in the box) Sverige har 700 000 i n v b . lake stiirsta. mountain iilv -en -ar. wolf mildare. Alla svenskar bor i stiider och byar. think. . wolverine ~ bjiirn e n -ar. England iir tti och ett halvt ghger d stort som vvl Sverige.

- L Sweden major towns and regions - ...

F i i S tar han turnelbanan till flygplatsen Heathrow utanfor London. sch-. -si-. R&n Mockan ha& @a p eftemiaagen tr%ar Bill represenwter fdr ett svenskt fdretg. stj-. Bill dljer fi-mans p r o d a e r gtomlads.000 the negatives inte. Med flyg tar rgsan E~lgland Svetjge bara tvij t i m a r . Big kommer till StoeJholm p i mogonen. Han rgser ofta till Skandinavien i af@rer. icke how to pronounce sj-. Den ligger nagtan en t i m e frAn stgdens cefitrum. kjtime by the clock verbs for motion and travel two-verb constructions communications in Sweden Text 3 E¶ A tt resa Travelling Bill Mows tir representant f i r en eaelsk fi-ma som tiuverkar plaghandta. Men hans vaska k o m e r inte.3 Att resa Travelling In this lesson we will look at : adverbs and their position in the sentence the s-genitive days of the week and parts of the day numerals from 13 to 1. ej. A FQretget koper ofta av Bill. Efterht tar han ig pb ett hotelJ p A . skj-. -ti-. Sedan flyger han dire& till &ad. tj-. Ng tir det d g d a g mogon och BilJ ska i v g till Sto&ho&. l! a Stockho&s flygplag.

sell). senJ. med flyg. products gtomlagds. ti). for klgder -na. produce plasthandts -et k&la -er -te. buy ofta. because. outside t i x e -n -ar. clothes fosfgrande. mgndagen (pron. on business mindag -en -ar. often av. journey hans. suitcase kloaan halv fyra. fm tiIJve1:kal -r -de. ofta (often). aldrig (never). fly direLkt direct . d m. inte (not). still K$enha=n. airport utanfir. dan: sometimes also written dan). flygplag -en -er. by air rgsa -n -or. plastic handle siiljla -er silde silt. AJ me). med (pron. hour centrum. town centre sedan (usuallypron. afterwards tal -r tog tagit i s pH. representative e ~ e l s -t -a. then. sedan (pron. put up at boteg -et -. Adverbs Words like alltid (always). de). till (pron. will % ~ tfirst . English k fi-ma -n -or. Scandinavia i affgrer. PQkv2lJen g h BilJ igte p i restaura= fdr v1&an med hans klder k for&rande i Kopenhanm! Vocabulary representag -en -er. Copenhagen - Pronunciation Remember: det (pron. sell produkJ -en -er. book into.hotel restaurax -en -er. at half past three triiffa/ -r -de. his vQka -n -or. sallan (seldom) are adverbs of a kind that influence the meaning of the . eftenniddan). dagen (pron. Monday s k a o iv& till. after that \ fllIgla -er f l k . eftermiddagen (pron.Vgsaggtan. manufacture. de (pron. shall. abroad rgsla -er -te. here:from efterit. restaurant f"or. is off to skola s k a o skuge skglat. In older texts ska is written skall. travel Skandingvien. meet m e t = -et -. dnndan).

9 It takes almost two hours to Copenhagen by air. 2 Hon bor i Stockholm.entire clause or sentence. taxi. 8 Han &er buss. 4 De studerar svenska. Exercise 2 What is the Swedish for: 1He never travels abroad. where the verb and subject are inverted. This happens in questions too: . 2 He often takes the tube. 7 Vi triiEar representanter. 3 Hon heter Maria. 10 He always puts up at a hotel. inom Norden. 8 He doesn't take the tube to Arlanda. VERB1: VERB1 ADV In Swedish main clauses they always go directly aJer Bill tar Exercise 1 aldrig taxi. VERB1 ADV VERB1 ADV Make the following statements negative by inserting inte.): Bill never takes a taxi. In English such words may go either before or after the first verb (VERB. ADV VERB1 Bill can never take a taxi. Position of adverbs in the sentence Adverbs can now be added to the pattern for the Swedish sentence: Front 1 Han 2 Bill 3 De 4 P i kviillen Verbl tar reser ktiper gir (Subject) Adverb aldrig ofta slllan alltid etc. 1 Det glr ett foretag. 7 They don't manufacture plastic handles. 6 Jag vill ha en kopp te. 3 He always takes a taxi. han Notice that in the statement in example 4. p i restaurang. 6 He doesn't fly to Sweden. kllder. Bill kan aldrig ta taxi. 5 They never buy plastic handles from Bill. 5 Jag tar kaffe. 4 It always takes an hour. the adverb comes directly aJer the subject. 9 Han bor d&.

r du r svensk? 4 Bbrjar vi klockan &a? 5 User hon svenska? 6 Fbrst&r de engelska? 7 Bor du i staden? 8 h e r vi buss? 9 Ligger stationen i centrum? The s-genitive Like English. (d) A noun following a noun with an s-genitive never takes an end article: firmans representanter the representatives of the firm (e) Words already ending in -s often add an apostrophe instead of an -s. Swedish often adds an -s to the noun to indicate the genitive: 1 Sveriges huvudstad firmans produkter Bills resa stadens centrum Mattias' far Sweden's capital. . (c) The genitive s is added after the end article in Swedish. Insert the negative inte in the following questions.h e r du inte till Oslo? Aren't you travelling to Oslo? Do you never drink coffee? v V S ADV S Dricker du aldrig kaffe? ADV On occasions there may be more than one adverb: Han tar ju aldrig taxi. 1Har man tumelbana i Bradford? 2 Kommer ni f h England? 3 h. v ADVl ADv2 Exercise 3 He never takes a taxi. of course. the capital of Sweden the firm's products Bill's journey the centre of (the) town Mattias's father From these examples we can see that: (a) There is no apostrophe with the s in Swedish. (b) s-genitives in Swedish often correspond to English 'of genitives.

sollflda. m g ~ d a s s ) nista mindag vecka -n -or minad -en -er H -et r nista miinadfir Parts of the day: morgon -en morgnar kvill -en -ar . Other useful expressions: p i mindag i mindags (pron. fredag. imorron) imorgon bitti imorgon eftermiddag (pron. liirdag (pron. freda. torsta. torsdag. tisdag. onsdag. mindag. m h ~ d atista.Translate into Swedish: 1 the firm's products 2 London's airport 3 an hour's journey 4 the representatives of the company 5 the student's flat 6 the university of Stockholm 7 the girl's essay Days of the week and parts of the day Days of the week (veckodagar): siindag. lorda) . imorron eftermidda) on Monday (next) last Monday on Monday (next) week month Year next monthlyear morning evening later morning early evening afternoon night a day and a night (earlier) this morning yesterday today tomorrow tomorrow morning (early) tomorrow afternoon . onsta. firmiddag -en -ar afton -en aftnar eftermiddag -en -ar natt -en nitter ctt YIP Others: i morse igir idag @ran. Notice that Swedish does not use capital letters. ida) imorgon (pron.

fig*) femti(0) sexti(0) sjutti(0) %tti(o) nitti(o) (ett) hundra hundrafemtiosex tvihundra (ett) tusen (no comma) * ~ o t e :Remember pronunciation of-rt (seep. Sjaevgd. inspektig. t j f Practise saying the following words containing the sounds indicated which are all pronounced the same as 'soft' sk.(see Pronunciation 2): sj- stjskjsch-si-ti- place names: Sjgkarby. 11) Pronunciation 3 CX!! Consonants kj- \ti. schgfer division. explosion. fj~ton*) femton sexton sjutton arton* nitton tjugo @ran.p i morgonen p i eftermiddagen in the morning in the afternoon Numerals (13-1. sjal. sjgk. sigh.000) tretton fjorton @ran. station. tjugoltjugal tjugdtjugi) 21 tjugoett @ran. s t j w skjgl. schgs. schogis. schimpazs. skjgta schagk. fusign. schlgger. schi -sii -ti-. pension produktign. tjuguettftjuett) 25 tjugofem 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 156 200 1000 tretti(o) fyrti(o) @ran. SjBt09 others: sjabJig. operation - . sjjil. sjunde. skj-. sjamag place name: S t j g ~ h o b others: stjslk. sjok. s j b .

...............................berg ..............05 i f r Arvika ............................................2411 2......................30 1 .....................Practise saying the following words containing the sounds indicated which are pronounced the same as 'ot k.................................................. Flen fr I I .............47 Charlottenberg 12............... ) i fr Katrineholm C G i t Hallsberg 8...................................... .........08 .. tjock..........................: i f r Charlottenbera 12..........24 1 i t Karlstad C 10.. ................................................................55 .....(see Pronunciation 2): sf' tjkjtjei............................................................................ SOH.......................................................................... dock ej 2416.. )t Kongsvinger 12...........53 9......... G 10............. i f r Sodertalje Syd G 8..................45 ...............: t Kristinehamn 10.................36 i if ..................2511 2.....t i Reslustkort ger Rott Pris pi3 Roda avgingar: G L.....45 i t Oslo S 14................. fr Stockholm C G 7..................05 r............C Degerfors 10...31I1 2 .............: i..42 ........................................................................ ..............................................................................................48 !............ f r Kristinehamn G 10.......................................... j...................... tjata kjgl The train timetable for Bill's journey to Oslo 70 Stockholm-Hallrberg-Karlstad-Oslo 12 lunl 1995-7 Ian 1996 TBgnummer tab 6 1 51 IN i....................................................t Kil 1 1.........................................22 : i..................... t j a o . f r Kil 11................................ t Liljestram 13........................... ....................................... : i...............00 .. _..................................._ i........ $....................................25 i fr Hallsbera G 9...........47 ................... ........................................................06 i i............. :fr Karlstad C G 10................. G 7................................................................. i f r Degerfors C ............. 1 1..............10 . r SthlmSyd Fl................ tjijna.................... : t.............................. Arvika 11..........~ : it .............................................12 : ........ ) - ......15 i....................................................................... .............

r-iida a v g h n till Oslo har vi b-rn p i lijrdagar och sii*gar tyve. single (cf. Det & lugre B t i Hallsberg. I BILL: Ta& d my&et! (On the train) BILL: Ftirlat! Vilken plats har jag? KONDUKT~REN: h@ pi3 biljegen. Den U lugre b& i &et. EWEDITEN: D i blir det 559 (femhundrafemtionjo)krenor.a &? BILL: Sjg och t r e a o s e ~ imorgon b i a . men dil fibjag viil ta sjg-tAAet a.25. G h det b e med koa? BILL: EWEDITEN: J& a. ( d o och tjugofemJ BILL: Och* L v i m e i O s J o ? KONDUKT~REN: Kl 14. On Swedish Railways Bill is travelling by train to Oslo BILL: Kanjag d en e&el till Oslo? EWEDITEN: Man &e ha si!@latsbiljetJ.05. BILL: Vad syn_d. NU vill du . tack. Dgt BILL: NU kommer vi till Ha&berg? KONDUKT~REN: K109. Sp& t o h tror jag. plats 37 Det i @et. EWEDITEN: R e eller i&e-rokare? BILL: I&e-rokare.Dialogue 3 E¶ PO Statens Jarnvagar . ticket window egkel. BILL: Vilket sp& g h &et @? EXPEDITEN: Det & p&Qvlan dgrborta. tsr och re@ = return) . (trettisjll). Du ska till OsJo. Vagn 65 (sextifea. (fjyton nolJ f e d BILL: Ta& 6 r hjiilln! biljeguaa -n-or. ye Och finns det restauranna~ &et? pii BILL: KONDUKT~REN:gQr det. Shiv ha. Eller t m det nfigon k rtjd avghn fdrresten? EWEDITEN: Nej.

which (often ti& -et -. guard plats -en -er.7. . Katarina doesn't drink beer. ticket vagn -en -ar. Inte is by far the most common word for 'not' in spoken and written language: Jag raker inte. On his travels he may need to leave his bagage (pron. track) biljeg -en -er. vicket. the seven o'clock train rakare. icke There are three negatives in Swedish.7 giilJla -er -de. Then he looks at the sign showing Var i tiget s t i r vagnen but he doesn't really understand this and has to ask the conductor on the train where he should sit. non-smoker hur 1iixe. ej. M e r back skg till. be valid. . become korJ -et -. is going to byte. what a pity! simlatsbiljeg e n e r . smoker i&e-rakare. be. pron. train tgvla -n -or. vad sygd!. Can you guess what these are in English? Inte.rijd gvging. change iir f r a m e (see p. arrive hjiih-en (pron. restaurant car l i i ~ r fa . carriage restaurawagn -en -ar. ticket collector. for the tickets of nypistigna i Hallsberg.further on. cheap rate (lit. seat reservation sjutket.platform (lit. forwards em r liixre bgk. low price blil -r blgv blivit. jap). for example. vicka) spir -et -. bagaasj) at the effekmrvaring. . On his train the ticket collector may well ask for samtliga biljetter or. apply l&pr!s. vicken. I don't smoke. red departure) t y v i i ~unfortunately . Katarina dricker inte 61. help Exercise 5 At the jiirnviigsstation Bill looks for the list of Avgiende tig On the plattform he asks another passenger if this is the t i g mot Oslo. how long .(credit) card vilken vilket vilka.106). . (notice)board konduktgr -en -er. place (here: seat) st@ -r stgd s t i s stand (here: be written) .

(on escalators) non-smoker non-violence non-Christian Time by the clock Notice the following expressions: klockan nio halv nio itta och tretti kvart i nio kvart aver nio tjugo minuter i nio tjugo minuter iiver nio fem minuter i halv nio fem minuter iiver halv nio midnatt fm = armiddag em = eftermiddag Hur mycket i r klockan? KIockan (Hon. hurdakks) (at) nine o'clock half past eight half past eight quarter to nine quarter past nine twenty (minutes) to nine twenty (minutes) past nine twenty-five past eight twenty-five to nine midnight a.? @on.25 = tretton och tjugofem = tjugofem minuter iiver ett = fem i halv tv& Exercise 6 Translate into Swedish: 1 eleven o'clock 2 half past three 3 quarter to seven 4 twenty-five past eight 5 It is five o'clock. E ing5lng. j E upp (ned).m. 6 quarter past two 7 five minutes to twelve 8 23. j Icke is often found in compounds: icke-riikare icke-vild icke-kristen No smoking. What time. Offlcial notices use the 24-hour clock: 13.? . . Not up (down). No entrance.E j is often found on signs: E j riikning. Den) i r tio.25 9 What time does Bill fly to London? . Hur dags . What is the time? It is ten o'clock.m. p. ..

gU -r gick gitt is a 'false friend' with very specific uses.Verbs for motion and travel The usual verb meaning 'go' or 'travel' is PWa -er t e : Hon i k e r Hon i k e r Hon i k e r Hon i k e r Hon i k e r Hon i k e r Hon i k e r tig. tube. Sometimes. have to). She's going by She's going by She's going by She's going by She's going by She's skiing. bus.Olle often goes to the cinema in the evening. primarily 'to walk': Vi g i r till staden. Olle g l r ofta p i bio p i kvillen. VERBI is often a modal verb like kan (can. Hon reser fir firman. buss. Unfortunately I have to leave now. Vi miste hem nu. train. Jag mlste tyvirr g i nu. bil. bit. boat. It takes two hours by air. She's taking the train etc. We walk to town. skridskor. tunnelbana. resla -er -te often indicates long distance or foreign travel: Han reser utomlands. Det tar t v i timmar med flyg. when there is a modal verb with an expression indicating direction no second verb is needed: Bill ska till Stockholm. as in the dialogue above. car. am able). = Vi miste Aka (gl) hem nu. two verbs are used together. She's skating. She travels for the firm. or . Notice also: Hon tar tiget etc. skidor. = Bill ska resa till Stockholm. m h t e (must. He travels abroad. Two-verb constructions When.

3 (Miste) det (iir) icke-rokare? 4 (Kan) jag (Gr) en enkel till Marsta. WRBZin infinitive): 1 Jag (ska) (Aker) till London imorgon. VERB? is then an infinitive: Kan jag fA en enkel till Lund? a1 -2 Can I have a single to Lund? Other modals: Man mlste ha sittplatsbiljett. biljett. 6 Du (miste) (studerar) idag. then the pattern looks like this: Front Man Nar Verbl (Subject) Adverb Verbz ha Aka? fii etc. in present. Ska det vara icke-rckare? VERB1 VERB2 Would you like non-smoking? Like modals go several other verbs with a similar function: N i r tPnker du Aka? VERB1 VERB2 When are you thinking of travelling? If the verbs are added to the pattern for the sentence. will). Exercise 7 Make the following into two-verb constructions in the correct tenses (VERB.25.ska (shall. You must have a seat w 1 VERB2 reservation. Modals are different in that most of them do not have a present tense ending in -r. 7 (Vill) du (kommer) till Sverige? . tack? 5 Vi (ska) (kijper) kaffe imorgon. Vi mlste tanker du %an jag ir - ju alltid - en enkel till Lund? framme k113. 2 Bill (tanker) (fortsiitter = continue) till Oslo.

och pb 1980-talet borjade SJ rned liga biljettpriser. Ett nytt expresdg. or . carefully h%nd/a hlnde. Det k ocksi relativt billigt att kopa SLs dnadskort som galler b%debuss. Ute p i landet miste man ofta Aka landsvagsbuss.. eller. here: rapidly antingen. drive f i r det mesta. tunnelbana och pendelthg. Man tar antingen intercitytAg. rned viildiga avsand mellan olika landsdelar. Pb 1970-talet gick bensinpriset upp kraftigt. in recent years kraftigt. accident trots. X2000. Vagarna k bra. happen. powerfully.Factual text 3 m Sveriges kommunikationer Communications h Sweden Sverige k ett mycket stort land. expresstilg eller lokaltilg. tunnelbanetilg och pendeltilg. I Stockholm rned omgivning har SL (Storstockholms lokaltrafik) bide bussar. g k mellan vissa stiider. eftersom mdnga smi jarnvagar inte finns kvar langre. och svenskarna k6r fdr det mesta forsiktigt. road kiirla kiir -de. private motoring de senaste iren. . parts of the country nPra. M h g a som arbetar i affarer och p i kontor i centrum pendlar rned T-banan eftersom det k svirt att kora bil d k . Numera k tilg rned billigare priser utmakta rned rott i tidtabellerna (dkallade roda avgbgar). occur -er olycka -n -or. Det hander mycket f olyckor trots en snabb okning av 3 privatbilismen de senaste iren. Bilar dominerar som transportrnedel. either. increase privatbilism -en. I sodra Sverige g&r ocksd billiga lokaltig . Tigen k stora och rymliga men oftast inte lika snabba som engelska eller franska thg. despite iikning -en -ar. Vocabulary v%ldig -a.. for the most part firsiktigt.distance landsdel -en -ar. . enormous -t avstind -et -. Spirvagnar finns kvar numera endast i Goteborg och Norrkoping.mellan olika sttider och byar i vslstra Skine. Efter linga diskussioner har Sverige och Danmark beslutat bygga en bro over dresund mellan de lwderna. almost v l g -en s i kallade 'pAgat3gen7 . Det finns n k a 3 miljoner bilar i landet.

still exist jiirnvlg -en -ar. cheap 'pigatigen'. roomy. billig -t -a. environs pendeltig -et -. som. . French ?-$ omgivning -en -ar. . here: railway line Exercise 8 Answer the following questions in English on the factual text: 1 What are the roads like in Sweden? 2 Why are there so few road accidents. as. remain.commuter train aff"ar-en s r .as.. despite the large number of cars? 3 Why has the number of rail passengers increased? 4 What are Swedish trains like in comparison to British trains? 5 Why do most Stockholmers take the tube? 6 What are 'pigatfig'? 7 Where can you still find trams? 8 Why do you have to resort to buses in many rural areas? .. fransk -t -a. in the country(side) eftemom. difficult kontor s t -. . pig = pojke spirvagn -en -ar. as. railway. only finnas kvar. work . . shop svir -t -a. commute T-bana -n = tunnelbana -n. spacious lika. trains named after the best known word in S k h e dialect. tram pir landet. because pendla/ -r -de. .rymlig -t -a. . the tube arbetal -r -de.

I r besijker de Skane. Fozbergs kor lAgsar&t l a g s kugen.In this lesson w e will look at: two-verb constructions w i t h adverbs objects. och diir man tglar en ssrskild diale&. how t o use du and ni in addressing people how t o translate the verb 'to be' points of the compass ordinal numbers words for months and dates the t o w n of Lund how to express centuries and decades compounding and abbreviation Text 4 m Familjen Fo~berg brukar alltid ta semeger i jgli. ett svegskt landskg som var en dgl av Danmark for bara trghundra r sedan. MPT-expressions and the sentence pattern possessive pronouns the plural forms of nouns the indefinite declension of adjectives how t o pronounce s. j r and other consonants . stasar da och dij och vandrar i sm& mysiga figebyar och tit@ pA gamla sloE och kyrror. De vill gta .

. across s l m -en s r . Pb kv2lJen kommer de till staden Lu@ som ligger i vagra Skhe. Bbde Jan och @a F o ~ b e r g ater valdiga porti~ner. I Skijne bbr man ata smbr&sb~rd. mat -en. - - - .n -ar. look for v@. particular dialeE -en -er. t i k intend -er hn.castle k y ~ k a -or. . ought to smfirgisbord -et -. not . usually (do something) semester -n semestrar. cosy. lu~sj). helping dgras.lunch pb ett traditioneat skilgskt ghtstveri. book hambuaare -n -. interested in kultgr -en -er. culture letat -r -de efter. (of SkAne) gPslgiver1-et -er. lunch traditionell -t -a. cf bra) .. Vocabulary famili -en s r . church -n Stla -er i t $it. on . family brgkal -r -de. besijkla -er -te. look slog s t -. sm(jrg%sbord viildig -t -a. there s&ski!ld -t -da. visit l a d s k g -et -. their son -en s n e r .han W e r lgta efier nya suvor. dialect I S ~ g s a uslowly . thatched roof tii~k/a -te. portion. wander mysig -t -a. order. Htjr W e r de Qvemaga. stop r dh och d& now and then vandrat -r -de. f m halmtak -et -. along k u g -en -er. special. coast s t a ~ a l-de -t. food bfira bar borde bgrt. traditional sk@k -t -a. . really b m a n d e l -n. for Eva vill se pP do-mkyr~an och hennes m q mhte absolgt gb i en stgr bgkhadel. Vid Stwo~get finns en gW-kt skivm-. fir@ va&a &rdar med ha&@. senn. son bestmla -er -de. her map -nen m 8 b husband. bookshop inte aus. serve a d goE ~ d agood (of food. fishing village tigatr -de -t. definitely. holiday j i July a. country inn sewgral -r deras son J&g bestiiller en h a g b u ~ a r e . iivernatJd -r -de. enormous porti2n -en -er. bmagdlar. 18ss. Man brukar servgra a d mat dar. charming fi&eby_. man absolgt. Efter lunch &er de h e r Saneslagen. cathedral hen~es. sedan (usuallypron.where. Jgaki~p inte alls ilr intressgrad av kulw . eat lunch -en s r (pron. at all intressgrad av. plain f i r b i past @rd -en -ar. stay the night domkyrka -n -or. province f i r . ago d%r. hamburger iiver.

besiika -et -. and VERBZ. Han tlnker leta efter skivor. De vill l t a lunch. new suva -n -or. These MPT-expressions usually come after the object in the sentence: Forsbergs brukar ta semester ijuli OBI T m Man talar en surskild dialekt i Skdne. I fir besiiker de Skdne. and for this an expression of manner. D l r talar man skdnska. with inverted word order. But sometimes one may also wish to say how. Forsbergs brultar Jan miste Iir de han alltid ta absolut gl glrna alltid semester i juli. record shop Two-verb constructions and adverbs Two-verb constructions and adverbs like inte were discussed in Lesson 3. Forsbergs tittar pfi gamIa used. where or when something happens. OBI PLACE De serverar god mat dur. OBI PLACE . excellent sk@affsr n -er. Joakim bestaller en hamburgare. square ny nytt nya. Objects and MPT-expressions. and we can now establish a pattern for sentences that have both: Front Verbl (Subjecf) Adverb Verbz etc. ltiira lingsamt? Notice that in the last two examples. the subject and adverb both come between VERB. place or yime . the sentence pattern Objects often go towards the end of the sentence: De talar en sdrskild dialekf. i en stor vill Brultar bokhandel. De brukar servera god mat. record utmQkt MPT-expression . In a number of sentences in Text 4 both are found.

object. eg. p i tiget. 4 Eva ofta/vill/titta pugamla kyrkor. hIr. d3r or Iingsamt. 1 Du alltidlrn~stelg6ra som jag s2ger! 2 Jan bil/brukar/aldrig/kbra p l semester 3 HBr intelovernattalttinker/de.g. iiver sliitten. tunnelbana HIr PLACE tanker VERB de SUBJ Fiirst TIME tar VERB han SUBJ A sentence that has all of the. subject. Exercise 1 Re-arrange the order of the words divided by oblique strokes to complete the sentence. . MANNER Sometimes more than one MPTexpression is necessary. e. 5 Man serveradi Skiinelgod matlalltid. fit the words into the above pattern. i morgon. in which case it causes inversion of the verb and subject: I Skine biir PLACE VERB man SUB1 Ita smiirgisbord. MPT. med bil. i Lund. in which case the order at the end of the sentence is often (but not always): manner place . To discussed so far would adhere to the following pattern: 1 2 3 4 Front + Verbl + (Subject)+ Adverb + Verb2+ Object/ 5 7 + MPTComplement expression 6 Any part of the sentence can come at the front.time (MPT): Jan kiir ldngsamf ldings kusten p2 kvdillen. etc. iivernatta. An MPT-expression may also be placed at the beginning of the sentence (Note: only one at a time!).Jan kiir lingsamt. MANNER PLACE TIME MPTexpressions are sometimes adverbs. but are often preposition + noun: p l mhdag.

Their hotel is in Skane. Pojken iir hennes.e. vargar (wolves). hennes can mean both 'her' and 'hers'. Notice that Swedish has the same form for the possessive pronoun and the possessive adjective. Nouns. The hotel is theirs. Bilen iir hans. affiirer (businesses). He has a car Hans bil i r riid. From these it can be seen that there are five main plural endings: skivor (records). Hotellet Ir deras. Hon har en pojke. plural forms A number of nouns in the plural have already been encountered in passing. i. Her boy is called Joakim. Hennes pojke heter Joakim. They own a hotel. especially in the factual texts. applen (apples). De iger ett hotell. Subject pronouns han he hon she den. Deras hotel1 ligger i Skine. det it de they Possessive pronouns hans his hennes her(s) dess its deras their@) Han har en bil.Some possessive pronouns Compare the following subject pronouns with their possessive equivalents. The car is his. His car is red. The boy is hers. Plurals can now be systematised: Singular Singular Plural + end article ModiJcafions Plural ending en kyrka en flicka en buss en skotte en turist en maskin en sko ett iipple ett t i g kyrkan flickan bussen skotten turisten maskinen skon ipplet tiget kyrkor drops -a flickor drops -a bussar skottar drops -e turister maskiner skor applen tig + -or + -ar + -ar + -er + -or + -er + -r + -n no ending . fjii11(-) (mountains). She has a boy.

(The girl is Swedish. and those with plurals of both genders add -a to the basic form.) Firman H stor. Notice that there must also be agreement when the adjective comes afier a verb: Flickan i r svensk Fiiretaget i r svenskt. singular With T-word. Exercise 2 Find the plural forms of the following nouns used in earlier texts: 1 en timme 2 en invinare 3 en bj6m 4 en by 5 en rniljon 6 en sjo 7 ett ir 8 en portion 9 en finne 10 ett land Adjectives.and T-words) svenska lokaltig (Swedish local trains) stora girdar (large farms) From this table it can be seen that adjectives with T-words add -t to the basic form.) (The fanns are big. Matching the adjective to the noun is known as adjective agreement. These can be arranged according to the nouns they qual*: With N-word.) Most Swedish adjectives simply add -t or -a (not both!).ett slott en walesare (en) mat slottet walesaren maten slott walesare no p l d - no ending no ending Lesson 5 shows you how to predict plural endings from clues. singular (basicform) en svensk flicka (a Swedish girl) en stor firma (a large firm) ett svenskt firetag (a Swedish company) ett stort land (a large country) With plurals (both N. but one or two display slight variations: .) Landet 2r stort. Girdarna i r stora.) (The records are new. r (The country is large. i Skivorna H nya.) (The firm is Swedish. indefinite declension So far in the texts only a few adjectives have been found. r (The firm is large. The basic form is the form (without any endings) that is used with N-words.

4 Kaffet k (varm). 9 Klimatet k (kall). 5 Domkyrkan var (underbar).e.-rg. j. 10 & SkAnesl~tten (tr&ig)? Pronunciation 4 Consonants s. -ng Practise saying the following words: s (never likeEnglish 'z'!) Lisa lgsa s t y a e rgs musik best@$ spis . 6 Slottet var (gammal). 7 Resan var mycket (Ihg).Fill in the adjective in its correct indefinite form in the following: 1 Firman k (stor). 2 F6retaget k (stor). 3 Deras produkter k (dyr). r. 8 Studenter iir ofta (rolig). -/g. i. dear rolig fim(ny) varm hot fattig poor 1ig low trevlig pleasant trAkig boring Now fill in the adjective in its correct indefinite form in the following: 1 en (trevlig) dialekt 2 ett (vacker) slott 3 (underbar) kyrkor 4 ett (h6g) fjgl 5 en (vanlig) svensk 6 en (varm) dag 7 (kall) 01 8 ett (rik) folk 9 (fattig) studenter 10 (tr&ig) popskivor Exercise 4 . they add no endings at all: en bra skola ett bra mretag bra popskivor (a good school) (a good company) (good pop records) Exercise 3 Here are some frequent adjectives: ling long underbar wonderful viinlig friendly dyr expensive. as well as an m) Some adjectives are indeclinable. -rs.with N-words with T-words with plurals vacker gammal vackert gammalt vackra gamla (drops an e in the plural) (drops an a in the plural.

Vill ni skriva nagm och adreg har . hur dags bdrjar ni s e w r a deg? PORTIERN: Vi biijar rgdan klockan 7 (sjuJ. A JAN: Och fd-ost. . fir det L ett musikprograg ikv@ som jag mige sg? PORTIERN: Jaydet finns tgve p alJa rujg hg. Ja. . Elva kangler. Forregen. med du@ och toaleg? J s hekt. Vi ska ivt& ratt tidigt. n Vill ni vara d sniB och hj2ka mig med viskan? . J N A : D vill vi gijrna bestiilla v2gning i m o ~ o n A klockan sjg. r u a nummer 308 (trehunddga) och 314 (trehundra amon). Vi har tv& rum p i trgdje v&ningen. Ska det vara .j (like English 'y-') r (trilled) -rs (like English 'sh') -rg (like rj) -1g (like lj) -ng j a g jgl J g JiJ e w jeans rug rara d& no= bra a m acbete for^ Lars varsimd st6gt f i g t a BOB Be= a a a %kenhe& svak I=a peaar g i x e r sjuxer Dialogue 4 m Pa" hotellet At the hotel The Forsbergs are booking into a hotel Har ni mo$igen tvij r u fir i nag? Vi vill garna ha ett ~ du&elrug till o g och ett e_nkelrugtill v k son. Finns det tgve p i rummet. tror jag. pogen ligger precis om hijrnet p Knut den Stores H to=.? D d kan A ni folja mgd mig . J a v i ~ t det g k &ert b e . Ja.h i ~ e iir den hi& vaen. Vi ska sg hijr. finns det ett posJtontgr i narhgten? Jag miste ski&a ett vykort.

therefore. with titles and names was.double room 0% us eaelrum. picture postcard precis om hfirnet. breakfast viickning -en. Vill herr Johansson hjilpn mig? 'Would you help me. hurda&s). lift den hir. the only acceptable form of address (e. since it could be regarded as condescending.programme . just round the corner n a m -et -. morning alarm call 6% right. du& -en -ar (pron. shower toaleg -en -er. our sikert. And ni could not always be used in the singular. early posJkontgr -et -. ~ room i n a s tonight vill @ma h s would very much like dubbelrum. Then the 'du-reform' of the late 1960s made it . this v& -en -ar. You will probably need to find the matsal and the herrtoalett (herrar) or damtoalett (darner). TV program -met . rather tidigt. possibly r u rummet -. follow h i 9 -en -ar. name adre9 -en -er. here: quite. believe tevg-n TV-appargter. That will be all right. channel bur dags? (pron. kana1 -en -er. post office nirhet -en. dusj). toilet helst. here: way Exercise 5 If you cannot afford a hotel you may stay at a pensionat or a vandrarhem. Until the 1960s only people who were close friends or family used du to address one another individually. address d i sP. preferably trot -r -fie. To get to your room you may need the hiss.single room v i r -t -a. Mr Johansson?'). send vykoG -et -. certainly Det g i r brg.Vocabulary miiligen. what time? frukost -en -ar. In many circumstances the third person. vicinity s k Q a I-r -de. now then fiUla -er -de. Hang up your coat in the garderob and remember when using the bath taps to distinguish between kar and dusch otherwise you may get your hair wet unnecessarily! Can you guess what these are in English? Du and ni Ni is always used to address several people.g.

This means literally 'Will you be so kind and . namely finnas and ligga. Its basic meaning is 'to lie': Bolten ligger p i in Dialogue 4 ni is now the equivalent of English 'Sir' or 'Madam' and is making a comeback as a polite singular form. 'Please will you . particularly in shops and restaurants and when addressing older people.': Vill ddni vara (si) snlll och . often horizontally. In the dialogue above there is an expression corresponding to 'please' at the beginning of a sentence. which we will come to later.) finnas (finns fanns funnits) usually indicates that something exists or does not exist: Det finns inte.' Any of the following constructions can be used in similar requests in the form of questions: Kan ddni vara s i snlll och ge mig en smiirgis? Skulle ddni kunna vara (si) snH11 och ge mig en smiirgis? Skulle ddni vilja vara (si) snall och ge rnig en smiirgis? Skulle ddni kunna hjIlpa mig? In Lesson 5 you will see h ~ w form commands using the imperative to form of the verb. . Finns dct nigot 61 kvar? It does not exist. Lund ligger i Skhe. . In some cases . . . The book is (lies) on the table. Translating the verb 'to be' Notice that in the dialogue two verbs are used to translate the verb 'to be' in preference to vara. . Lund is (lies) in Sk8ne. Is there any beer left? ligga ligger l i g legat indicates that something is located or placed. . (There are others.possible to use du to almost anyone. Please In Lesson 1the word tack at the end of a sentence meant 'please'.

etc.So. . etc. third . .. i siider. Sydeuropa 'Southern Europe' using a noun: i norr. syd-.. Cardinal numbers Ordinal numbers ett hi trg fyra fez sex sju Pga nio ti0 . vaster om 'north o f .' Points of the compass Two ways of indicating points of the compass have been described earlier. Here is a summary of all the methods: using an adjective: norra. vistra 'northern'. i iister. iistra. vlst-. siider om. when Eva asks the hotel receptionist Finns det ett postkontor i nlrheten?. 'northern'. norra Sverige 'Northern Sweden' using a prefix: nord-. i vister 'in the North/South/ East/West7 norr om.. siiderut. iist-.'). etc. norr om LuleP 'north of Lulei' norrut. aster om. iisterut. she means 'does one exist?' The receptionist's answer indicates the location of the post ofice: Det ligger om hiirnet.') it is useful to learn ordinals ('first. three . second. 'It is (located) round the comer. Ordinal numbers Once you can count in cardinal numbers ('one. two. siidra. . visterut 'northwards'. . etc.

7 I must book two single rooms for tonight. translate into Swedish: 1 This year the Forsbergs are visiting the town of Lund which is in Southern Sweden. 2 They usually serve sm6rglsbord at the inn in the evening. . 3 Joakim eats an enormous (enorm) hamburger at the hotel. If they are written out as words notice that the word hundra%is necessary: nittonhundraltti(0)nio Exercise 6 nineteen (hundred and) eighty-nine To see how much you remember of what has been covered so far in Lesson 4. etc. with shower and toilet. : 13 14 15 -nde. 10 Will you please send a postcard to Olle? 11 Tonight we are intending to spend the night at a traditional S k h e inn. 12 Their son is not at all interested in good food. 6 It is just round the comer. 5 After lunch they want to look at the cathedral. : 20 30 100 treffonde fjortonde fqtonde Months and dates Notice the pronunciation: written mlndag 6 maj spoken mlndagen den sjiitte maj Dates are usually given in figures. etc. 4 Only three hundred years ago the province was a part of Denmark.11 12 -de. 8 Can you please help me? 9 We have two big rooms on the fourth floor.

I Lund finns det m h g a museer. k frin 1145. King Canute grundal -r -de. country(side) t o m. collection byggnad -en -er. t ex Konstmuseet. art t ex. peasant cottage. Lunds dornkyrka. here riddare -n -. Det k over 900 k sedan Knut den Store grundade den. inter alia ur -et -. landsbygd -en.visitor . building bondstuga -n -or. Vocabulary Knut den Store. Lunds universitet iir f r h 1668. wooden church Exercise 7 Svara p l fdgorna: 1 Vem grundade Lund? 2 Vad kan man se i domkyrkan? 3 Vilka museer finns det i Lund? 4 Vad k Kulturen? 5 Nar grundade man Lunds universitet? 6 Hur mlnga studenter 1Ler dar? 7 Vad finns det i Universitetsbiblioteket? .bondstugor och hus & stad och landsbygd i olika delar av sodra Sverige och t o m en pittoresk gammal triikyrka. Kl 12 och 15 om vardagarna (sondag M 13 och 15) kommer m h g a besokare hit fdr att se n2r uret s l k och olika figurer kommer frarn riddare och de tre vise m2nnen. med tvl hliga fyrkantiga tom som dominerar staden. Kulturen iir ett mycket fint friluftsmuseum med en samling gamla byggnader . found biskopssiite -t -n. och senare blev den Nordens fdrsta biskopssiite. Det har m h g a institutioner och idag ltiser ca 20 000 studenter &. garden friluftsmuseum. for example triidgPrd -en -ar. Botaniska Trtidgkden och Kulturhistoriska Museet.Factual text 4 Crjl Lund Lund iir en gammal stad. even triikyrka -n -or. eller 'Kulturen' som man brukar dga. I domkyrkan kan man bl a se ett astronomiskt ur frln 1300-talet.clock besiikare -n . bishopric bl a. knight konst -en -er. allt f r h gamla handskrifter till dagens bestsellers. hit. Universitetsbiblioteket har mer 3 miljoner bocker. open air museum samling -en -ar.

The Centre sf Lund Centuries and decades sixteenth century = 1500s= 1500-talet eighteenth century = 1700s= 1700-talet twentieth century = 1900s = 1900-talet twenty-first century = 2000s = 2000-talet (pron.before the second element: twentieth-century art a fourteenth-century church -tal is also used for decades and approximate numbers: .tjugohundratalet) Compounds can be formed by placing date -s.

one makes words longer. Notice that full stops are omitted nowadays. en kyrka f r i n 1250-talet ett trettital studenter Exercise 8 He w s born in the 1940s. circa nummer p i grund av timme (-ar) ungefar Some other important ones are: number because hour@) approximately Notice also: en teve = en tv = en television . Notice the following compounds in the factual text: First element Last element trii + ett hus ett universitet + ett bibliotek + ett hus en stad en bonde + en stuga Noun compound > ett triihus > ett universitetsbibliotek (adds s) > ett stadshus (adds s) > en bondstuga (drops e) The gender of the compound is the gender of the last element. something for which Swedish is infamous. det vill siga i. a a church from the 1250s about thirty students What is the Swedish for: 1 the seventeenth century 2 the tenth century 3 the ftfteenth century 4 the (19)70s 5 the (19)50s 6 the (19)80s 7 the 1990s 8 the 1820s Compounding and abbreviation These two tendencies in word formation seem to oppose one another. often contain many abbreviations.g. even. eller or kronor nr pga t ung inter alia o'clock e. Compounds generally have two stresses: ett t r a + ett hgs >ett tra I hgs Factual texts. In the text there are some common examples: bl a kl' t ex tom ca osv dvs el kr bland annat klockan till exempel till och med cirka och s i vidare etc. to. until approximately.e. such as newspaper articles. the other shorter.Han iir Gdd p i 40-talet.

4-. sager &ik.' 'Du miste smaka ri&ig sve~sk mat'. n5gra ltjkar. Hiigta tv& fd~:kliiden gardergben och hjab mig att laga i Janssons fregelse! Vi behover poQtis. 'Sve~skarna o&si skfi>matY. lite sko~smglor smtjr. Det tir fgt och dtjlig mat. S n a mhte vi o&si och ~ . tycker Erik. hj-.5 Matlagning Cooking In this lesson we will look at: fronting difficult end articles predicting the plural forms of nouns how to cook 'Jansson's Temptation' imperatives how to pronounce dj-.gjsome useful telephone phrases object pronouns indefinite agreement of the adjective Stockholm a Text 5 m Matlagning Cookhg R e b e ~ a fiskpinnar och pommes frGes till luzch. tjo& grti&e. 'K@e dricker ni titer till exempel sez gdnger om d g e n och kgkor eller bgkelser titer N jtiat. 'Kog d ska jag Qsa dig. P i eftermiaagen titer dricker hon tg med bide so&er och rnjm och titer n b a k e s och hon mugsar gijrna p5 potgtischi~ eller jgrdncer framfdr tgvgn. en eller tv& burkar ansjgvis. sager Rebecca.

taste riktig -t -a. butter snam -en.). in front of fgt -t -a. wardrobe hjllpla -er -te. wonderful husmanskog -en. refrigerator sw -en -ar. pastry. cupboard. thick g r i i u e -n. porn ft. nibble.ha. some. plain (traditional) food rece@ -et -. chew @ma. all the time smgkal -r -dc. prescription k&bgk -en -bii&er. n schnapps stiill/a -er -de. onion burk -en -ar. 'tot' hirlig -t -a. spirits. fat(ty) d&lig-t -a. dram. mumble . here: unhealthy svegskarna. show hlmtal -r -de. help I g a / -r -de. Lgs receaet hi& i k k~kbgken tim p i mk. crisps j g r d n t -en -niitJer. (the) Swedes skr@mgt -en. real visa/ -r -de. apron gardergb -en -er. mend (but laga m ~=t prepare food) fre~telse -r. recipe. Ta och s@lJ b r i i ~ e n eit kylskbet! Jessons fregelse med en sug och ett glas Ql Wlig svegsk hysmanskog. junk food driga -er d r a s drink ses ginger om d z e n . cream s k o ~ s m g l o-na (pl.' och 'Trg deciliter viggriiae och f e ~ t gram smgr'. sugar mjiilk -en. here: likes to potatischips (pron. i 'Tala om fgt mat! ' Vocabulary matlggning -en. can ansjovis. cake (often with filling or cream) j l g t . cookbook tigal -r -de (pi). temptation -n behiiv/a -er -de. bad. fish finger -n p o E e s frQes (pron. schnapps b r i i ~ d -et. fd~kle). breadcrumbs r smijr -et. potato lfik -en -ar. fetch firkllde -t -n (pron. whipping cream de mutJral -r -de. cooking fisk~inne -ar. watch v i ~ ~ g r i i d -n. biscuit mugsal -r -de. akvavit. mutter. -@as). m l ik nigon nigot nigra. rt iJ (potato) chips s o a e r sogret. six times a day bakelse -n -r.akvavit. peanut framfdr. look. anchovies tjo* -t -a. put kylskh -et -. need potatis -en -ar. any kes -et -. muttrar Rebecca. spirits.

. Normally the word(s) at the beginning of the sentence either: (a) outline a situation: e. . .. .. . .. I hiill ...Fronting The subject is most often found at the beginning of the sentence. But fronted words may occasionallybe used to point a contrast: Kaffe dricker ni sex gAnger om dagen och kakor fiter ni jgmt. (b) provide a link to a previous clause: e. I Lund kommer hem..EfterAt .. Kakor OBT - - - jkt. N8r jag .. but a word or phrase (non-subject) can be moved to the beginning of a main clause sentence.. Idomkyrkan kan PLACE I Lund PLACE fmns 3lter mPste tycker det ni vi faktiskt - ett astronomiskt ur. .se hit. Det OBJ jag Notice that the subject always follows (inverted word order) when a non-subject is fronted. MPTexpressions are quite often fronted... and (rather less frequently) objects appear at the front: Front Verb1 (Subject) Adverb Verb2 Obj/Comp h@T Klockan 12 TIME kommer mhga besiikare &ker de man . or: . Efter lunch TIME ju - iiver sl3tten.. Snaps OBJ ocksP ha. . inte.g. This is known as 'fronting'.g. mhga museer. . Sedan HZr Dai.

Hon l a e r svenska vid Stockholms universitet i dr. neuter) var svPlrt. Predicting noun plurals Whilst it is advisable to learn the gender and plural with each new noun you come across. Hon borjar ofta klockan Atta p morgonen. e r . in most cases it is actually possible to predict the . Hon skriver en uppsats ibland. placing the word@) in italics first in the sentence and adjusting the word order. 1 (Elektriker) lagade tvattmaskinen. Difficult end articles N-words ending in unstressed -el. 5 Vi trHar (professor) i morgon. Hon Aker tunnelbana till universitetet varje dug. or -or take -n in the definite form (whereas other N-words ending in a consonant take -en. neuter). Hon tycker om kafle. 4 Han har skurit sig i (finger. 2 Vi tyckte att (exempel. Rebecca gAr p i ftirelaningar sju gdnger i veckan. Rebecca bor i Stockholm just nu. see p. en bokhandel en cykel en semester bokhandeln cykeln semestern en vinter en motor en doktor vintern motorn doktorn Nouns ending in unstressed e l or -er also drop the last vowel before adding the plural ending: en cykel tvi cyklar en vinter tvi vintrar T-words of this last kind drop the vowel in the stem before adding -et: ett exempel Exercise 2 exemplet ett fdnster Bnstret Insert the correct form with end article of the noun provided.Exercise I Not all sentences begin with the subject! Re-write the piece below. Hon dricker ka£€e efterdt. Hon &er tunnelbana hem sedan. Hon sitter pd biblioteket och A antecknar. 3 (Syster) heter Ulla.33).

diilicult to predict: en dag tv8 dagar en kust t i kuster v en burk en plats tvi burkar tvii platser There are still one or two groups we will look at later.plural form if you are in possession of other information such as gender (N-worm-word?) and pronunciation of the ending of the word (stressed/unstressed?). All N-words ending in: 4 -are add: -er add: no ending no ending -(n)ing add -ar -het add: -er en larare tvA larare (a teacher) en indier tvii indier (anIndian) en tidning tvii tidningar (a newspaper) en nyhet tvi nyheter (a piece of news) Some nouns. . These clues can be expressed as a set of rules allowing you to work out the majority of noun plurals: Rule I Both N-words with a stressed final syllable and T-words with a stressed final vowel add e r : en aEir t 8Sarer v ett kafd t 8 kafder v Rule 2 N-words ending in unstressed -a drop the -a and add -or: en kaka tv8kakor Rule 3 N-words ending in unstressed e drop the e and add -ar: en pojke tvi pojkar Rule 4 T-words ending in an unstressed vowel add -n: ett Spple t v i Spplen Rule 5 T-words ending in a consonant have no ending: ett barn tvii barn Some endings tell you immediately what the plural is going to be. however. mostly single syllable N-words are.

en tjkning. en inv&ire. tvA timmar. en droaning. tvi viickarklockor. tvA bondstugor. slice firsk potatis. en en katol&. tvi dagar. Notice where the stresses come: en biljeg ett fjQJ en f a b e en h e b u g a r e . tvi vykort. cut tunn tunt tunna. en bil): tvi fdrkladen. Exercise 4 fir. tvi hotell. en turis en ve&a. sjemerost). ett glgs. tvi glas 61. grease generiist @on. tvfi l h r e . 5' Vocabulary gul -t -a. en toales en kyxxa.ett n a g & en glycka. en t i m e . Stro skorpsmulor over och klicka ut srnoret. en skoae. tvi ghger. en stuua. predict their singular form with indefinite article (e. tvi museer.Exercise 3 Without looking these nouns up in the glossary. Spad rned ansjovisspad. work out their plural endings from the clues given above. Anvand inte farsk potatis. dessert spoon(fu1) skalal -r -de. en maski_n. en f i z a . yellow msk = matsked. peel skiira skiir skar. thin skiva -n -or. U g g i ett lager potatis och forMtt sedan med lok och ansjovis. Srnorj generost en eldfast form rned raka kanter. en krona. tvA kakor.ett paron. Satt forrnen i 2 0 varm ugn och gradda i en dryg timme. tvh olyckor. en bulJe. en porti~n. ett byte. ett agg. tvi fiskpinnar. tvi mWskor. new potatoes anviind/a -er anviinde. use smiirjla -er smorde. ett hotell. Platta till ytan och hall over gradden. oven-proof dish . en skgla. generously eldfast form. Upprepa och avsluta rned ett lager potatis. en miljgn. tvi hus. en rniin~liska.g. The recipe Rebecca read in the cookbook was: Janssons Frestelse 1 kg potatis 2 stora gula lokar 1 burk ansjovis 3 dl tjock gradde 1 msk skorpsmulor 50 g smor Skala potatisen och skar den och Ioken i tunna skivor. Preferably without looking the following nouns up in the glossary.

stock striil -r -dde. juice. repeat avslutd -r -de. Iv stem in -a skala (peel) stemin consonant st211 (put) skriv(write) % + -r skalar skala +-a stiilla skriva = stem + -er stiiller skriver +-r strtir I11 stem in vowel (not -a) strti (sprinkle) strii The full pattern for verbs is given on p. Onto the stem (= imperative) various endings are added to form tenses. edge lHggla -er lade lagt. 116. Notice also the irregular verb 'to be': var vara iir R-stem and I-stem verbs (those whose stem ends in -r or -1) are slightly 1 different. so a pattern for some verb endings can now be established: Conjugation (verb group) Imperative (stem) Infinitive = stem Present I 11. bake ugn -en -ar. place klickalr -de ut. dot with knobs of butter grlddalr -de. other I1 verbs which add -er): . pour spldta -er -de. oven en dryg timme. put. Infinitives and present tense endings already appeared in Lesson 2. here:moisten spad e t . frnish off platta I-r -de till.rak -t -a. flatten off hHIYa -er -de. lay. They are Conjugation 1 verbs but add no ending in the present tense (cf. lager lagret. continue upprepal -r -de. except for first conjugation verbs where the stem and infinitive both end in -a. layer fortsgttla -er -satte -satt. dilute. a good hour Imperatives The recipe above contains a number of imperatives. straight kant -en-er. usually -a and -(e)r. sprinkle sltffa -er satte satt.

as in the example.skL kfir mal skHra kfira mala skHr k6r mal Imperatives are used in commands. and omitting the subjects and modal verbs: Example: Han kiir (fortare) > K6r fortare! 1 Du kallar mig B r Janne (iir du sniill). 7 I do not use sugar in tea. 10 Du kan stfilla flaskan pfi bordet (& du sMll). Help me make dinner and you are nice. i. Please help me . recipes etc. . 6 Du kan skala liiken (om du iir bussig). wishes or advice. 9 Ni maste resa till Grekland (i sommar). t du bussig! Hjflp mig laga middag. 6 Swedes always drink cold akvavit. lit. H du r snfll! lit. Please peel . Exercise 5 Change the following sentences into commands using the imperatives. See also p. They are often found in instructions. When used in commands they may be made more palatable by the addition of some polite phrases meaning 'please': Skala potatisen. i. 10 They are eating fish fingers in front of the TV. 7 Du kan llsa artikeln htigt (A vi kan hora). 8 Do you always take cream in coffee? 9 You must taste real English beer. .e.66. Peel the potatoes and you are kind.e. 3 We need some cans of beer. . 4 Du talar bara svenska (i Sverige). 5 Du anvhder inte socker (om du inte vill bli tjock). . Exercise 6 What is the Swedish for: 1Put the milk in the fridge please! 2 She is always nibbling at a biscuit. 4 Talk about junk food! 5 They eat three times a day. . 8 Ni kan skriva ett vykort till Eva (n& ni kommer frarn). 2 Du bor ktipa en ny bil (till billigt pris). 3 Man serverar alltid vitt vin (till fisk).

det k inte sb viggt. Har du m a m a h e m a ? PIA: Ja. det k Erik. hur har du det? ERIK: Bra. ERIK: Hej. a E I : RK Ta&. det k Erik. g=- Practise saying the following words. PIA: 347592 (Trettifyra sjuttifeg nitti&%). LEIF: Han B inte i ~'-. ERIK: Hej Mglin. och du sjak? LEIF: ERIK: . Hej. u r n : Malin Nylin. en &onbli&. MALm: NBmen hej. he initial letter is not pronounced and all of the groups are pronounced as Swedish j-: djhj- place names: others: place names: others: place names: others: Djurshob D j p e b o d a d j u ~ e djgp djivel djur l Hjo Hjoasbeaa Hjglsta Hjiilmaren Hjiggble hjgl hjodron hjiilp hjirna hjzga Ljullgby Ljgsnan L j a s e b o ljgd ljgs ljgv gjgta gjorde lj $$- Dialogue 5 m Telefonsamtal Telephone calls Erik is inviting people for dinner Leif Pgrsson.VV Pronunciation 5 Consonants a-. det k Erik. @-. Hej dA. Ska jag be honom r i a a dig? r e ERIK: Nej. Kan jag fa Qla med B o ~ e ? LEIF: Ett &onbli& d ska jag h B ~ t honom.

MALIN: Em: Vocabulary telefgnsamtal -et -. It is not possible. Extension 123 please. nice viin -nen -ner..Jgd&bara antt. s n a och dgra kalla 61 hu. dinner trgvlig -t -a. (your)self bjgdla -er bjijd. Em: Jgd& vi llgger henne p soffan.och j% vill bjuda er pB mi@ag ikviill. none barnvag -en -er. sofa id&-n -er. at home Hur bar du det?.. V-ijomna. conversation i&onbli& -et . Do you mind holding? Just a moment. Vi har Jgnssons fiegelse. MALIN: D sgs vi klockan sju. mummy i ~ ein . invite miaag -en -ar. I'm looking for Jan Forsberg. synn). It's about . unfortunately bgl -r bad be& ask (someone to do something) v@ig -t -a. . him tyvnrr. SB det gkr nog inte. teIephone call. h e m a . How are things with you? s j Q -t -a. What a pity! igeen i x e t i x a . friends Vad sfid! (pron. babysitter Det a r inte. . important m a m a -n -or. Hej d Iiigge. lir an-be h e m a ? Rebe. vad synn! Vi har ingen bgrnvakt till Pja. Hur dag? Em: Vid sjg-tiden. idea sgs sgs s&s segs. A Em: Hej di.moment . honom. Det ggler Hur var namnet? Vem Ir det jag talar med? UrsIkta! Vad sa du? Kan du upprepa (ta om) det dir? Det I r upptaget. soffa -n -or. meet (vi ses = be seeing you) Useful telephone phrases (Anknytning) 123 tack Jag sbker Jan Forsberg. What is your name? Who am I speaking to? Sorry! What did you say? Can you repeat that? The line is engaged. . Kom alla t ~ ! B MALIN: Vilken ggd idgl DB kommer vi gijma. no. Vad @er du? MALIN: Oh. Gir det bra att vlnta? Var god dr@! Dr5j ett tag! . ~ men inga trgvliga varier.

. Jag ska koppla liver. . meet him? . Can you . tala (med). . . mej* dig. Object pronouns Subject pronouns jag I du YOU ni you (formal) han he hon she den it (N-words) det it (T-words) vi we ni You @I. tro.Han har semesterllr tjkstledig. dom* me YOU " you (formal) him her it it US @I. de) oss er dem. . . . fiilja.. hjgpa. s%lja. bestgla.. triiffa. . skicka. . sell them? fetch him? . titta @&). . . . lisa. ktipa. . switchboard give (someone) a call dial a number telephone box telephone number telephone directory period when lines are open answer the phone speak on the phone pick uplput down the receiver Press the emergency button and dial 90 000. speak to her? . h b t a .buy it? . Exercise 7 Translate the sentences using the verbs ilta. . . help us? . I'm connecting you.) them YOU *~ote: Ahnative informal spellingswhich reflect the pronunciation. bjuda. He's on holiday. eat it? . . . se. follow me? . vhel -n sli en signal sli ett nummer telefonkiosk -en telefonnummer -numret telefonkatalog -en telefontid -en -er svara i telefon prata i telefon lyfta pMlgga p i luren Tryck in SOS-knappen och sli 90 000. . meet us? . prata (med). dej* er honom henne den det Cpron.) de they Object pronouns mig.

62): en pittoresk kyrka eff pittoreskt slott pittoreska byar kyrkan i r pittoresk slottet Pr pittoreskt byarna i r pittoreska But this indefinite adjective + noun agreement also occurs after some other words: nigon stor pojke (a. . . . invite them? . any) ingen stor pojke (no) en annan stor pojke (another. but yesterday it was cold. . 1tis hot today.Can we . Here roligt agrees with an h h i t i v e phrase. Det var trmgf att beh5va v h t a It was boring to have to wait. . . talk to you @I. read it? . Swedish has no equivalent to '-ing' forms. . . Adjectives agreeing with groups of words (not just one noun) usually add -t: A# dansa Pr roligt. . order them? . help you @I. . . men igir var det kallt.)? . . a different) vilken stor pojke (what (a)) all mat (all) n i g d stort hus ingef stort hus nigra stora pojkarhus inga stora pojkarhus ett annat stort hus andra stora pojkarhus vilkef stort hus allt sm5r vilka stora pojkarhus alla stora pojkarhus Notice the way that the 'genderlplural markers' -t. meet you? . .e. Adjectives also agree with the pronoun det. indefinite agreement Adjectives usually agree with nouns wherever the noun comes in the sentence (seealso p. see it? Adjectives.believe her? . . . . . . send him? .)? . Dancing is fun. -a are echoed in the pronoun and the adjective. . some. . add -t: Det Pr varmt idag. . i. look at it? . Det Pr roligf att dansa It is fun dancing. . follow you? . .

15 Eating chips the whole time is boring. 9 It's wondew. 6 A diierent cookbook with a dBerent recipe. . Central Stockholm . . What is the Swedish for: 1 The food is bad.Nligonting (something. it's fun. 3 The beer is cold. 2 The cream is thick. 5 Some yellow onions and some thin slices of potato. . 16 We don't eat anythlng hot for lunch. 17 Nothing is boring. 8 We have no biscuits and no cakes. 4 Their cream cakes are wondew. Exercise 8 Nothing is fun any more. anything) and ingenting (nothing) are also essentially T-words like det: Ingenting i r roligt lingre. 7 No name and no address. it's expensive! 10 What a boring book! 11 What a big glass! 12 What big cakes! 13 What enormous portions! 14 Preparing food is fun.

H k ligger Kungliga slottets viildiga fyrkant och Storkyrkan och andra fina kyrkor samt Riksdagshuset som nyligen renoverats. the Royal Palace viildig -t -a. Skansen ligger p i Djurgkden och dit har gamla stugor och hus flyttats f i h hela Sverige.working class area biirjan. och Stockholm har senare brett ut sig mot norr och s6der: 'nya' stadsdelar iir Norrmalm (aE?irscentnun). justifiably Venedig. residential area Grort -en -er. Om man vill sitta och ta igen sig efter rundvandringen kan man g i in p i ett av de m h g a utekafberna i sommarstockholm. far grlnd -en -er. alley Kungliga slottet. place of entertainment for the family - . I Gamla stan kan man vandra i smala grhder mellan hus f r h 1500-talet. beginning bostadskvarter -et -. the Parliament building intressant -a. I Stockholm kan man bes6ka t ex ett av stadens m h g a museer: Nationalmuseum innehAller en samling Massisk konst och Nordiska museet har intressanta historiska fired. Venice Gamla stan. D k finns ockd ett zoo med huvudsakligen nordiska djur. S6dermalm (& b6jan arbetarkvarter).island Ostersjiin . Numera bor m h g a stockholmare (det finns en miljon) i fdrorter l h g t f r h centrum.Factual text 5 m Stockholm P i tre smA 6ar mellan sj6n M a r e n och t)stersjtin grundade Birger Jar1 k 1252 Stockholm . rectangle Storkyrkan. Att g i p i Skansen & ett populiirt familjentije. mighty fyrkant -en -er. artefacts familjeniije -t -n. interesting firemil -et -.the Baltic med rltta. t)arna kallar man nu f i r Gamla stan. the Cathedral samt = och Riksdagshuset.krigsskeppet som sjonk i hamnen 1628 och som biirgades p i 1950-talet. Inte l h g t dWr311 kan man bes6ka W s . t ex varg. t)stermalm (de rikas stadsdel) och Kungsholmen (administrativa byggnader och bostadskvarter). Vocabulary ii -n -ar . suburb lingt. the Old Town bredJa -er bredde. objects. lo aa och iilg.staden som man med r1tta har kallat 'Nordens Venedig'. spread arbetarkvarter -et -.

rest utekafk -et e r . affh-scentrum? . de rikas bostadskvarter? 5 Hur m h g a stockholmare finns det? 6 Var ligger Kungliga slottet? 7 Var kan man hitta smala grwder och hus f h 1500-talet? 8 Vad kan man se p A Nationalmuseum? 9 Var kan man se gamla tr'dhus f r h hela Sverige? 10 Vilka sorters djur ser man p i Skansen? 11Vad L Wasa? 12 Var kan man ta igen sig efter en rundvandring i Stockholm? . . recover. excursion bjudla -er bjSd pi. . lynx inte Iingt. warship biirgd -r -de. pavement cafe Exercise 9 Svara p i frAgorna: 1 Vad har man kallat Stockholm? 2 Vem grundade staden och nL? 3 Vad k Gamla stan? 4 I vilken del av staden finner man . .utflykt -en -er. offer huvudsakligen. salvage ta igen sig. . animal lo -n -ar (lodjur -et -). not far krigsskepp -et -. mainly djur -et -.

fdrklarar Jan.variations in the indefinite form some difficult noun plurals how to pronounce -gn. En lordag g de p ett stort mobelvaruhus k H u t W r staden. kn-. Det blir en he1 liten utflykt. Jan vill f tag p ett brett skrivbord till arbetsrummet eftersom 3 H hans skrivbord k fdr litet och srnalt. gn-. Eva vill skafTa nAgra snygga sml bordslampor. H& W e r de leta efter en stor soffa till vardagsrumrnet och ett runt koksbord och nigra stolar till matvrHn. 'Mina bocker och papper ramlar i golvet hela tiden'. som de kan ha p nattduksborden bredvid angen i H sovrummet i stiillet fir de viggfasta som de har nu.6 Nya mobler New furniture In this lesson we will look at: objects and complements adjectives . . -mn how to agree and disagree with people demonstratives amplifiers spelling of words ending in (mlmand (n)n the seasons Norrland Text 6 Nya mobler New furniture Eva och Jan Forsberg anker kopa nya mobler till lagenheten. Deras mobler k gamla och fula.

nothing Other useful words describing housing: badrum -met hall -en -ar kiillare -n garage -t @on. Jan tycker att de ska ha en tavla som kan hags p i v8ggen i Joakims rum i stiillet fir hans popaffischer. men egentligen har de inte r&dmed allt. picture hiingla -er -de. worn ha r i d (med). kitchen table st01-en -ar. the whole time Grklard -r -de. gargsj) - - bathroom hall basement garage . 'Popgmpperna eller ingenting'. (a piece of) hmiture ful -t -a. afford (to) tavla -n -or. siiger Eva. exhibition hygglig -t -a. 'Ingenting'. armchair samtidigt. desk arbetsrum -met. living room rund runt runda. get. floor hela tiden. pretty bordslampa -n -or. dining area fii/ -r fick filtt tag pi. siiger han. instead of de viiggfasta. bed i stiillet fir. round kiiksbord -et -. broad. b e h W Bt6ljer samtidigt. reasonable pris -et -. beside siing -en -ar. wall 8 affisch -en -er (pron. bedroom bredvid. excursion. De funderar p att ktipa nAgra djupa. miibel -n miibler. think. ponder djup -t -a. deep bekviim -t -a. study papper s t -. get hold of " bred brett breda. a m ) . department (or large) store utflykt -en -er. explain skaffd -r -de. the wall-mounted ones utstiillning -en -ar. (sheet of) paper ramld -r -de. men det tycker inte Joakim. poster PoPgruPP -en -er7 P P group O ingenting. at the same time sliten slitet slitna. display. 'Vi behover nya eftersom v h k d slitna'. tycker Jan. table lamp .P i utstiillningen finns det m h g a vackra mtibler ofta till mycket H hyggligt pris. hang viigg -en -ar. wide skrivbord -et -. sovrum -met -. fall golv -et -. (ordinary) chair matvri -n -r. ugly varuhus -et -. acquire snygg -t -a. price fundera1 -r -de. attractive. comfortable filttilj -en er. trip out vardagsrum -met -.

(likes) DO Indirect objects (io) are often people for whose sake an action is undertaken: Jag gav Nils boken. like ita. 7 We want to get a picture at a reasonable price. I0 DO Jag gav boken till Nils. Complements are either nouns or adjectives: Han heter Erik cow Det i r vackert hir. DO I0 The order of objects in Swedish is much the same as in English. 3 They cannot afford to buy a deep comfortable armchair. 9 They need some wide round chairs for the study. roof cupboard Exercise 1 Translate into Swedish: 1 Their flat is big and old. DO Hon gillar honom. The complement is found in sentences with verbs like vara. gilla) and verbs that do not (intransitive verbs like sova 'sleep') will later be seen to be an important one in Swedish. Objects and complements Direct objects (DO) often a noun phrase or pronoun: are Nils liter kakan. 4 He is lying reading on the sofa. 8 Eva doesn't like the desk at all. cow These are subject complements (sc) and agree with the subject . The distinction between verbs that take a direct object (transitive verbs. bli.tak -et skip -et - - ceiling. adjectives agree with N-words. 5 Eva wants a big table lamp for the living room. or with pronouns: . heta which are 'empty verbs' needing a complement to fill out their meaning.nouns are singularlplural. cow Hon i r larare. T-words and plural nouns. 6 He falls on the floor all the time because his bed is so narrow. 2 The posters are beautiful.

indefinite variations Most adjectives in the indefinite simply add either -t or -a (see p. glad (happy). nykter (sober). r6d (red) Adjectives ending in a consonant +-d drop the -d before adding -t with T-words: en h%rdsing ett hart bord hllrda s b g a r hllrda bord Also: mild (mild). -el drop the e before adding -a with plural nouns: en vacker soffa ett vackert bord vackra soffor vackra bord enkla flltaljer enkla skrivbord Also: mager (thin). but one or two show slight variations on this pattern: Adjectives ending in a stressed vowel add -tt with T-words: en ny soffa ett nytt bord nya soffor nya bord Also: blll (blue). siker (sure) en enkel flltiilj ett enkelt skrivbord Also: acceptabel (acceptable). SUB3 SC Object complements agree with the object: Det gjorde dem a r g a OBJ OC It made them angry. SUBJ SC Vi blir gamla SUBJ SC Det i r rolig. ond (evil) Adjectives ending in -er. Adjectives. vild (wild).De i r studenter. grll (grey) Adjectives ending in vowel +-d drop the -d and add -tt with T-words: en bred sing ett b r a skrivbord a breda singar breda skrivbord Also: god (good).62) with T-words or plurals respectively. flexibel (flexible) .

8 Deras mobler k mycket (sliten). ledsen (sad) Liten and gammal are irregular and should be learned individually: en liten soffa en gamma1 sing ett litet bord ett gammalt bord smi soffor smi bord gamla singar gamla bord Exercise 2 Insert the correct form of the adjective provided. 6 Lars ville kopa ett (ny) skrivbord. 11 Det k (vacker) p i landet. 10 Vsdret i siider k (mild). 3 Golvet var (rod). 5 De hade ett mycket (bred) rum. 1 P tavlan ser man flera (naken) flickor. 2 Jag vill bara kopa (enkel) A mobler. 7 Lars skrivbord k (gammal).91 Adjectives ending in e n are like those in e r but also drop the -n in the neuter form: en tippen d6rr ett tippet finster tippna diirrar tippna Gnster Also: egen (own). Some difficult noun plurals (a) A small group of nouns change their root vowel and add -er: en hand (hand) ett land (country) en natt (night) en son (son) en fot (foot) tvi hlnder tvi linder tvi nltter tvi s6ner t v i fitter en strand (beach) en stad (town> en rand (stripe) en bok (book) en rot (root) t v i strlnder t v i stider tvi rlinder tvi bticker . 4 De ville ha ett (rund) bord. 13 Deras fitoljer k ganska (liten) och kaffebordet k ocksd (liten). 9 Klimatet i norr k (hkd). 14 & vinet (god)? 15 & dina mobler (gammal)? 16 & vAra studenter (nykter)? 17 Nej och imorgon blir de (ledsen). 12 Svenska kyrkor k (vacker).

chips (crisps) . retain a plural in -s: t v i thrillers. t v i designers. mostly recent English loanwords. t v i blinkers.(b) A small group of nouns of both genders ending in a vowel add -r: en bakelse (gateau) en sko (shoe) t v i bakelser t v i skor ett nngelse (prison) en t i (toe) t v i nngelser tvi t i r (c) Many nouns ending in a vowel +-nh/r drop their final vowel before adding the plural ending: en figel t v i figlar (bird) en mlibel t v i mabler (piece of furniture) en sommar en regel (rule) t v i somrar t v i regler (d) Some loanwords ending in -ium. -eum drop -um before adding -er: ett museum t v i museer (museum) ett laboratorium t v i laboratorier (laboratory) (e) Some loanwords ending in -urn have alternative plural forms: ett centrum tv%centrum or centrer or centra (centre) ett faktum tv%faktum or fakta (fact) (f) A few nouns are highly irregular: ett iiga (eye) ett 6ra (ear) t v i ligon tvi 6ron ett huvud (head) t v i huvuden (g) Some nouns.

(Swedish k + n) -mn (Swedish m + n) Kngt knivar kng knyta knog nafinet jiign sofina Kiipenhagn . . .. . peasant) (book) .. . tvh muskler tvi fingrar (tooth) (letter ofthe alphabet) (farmer. Remember that -ng (Pronunciation 4) is pronounced as one sound. . .Exercise 3 Fill in the missing forms: (a) en. Pronunciation 6 m Consonants -gn. tvh.. unlike English 'knife'. . kn-. en bokstav en bonde en.. . -mn Practise saying the following words.. gn-. tvi. . tvi hustrur tvh bastur tvi aktier tvi. @) tvi tiinder tvh... . 'salmon'. en ko en stadsbo en.. tvi b6cker tvi.. Do not worry about the meanings of the words.. tvi. ett .. en. 'hymn': kn. en.. . (cow) (city dweller) (wife) (sauna bath) (share in a company) (winter) (evening) (muscle) (finger) (c) envinter en afton en. . .. -gn (Swedish ng + n) gn.(Swedish g + n) Ragnar regn vagnen ugn dygn Gnosjii gngga g n i ~ e l gniilig gncla In the following groups both consonants are pronounced.

Vocabulary Erst. really Ecarligt. men k den inte lite v2l knallgron? Jo. . pine kiik -et -. kanske. Javisst. inexpensive inte s dum -t -ma. red checked gardin -en -er. solid furu. that one vetla vet visste vetat. terribly den dlr. perhaps riidrutig -t -a. Jag vill ha nhgot ovanligt. Och vi har ju rodrutiga gardiner . Det bordet st8r i alla kok. not bad H riktigt hyfsad. brighten up ha rltt i.Dialogue 6 m Den d.. k den inte hemskt grill1 i f@gerna? Inte alls! Jag tycker den iir vadigt snygg och vi behover &got som lyser upp rummet. det har du ratt i. PB det h L varuhuset hittar du inga ovanliga mobler. green striped hemskt. loud. be right knallgriin -t -a. Men vi kan viil titta p kiiksborden. find P . Ja men vBr gamla k fiflarligt sliten. Den iir griinrandig. quite nice rejll -t -a. awfully grlll -t -a. beautiful. know griinrandig -t -a. Hiir har du ett rejgt firubord. Ja. just det. Tycker du verkligen det? De hiir k d fdrskriickligt dyra. garish Erg -en -er. Dkborta stfir en ganska billig soffa. comfortable verkligen. colour lysla -er -te upp. vivid green kanske. Ja. . over there billig -t -a. den 2r riktigt hyfsad. Den k viil inte s5 durn? B villjag ha I want that one Jan and Eva are trying to decide which sofa to buy JN A: EVA: JN A: EVA: JN A: EVA: JN A: EVA: JAN: EVA: JAN: EVA: JAN: Skavi titta p% sofforna fdrst? En sk6n soffa behiiver vi. cheap. Hiir handlar alla svenskar. Vad tycker du om den d&? Jag vet inte. f s ut skiin -t -a. kitchen hittd -r -de. curtain dlrborta.

I agree with you (about that). r Det Hr ritt Det Pr riktigt. so use the hiss or the rulltrappa Remember when ascending or descending to st9 till hiiger. Demonstratives After the demonstratives den h i r etc. That's true. That's not right. miijligen (possibly). the noun adds the end article: . O l' perhaps you're right'. quite'. I don't think so. 'Well. den diir etc. Det haler jag med om. Det haler jag inte med om. I don't agree with you (about that). Can you guess what these are in English? Agreeing and disagreeing with people In the dialogue find phrases meaning: ' fcourse'. That's not right. 'Yes. That's right. a question (Tycker du det?) or Det vet jag inte (I don't know). 'Maybe'. That's not right. unusual handld -r -de. Det stthmer inte. I believe so.. Disagreement I think so. g9 till viinster.. Det H sant. The word tyvlrr (unfortunately) ameliorates disagreement: TyvHrr tycker jag inte det. I don't believe so. Det k inte rHtt That's correct. When you have finished your shopping go to the utghg. shop Exercise 4 Always be on the look out for the sign Rea where there may be goods at nedsatt pris A real fynd perhaps! You may go to a large varuhus or a a small aff"ar or butik Once inside a big store you m y wish to go up from the gatuplan to iivre plan or down to nedre plan. Det tror jag. That's not true. Det tycker jag inte.ovanlig -t -a. 'Not at al.Det P inte riktigt. Det Hr inte sant. 'den etc. Here are some other useful phrases: Agreement Det tycker jag. Det tror jag inte. Det stthmer. Doubt may be expressed by using kanske (perhaps). That's right.

lite (a little). theselthose) Plural de hfr soffornahorden de dfr soffornahorden 'de frigorna ' Note: 'den etc. den d k . quite). Adverbs formed fiom adjectives (i. e. Den hiir. 'denetc. Han var i t siimkilt trevlig. They are awfully expensive. ganska (rather. AMP He w s very nice. ak +ADV Notice that in terms of the sentence structure: AMP + ADJ AMP + ADV Note: very not very not much = Complement = MPTexpression (manner) mycket inte siirsldt inte mycket Han vnr mycket trevlig. fullsthdigt (completely).a +AD1 De gglr mycket lhgsamt. alldeles. Han dricker i k mycket. a .g. helt. (stressed den) is often used with abdrad nouns.Non-neuter Neuter den hfr soffan det hfr bordet (this. inte alls (not at all): Han var mycket trevlig. AMP They w l very slowly. ne Han var ink mycket trevligare Hn Sven (nicerthan Sven) mycket on its own canmean 'a lot': Han dricker mycket. n He drinks a lot He doesn't drink much (a lot).e. these) den dfr soffan det dfr bordet (that. mycket (very).169. W a do you think of that one? ht That one is nice! Amplifiers These are adverbs qualifying an adjective or an adverb. those) I den tiden det glret (thidthat. . adjective + -t) are often used as amplifiers: De f r firskrfckligt dyra De f r hemskt dyra They are terribly expensive. can also be used on their own: Vad tycker du om den d k ? Det d k k viil fit! See also p.

Ihngsam.De Z vZildigt i r De Z otroligt i r dyra dyra They are very expensive. however. namely that . one m or n is dropped when a consonant is added in an inflected form: gammal gamla Exercise 5 sommar somrar ett nummer numret (a) What is the plural form of these adjectives: gammal. this consonant therefore acting as if it were already a long or doubled consonant: dum hem rum program mag deg din en hag hog vZi2 ig igeg kag mig m@ 3g But between two vowels the m or n is also doubled in the spelling: rum dum mag v5IJ Exceptions: words with a long vowel: fin bekvam flna bekvBma Conversely. dum (stupid)? . tunn. Spelling of words ending in m and n In the section on Pronunciation at the beginning of the book a useful rule was stressed syllables a single consonant follows a long vowel and two consonants follow a short vowel: Words ending in -m and -n are a prominent exception to this rule. They are unbelievably expensive. as most of them have a short vowel followed by a single consonant.generally speaking .

resten av landet. men p i sommaren k midnattssolen en stor turistattraktion. For att kunna utnyttja j2rnmalmsfyndigheterna i Norrbotten byggde man i seklets b6rjan en j h v t i g mellan Lulei vid Bottniska viken och Narvik p i Norges isfria atlantkust. triidstammar (tree trunks) (b) Factual text 6 m Norrland Man brukar dela in Sverige i tre delar . wilderness kal -t -a. dvs. somrar. half finsktalande. mannen. Vocabulary deld -r -de.2 miljoner invhare. Sami. hemmet (the home). timret (the timber) (c) Give the singular form of the following nouns: vinner. glaciarer och hoga kala fjall over tradgransen. exploit vattenkraft -en. reindeer farmers samiska -n. Norrland har valdiga odemarker: myrar. Samerna talar ett eget spr&. och bara 3 000 av dem iir numera renskotare. och p i 1980-talet blev en ny bilvtig fadig over fjdlen mellan de bida lilnderna. Finnish-speaking sprik -et. sparsely populated hiilft -en. mossmarker. Svealand. Det omfattar mer 2n h m e n av Sveriges areal men har bara 1.Gotaland. Men h k finns ockd viktiga naturtillgbgar: skog. och Norrland. numret. figure Sdemark -en -er. centrala Sverige kring Miilaren. I norra Norrland ser man inte solen p i itta veckor under midvintern och temperaturen kan sjunka till arktiskt 1Aga siffror. hydroelectric power . mineraler och vattenkraft. divide gIesbefolka/d -t -de. Av dessa k 50 000 finsktalande Tornedalsbor och 15 000 k samer. sbdra landsdelen.Give the form without end article of the following nouns: programmet. och mycket folk kommer hit fdr att vandra i Europas sista vildmark. munnar (mouths). samiska. treeless naturtillging -en -ar. natural resource utnyttjd -r -de. Norrland k mycket stort men glesbefolkat. dvs. language renskctare -n -. Lappish siffra -n -or.

. . av Sveriges areal. . . . complete. . . (b) Place the words in italics first in the sentence and adjust the word order: I norra Norrland ser man inte solen p i itta veckor. Svealand och . . . P i sommaren L midnattssolen en stor turistattraktion. Hiir finns ocksil viktiga naturtillgdngar. . Exercise 6 spring summer (note the plural) autumn winter (note the plural) early summer late autumn midwinter in the winter etc. . (a) Fill in the missing words: Sverige bestslr av Norrland. . . Bara 3000 samer L . . . . i n v b : I Tornedalen bor 50 000 m s k o r som talar . Nu kan man &a . century firdig -t -a. Omkring 1900 byggde man en . ready byggla e r -de. . Lhgt i norr kan man . p i en ny viig mellan Sverige och .varje vinter ser man inte solen i Norrland. build The seasons vPr -en -ar sommar -en somrar h6st -en -ar vinter -n vintrar Brsommar senhtfst midvinter p& vintern etc. . . Norrland har bara . For att kunna utnyttja j&mah@mdigheterna byggde For ett par Ar sedan blev en ny bilvdg f&dig.jiirnmalmsfyndighet e n e r . iron ore find sekel seklet sekler. . mellan LuleA och Nanik. . . Centrala Sverige heter . Turister kommer till Norrland varje sommar f(ir att se . . P i . . . . talar ett eget spr& nllmligen samiska. i Europas sista vildrnark. . . Norrland omfattar .

Nu p i eftenniddagen anker han g i och handla.In town In this lesson we will look at: how to link main clauses together the end article plural on nouns possessive pronouns how to express future time prepositions of place adverbs of location and direction how to translate 'where' into Swedish how to pronounce some difficult words how to understand and give directions money I energy and environmental protection in Sweden Text 7 U ! Pa" stan In town Bill Morris ska till Goteborg i aE2rer. Goteborg ligger ornkring 50 mil sydvbt om Stockholm. Forst gAr han in p i en bank fir att vWa nigra resecheckar. och 30 mil soder om Oslo. P i morgonen k han p i moten p i olika kontor och fabriker i stan. p i Sveriges vilstkust. Han kommer dit med d g frAn Oslo. N2r han kommer ut u r banken med pengarna gAr han lllngs Kungsportsavenyn fi3r att titta i . men han har inga pengar. Sedan tar hans aff2rsviinner ut honom p i lunch. Han vill kiipa nigra presenter.

change (money) in paut ur. business resecheck -en -ar (-er) (pron. bank vlxld -r -de. . subjects. present bank e n -er. because). to (+ intention.tjekk). men (but). fdr (as. dricker. verbs or clauses. . utan ('but' in negating eller (either . about mil. see p.2 English miles) miite -t -n. Notice also: antingen or). by. next to kana1 -en -er. (travel) on business dit. 6 eller vin. Notice that they do not affect the word order in the main clauses they join. eller (neither . amusement park underhilllning -en. purchases genom. N2r han gAr M r A n en halvtimme senare vill han g i p i lite sightseeing. traveller's cheque contact present -en -er. unit of distance (= 10 lan or 6. varken . money atXirsviin -nen -ner. det giir Erik ocksi. .172) inkiip -et -. park konditori -et -er. . en stor ndjespark dlir det fims underhiillning p i kv2llen. Gdteborg har ett stort konstmuseum. . coffee shop vid. art niijespark -en -er. clauses). 1 2 subjects are linked 2 verbs are linked 2 clauses are linked 2 clauses are linked 2 objects are linked Other link words are: eller (or). (resa) i amrer. . Efter alla inkijp vill han dricka kaEe d han gAr genom parken till ett konditori vid kanalen dlir Fan vet att han 3 kommer att f goda bakelser.. there omkring. intolout of f i r att. objects. e. entertainment gallery Linking main clauses together We can link together things that are of the same kind. . We accomplish this by placing a link word (a coordinating conjunction such as och (and)) between the words we want to link: Erik De sitter Jag gillar iil Jag gillar 61 Eva dricker och och och men antingen Sven dricker 61. canal halvtimme -n. nor). meeting pengar -na. men Bill tar sphagnen ut till Liseberg. Erik tycker om vin. . . through park -en -er.aff4rerna och varuhusen dlir. half hour konstmuseum -museet -museer.g..

It goes on the end of the plural form. skriver brev. de var ocksd dyra. -en. 2 Bill mkte ha pengar . en kopp katTe. . . han ska kopa presenter. . Nouns. . d k finns det underhalning.n: yrken yrkena (occupations) (the occupations) Exercise 2 Provide the forms of these nouns in the plural and plural with end article: . 4 Sofforna var mycket vackra . end article plural How to add the end article singular to nouns is dealt with on p. men or fir: 1 Joakim spelar popmusik . 3 Bill kan antingen ta en kopp te . 5 Han &er till Liseberg . -er drop s: Rule 3 Plurals of T-word ending add -a in a vowel + . .75.Exercise 1 Insert either och. . eller. and how to predict the plural endings of nouns on p. . Its form can be determined by only three rules: Type of noun Rule I Plurals ending in a vowel + -r: Note: nouns in -are drop e : Ending Plural indeJnite Plural with end article add -na a flickor (girls) Erare (teachers) flickorna (the girls) liirarna (the teachers) Rule 2 Plurals ending in other consonants (both N-words and T-words): add e n barn (children) lager (layers) barnen (the children) lagren (the layers) Note: stems in -el. Adding the end article plural is relatively simple. .33 and p. . .75.

en en passagerare. Here are both types: Personal pronoun Possessive pronoun N-words T-words Plurals jag du han hon den det vi ni de Exercise 3 min son din son hans son hennes son dess pris dess pris v k son er son deras son mitt hem ditt hem hans hem hennes hem dess pris dess pris vibt hem ert hem deras hem mina sonerhem dina sonerhem hans sanerhem hennes dnerhem dess priser dess priser v k a sonerhem era stherthem deras sonerhem What is the Swedish for: 1 Their house is very unusual. ett fdrkllde. I'll be leaving tomorrow. vinter. 6 Her husband is fat but he is very pleasant. 7 His wife is beautiful but she is awfblly boring. en sko. en tirnme. 2 O r hotel is small and simple. 3 My u office is in London. 4 Where are your shoes? 5 I must change my traveller's cheques. en skiva.possessives ending in -s we have already seen (in Lesson 4) do not add endings. ett rum. none of which involves adding any special ending to the verb: 1The present tense (often with a time marker): Jag llter imorgon. en hamburgare. but the other type have to agree with T-nouns and plurals. Possessive pronouns These are of two types . en vecka. . ett landskap. 8 Bill walks along Kungsportsavenyn with its expensive shops. en besokare. ett land. Future time There are three ways of expressing future time in Swedish. en biljett. ett hotell.ett k.

This denotes an action independent of the speaker's hopes or wishes. He is sitting in the (arm)chair. i + volume duken i skipet the cloth in the cupboard Han sitter i stolen. She lives in the country (= state). at' etc. warning or threat and is often used with a personal subject: Ska du g i p i bio p i llirdag. She lives in the country(side). on. bli (be. There are unfortunately a number of common exceptions to this rule of thumb: (a) p i is used with public buildings. He is sitting on the chair. This usually indicates intention. Erik tibker studera engelska.Notice two verbs especially. Note: EIan har ett rum i ett hus p i Ci5tgatani Stockholm (i Sverige). It is going to rain tonight. there is a rule of thumb for distinguishing i from pi: 4 p i + surface duken p i bordet the cloth on the table Han sitter p i stolen. Det h f r ska du f i bgra! Will you be going to the cinema on Saturday? You will regret this! Prepositions of place In translating 'in. Hon bor i landet. It'll be dark soon. think): Det blir mgrkt snart. An impersonal subject is often used: Det kommer att regna ikvfll. become). Hon bor p i landet. 3 Ska(l1) (skulle) + infinitive. tInka (intend. 2 Kommer att + infinitive. E i is thinking of studying rk English. places of work or study and places of entertainment: Vi triiffas p i kontoret! See you at the ofice! .

. liings. The tram travels to(wards) Liseberg. staden. 2 Jag arbetar . in the shop. ett . along the river and over the bridge. Ean 3r hos tandlikaren. skolan och hans syster Eva arbetar . i kyrkan (at school. men nu har vi ett hus . Prepositions indicating movement are: fridtill: Bill iker f r i n Oslo till Giiteborg. men en minut senare kom han ut u r huset igen. . He walks through the park. . . vardagsrummet. . . . but a minute later he came out of the building again. He works at Ericssond a department store. at church). mot: Spirvagnen h e r mot Liseberg. . i d r e n (butkn). 4 Nils g h . . . He went into the building (office). Note: i skolan. genorn. iiver: Han g i r genom parken. We met at the cinema. We were at the Olsson's yesterday. landet.Han arbetar p i EricssonsJ ett vamhus. Insert a suitable preposition of place: 1Han satt . Vi triiffades p i bio. (c) vid is used with things that extend lengthways: De bor vid kustedfloden. . liings i n och iiver bron. en soffa . 3 Forr bodde vi . Exercise 4 Bill is travelling from Oslo to Gothenburg. ett kontor . German 'bei'): Vi var hos Olssons igir. . . He is at the dentist's. (b) hos is used with the names of people or professions (like French 'chez'. . in i (pi) I ut ur: Han gick in i huset (pi kontoret). . Eriksgatan. They live on (at) the coastlon (by) the river. .

5 Bill &te . hiirifrib from here varifrib where. diirborta (over there). . Olssons och ikviill W e r vi g . konditoriet. Oslo . . Gtiteborg . 6 I& A vi middag . . there The adverb alone or MPT-expression (see p. ditin (in there) (movement). etc. . . . . Adverbs of location. hit vart hem (to) home bort " in ut UP P ner fram Han ghr ddrifrbn. . He is leaving there. . kanalen. Liseberg. . . 10 Niir han hade kommit . . .varuhus. . parken och A . bio. 7 Han gick . tog han sphagnen . movement towards a place or movement from a place: Location (no movement) Direction Origin (movement towards) (movement a w a y ~ o m ) Bill sitter dar.59) may indicate movement and the verb of motion may be omitted when a modal verb is present: Han ska till Lund imorgon. . I'm off home. . 8 Det fanns ett konditori . . . direction and origin Swedish adverbs of place (which are MPT-expressions) often have three different forms to indicate location at a place. Adverbs of the same kind can be compounded: dfrnere (down there). 9 Bill gick . from hemifrh bortifrh inifrib utifrh uppifrh nerifrh framifrh from the fiont Notice also: hfr here var where hemma at home borta away inne in ute out UPPe UP nere down framme in front. Han Aker dit. fin. t . He is going there. . . . banken.* . . . . tAg. He is going to Lund tomorrow. Bill is sitting there. Jag ska hem.

5 Can you get in here immediately as I am going out soon? 6 Is there a bank there? 7 Where is the bank? 8 It's over there by the canal.) va. sedan (then). kritiskt (critically) -d: -k: . morgon (morning). in:(pron. bredvid (beside) Notice shortening of the vowel. in (pron. 3 Where are you now? 4 I am here at home. i siindags (last Sunday) Notice shortening of the vowel. sen hemskt (awfully). &n. Pronunciation 7 m Some difficult words (a) Silent letters: -g: dag jag 0. 9 1 know a bank where you can change your traveller's cheques. but as a relative pronoun it is d I r if it implies location or dit if it implies motion: ett bra konditori d I r han kommer att f i bakelser en stor niijespark d I r det finns underhillning ett konditori dit vi kan g i en niijespark dit vi kan Aka d i r is also used for 'there' (of place): det ligger minga affirer d I r Exercise 5 a good cd6 where he will get cakes a large amusement park where there is entertainment a cd6 where we can go an entertainment park where we can go there are a lot of shops there What is the Swedish for: 1Where are you going? 2 I'm off out shortly. vad (what). nigon (someone). staden (the town). (day).Where When it is a v-word in a question the word 'where' may (as we have seen above) be var if it implies location or vart if it implies motion. sidan (such). dagen (the day).) nAn med (with).

s a pron. j-. jag skulle vilja v M a ndgra resecheckar. mlnniska (human being) Dialogue 7 m Att hitta raft Finding your way Bill gets talking in the bank Jo. mej. att (that) mig (me) dig (you). sig (himself) pron. dej pron. vlrlden (the world) det (it). and that the final -e is not pronounced in these words: As Swedish sj: garage (garage). att pron. A. ock att (to) (cf. genre (genre) sherry. (adjust). att) pron. pron. shorts journalist (reporter). BILL MORRIS: .-1: -t: karl (chap). bagage (luggage). la pron. dom pron. reportage (report) geni (genius). litet (little). jalusi (jealousy). sk-. dom pron. konsert (concert). sej (c) Loan words: Notice these exceptions to the rules in Pronunciation 2 and 4 for g-. A. men det duger kanske inte? . beige (beige). justera. generad (embarrassed). mycket (very). Finns det legitimation? Ja. det gir BILL MORRIS: Jag har mitt pass. Gk det bra h ? & BANKTJ~STEMANNEN: fint. skjuts (lift) (b) Words not spelled as they are pronounced: de (they) dem (them) lade (laid) sa(de) (said) och (and) pron.

from here trafikljus e t -.Det wenskarna som inte fib anvginda passet. Tack fdr hjQpen! Prova deras Napoleonbakelser. Det ska jag komma h l g . & det l h g t ? Inte siinkilt. Hur vill du ha pengarna? Hundralappar? Tvi femhundrakronorssedlar och resten i hundralappar. at most pmva/ -r -de. remember Directions In the dialogue find phrases meaning: 'turn left'. De tir irskilt gd. Is that all right? legitimation e n . 'is it far?' Here are some other useful phrases: ta till vhster @tiger) pH v a s t e r (hiiger) hand rakt igenom/tvfirs iiver t r left (right) un on the left (right) hand side straight through/across . Ta till viinster diir och g i rakt igenom parken p i andra sidan. 'then you come to the canal'. G i den h2r gatan rakt fram tills du kommer till traNdjusen vid gatukorsningen. 'go straight down the street'. left rakt fram (see 'Directions' below) gatukorsning.en -ar. Vdgod.Jodi%. be acceptable. bank clerk G4r det bra?. d kommer du till kanalen och diir ligger det. right. Hur kommer jag fiirresten h&if%n till Wahlstriims konditori? Vi ska se. Vocabulary banktjiinsteman -nen -miin. puff pastry and cream cake with pink icing komma ihig. viinster. tack. good enough hundralappar(see 'Money' below) hiirifnin. 'on the other side'. test Napoleonbakelse -n -r. identification pass e t -. junction hiigst. Tio minuter htigst. passport dugla -er diig. try. traffic lights hiiger.

Swedish currency has the following denominations: Coins (mynt): 50 6re. kronor). Notes (sedlar): 50 kronor. in the vicinity of in the direction ofltowards round What is the Swedish for: 1 The stores are in the centre .du fiiljer den gatan fiirbi kyrkan innan du kommer till n%ra/ingrheten avlintill (i riktning) mot runt Exercise 6 you follow that street past the church before you come to close to. 6 It's not very far from here. 5 kronor. 4 Then take tram number 7.go straight on and they are on your right. before you come to the station. 10 kronor.50 or 150 8. 1krona. 3 Go over the canal and then turn left. three minutes at most.90 or 8 90 Other phrases: vlxel/smApengar Kan du vixla en femma i enkronor? 50 Ore coin 1krona coin 5 kronor coin 20 kronor note 50 kronor note 100 kronor note Spoken eg?ife~ti A-tJni@ change Can you change a five kronor (coin) into one krona coins? . 10 000 kronor Notice the names of coins and notes: femti(o)iiring -en -ar enkrona -n -or femkrona -n vor tjuga -n -or femtilapp -en -ar hundralapp -en -ar Prices are expressed as follows: Written 1. 1000 kronor. 500 kronor. and it's near the church. Money Remember 100 iire = 1krona (pl.JOO kronor. 5 Go along the river. past the art gallery. 2 His office is on this side of the park.

. See also Factual text 16.The 20-kronor note or 'tjwga' Shown is the Nobel Prize-winning author Selma Lagerlof. this note is sometimes called 'en Selma'. The 100-kronor note Shown is the Swedish botanist Carl von LinnC.

reindeer botdd -t -de. agreed farlig -t -a. environment - . Det fims mycket vattenkrafl i landet. Tjernobylolyckan bevisar detta. stop klrnkraft -en. save unders6lda -er -te. because of H ren -en -ar. solve sparal -r -de. Avfallsfrigan L inte heller lost. peat mark -en. electricity miljiivln -nen -ner. % Vocabulary folkomriistning -en -ar. source. environmentalist forstiirla -de. P g a. Man &mar sluta med kbduaft fdre k 2010. Man kommer ockd att pwnpa mer v h n e direkt ur marken. De iir rgdda fdr att nya vattenkraflverk vid norrlandstilvarna kommer att forstiira miljon. destroy miljii -n -er. men dA blir det a e r t kontlikt med miljoviimerna. change slutal -r -de (med). och Sveriges 12 k w e r k ska awecklas successivt. spring torv -en. och den kan man naturligtvis bygga ut fir att mer el. prove p g a = p grund av. waste byggta -er -de ut. develop. threatened liisla -er -te. men de flesta politiker k ense om att man bor forsoka. be phased out verkstllVa -er -de. nuclear power awecklds -des. investigate avfall -et. expand i framtiden. finish. olyckan kommer renarna i Norrland att fdrbli radioaktiva i m h g a Ar och samernas Mtur k hotad. vind och torv. ground el = elektricitet -en.Factual text 7 m Energr' och rnigov&d Energy and environmental protection Enligt en follcomrtistning den 23 mars 1980 blir det en 3ndring i Sveriges energipolitik. carry out ense. I framtiden kommer man inte att anvbda d mycket olja. for man vill spara energi. Det iir inte drskilt billigt med k@nkrafl och det tir farligt. in future kiilla -n -or. Man W e r undersiika alternativa kraftkiillor som sol. dangerous bevisa/ -r -de. Det i r emellertid os&ert om detta g k att verksalla inom utsatt tid. referendum iindring -en -ar. Sverige har inget eget kol och ingen olja.

Exercise 7 Svara p&svenska: 1 N k blev det en folkomrCistning om energipolitik? 2 Hur mhga kfirduaftverk har Sverige nu? 3 Hur mhga k2mkraftverk blir det efier %r 20101 4 Vad bevisar Tjernobylolyckan?5 VarFdr k samernas kultur hotad? 6 Vilka andra kr-lor fm det fdrutom olja? 7 Har Sverige i kol och olja? 8 Har Sverige vattenkraft? 9 Vad k milj6viinnerna radda Gr? .

val and namligen Midsummer i Text 8 m Pa" universitetet At the university Nu har universitetskurserna borjat. For det mesta har de badat och solat sig. De pratar om vad de har gjort p A sornmaren. . och Rebecca ska studera svensk litteratur. Det sitter ett trettiotal studenter i GrelLningssalen. Rebecca har inte l t k m a n5gon av de andra studenterna &nu.8 PZi universitetet At the university In this lesson we will look at: verb patterns the perfect and pluperfect tenses postponing the subject subordinate clauses link words indeclinable adjectives how to pronounce voiced consonants with s. nog. t more phrases for agreeing and disagreeing with people how to use the particles ju. Hon har anmalt sig till en fempoangskurs i Strindbergs dramatik. Fast& hon har jobbat & l&rt med spr&et hela sommaren har hon &di svlirt att forsd . Hon har kdpt ett kollegieblock och en parm i Akademibokhandeln och har tagit med sig en svensk-engelsk ordbok if'all hon behover sli upp ndgra svka ord.

r eftersom hon har last ' m t e r Olof tidigare. dare ord -et -. L2raren blir imponerad av hemes kunskaper och frigar varifrhn hon kommer. the 'Miister Olof. n2r hon har s a l t sig i kaffekon. although k6 -n -er. difficult v5gal -r -de. easy sli/ -r slog upp. follow Akademibokhandel -n. place oneselc liirla -de klnna. folder filjla -er -de med. take notes kollegieblock -et -. lecture room imponerad -t -de. in case liitt -a. Nu har lararen komrnit in. work permit oneself d l c o r .language litteratur -en -er. knowledge rast -en -er. lit. go up to par -et -. Mot slutet vlgar hon stiilla en friga. swim kunskap -en -er. drama antecknal -r -de.stockholmama. sunbathe stiillla -er -de sig. och cW3r har hon inte haft d mycket pengar heller. Vocabulary kurs -en -er. break sold -r -de sig. P i rasten. ask a question ett trettiotal. De andra studenterna bojar titta intresserat p i henne. get to know here:join iinnu. register. The complete pattern of regular tense endings for conjugations I-IV is as follo~vs: . word stiilUa -er -de en friga. about thirty fdrellsningssal -en -ar.couple iindi.Stockholmer anmllla -er -de sig.78. impressed b a d d -r -de. yet fastiin. end svir -t -a. note pad A i t i g t . nevertheless -- - - Verb patterns Some verb patterns are found on p. if. assiduously piirm -en -ar. literature stockholmare -n -. har hon inte kunnat arbeta i Sverige. queue jobbal -r -de. Master Olof (play by university bookshop Strindberg) ordbok -en -biicker. five week course heller. this is why fempoiingskurs. work kommta -er kom fram till. course sprik -et -. dictionary tidigare. earlier ifall. Eftersom hon inte har d t t arbetstillsthd. either dramatik -en. enrol arbetstillstind -et -. kommer ett par av dem fram till heme och b6jar prata. Rebecca tycker att det 2 ganska latt att fdlja med. look up slut -et. Forelasningen har borjat och alla antecknar flitigt.

The supine is an unchanging form which corresponds to the past participle in most European languages.e. As you can see from the examples. Perfect and pluperfect tenses VERB. I1 and 111 are sometimes called 'weak' verbs .drack (cf. drink . bar is and the supine is VERB^). The perfect tense is formed by the verb har + the supine (i. Swedish . -t). -s. No ending. skrev -/a hjllpa -vowel/ (not-a) SY (sew) IV consonant/ -/a sytt -/it skriv (write) skriva skriver skrivit Conjugations I.Imperative In$nitive (= stenl) I -a/ . Present Past Supine -a/t parkerat -It byg% -It hj2lpt -It t -a/ parkera parkera (Park) IIa -consonant/ -/a by= bygga (build) IIb -consonant/ hjnp (help) I11 -vowel/ (not-a) SY -a/r -a/de parkerar parkerade -/er bygger -/er hjllper -1r sYr -/er % -/de byggde -/te hjllpte -/dde sydde Change of stem vowel. Conjugation IIa verbs have stems ending in a voiced consonant.drank). IIb verbs have stems ending in an unvoiced consonant (-k. whilst Conjugation IV verbs are 'strong' verbs they form their past tense by changing the stem vowel: dricka . this is a distinction also found in English. park . -p.parked).parkerade (cf.they form their past tense by adding an ending: parkera .

6 Hon har s a l t sig i ktm. Hon hade skrivit ett brev. 4 De har b6j a t titta p henne.supines always end in --but vary slightly in form according to -. Exercise 1 Change the verb into the past tense: 1Rebecca har anmat sig till en kurs. Exercise 2 Change the verb into the perfect tense: 1 Studenterna pratar om semestern. 5 Hon st2ller en frhga. Har du inte skrivlit brevet? -t -t -t -tt -it The pluperfect tense is formed by using hade + supine: Vi hade parkerat bilen. 4 Hon behbver slH upp nhgra ord. . 3 Hon har l&-t k&ma nigra studenter. 8 Hon skriver brev. Hon har syltt gardinerna. De bar bygglt en stuga. 6 Han frhgar henne om Strindberg. Jag har hjilplt dem. --t conjugatio'ii: Imperative (= stem) Perfect w a r + supine) Supine ending I IIa 1% I11 IV Parkera bilen! Bygg en stuga! Hjily dem! Sy gardiner! Skriv brevet! Vi har parkeralt bilen. H 5 Det har varit liltt. These tenses are employed in much the same way as in English. De hade byggt en stuga. De sytt gardiner. 2 Won har k6pt ett kollegieblock. 3 Rebecca vhgar salla en frAga. Jag hade hjiilpt dem. 2 De antecknar flitigt. 7 Hon tycker att det & whrt.

This happens in both English and Swedish. but it has then to be replaced as subject with a formal subject (FS). where the complement or object might go. whilst English only permits the verb 'to be': Det bor 8 miljoner mgnniskor i Sverige. RS Det sitter FS ndgon i kiiket. Postponing the subject When a completely new idea is introduced this idea is usually postponed. Notice that this construction is very frequent in questions. ett spr* en kurs. moved towards the end of the sentence. en sommar.e. FS VERB ADV RS PLACE The major difference between Swedish and. en ordbok. RS Someone is sitting in the kitchen. In Swedish the formal subject is always det. Notice that in Swedish the real subject is always moved to the right of the verb. Att lira sig svenska Iir 1itt. RS FS B RS Learning Swedish is easy. en stockholmare. Det sitter ofta studenter p i biblioteket. ett kollegieblock. i. One of the most frequent verbs used is finnas (be. when the formal subject comes immediately before the real subject: . Ndgon sitter i kiiket. en Rireltkning. exist): Det finns briid i skipet. English is that any intransitive verb may be used in Swedish constructions of this kind. Det Iir litt att lira sig menska. There is someone sitting in the kitchen. en fdga.Exercise 3 Give the form with end article plural of the following nouns: ett kraftverk. en rnilj6vih. ett ord. In English it is 'there' or 'it' depending on the type of postponed or real R) subject ( S . It is easy to learn Swedish. There is bread in the cupboard. There are 8 million people living in Sweden.

and n l r Erik kommer is a clause. so make sentences of the following groups. kommer ett par studenter fram. VERB SUBJ Fastdn hon har jobbat hdrt. eflersom hon har ZKFt boken.e. ndr Erik kommer. Verb Adverb Object MPT-expression kl 8. but then the subject and verb in the main clause must be inverted: Nar hon har stallt sig i kiin. Hon har tagit ed en ordbok ifall hon behlSver slii upp ndgra ord 'Y Clauses like this can be moved to the front just like other MPTexpressions. Sentences containing a clause of this kind are: Rebecca har lltt f6r det. they are: MPTexpression. Vi Vi lter liter ju ju middag middag The words in italics are both MPT-expressions but kl 8 is a noun phrase (NP). i.Finns det inget 6l hemma? VERB FS RS Is there no beer in the house? Exercise 4 It is unusual to begin a sentence with an indefinite noun phrase. inserting a formal subject: 1 ett konditoril liggerl vid kanalen 2 ett tAg/ till Goteborgf g b l kl dtta 3 en liirarel kommerl hit till Rebecca 4 mhnga studenterl sthrl i k6n 5 en miljon bockerl finnsl ph universitetsbiblioteket Sub(ordinate) clauses Subordinate clauses or sub clauses are groups of words which include a verb and form part of a main clause sentence. har VERB hon svirt att Erst& SUBJ . subject or object.

t W om (whether) which introduces indirect yes1110 questions: De frfigade henne om hon hade last boken tidigare.101) which is part of the clause. 6. The most frequent of these are: att (that) which introduces indirect speech: Rebecca sa d hon hade I boken. With clauses denoting concession: fast@) although Fastiin hon harjobbat hdrt har hon svirt att %rst% Sub clauses are often placed either at the beginning or end of the sentence.Link words Sub clauses usually begin with a link word (subordinating conjunction. afier medan while innan before Vi fikar innan vi gdrpdf6reldsningen. With clauses denoting cause: f i r att eftersom di%rf3r att because because because " Hon har inte kunnat arbeta eflersom hon inte harfrP# arbetshshlIstdnd With clauses denoting condition: Hon kunde ha solat sig om hon hade huffpengar. p. and the link word may therefore introduce the sentence: . Link words introducing clauses which are MPT-expressions: With clauses denoting time: n2irIdUsedan when.

lent me last week " However. Ett trettital studenter sitter dar. 1 nor Rebecca kommer in i salen. The queue that she joined was long. Ifall du ar sn&llfiir du glass. Jag har svhrt att folja med. Som usually follows a noun . Vi kommer att kunna first5 is a relative pronoun (= who. Eftersom hon har studerat svenska tidigare kan hon fdrstii Ilraren. which'): Det var en bok som hon hade linat It was a book that she had mig fdrra veckan. but notice: Att immediately follows a verb conjunction. beginning with the link word in italics. as with 'that' or 'which' in English.135. Som is also used in emphatic constructions (see p. 5 faston Jag har last boken tidigare. 2 ifall D behover s l i upp nigra is a link word (subordinating Jag sa att hon talade bra svenska. D &te ha en ordbok.Du fhr glass ifall du dr snail. SUB CLAUSE SUB CLAUSE Hon kan first&llraren eftersom hon har studeraf svenska tidigare. I said that she spoke good Swedish. 4 om Vi jobbar h&. perceiving: . u u 3 effesom Hon stiiller en frAga. thinking. Exercise 5 Form one sentence from the words below. Somlatt Both som and att translate English 'that7. som is often omitted when it is not the subject and att is often omitted in speech after verbs of saying. = 'who. NAgra kommer fram och pratar med henne. which): Ken som hon stillde sig i var ling. = 'that'): . Both introduce a new clause.

Give the correct 'indefinite form of the adjective: 1 PA posten i& man ett (gratis = 'free') vykort.Den sirenska (som) hon talade hade The Swedish (that) she spoke hon IZIrt sig i England she had learnt in England. She said (that) it was not funny. 5 Hon har k6pt ett (stor) . Exercise 6 a good while a medieval castle Work was over for the day. Jag slog fcl nummer. Indeclinable adjectives Adjectives usually agree with the noun they qualify (see also p. The window is broken. 4 De studerar ett H (samtida = 'contemporary') drama. These are of four kinds: old-fashioned furniture a middle-aged assistant a nervous child a deserted house a foreign language Exception: those in -as: ett nervast barn 2 Adjectives ending in -e: ett iide hus ett friimmande sprik This group includes all preseni participles in -(a)nde or -ende (often used as adjectives. 2 Man i& (god) bakelser p konditoriet. see p.186): a growing interest ett viixande intresse 3 Adjectives ending in -a: ett bra tag ett medeltida slott 4 Others: Arbetet var slut Gr dagen. 3 Det k ett (bra) konditori. I dialled the wrong number. Fanstret fir siinder.62): ett stort hus huset fir stort 1 Adjectives ending in -s: gammaldags mabler ett medelAlders bitrfide roliga historier historierna var roliga But a small group of adjectives add no endings. Hon sa (att) det inte var roligt.

pron. Giir det nilgot om jag roker. 8 Goteborg har ett ( i )konstmuseum. det stammer Yes.kollegieblock. 6 De tittade p heme med (&a = 'genuine') intresse. H REBECCA: det stAmmer. Vi dtter oss iW o r t a diir det iir irlHtet. that's right Rebecca is talking to two newpiends at Stockholm University PERNILLA: vi slH oss ner h & Ska i? HEN=: Nej. hk 6J snap$ MY)) pron. Ja. pron. Notice the following cases: d > t: g > k: v > f: b > p: onsdag hur dags? vilken slags? livstid till havs substantiv asbest pron. t and voiced consonants Before or after s the pronunciation of some consonants often changes from voiced to voiceless. Hiir f b man ju inte riika. . fn Pronunciation 8 a s. helst inte. pron. osta hur daklc sl& liffstid till haff sumstant@ aspest (what time?) (what kind?) (lifetime) (to sea> (noun) (asbestos) This also happens before t: g > k: b > p: h6gt sagt snabbt gron. Nej. (said) (quickly) Dialogue 8 m Ja. Rebecca? REBECCA: fdr all del. . pron. 7 H Det L ett (fi8mmmde) ord. HENRIK: S du kommer f r h England.

line hiirla h8r -de. by all means anonym -t studera rad -en -er. Vocabu/ary B slil -r slog sig ner. fall in love with someone sitt -et -. Studenterna har W i g e n mycket kontakt med varandra. anonymous f i r e d r d -r -drog nigot.HENRIK: Vad tycker du om Stockholm universitet dd? REBECCA: Jag vet inte.boy = pojke lural -r -de. each other jlttebra. Jag fdredrar nog England. allowed G8r det nigot?. hear kille -n -ar (colloquial). PERNILLA: och det btista stlttet att l&ra sig svenska iir att bli kilr i en Nej. Visst g6r hon. Jag hade aldrig hart eller last svenska. prefer something to framfiir nigot annat. jag hade t r s a t en svensk kille. Hur liinge har du pluggat svenska? REBECCA: TVh d PERNILLA: Men dh hade du vid student lite svenska innan du biirjade. terrific Visst giir hon?. agree with someone Det iir inte s i farligt. sit down sPttla -er satte sig. something else hHlYa -er h611 med nigon. HENRTK: h g r a r du dig dh? REBECCA: Nej. Henrik! Och DU Strindberg har du redan Iat. inte sant Henrik? HENRIK: Jo. HENRIK: Ja. fool someone i n g r d -r -de sig. men Nej. verkd -r -de. precis. It's not so bad. sit down tillitet. Doesn't she though? pluggd -r -de (colloquial). REBECCA: inte en rad. svensk. Det L hemskt stort och anonymt. Han lurade rnig att llsa svenska. regret inte ett dugg. PERNIUA: pratar jattebra svenska. inte ett dugg. seem varandra. Does it matter? f i r all del. men det L inte d farligt som det verkar h k .way - . jag hdller med dig. not a bit bli k l r i nigon.

of course'. Nor me. . Precis. I don't agree with you (about that).' Here are some other useful phrases: Det stgmmer. Det i r fel. of course not. .. That's wrong.. You hope the listener will ag = . Absolutely! Quite! You are quite right. . I hope. . nog. Det tycker jag inte. 'No. fir all dcl. disagreement: Inte alls. I agree (with you). 'No. Ja. Inte sant? Nej. but. probably. . 'Isn't that right Henrik?'. Yes.95. That's right. doubt: Nja MiijligenIKanske. I suppose'. In the dialogue find phrases meaning roughly: 'Yes. I don't think so.. Exactly. namligen These are unstressed adverbs which indicate the attitude of the speaker to the listener: ju = 'you know.More phrases for agreeing and disagreeing with people See also p. that's correct'.. Jag hiller inte med dig om detta. . v%I 'surely. You expect the listener to agree or be familiar with what you are saying: DHr kommer ju Pelle! nog = 'presumably. I daresay'. Visst inte. . val. Absolut! Just det! Det har du r i t t i. not at all'. 'Yes. Of course not. Not at all. ska du se. Isn't that so? No. I expect. not a bit'. You inject a note of doubt: Det g i r nog bra. 'I agree (with you). Inte jag helter. men. PossiblyE'erhaps. Ju. exactly9. agreement: . Jag hiller med dig.. . Well .

not at all. P i midsommarafton iiter man ofia . Midsommar firar man en fredag i juni. aren't they Rebecca? 5 Yes. you see. As you know. bilen och Wkan med blommor och 16v. if you have read a bit before you come to Sweden you can understand the Swedes. but Rebecca has been working hard. You are saying something new. Flickorna binder blomsterkransar som de biir p i huvudet.Du Ilr v3l inte sjuk? nitmligen = 'you understand. Compare: Du mPste komma idag. 3 Afterwards a couple of the students ask where she comes from and how long she has studied Swedish. Imorgon i r jag nIlmligen borta. 9 I agree with you that it's anonymous and I really prefer Bradford. You must come today. M h g a flyr staden den helgen och Ptker ut p i landet. I am away tomorrow. 2 She had brought to the lecture a pad that she bought at the bookshop. Imorgon itr jag ju i Uppsala You must comes today as I shall be in Uppsala tomorrow. Dalarna iir irskilt popul&t. P i midsommarafton pryder folk huset. P eftermiddagen reser man majshgen mitt i byn. Factual text 8 Midsommar Midsummer m Kring midsommar har man korta ljusa n$itter och i norra Sverige kan man se midnattssolen. you see'. 7 Is it as bad as it seems in Stockholm? 8 No. Du mPste komma idag. 10 Falling in love with a Swedish boy is the best way of getting to know the country. och p i kviillen och natten fofitter man att dansa p i en loge eller en brygga. translate into Swedish: 1 All summer the others have been sunning themselves. 6 But. Sedan blir A det dans kring stingen. that's right. 4 Swedish teachers are awfully difficult to understand. Exercise 7 To see what you have learned from Lesson 8 so far.

traditionella riltter: sill och kkpotatis med dill, och till efterr"dtt nyplockade jordgubbar. Om en ung flicka vill veta vem hon ska gifta sig med ska hon g ut p5 en h g p!l midsommarnatten, plocka sju A sorters blommor och stoppa dem under kudden. Di driimmer hon alltid om den blivande brudgurnmen. En annan &er metod L att iita en saltsill (den s.k. 'dromsillen').

kort -a, short ljus -t -a, light fird -r -de, celebrate prydla -er -de, decorate blomsterkrans -en -ar, flower garland helg -en sr, weekend, holiday majstHng -en -stinger, maypole biirla -bar, cany; here: wear


loge -n -ar, barn brygga -n-or, jetty sill -en, herring efterriitt -en s r , sweet course jordgubbe -n -ar, strawbeny iing -en -ar, meadow kudde -n -ar, pillow den blivande brudgummen, her bridegroom-to-be

Exercise 8

Siitt ett kryss i rutan:

(Place a cross in the box)
I hela Sverige ser man midnattssolen kring midsommar.

rgtt (right)

fel (wrong)

Midsommarafton firas alltid p i en fredag. Man arbetar inte p i midsommarafion. M b g a &er ut p5 landsbygden iiver midsommar. Man brukar resa majsthgen p i en loge eller brygga. Kring dingen dansar man. Om en flicka vill veta vem hon ska gifta sig med plockar hon jordgubbar och stoppar dem under kudden. Saltsill k en traditionell e t vid midsommar. t

Flickor atter kransar p l huvudet.

Om man 8ter saltsill driimmer man om den blivande brudgummen.

9 Sven miidde illa
Sven felt sick

In this lesson we will look at: weak conjugations (I, 1, Ill) of verbs and the past tense 1 definite adjective forms emphatic constructions expressions of time avoiding intrusive r in pronunciation how to express likes and dislikes the pronouns $Man, nagon, ingen, etc. Gustav ~ a s - the founder of Sweden a

Text 9 Ul

Sven mddde illa
Sven felt sick

En lCirdagskviil1ordnade dgra av studenterna en fest. Det var Pernilla som kom p idin och som samlade in pengar av dem som skulle vara A med. Men det var Erik och Sven som Akte ner p staden f i r att handla. A De kopte olika sorters ostar, h h t brod, franskbrtkl och smor, ett par burkar sill och lite korv. Sedan valde de bland frukten. De grUna applena passade till appelkaka, de saftiga persikorna var billiga och de b l h druv~mbehovde till osten. De hittade inga bananer. de 61 och sprit skaffade de pi3 Systemet. Skulle de servera danskt b9vin och svenskt 01 eller %@an?Erik ville ha dansk s men Sven fdredrog renat. Till slut kopte de 'Skhne', en kompromiss. De gliimde kiipa gappersservetter och stearinljus, d de stannade vid ett

n2rljppet p i hemvagen. Eftersom de betalade med kreditkort markte de I'nte hur dyrt det blev. Hemma hos Sven dukade de p i det stora bordet i kljket. De pp& .c glasen med de lila servetterna och t&de de smi stearinljusen. KIockan halv nio borjade gasterna $&da och klockan tio hade alla kommit. De pratade och dansade, lyssnade p i musik och smakade p l den goda maten. Nbta morgon d d d e Sven i3r_lk&Jigt illa. Han mhte g i p i toaletten och d2r spydde han. Hans huvud dunkade och h m lovade att han aldrig skulle dricka d g o n alkohol mer e e han levde.

m i l -r -dde illa, feel ill ordnal -r -de, organise fest -en -er, party kom p i idin, had the idea samlal -r -de in, collect franskbriid -et, French bread h i r t briid, crispbread kow -en -ar, sausage 9 viiljla -er valde, choose frukt -en, h i t passal -r -de (till), be suitable (for) saftig -t -a, juicy persika -n -or, peach druva -n -or, grapes banan -en -er, banana sprit -en, spirits skaffal -r -de, get, obtain Systemet = Systembolaget, state-run liquor store seweral -r -de, serve dansk -t -a, Danish svensk -t -8, Swedish tviirtom, vice versa renat, unflavoured schnapps 'Skine', schnapps flavoured with aniseed kompromiss -en -er, compromise gliimmla -er gliimde, forget papperssewett -en -er, paper napkins stearinljus s t -, candle (ett) njiriippet, comer shop (offen open late) kreditkort -et -,credit card miirkla -er -te, notice dukal -r -de, set the table lila (indeclinable),mauve tiindla -er -e, light giist -en -er, guest anliindla -er'-e, arrive (of people) w lyssnal -r -de, listen musik -en, music spy1 -r -dde, be sick dunkal -r -de, pound s r -de, promise alkohol -en, alcohol levla -cr -de, live

Verbs - weak conjugations (I, 11, Ill), past tense
The pattern for verbs given on p. 115 included weak verbs whose past tense (sometimes called imperfect or preterite) endings, as in English (callled, askled), always include a -d or -t:
Injinitive Present Past Supine

I Ha

fraigal l%la trol


frsgalr b~&er 1Wer trolr

frigalde b~gdde lidte troldde

fraigalt bygglt 1Wt troltt

ask build read believe


This group with a stem ending in -a contains two-thirds of all Swedish verbs in the dictionary and a quarter of all verbs in common use as well as all verbs in -era and all new verbs, e.g. loan words: jobba (work), lifta (hitch a lift), parkera (park a car), nationalisera (nationalise), studera (study).
Conjugation 11

As we can see above, Conjugation I1 verbs are divided into two subgroups according to the form of the past tense ending - IIa verbs have -de, IIb verbs have -te. Conjugation IIb verbs all have stems ending in the unvoiced consonants -k, -5, -t or -x: -p,

One or two types of con.ugation 1 verbs have patterns varying 1 slightly from the main pattern (see also r-stem verbs on p.78): Verbs whose stems end in a consonant + -d only add -e in the past tense, and drop the -d in the supine: anvhdta anvhder anvhde anvht

Verbs whose stems end in -mm and -nu drop an -mor -n before adding -de in the past tense (see p.97) and -t in the supine: gliimda klnda gliimder kiinder gliimlde kiidde gliidt kiidt forget feel

Verbs whose stems end in a consonant + -t only add -e in the past tense and drop the -t in the supine: giftla
Conjugation 1.71




mry ar

This is a very small group of verbs whose stems end in a long stressed vowel other than -a. This vowel is shortened before the past tense ending -dde and supine ending -tt:


-y: -6: -8: -11:

ske (occur) tro (believe), bero (depend) avsky (detest), bry (care) str6 (sprinkle) klP (dress) r11 (be able, manage)"

Irregular weak verbs

These verbs do not fit in exactly with any of the patterns seen so far, and they should be learned individually. Some have alternative forms, others have one or more deviations from the main pattern:
InJnitive Present Past Supine

I irr.

betala koka

betalar kokar giir har heter kan

I1 irr.

giira ha heta kunna

betaladel betalte kokadd kokte gjorde hade hette kunde

betalt kokt gjort haft hetat kunnat

pay boil do, make have be called can, be able

3 Vi behtivde druvor till osten. must shall. 6 Sven koper -r osten. . 2 Jag ska kopa brhnvin. 4 Erik ville ha niigon dansk ost. 4 De handlar mat. 5 Skulle de ktipa brhnvin? 6 Sedan Chde de Ijusen. 7 Det kostade mycket. place have to. 12 Gasterna anviinde inte servetterna. 5 De glommer servetterna. 11 Htir du musiken? 12 Jag l k mig svenska. be dii fi ge gi le se sti Exercise 7 llgger miste skaol) siiger siiljer sltter vet vill ber diir fir ger gir ler ser stir la(de) miste skulle sa(de) sillde satte visste ville bad dog fick gav gick log sit! stod la@ mist skolat sa@ silt satt vetat velat bett diitt fitt gett gitt lett sett stitt lay. 7 Vad tycker du om Sverige? 8 Roker du? 9 Det se faktiskt! 10 Jag avskyr persikor. 2 De m e ner pii staden. 13 Gor du det? 14 De satter sig darborta. 11 Han levde liinge. 8 Det blev dyrt. 10 Sven miidde illa. 15 Sager du det? 16 Rebecca stiiller sig i kaffekon. 9 Gatema anliinde.llgga skola slga sllja sltta veta vilja I11 irr. Exercise 2 Change the verbs into the past tense: 1 Vi stannar vid Systemet. 3 Erik valjer dricka. will =Y sell put. place know want ask die get give go smile see stand Change the verbs into the present tense: 1 Vi ordnade en fest.

+a) and how to use these after certain words (see pp. +t. the adjective nearly always takes the definite ending -a. Swedish has a special construction: the big car den storla billen the big cars de storla bilarlna the big house det storla huslet the big houses de storla huslen Firstly. the noun takes the familiar end article. a form learned already for plural indefinite.Definite adjective forms It is advisable at this stage to revise indefinite adjective forms (-. In effect what happens is that the phrase is marked in three different ways as definite: Def grant article) den det de Adj + Def (definite ending) Noun + Def (end article) maten iilet druvorna goda goda goda This basic pattern is varied somewhat for dBerent kinds of definite declension. Next.62. Revise also the Swedish end article (= 'the') in singular and plural: billen the car huslet the house bilarlna huslen thecars the houses When the noun with end article is combined with an adjective. a new article is added . For the present it is enough to learn this main pattern and just one exception: when this construction is used with a masculine . det or de -known as thefront (or adjectival) article because it always comes at the front (unlike the end article) and because it is only hsed with adjectives. Finally. 83 and 90): en/nigon/ingen/en annan stor bil e#lnigot/ingdlett annat stort hus tvUnigralingalandralalla stora bilarlstora hus etc.den. It is identical to the pronoun 'it' and the demonstrative 'that'.

'. . Note. These constructions are common in questions: k Var det ' ~ r ioch Sven som ikte ner p&staden (och inte Malin)? Var det en 'dansk snaps (som)* Erik ville ha (och inte en svensk)? * seep. .. i.singular noun.. Det var ' ~ r ioch Sven som ikte ner pH staden (och inte Malin). however: 'that' = som: .e.121. with one male person. the -a ending on the adjective is usually changed to -e: the big boy den storle pojlten the tall man den Iihgle mannen In all other cases the -a ending is used de storla pojkarna. de lingla miinnen (masculine plural) den storla flickan (feminine) det storla slottet (neuter) Exercise 3 Change the indefinite phrase into a definite one: Example: en stor bil > den stora bilen ' 1 en trevlig fest 2 en saflig persika 3 ett stort bord 4 god mat 5 ett danskt brhnvin 6 en fin iippelkaka 7 svenskt ti1 8 hArt brtid 9 en ung pojke 10 ett grant apple Emphatic constructions In order to ernphasise a particular phrase equally with other phrases. that phrase (X) may be taken out of the sentence and put into the construction: Det Ir (var) X som just as in the English 'It is (was) X who (that) . . k Det var en 'dansk snaps (som)* Erik ville ha (och inte en svensk).

Patterns for constructing them should emerge from the table: .- Past Seasons. 4 Pratar du d bra svenska? 5 Hr han a l t sig i a kaffekon? 6 Fb man r6ka hdr? 7 Jag firedrar Bradford. Expressions of time (I) Expressions of time are difficult because of the different kind of prepositional constructions used. the day before yesterday Parts of the day today i morse (earlier) this morning p i morgonen in the morning(s) nu p morgonen H this morning imorgon bitti tomorrow morning . i iivermorgon tomorrow. 8 L m e n blir imponerad av hennes kunskaper.Exercise 4 Make emphatic constructions. i Grrglr p i siindagarna on Sundays idag p i siindag next Sunday imorgon. 2 Hun lurade henne att llsa svenska. the day after tomorrow yesterday. 3 Hon kommer f r h England. festivals Habitual Present Future Fiirra vPren/i viras last spring i julas p% viren i vir in the spring p i julen/ jularna at Xmas this spring i jul next spring i juUnista jul last Xmas Days this Xmas next Xmas i siindags last Sunday igHr. stressing the word@)in italics: 1 Pernilla L kiir i Henrik.

This extra -r.sounds ugly in Swedish and must be avoided.between two vowels in adjacent words: Afvica(r) and Asia. 3 Next spring they are going to England. nilsta i r (later) this year next year i januari next January What is the Swedish for: 1Tomorrow I shall read Strindberg. 2 Yesterday we bought food for the party. Practise saying the following without an intrusive -r-. drama(r) and music.i eftermiddags p i eftermiddagen (earlier) this in the afternoon afternoons igir kvall nu p i eftermiddagen this afternoon ikvill i eftermiddag (later) this afternoon imorgon kvIll yesterday evening p i kvillled kvilllarna in the evening(s) pB natted niltterna at night this evening i natt tomorrow evening i natt i natt last night Years. 4 In the evening we usually watch TV. f6rra lret last year i januari last January Exercise 5 iir this year i januari in January i januari this January i Br. months tonight (later) tonight i fjol. 5 On Tuesday I shall start a new course. simply gliding from one vowel to another: . 6 Next June you can see the Midnight Sun. an area(r) of disagreement. 7 Last Christmas I was at home. Pronunciation 9 Vowe1 hiatus English speakers often insert an unnecessary -r.

. SVEN:SAdana diir grona iipplen k goda. SVEN:Ja. Jag iilskar druvor. ERIK: Gillar du pr -? o SVEN:Nej. Det k viil inte d noga. SVEN:Det struntarjag i. De sitter pQn buss. They are trying to find a taxi. Lite av varje. Och en klase vindruvor. Tjejerna kan glira appelkaka. It was often on a Friday. You must remember that. frukt. C-i.= = a . Det ska bli kul ikviill. They are sitting on a bus. of course. SVEN: p p l e n a tjejerna? ~ eller ERIK: Det var applenajag W e pi%. not at all a little extra a little of everything They could allow themselves a little extra luxury. Vi tar druvorna. vad ska vi handla f i r dA? ERIK: Ost. One can read a book. De bor p i s t t litet hotell. brod. . Dialogue 9 m Hi there! Erik and Sven are planning a party ERIK: Tjware Sven! SVEN:TjMare. Sgdana ska vi ha. jag avskyr det luddiga skalet. Det var oftasn fredag. ERIK: De tir riitt dyra. They live at a small hotel.inteyalls litesra lite2v varje De kundeznna sig litevegtra lyx. Hur L llget? ERIK: Jod%hyfsat. Some of them want to tell us it. Man kan ju l k a s n bok Det miste du kommaJhig. De f"ors6ker hittazn t a d N i t g r a y dem ville talazm det f"oross.

& det fest sii k det. guess Ar det fest . fun kZk -et (colloquial)= mat. Vocabulary tjznare!.' Here are some phrases for expressing likes and dislikes: Likes tycWa -er -te om gilld -r -de alskd -r -de like like love Dislikes tycWa -er -te inte om ogilld -r -de h a t d -r -de avskyl -r -dde dislike dislike hate detest Notice the different word order in: Jag har aldrig sett en sidan riira! I have never seen such a mess. flu@. coffee filter mandel -n mandlar.= Om det iir fest . meaning roughly: 'It doesn't really matter'. downy skal -et.E m : Det k inte du som bestlimmer. ost.. almond gissd -r -de. decide rQkd-r -de. shell. here: skin bestiimm/a -er -de. happen melittafilter. . a bit of everythmg tjej -en -er (colloquial)= flicks. hi ! Hur iir IHget? How are things? hyfsat. Expressing likes and dislikes In the dialogue find three phrases expressing indifference. briid. bunch luddig -t -a. not so bad kul = roligt. See also 'Expressing likes and dislikes' below. Var det allt? SVEN:Det var det nog. E m : Gissa vad detxar kostat! SVEN:Nej. Det spelar ingen roll. Och jag har ingen mandel till 2ppelkakan. Frukt.. . girl klase -n -ar. Vi kiiper nigra p m efiersom jag &ar tycka om dem. E m : Har du nhgot kaffe hemrna? SVEN:Nej. 'I'm not bothered about that. och inga melittafilter. food lite av varje. . det har jag inte.

Kan nigon sIga vad som har Can anyone say what has hint? happened? Nigot can mean 'something/anythingY when used by itself: Hdrde du nigot? Did you hear anything? Pronunciation is often: nin. Nigon etc. nit. inget. can go with a noun: Det var ingen dum id& De hittade inga banancr. Har du nigon? We haven't any cheese in the house. They didn't find any bananas. one like that' etc. t &a. . and is often used in questions: Have you got any beer in the house? Finns det n&on skola i byn? Is there a school in the village? Has she got a brother? Har hon nigon bror? Erik ville ha nigon dansk sort. can go with a noun. Sidan + hIr/dIr = 'thidthat kind of. . I want a bunch of grapes like this.. : En sidan hiir klase druvor vill jag ha. inga Ingen etc. I . -TV Det var en sidan vacker dag! It was such a beautiful day. nAra. That's not a bad idea. Pronunciation is often: & h. can also be used with a negative or by itself: Vi har inte nigon ost hemma. Erik wanted a Danish sort. Har du nigot iil hemma? Nigon etc. Ingen. Someone has forgotten their gloves. Do you have any? Nigon can mean 'someonelanyone' when used by itself: Nigon har gliimt sina handskar.

namnet. On your way out you might get things that don't keep so well from the section marked mejerivaror.Jag har inget kaffe hemma. frukt. men det var inga df r. Inget/ingenting means 'nothing': Jag letade men fann inget/ ingenting. none' when used by itself Jag kiinner ingen med det I know no one by that name. Can I have a glass of wine? We have none. drycker and konserver. 7 Someone has forgotten the napkins. but none were there. I wanted to meet the students. men jag hade inga. Ingen can mean 'no one. 2 Have you any apples? 3 Yes. Han ville l k a pengar. griinsaker. kiitt. 5 Shall we buy some beer? 6 We don't have any in the house. What is the Swedish for: 1I like grapes like those. Exercise 6 I looked but found nothing. Jag ville trWa studenterna. Can you guess what these are in English? . perhaps some smiir. but they didn't have any. can also be used by itself: Kan jag fii ett glas vin? Vi har inget. mjiilk or filmjiilk and something from the section marked djupfryst. He wanted to borrow money. some fiskpinnar perhaps for the children? If you have only a few items you can go through the snabbkassa (hiigst 5 varor). Ingen etc. 4 She tried to buy some cheese. but we don't have any peaches. but I had none. 8 But you are not drinking anything! 9 It was such a nice party! Exercise 7 When you are in the supermarket you may need to visit the following parts of the store to buy some things for the evening meal: briid. I have no coffee in the house.

De gjorde flera uppror. chase out regeringstid -en -er. cany through beriival -r -de. trade enal -r -de. Vocabulary firenad -t -de. displeased skatt -en -er. power genomfirla -fir -de. tax grym -t -ma. deprive adelsman -nen -m5n. unionstiden). overthrow handel -n. i 1520 startade Gustav Vasa ett befrielsekrig i h Dalarna och n2r han till slut jagat danskarna ur landet. Men bide bander och adelsmlin var missnojda med Gustav Vasa. introducerade Luthers idter och ber6vade den katolska kyrkan dess makt och dess enorma rikedomar. Men svenskarna ville befria sig fib dansk dominans.247) jagal -r -de ut. Han enade Sverige till en modem nationalstat med stark central byrkati. when he had fmally (this ellipsis is common in written Swedish. see p.-. Under en l h g regeringstid skapade Gustav Vasa en stark kungarnakt. De tyckte inte om den nya religionen.k. cruel fogde -n -ar. h 1541 kunde folk I2sa hela Bibeln p i svenska for fdrsta gKngen. revolt stlirtal -r -de. kingdom n i r han till slut = n5r han till slut hade. unite . sheriff uppror st -.Sveriges grundlaggare Gustav Vasa . men de kunde inte st6rta kungen..Factual text 9 Gustav Vasa . blev han vald till konung k 1523.founder of Sweden Under perioden 1389 till 1521 var Sverige firenat med Danmark och Norge i en union (den s. Med hj2lp av Olaus Petri g e n o d r d e han reformationen i Sverige. Gustav Vasa byggde ut handeln med de andra v2steuropeiska liinderna och den svenska ekonomin blornstrade. reign skapal -r -de. och n2r h m dog 1560 blev hans soner kungar i Sverige efter honom. noble(man) missnlijd -t -a. de hags skatterna och de grymma fogdarna. united rike -t -n. create makt -en -er.

. . . . 4 Pengar som betalas till en land f r h f-ande kung eller till staten kallas . . . . . . . . 5 En period CIAen kung regerar heter . 6 Den tid di Luthers idker introducerades i Vtisteuropa heter . . 8 En land i Vtbteuropa iir en. . 7 Ett firsiik att st6rta en kung med villd kallas .Exercise 8 Vaj ord ur Facktext (Factual text) 9: 1 En firening mellan tvA l a d e r kallas . . 2 Den period n k de nordiska lihderna var fiirenade kallas . land. . . . 3 Ett krig for att befria ett dominans heter .

De fick Joakim ntir de &mu var ganska unga. Han d g Eva i en bussk6 och blev genast firdskad i henne. och ntir han var tvfi k fick han en dagisplats. Jan kom till Stockholm och blev d smihingom ingenjor. Jan och Eva skaffade sig inte fler barn. krop. Nu undervisar hon p i hogstadiet. 37 L och sonen Joakim. utan Eva bojade d i utbilda sig till larare i matematik och fysik. Han satt. Eva njijt av att vara hemma hos Joakim som nastan aldrig skrek. stod. 40 Ar. mamma Eva. Text 10 LLlj famf8en Forsberg The Forsberg family Forsbergs iir en ganska vanlig svensk familj. 15 L. Jans foraldrar dog fdr n8gra %r sedan. var byggnadsarbetare i Hiknosand och hans mor var dotter till en bonde i trakten. Joakims farfar. gick och sprang. som best& av pappa Jan. Jans pappa.10 Familjen Forsberg The Forsberg family In this lesson we will look at: strong verbs (Conjugation IV) and how to form their past tense word order in subordinate clauses SIV (subject-inte-verborder in subordinate clauses) ingen and inte nagon expressions of time how to express opinions on people and things Queen Christina and the Swedish Empire 5. men han har .

get an education matematik -en. brother biida. mum farfar farfadern -Eder. train. Joakim. system Kerstin och hennes familj. nursexy uncle mormor (-modern). Vocabulary vanlig -t (pron. daughter byggnadsarbetare -n -. (paternal) aunt sommarlov -et -. cry. teenager tigluffal -r -de. area sii sminingom. pansjongr). consist pappa -n -or. upper classes of secondary school firiilder -n firiildrar. yell krypla -er kriip. grandfather mor modern miidrar. fall in love with njutla -er njiit av. physics undervisa1 -r -de. (maternal) grandmother i telefon. pensioner bro(de)r -n briider. brother or sister. triiEar ofla sina kusiner och morbroder. bus queue bli firllskad i. Karin. parent dii1 -r dog. Evas mamma. (maternal) engineer busskii -n -er. men nu n k han k tonbing vill han stanna i Stockholm eller t%glmEa. dad mamma -n -or. normal. eventually ingenjiir -en -er (pron. building worker trakt -en s r . relative syster -n systrar. maths . (paternal) fysik -en. enjoy skriWa -er skrek. ordinary bestit -r bestod. lever &mu . Faster Kerstin brukade han besoka pB somrnarloven n L han var liten. Det gor o c M Evas tvB broder som bAda f gifta och har barn. som alltsii inte har dgra syskon.en -ar. more utbildal -r -de sig. cousin morbror (-brodern).summer holidays toniring -en -ar.a. mother dotter -n diittrar.hon L pensioniir och bor i naheten. crawl springla -er sprang. go interrailing school fler. sibling kusin -en -er. teach hiigstadi/um -iet. die sllkting. run dagis -et = daghem -met. therefore syskon -et -. och mormor pratar han med i telefon nsstan varje dag. both gift -a7 married alltsi. insjenjQr). on the telephone faster -n fastrar.fortfarande s l w n g a r i Norrland b1. sister pensionlr -en.

? rk 7 Kent k Joakims .81 Erik Kerstin Jan = Eva Rolf = Britt-Marie Joakims sldkt (Joakim's family) ANDEMSON Wlhelm = Karin d.80 Note: fars syster fars bror fars far broden son sons son sons dotter >fester r farbror > farfar > brown > sonsan > sondotter morssyder mom bror mom far system son dotters son dotters dotter Exercise I 1Joakim k Karins .? 3 Joakim k Rolfs . .78 >master > morbror > morfar etc. . as a whole group changes in the same way (like dricka go: hinna. . spricka etc. past tense Strong verbs are those that form their past tense by changing the stem vowel. . .76 Jenny f. . . i-a-u for the verb dricka).g. . .76 d. .).? 9 Nk k Jan &Id? 10 Nk dog Joakims morfar? 11 Nk k Kent flidd? 12Nk dog Joakims farmor? Verbs .? 4 Joakim k Mattias' .3 1 Kent Margareta Mattias f. . but it may well be a help to learn the vowel change patterns (e.of course.strong conjugation (IV).? 5 Vilhelm var Joakims . . The vowel is usually the same for both the infinitive and present. learn the 100 or so strong verbs individually as you come to them. This vowel is often changed again for the supine: in$nitive dricWa present (dricker) past drack supine drucWit past participle (drucken) You may. . . > dotterson > dotterdotter Joakim f. . > systemon etc. slippa.? 6 Ei k Joakims .? 2 Joakim k Kerstins .FOMBERG Nils = Ingrid d. and for the .9 1 f. .? 8 Margareta iir Joakims .

Vowel change patterns (in order of importance . supines in -it. Most strong verbs have present tenses in -er. feel cold creep invite sing enjoy sit run be.some examples only) Infmitive Present Past Supine skriva skrika bli fly@ frysa krypa ju-ii-u bjuda sjunga njuta sitta springa finnas dra blra komma lta vara skriver skriker blir flyger fryser kryper bjuder sjunger njuter sitter springer finns drar ber kommer lter lr skrev skrek blev fliig friis kr6p bjiid sjiing njiit satt sprang fanns drog bar kom It var skrivit skrikit blivit flugit frusit krupit bjudit sjungit njutit suttit sprungit funnits dragit burit kommit ltit varit write yell be. See p. as in the case of dricka above. exist Some other patterns: pull carry come eat be Notice also irregular Conjugation 1 1verbs that change their vowels like 1 strong verbs.supine and past participle (see p. 131. become fly freeze.216). .

Consider the sub clauses in the following main clause sentences: De gifte sig ndr de dnnu var unga. 3 Sven sov l u g e dagen efter festen.g.Exercise 2 By studying the vowel change patterns on p. 7 Han hinner inte med (misses) tiiget. 6 Joakim sticker (goes oJn pb semester. 8 Han kommer inte till stationen i tid. while the end of both clause types is the same: . it becomes immediately obvious that the beginning of the sub clause is ditferent . object or MPTexpression in a larger main clause sentence (see pp. 4 De sjunger (sing) hela hiillen. Hon 3lskade barnet som aldrig skrek De sa aft det inte var varmt i sjcin. 1Mormor lider (suSfers) av reurnatism. 6 Han sAg heme i en bussko.. 2 Pojkarna gav ut (spenf) fdr mycket pengar. Word order in sub(ordinate) clauses A sub clause is a group of words containing a verb that is usually the subject. 146 above try to predict the changes.59 and 74). 2 De springer fdr livet. 1 M h g a dog av alkoholism. 7 Han teg (was silent) om festen. som etc. Change the strong verb from past to present. om. E the i n t e d pattkrn of these sub clauses is analysed. 3 Karin skryter (boasts) om sin familj. Vi friigade om det aldrig hade regnat i h e n .131 @I irregular) and 146 try to predict the changes. Change the strong verb from present to past. 4 At gsterna upp druvorna? 5 Eva fick inga fler barn. 5 Sven sitter pb soffan. 8 De satt i koket.119-20) and usually begins with a link word (subordinating conjunction) e. att. Exercise 3 By studying the vowel change patterns on pp.from that of the main clause (see pp.

alltid. subject . Compare the main clause. SUB CLAUSE CONTEXT SIV (subject. in the sub clause always comes immediately before VERB. ju. Compare the main clause which even in statements often has inverted word order. the advert. in fact. 2 The sub clause nearly always has straight word order: subject verb. where inte represents all adverbs of this kind (aldrig. egentligen efc. i iiknen. They As can be seen in the examples in always come immediately aJer -1.) and verb = -1. a distinguishingfeature of the sub clause.Link Subject Adverb (Conjunction) Verbl Verbz Obj/ MPTComp expression .45 and 59.verb..att . which can begin with any part of the sentence.som - det det ginnu aldrig inte aldrig var skrek. n de .e.. verb) Adverbs in the main clause were discussed on pp. Distinguishing features of the sub clause: 1 The sub clause begins with a link word (conjunction). i.. Comuare the following sentences: . This ut is very hard to remember for learners. var hade regnat unga.. gifte de sig. - varmt i sj6n. One rather simplified way of remembering the order is the mnemonic: SIV (actually a Swedish girl's name). who m s be aware the whole time of what kind of clause they are dealing with. and this is.inte . inte. 2 above. The part of the main clause sentence that is not the sub clause is called the context: De gipe s g n%rde ginnu var ganska unga i CONTEXT SUBCLAUSE NSir de ginnu var unga..

But inte nigon etc. . = De fick inte nigon middag. adjusting the word order. . VERB1 ADV Sub clause: Bill sllger. att Jans pappa var stockholmare. . Hans gamla mor lever &mu. . Bill stiger. . Han k inte sjuk. . Jan har fortfarande slddngar i Norrland. Han blev genast fdralskad i henne. 1 Sven sager att . With simple tenses (present or past) ingen (inget. Bill kan aldrig ta taxi. Han sayatt han drack sprit. 4 Jag frhgar om . Joakim har allts%flera kusiner. a. . . Exercise 5 Make the hvo phrases into one sentence. inga) and inte nigon (inte nigot. rather than ingen etc. must be used: 1 in a main clause with a complex tense (perfect. Han undrar. 1 2 3 4 5 inte aldrig alltid dntligen ocksd Han sa. . om hon trflar sina kusiner. ADV VERB1 Remember: Exercise 4 s I v Insert the adverb provided in the sub clause. pluperfect or with an auxiliary verb or particle verb) 2 as the object of a sub clause. . om han hade varit fdriilskad i henne. Hon undrade. Ingen sa nigot. .Main clause: Bill tar aldrig taxi. 3 Vi undrar om (wonder whether) . inte nigra) are alternatives as subject or object: De fick ingen middag. att han aldrig kan ta taxi. 5 Eva ftirklarar att . kunde Eva b8rja utbilda sig. 2 Jan fdrklarar (explains)att . N k han fick dagisplats. att han aldrig tar taxi.

Then change the tense of the verbs below to perfect. 3 De drack inget k a e . complex verb sub clause. tre ginger i minutenli veckan tre ginger om dagenlom iret tre ginger per i r De reser dit ont en timme.7 De bjod inga flickor. 131. Han drack ingen sprit igh. . 1Jag fdrklarade att . . 4 Det blev ingen fest.Compare these sentences with those above: De har inte fitt niigon middag. main clause. Expressions of time (2) Prepositions used in time expressions denoting duration and frequency are confusing for English-speakers. 5 Vi gjorde ingenting. . Exercise 6 First revise the supines of strong verbs on p. . De ska inte f i nigon middag. 2 De fick inga fler barn. Det finns inga illgar i Stockholm. Han har inga syskon. but keep to the same tense. 8 Han slig inga illgar. . Det finns inget kaBe hemma. He left six months ago. . 3 Joakim ager. Notice the following expressions and compare with English: Han slutadefir ett halvir sedan. complex verb main clause. De hade inga bananer. . nhtans. att . att . . 2 Olle undrar om . 146 above and the forms of irregular verbs on p. 6 Hon skrev inga brev. 5 Olle undrar om . Han siiger. att de inte har fitt nigon middag. 4 Bitriidet sa. three times a minutela week three times a dayla year three times per year They will be going there in an hour('s time). . . 1 De lit inga persikor. Exercise 7 Make the two phrases into one sentence. . Note: position of inte accords with SIV! Note: see similar use of: ingenting and inte niigontiig (nothing) ingenstans and inte niigonstans (nowhere) Niigontiig and niigonstans are often pronounced: nhting.

Och du sjalv? Hr var det p festen hiiromkvallen? Tack u A EVA: Det var valdigt trevligt. Vi miste bjuda hem dem snart.De reser ditpd en timme. det var ju tr&igt. mormor i telefon! Halli ja. Din EVA: Ja. Det var evigheter sedan. . Han har inte bott d3rpb ett k. Botten faktiskt. Hon tycker uppenbarligen att jag iir sjlilvs&er och mallig. n L jag pratade med heme i morse. They will be travelling for an hour. Han har bott dlr i ett Pr. S dum jag iir! Du ffu halsa henne d A mycket. naturligtvis. Morsan. den var urdilig. Hej mamma. verkligen roligt. MORMOR: ja. Fir jag tala med mamma ett tag? Jaha. Dialogue 10 m Det war valdigt trevligt It was really nice Eva 's mother phones up MORMOR: Joakim. He hasn't lived there for a year. MORMOR: dig inte om det! Britt-Marie vet att du har mycket om Bry dig och kring dig. Det var enormt mycket folk a Vi hade . Hur st& det till med dig? Hej JOAKIM: Skapligt. Fantastiskt god mat. ett ogonblick. intressanta manniskor. EVA: Margareta daremot var ratt snorkig. De reser i en timme. MORMOR: hiirde att du var p i bio igk. MORMOR: i synd! Jag hade hort att den var s i skojig. S JOAKIM:Den var barnslig ocklingtriikig. MORMOR: i trevligt! I 6vermorgon ska jag fdrresten t r E a Britt-Marie. Och de som jamt har varit s i hyggliga mot Joakim. H r har du det? u EVA: MORMOR: bra. Var det en bra film? Jag JOAKIM:Nej. He has lived there for a year. JOAKIM: Jadb. S EVA: Vilken Britt-Marie? MORMOR: svdgerska d klart. They will take an hour to get there.

childish lingtrikig -t -a. 'of course'. These usually just mean 'to a very high degree': . Skiit om dig och hBlsa Jan! Hej db mamma. 'how nice!'. teacher at comprehensive school matte = matematik avundsvlrld -t -da. enjoy oneself svlgerska -n -or. superior (negative) uppenbarligen.? How are things. sure (thing) morsa = mor hlromkvlllen. iir det d avundsv%rt? Vocabulary H u r s t i r det till . boring botten. fun barnslig -t -a. cinema skojig -t -a. envious Aktuellt.MORMOR: Hon iir b a a avundsjuk. 'don't worry about it7. Grundskolelarare i matte. the day after tomorrow si klart. Tack f i r att du ringde. ages bryl -r -dde sig om. Nej. 'thanks for ringing'. .96). . often somewhat slangy. sister-in-law i tivermorgon. have a lot on your plate dlremot. eternity. be very busy. . look after oneself grundskolellrare -n -.' 'really nice'. have fun. In colloquial. a shame jadi. lingtrilcig etc. In the dialogue there are a number of adjectives describing opinions: urdilig.? skapligt. the other night intressant -a. of course. 'give my love to Jan'. give someone your regards evighet -en -er. interesting ha roligt. Det har ju gbtt sb bra fdr dig. enviable - Opinions on people and things In the dialogue find phrases meaning: 'that's a shame. also amplifiersp. nu EVA: ska jag se pb Aktuellt. 'how are you?'. awfil trikigt. on the other hand snorkig -t -a. wonylcare about ha mycket om sig och kring sig. . really bad bio -n. stuck-up avundsjuk -t -a. Swedish it is usual to modify adjectives by using a strengthening prefix (cf. TV news skiitla -er -te om sig. not so bad urdilig -t -a. 'we had great fun'. obviously hllsal -r -de nigon. selfconfident mallig -t -a. clearly sjllvslker -t sjllvslkra.

blyg (shy. decent. urfinig (usually negative) skitbillig. kind.och fdrde llnga samtal med honom p l det kalla och dragiga slottet till fdljd av kylan dog han av lunginflammation! Pb 1600-talet var Sverige ett manssamhalle dar intellektuella kvinnor betraktades med misstilnksarnhet. idle). paitlig (reliable. jobbig (dacult. dfident). lat (lazy. snygg (pretty. Men Gustav -e landet utan nAgon Adolfs plotsliga d6d i slaget vid Liitzen ld regent. Efter ndgra k avsade sig Kristina den svenska tronen . friendly. Hans dotter Kristina var bara barnet och blev drottning first Ar 1644. stel (formal. vacker (beautifid. industrious). well-behaved). Factual text 10 6gl Kristina och StormaRtstiden Queen Christina and the Swedish Empire Kung Gustav I1 Adolf (1611-32) hade gjort Sverige till en stormakt. vinlig (kind(ly). en toppenkille (always positive) urdilig. skitbussig (both positive and negative) This last prefix is not nearly as strong in Swedish as in English. Kristina ville inte gifta sig .a Goteborg och Sundsvall. varm (warm. vivacious). jittestor (usually positive) en toppenbil. skitbra. urdum. malicious. reserved. shallow). bad). elak (spitefid. dependable). nasty). jattekul. cordial). hearty. Hon 2gde ett imponerande bibliotek och brewMade med den tidens frwsta filosofer och vetenskapsman. jittefin. kylig (cool. flitig (diligent. ugly.j2ltte-: toppen-: ur-: skit-: jittebra. wearing).hon hittade ingen som var hennes intellektuella like. och landet hade under trettiolriga kriget vunnit stora landomAden i Nordtyskland och Baltikurn. ytlig (superficial. Some other less slangy words for expressing opinions on people are: sntill (nice. frank). livlig (lively. wooden). skapade h6gre skolor (gymnasier) och fdrnyade landets arm6 och ekonomi. handsome). Hemma i Sverige grundade Gustav Adolf ett 30-tal nya stlder b1. distant). amiable). Drottningen bjod den franska filosofen Descartes till Stockholm L 1649 . iippen (open. skitdilig. pretty). ful (plain.

renounce ytterligare. what did Gustavus Adolphus accomplish? 4 What were Kristina's interests? 5 Why was she not appreciated in seventeenthcentury Sweden? 6 How did Charles X beat Denmark? 7 What did he gain for Sweden? 8 Who was Charles XI'S opponent in the Great Northern War? 9 How did Charles XI1 die? 10 What did Sweden lose at the end of the Great Northern War? . the Baltic area stormakt -en -er.(1654) och l&nnade omedelbart landet. Karl XI. sudden diid -en. Peter den Store. Germany Baltikum. lost Exercise 8 1 How long did the Swedish Empire last? 2 Who won the Empire and who lost it? 3 Apart from his military conquests. Svenska armin led ett stort nederlag vid Poltava och efter 18 h s krig blev kungen ihjaskjuten i Norge 1718. suspicion avsiigla -er -sade sig. monarch like. arde krig mot Polen och Rysslands tsar. equal iigla -er -de. impressive friimst -a. fiuther djiirv -t -a. scientist firla f i r -de samtal. Den svenska stormaktstiden var slut. own imponerande. P v ~ g till Rom efter A ner abdikationen dvergick hon till katolicismen. Det stora nordiska kriget slutade med att Sverige flirlorade en stor del av t)stersjoprovinserna. battle regent -en -er. suffer a defeat ihjiilskjuten. daring t i g -et. great power pliitslig -t -a. Karl X Gustavs d j h a tAg iiver isen mot Kopenhamn resulterade i att Sverige vann Skihe. I Rom levde hon i ytterligare 34 k. En annan krigarkung. shot and killed firloral -r -de. Vocabulary krig -et -. foremost vetenskapsman -nen -miin. march firla f i r -de krig. have a conversation dragig -t -a. Blekinge och Halland frih Danmark k 1658. as a result of manssamhiille -t. death slag -et -. draughty till filjd av. leading. male-dominated society misstiinksamhet-en -er. wage war lidla -er led ett nederlag. a wr Tyskland.

Text I I El Jockes kompisar Jocke's friends Joakim. men egentligen k de mycket olika. M h g a tycker att de h k ungdomarna ser likadana ut i tiickjackor. eller Jocke. De brukar dra ner p5 stan pii lordagarna f i r att . som han brukar kallas. Det k ett ganska hogljutt och stokigt gang som samlas. Kalle and Maggan vem and vem som how to express indifference slang expressions sport and leisure in Sweden %. sportskor och med freestyle i oronen.11 Jockes kompisar Jocke's friends In this lesson we will look at: the definite declension of the adjective in outline and Type 1 adjectival nouns s-verbs: reciprocal deponent and passive names like OIIe. tir ganska skoltrott och lyckas ofta smita f r h 1Wlning och annat betungande skolarbete. Oskar k en mycket oppen och livlig kille och helt olik MPlrten som k den tystlitne och allvarlige i ganget. SA nog ser man vem som L vem. morke JosC. Ludvigs rufsiga lugg liknar inte precis Oskars korta snagg. Han och hans kompisar brukar triifFas p5 eftermiddagarna f i r att spela fotboll. Jocke L ling och blond och ser inte alls ut som den korte. De h a killarna trivs ihop. jeans.

football team 9 lugg -en Definite adjective declension in outline and Type I The basic pattern for the definite declension of the adjective is shown on p. get out of liixliisning-en. This pattern in which the adjective always has a definite ending (-a or -e) . ihop. get on well. tram flykting -en -ar. check out the scene v triinal -r -de. quilted jacket sportskor -na. homework) betungande. together drat -r drog. (be) reluctant (to) liimnal -r -de. similar to snagg -en. och flera efterrniddagar i veckan Whar de som sagt fotboll. men de vet att det i alla fall finns ett jattebra fotbollslag i Uruguay. be called skoltriitt -a. succeed smitla -er smet friin.205) hemland -et -liinder. tired of school lyckas lyckas lyckades. practise. of course i alla fall. refugee iterviindla -er -e. Hans kompisar hoppas Erst& att han ska stanna i Sverige. gather ungdom -en -ar. De kan nu Aterv2nda dit. men Jost som inte minns a s k i l t mycket av sitt hemland. look similar tiickjacka -n -or. leave hoppals hoppas -des. unkempt. doing homework (liixa -n -or.193). different. vill ogarna Iamna kompisarna. personal stereo. Vocabulary kompis -en -ar. Josts firiildrar politiska flyktingar f r h Uruguay. dct stora huset. anyway fotbollslag -et -. 'Walkman' oliM -t -a.134 den stora bilen. unlike B rufsigl -t -a. meet hiigljudd -1jutt -ljudda. quiet allvarligl -t -a. home country s ogiirna. serious trivlas -s -des. lively tystlitlcn -et -na. return minntas minnas -dcs. scruffy - -ar. noisy stiikigl -t -a. fiend kallas kallas kallades. trainers freestyle -n -s. gang samlals -s -des.'kolla laget'. de stora bilarna etc. work spelal -r -de. youth. burdensome arbete -t -n. hope Erstis. remember sitt. here: go off a 'kolla liiget'. be like. play triiffas triiffas triiffades. crew cut livlig -t -a. untidy glng -et -. his (see p. youngster sel -r siig likadan ut. fringe liknal -r -de (see p.

forms the basis for other types of construction.134.) + end article: den det de den hiir (diir) det h l r (diir) de hiir (diir) storla storla storla storla storla storla biUen huslet bilarlna (huslen) biUen huslet bilarlna (huslen) the big car the big house the big cars (houses) this (that) big car this (that) big house these (those) big cars (houses) .) article: end Olles firmans min denna nyla nyla nyla nyla svenswa heUa lilUa Erstla biU biU biU biU sprWet daden VW klasd Olle's new car the firm's new car my new car thidthat new car the Swedish language the whole day little friend first class Type 3 No fiont article + end article a Type 4 No front article or end article: a a Exercise 7 Revise definite adjective forms on p. which for ease we will call Types 1 4 : - Type 1 Front article/Demonstrative (den h l r Type 2 Genitive or possessive or demonstrative (denna etc. then make the expressions definite as in the example: Example: en svensk familj > den svenska familjen 1 en a i g Nm 2 ett vanligt barn 3 en trevlig b k 4 god mat 5 intressanta mihiskor 6 en s d l pojke 7 en vacker syster 8 s d sportskor 9 ett litet ljus 10 dansk ost 11ett vd -e intresse .

As in English a noun (here: mhniskorna) is often omitted in the plural definite: the young the poor the old de unga de fattiga de gamla But Swedish goes further than English in that adjectival nouns may occur in the following cases: a blind person a dead person the old man (6. and am going to buy a new one. The indefinite: en blind en dtid The N-form singular definite: den gamle .134) the old woman den gamla The T-form singular definite: det nya the new thing the only thing det enda the last thing det sista Participles: de n i ~ a r a n d e those present den inneboende the lodger Swedish adjectival nouns often correspond to English constructions like 'a big one'. 'the white one': I have an old house Jag har ett gammalt hus och ska kiipa ett nytt.Exercise 2 Make the expressions definite as in the example: Example: en svensk flicka > den dHr svenska flickan 1 en ung kille 2 ett stort bord 3 nya glas 4 en gamma1 ackjacka 5 milt vader 6 gr6na applen 7 andra studenter 8 ett nytt koll6gieblock 9 en medelilders dam 10 ett bra fotbollslag 11saftiga persikor Adjectival nouns Adjectival nouns are definite adjective + noun phrases in which the noun is obvious and is therefore omitted. p. I'll have the red one. Vi har en rod bil och en g& We have a red car and a grey one. This is a variation on Type 1 above. Jag tar den riida.

the intelligent one? @) If you were describing a man. They are kissing. the lively one. the small one. but notice how the present tense forms have been altered: Infinitive I Present Past Supine IIa IIb I11 IV lagds bchiivals siikds bebols skrivds lagals behiivls siilds bcbols skrivls lagadds behiivdds s siiktels beboddds skrevls lagat/s behiivtls siikt/s bebottls skrivitls be mended be needed be sought be inhabited be written To construct the present tense forms: lagdr behbvler skrivler delete -r and add s to the stem delete -er and add s to the stem delete -er and add s to the stem > lagas > behiivs > skrivs Conjugation I1 verbs retains the -e in formal Swedish: BIr kiipes! Berries bought. the quiet one. what is the Swedish for: the tall one. the handsome one. the blonde one. the ugly one? S-verbs: reciprocal. the dark one. the boring one. what is the Swedish for: the short one. deponent and passive Some Swedish verbs have forms ending in -s. Verbs with stems in -s also retain the -e: De kysses.Exercise 3 (a) If you were describing a woman. In most tenses the -s is added to the existing tense ending for the relevant conjugation. . the pretty one.

= We hugged (each other).S-verbs are of three main kinds: The passive: The reciprocal: The deponent: Bilen lagas. . . . minnas (IIa) (remember). . om vid kafiet. hjalpas i t (IIb) (help each other). . . . The car is being mended. talas vid ( ) I (talk). Other reciprocal verbs are: enas (I) (agree). . andas (I) (breathe). I hope they succeed. folk s l fdrskriickligt i kafTekon. exist). Other deponents are: finnas (IV) (be. . . GUas i t (IIa) (accompany). Senare den dagen . vi . inte bli ndgon lektion idag. = Vi kramade varandra. med sin uppgift. d f i f i l i g a vapen? Iglr. hoppas O (hope) Exercise 4 Insert the correct form of the s-verb provided: (fyckas) (talas vid) (ses) @ljas St) Vnnas) (trangas) (lyckas) (umg&s) Det . We'll meet at 2 o'clock. . . Nu har han tintligen . trZingas (IIa) (push). . . . Notice the equivalent with a reciprocal pronoun: Vi kramades. Har det ndgonsin . .) (meet). . de . For n5gra k sedan . There are no bananas. Vi trIffIs kl2. I g k . ses (111 irr. nerlt staden. . . umgis (IV) (be friendly with). Deponent verbs are active in meaning and do not normally possess a form without -s: Jag hoppas att de lyckas. de med familjen. litsas (I) (pretend). heras (IIa) (be in touch). skiljas i t (IIa) (part). sliss (IV) (fight). It takes two to reciprocate! So the reciprocal form has a plural subject which carries out the action and is at the same time the object of the action. Imorgon . envisas (I) (persist). Det finns inga bananer. . The passive will be discussed in Lesson 17. tyckas @b) (seem). .

who is playing football. . . . . what Jocke is doing. . . who she is meeting tonight. Jocke is a pet-name like Bill instead of William. vad or vilken begins the sub clause (i. OBJ SUBJ ( wonder what he is doing. who he is talking to? . . what has happened to it.) I and: Jag undrar vad som hhder. . . Jag undrar vad han giir. . who has got my red sweater.e. . . . who the short one is. . .) I Exercise 5 What is the Swedish for: I wonder . OBJ SUBJ ( wonder who she loves. what Jose likes. Kalle and Maggan The name that Jocke has on his birth certificate is Joakim. SUBJ ( wonder what is happening. . Similar pet-names are: pojkar: Janne (Jan) Nisse (Nils) Kalle (Karl) Pelle (Per) Roffe (Roy) Stickan (Stig) Gurra (Gustav) Berra (Bertil) Bosse (Bo) Olle (Olof) flickor: Kicki (Kristina) Kajsa (Karin) Bettan (Elisabeth) Gittan ( ~ i r ~ i t t a ) Lotta (Charlotta) Bibbi (Birgitta) Maggan (Margareta) Vemlvem som When vem. Jag undrar Sub clause: vem hon iilskar. .) I Cf. . . SUBJ OBJ ( wonder who's kissing her now. which has no equivalent in English: Cf. . . . . who is going down town. . . what they are buying. is the subject of an indirect question) it must be followed by the subject marker som.Olle.) I and: Jag undrar vem som"kysser henne nu. . . . .

Dialogue 11 Det giir detsamma That doesn't matter Joakim mustJnd his red sweater JOCKE: k min roda troja? Var EVA: I tvtitten. trousers. practically svart -a. look after oneself to blame stinWa -er stank. Girls' Gym(nastics) tviirs iiver briistet. here: fair enough sticWa -er stack. Jag mbste ha den rods. dina kltider fir du hSlla reda pb sjdv. Jag mSste ha den idag. mucky skylUa -er -de sig sjiilv. Vocabulary triija -n -or. lit. EVA: For all del. Den var praktiskt taget svart. Men ta pappas gamla! JOCKE: Schysst! Hej di! Jag sticker. minns du var jag lade den? Jag hittar bara byxorna. shoulder pad(ding) 'Tjejgympan'. Jag ska tvtitta i eftermiddag. be off triiningsoverall -en -er. tracksuit byxor -na. gorgeous axelvadd -en -ar. fair. smell lagWrg -en -er. bottoms hilUa -er hiill reda pH. have only d j u s i g -t -a. sweater tviitt -en. team colour linal -r -de. den d k gamla trhingsoverallen. EVA: Nej. do not care skitig -t -a. dirty. Har inte du en som jag kan l b a ? EVA: Jo. om du vill ha den d2r tjusiga med axelvaddar och 'Tjejgympan' Wars ever briistet. wash skitla -er sket i. JAN: DUEva. wash(ing) praktiskt taget. almost. Men varf6r mbste du ha just den roda? JOCKE: Lagfairgen. black tviittat -r -de. right across the - - chest schysst = juste. Jag Jag ska spela fotboll. Sky11 dig sjiilv om den stinker. JOCKE: sa ju att jag skiter i om den k skitig. JOCKE: g6r detsamma. leave. Det EVA: Du fib allt ta en av de andra. borrow .

2 Jos6 and his friends usually get together on Saturdays. That doesn't matter. . 'I don't care if it's . 5 Kristoffer is the tall dark one in training shoes. I am not bothered about that. 'You'll just have to take one of the others.with 'hard' k) tjej -en -er kompis -en -ar polare -n grabb -en -ar a tiis -en -er brorsa -n -or farsa -n -or morsa -n -or syrra -n -or gubbe -n -ar gumma -n -or fruga -n -or kiirring -en -ar (derogatory) unge -n -ar Exercise 6 pojke. 6 Jocke is completely different from the serious . 'It's not my fault if. . pojkviin flicka. kvinna barn Translate into Swedish: 1 These young boys get on very well together. That doesn't matter. man.' Here are some more phrases expressing inwerence: Det spelar ingen roll. flickviin kamrat. . Slang (I) Here are some frequent slang words to describe friends and relations. Sak samma.'.'. Det struntar jag i. gammal kvinna fru fru. Pappa nor. I am not bothered about that. gammal man fru. w t their standard Swedish equivalents: ih kiiie -n -ar @ron. 3 Do you have to have the new one? 4 The only thing he likes is playing football.Expressing indifference Find phrases in the dialogue meaning: 'that doesn't matter'. mamma syster pappa. viin pojke flicka bror far. Det giir inget. modern. That doesn't matter. viin kamrat. . Det bryr jag mig inte om.

downhill skiing skridsko -n -r. adults de fiesta. och de flesta barn sportar ocksi. skate motionsgymnastik -en. most klubbansluten. spend upplyst. Inte mindre Zln 2 miljoner svenskar k medlemmar i Sveriges Riksidrottsfirbund. skridskobanor och upplysta motionsspftr for lopning och skidking.Mhten. 8 Do the young boys look alike? 9 It's your own fault if you can't look after your clothes. National Sports Federation vuxna. Segling och fiske k dWor mycket populiirt . keep fit ilder -n Hldrar. springe1 eller vandrar i skogen eller i fjallen. P i vintern k skidthing i skog och mark en populk familjesport och de som tycker om utfdrsking 4ker till fjallen. M h g a Slker skridskor p i isbanor och pb de frusna sjoarna. Motionsgymnastik har ockin blivit populw i alla hldrar. members of clubs utforsHkning -en. Tusentals svenskar joggar. Men I den iir mycket mer & in.roddbbt. Vocabulary viirld -en -ar. fotbollsplaner. Fotboll lockar m h g a sportintresserade . Factual text 11 Idrott och fritid Sport and leisure 94 Svensk idrott k kZlnd Over hela vklden genom stjiirnor som tennisspelaren BjOrn Borg och slalom4karen Ingemar Stenmark. Landets kommuner lBgger ned mycket pengar hligen pb sporthallar. segelbk eller motorbit. world slalomHkare -n -. simbasanger (inomhus och utomhus). dvs en tredjedel av alla m a i landet. no less than Riksidrottsfirbund. pb vintern genom att borra hill i isen och slappa ner en lina. age 1IggIa -er lade lagt fiskar t o m. illuminated . Sverige har tusentals sjoar och en l h g kust.alla fotbollsspelare k amatOrer och det finns 30 000 klubbanslutna spelare.slalom skier inte mindre In. 7 He doesn't look at all like Jocke. Under de senaste k e n har antalet kvinnliga fotbollsspelare Okat kraftigt. och mbnga svenskar har tillging till b k .

s r . . springa lugnt. gillar. folk som k intresserade av sport. access to for hela famiijen.motionsspPr s t -. -te ner. swimmingpool. toppspelare. varje L. spelare som k medlemmar av en klubb. ge ut pengar. bergen. let down Exercise 7 Hitta ord i texten som betyder detsamma som: sport. g i i skogen.joggindskiing track tillging till. s p b d3r man kan &a n P det i r morkt. &a skidor nedfijr backen (downhill).

Vagarna ut ur Goteborg var breda och fina. och ibland tog bromsarna dhligt. . H Han fick I h a en viins ganska risiga bil och fick ockd reda p allt han borde W a p%n k han korde: treans v h e l var triig. vindrutetorkarna kunde haka upp sig. beslot han sig f i r att hdsa p% nigra gamla viinner djupt inne i V W a n d s m6rka skogar. inte glomma att ha lyktorna tiinda och att akta sig f i r hastighetskontroller.12 Bills krsngliga bilresa Bill's difficult car journey In this lesson we will look at: e the definite declension of the adjective Type 2 modal verbs uses of the infinitive how to apologise and respond to apologies sjalv duplicates and 'heavy' expressions Swedish food traditions Text 1 2 m Bills krangliga bilresa Bill's difficult car journe y Nar Bill fick lite tid over mellan flkssamtalen. men han alltid de stora vagarna.

side road gropig -t -a. swearword passal -r -de in i. var fanns den? Vocabulary kringlig -t -a. automatic pump . turn off avtagsvlg -en -ar. battered fa -r fick reda pH. get lost firut. oil luft -en. watch out for polis -en -er. . in the middle 8 risig -t -a. third gear triig -t -a. Det gjorde det ockdt. men domkraften. fit into sedelautomat -en -er. Inte nu igen! Bill bet ihop mderna och oppnade bagageluckan. difficult. speed trap undviWa -er undvek. cottage hage -n -ar. stick broms -en -ar. police(man) hastighetskontroll -en -er. Luflen i acken brydde han sig memot inte om. dunk. och Bill korde fdrbi roda stugor. oath. Det var en smal och gropig grusvig. decide to hiilsd -r -de pH. tyre dlremot. hagar och skog. business meeting beslutla -er besliit sig Gr.Efter d g r a timmar visade b e n s d t a r e n att han A t e tanka.windscreen wiper hakal -r -de upp sig. dunk . experience dessutom. Dunk. also punktering -en -ar. d& reservhjulet brukade ligga. on the other hand karta -n -or. dirt road stuga -n -or. check olja -n -or. car bonnet kollal -r -de. complicated iiver. avoid bensinmiitare -n -. potholed grusvlg -en -ar. filling station svordom -en -ar. air dlck -et -. learn. here: was told treans viixel. find out. stiff vindrutetorkare -n -. och han ktirde in p i en bensinstation. och dA hade han dessutom f3tt punktering och satt mitt i tidemarken utan reservhjul. here: (to) spare aff"arssamta1-et -. spare wheel . previously vara med om. tatty. Sedan 3 lyfte han p i motorhuven och kollade olja och vatten. Men var det samma r6da stugor hela tiden? Hade han ktirt vilse? Det hade han varit med om fdrut. sAg han att han kunde svhga av p i n&ta avtagsvig. visit djupt inne i.lift motorhuv -en -ar. fill up bensinstation -en -er.takes banknotes lyft/a -er . Han tankade sjdv och lyckades efter dgra svordomar f hundralappen att passa in i sedelautomaten. meadow kiirla kiir -de vllse. Niir han satt och tittade p i kartan. map svlngta -er -de av. gauge he1 tanka/ -r -de. headlight aktal -r -de sig Br. brake lykta -n -or. puncture resewhjul -et. .

Type 2 Remember (see p. hennes l h g a samtal. faderns nya hus. There are several Merent constructionsto learn: 1 After the genitive: Svens nya bAt. n&ta (the next). 4 After some other words: samma (the same). dessa riida stugor. filjande (the following).157) that after certain types of words the adjective takes the definite ending -a (sometimes -e) but the noun has no ending.den h i r nya bilen . agreeing with the noun that follows it: en sortslett slags dyrbar bht a kind of expensive boat en sortstett slags rutigt tyg a kind of checked material 2 After both the genitive and possessive the word egen takes the indefinite form (+ -tJ+ -a): pappas egen lilla Eva deras egef lilla hus daddy's own little Eva their own little house Notice that denna etc. clench bagagelucka -n -or. etc: denna gropiga grusvig. is most frequent in written Swedish and takes no end article. deras roliga viinner. while den h i r etc. is most frequent in spoken and informal written Swedish and is always followed by an end article: denna nya bil . skolans nya studenter. mannen vars gamla mor bar diitt. nista vackra helg. There are two minor exceptions to this: 1 After the genitive of measurement the adjective takes the indefinite form (+ -tJ+ -a). (car) boot domkraft -en-er. jack Definite declension of the adjective. 2 After the possessive: hans risiga bil. detta slitna dick.bitla -er bet ihop. firegAende (the previous): samma miirka skog. 3 After the demonstrative: denna.

must. jag vill inte! Vill du ha ett glas vin? Will you be coming to the cinema? No. can shall. Would you like (Do you want) a glass of wine? (b) mustlmust not: miste = f i r = 'have to' (compulsion) only in positive expressions: I have to go now unfortunately. miste inte = do not have (need) to: Du miste inte rblta s i mycket! You don't need to smoke so much! . have to should. be allowed to. have to There are some 'false friends' here: (a) shalVtvil1: ska sometimes = 'will': Ska du fdlja med p i bio? vill= 'want to': Nej. will will. I don't want to.Exercise 1 Translate into Swedish: 1 Bill's old friend Gunnar 2 Bill's Swedish car 3 the next small sideroad 4 the same beautiful cottage 5 Jocke's red sweater 6 dad's own red tracksuit 7 V W a n d ' s large forests 8 the men's long business discussion 9 their little village 10 that difficult journey (use denna) Modal verbs The most frequent modal auxiliary verbs are inflected as follows: Infnitive kunna skola vilja bbra fi Present kan ska(l1) vill miste bbr fir a Past kunde skulle ville miste borde fick Supine kunnat skolat velat mist bort fitt be able. Jag mistelfir tyvIrr g i nu. want to must. ought to may.

hoppas (hope to). Ersiiker (try to). borde = ought to. intend). should: Du borde jogga mer. i. slutar (stop). till5ta (allow) and anse (consider): Jag slg honom gi. Uses of the infinitive (a) The infinitive without att: ' The infinitive is used with modal verbs (see pp. We heard them singing. . fortsitter (continue). skulle = should. Some of the most frequent modal equivalents used in this way are: tinker (think.e. biirjar (begin).53 and 59) and with modal equivalents in two-verb constructions. You ought to (should) jog more. Cf. Will you be going away over Christmas? You usually go away. when accompanied by an om/ifall clause): I would go jogging if1 hadn't Jag skulle jogga om jag inte skadat benet. behiiver (need). hEtrat (hear). 3 But will she read it? 4 And does she want to read it? 5 Sven must not drink so much beer. 7 Do you want a cup of coffee? 8 I have to drink coffee in the mornings. orkar (manage to). Exercise 2 Translate into Swedish: 1 Rebecca should read this book. just as in English: Ska du 5ka bort iiver jul? Du brukar lka bort. llta (allow). hurt my leg. would (often conditional. 6 He doesn't have to drink so much. vigrar (refuse). 2 She would read the book i she f could find it. Another use is the 'object + infinitive' construction after se (see). slipper (avoid).C . Vi hiirde dem sjunga I saw him leave.f i r inte = must not: f Du f i r inte riika sP mycket! You must not smoke so much! (c) ought/should: biir. lyckas (succeed in).

2 Have you got time to do it? Dialogue 12 m Sorry! Bill apologisesfor being late GUNNAR: Viilkommen! BILL: ULLA: BILL: UUA: Forlbt att jag kommer d sent! DUkorde val inte pb nbgon alg? Nej.@) The infinitive with att is used in the following cases: as subject: Att kiira bil kan vara krbgligt. Han gick hem utan att saga adjij. He went home without saying goodbye. Driving can be difficult. Note: in expressions indicatingan intention fir att is used before the infiiitive: Han Akte dit fir att h3. jag fick punktering och d hade jag ingen domkraft. Notice that in the above examples English '-ing' form often corresponds to the Swedish infinitive. Var det svM att hitta hit? . filled up. He likes being in the country. J ~ s s ~Hur i allsin dar klarade du det? s! GUNNAR: Det g6r ingenting.w p Gunnar och Ul H la He went there (n order) to visit i Gumar and Ulla after a noun: IIar du tid att g6ra det? -. He loves driving fast. as object: Han Zilskar att kiira fort. after a preposition: Efter att ha stannat motorn After turning off the engine he tankade han bilen. Han tycker om att vara p% landet.

Och lite skotsk whisky. Vi Mler pb och fixar den h2r gamla pumpen. thing stPlUa -er -de till. Ingen fara. jag mkte tillbaks i overmorgon. manage (to do) something dolda talanger. pump rinnande. det? Och vi som H hoppades f3 rb om dig ordentligt. farm ingen fara. cause ta det som vi h a r det. marmalade kex -et -. Det var W o r det tog s h tid. Stig in sb lilnge! Ska du packa ur bilen. no matter hiller p i och fixar. Samma gamla Bill! Tusen tack! Hoppas att du inte blir alltfiir besviken n k jag siiger att pumpen k lagad. S synd! Ska det vara alldeles nlidvandigt.biscuit besviWen -et -na. Jag hoppas att jag inte a l e r till flir mycket besvk. Var s% god. Du f ta det som vi har det.Jag har dolda talanger. jam. Du ar dig lik! Jag tog med mig marmelad och kex fr6n England. properly Du Pr dig lik!. work stigla -er steg in. sb b2r vi in dina grejer. Vi har ju inte rinnande vatten i stugan. Du stannar v d ett tag & nu. forresten? Nej. bother (ett) tag. is (in the process of) fixing pump -en -ar. disappointed alltfir = fir. Inte alls. take us as you find us besvPr -et. how on earth? klardr -de nlgot. find (your) way here hur i allsin dar?. sorry viilkomm/en -et -na. hidden talents bondgird -en -ar. Nej. too . unpack grej -en -er. welcome hittd-r -de hit. trouble. Vocabulary firlit. och n k v i kom ut sil fungerade inte pumpen heller. have someone to oneself ordentligt. Du f3r gama rb om mig and& S2rskilt om Gunnar lagar pumpen hela tiden. tyvirr. jag fick gb till en bondghd och be om hjap. running fungerd -r -de. while tillbaks = tillbaka. necessary r5l -r -dde om nigon. Vad mysigt det k h2r! Tack for att ni bjod hit mig. Jag k hemskt ledsen. come inside packd -r -de ur. back niidvlndig -t -a. You haven't changed! marmelad -en.

I IT-- Road signs Bill may see on his drive to Varmland u HALKBEKXMPNING DKNPA FARTEN SALTFRI .

'Not to worry'. 3 We stopped (slutal) smoking. Exercise 4 When you drive into the bensinmack and stop next to the bensinpump remember to stanna motorn! Now look around. Can you do it yourself? The policemen themselves wash the cars. Before you leave do not ignore the signs luft and vatten. 6 We avoid driving on the main roads. 'I'm awfblly sorry!'. 'What a shame!'. If you need reservdelar for the car you can get them here or if you have a problem with the car there is the verkstad where you can also get a routine smiirjning. 'Thanks a lot!' Here are a few additional phrases: Ursikta! Varsigod! Fiir all del! Ingen orsak! Excuse me! Sorry! Not at all! Don't mention it. Stop and check these otherwise you may end up like Bill! Can you guess what these are in English? Apologies and responding to thanks and apologies In the dialogue find phrases meaning: 'That doesn't matter'. . By all means! It's quite all right! Sjalv This is used for emphasis. 'I hope I am not being too much trouble to you7. 2 They succeeded in finding their way here. 5 Jogging is good for the health (h621san). Over there is the snabbtvitt so you don't have to drive home with a dirty car. 4 You can hear them playing.Exercise 3 Translate into Swedish: 1 He is thinking of having a party. 184): Kan du giira det sjilv? Poliserna tvittar bilnrna sjilva. but is not itselfa reflexive (see p.

vet du var den My red sweater. Is that necessary. men det finns ocksd likta svensk mat. det? Min riida triija. he's never at home (he isn't). han i r aldrig hemma. Factual text 12 a Svenska mat traditioner Swedish food traditions Nufirtiden kan man 2ta turkisk kebab. Till fest brukade t . after any MPT-expressions: Front Verb. (Subject) Adverb Verb2 Obj/Comp MPT 'Heavy' Det ir - j . Jocke. att han tinkte sluta. It is not so bad. do you know ir? where it is? Jocke. Pd 1400-talet borjade man anviinda salt fdr att konservera kott och det var vanligt fdrr att man A stekt salt sill och potatis. inte - roligt ibland di Han sa - att spela tennis. When we came out the pump wasn't working. han. These duplicates often go outside the clause proper. inte. at either end. italiensk pizza eller amerikanska hamburgare i Sverige. s%(di) fungerade inte pumpen. objects or adverbs: Lit. Long or 'heavy' expressions such as infinitive phrases or object clauses also go at the extreme end of the clause. that? Ska det vara niidvindigt. Det Zir inte s i dumt. The words s i and d i often duplicate within the clause the phrase that is outside it: N i r vi kom ut.Duplicates and 'heavy' expressions It is common in spoken Swedish to duplicate subjects. Den har en ldng tradition.

. stockfish syra. . craytish party knlckebriid -et -. pickle iittika -n. . nowadays kiitt -et. . . 3 F6r att konservera fisk kunde man . Ett annat a t t att konservera fisk var att syra eller grava den. salmon kriifta -n -or. here: distil torkd -r -de. 2 Ofta i t man . mushroom. craytish krlftskiva -n -or. . 7 Brodkakorna var . 10 Svenskarna dricker firflirligt mycket starkt . p i hosten. 8 Man h2ngde de . Surstr6mming. . dvs dagens inlagda sill. . meat steWa -er -te. k man ursprungligen i Norrland. ursprungligen en norrlwdsk att. Gravad lax k o c M festmat. P i 1700-talet b6jade rika svenska familjer dricka kaEe och det blev snabbt popul2rt 6ver hela norden att 'fika'. . blev vanligt fir 200 k sedan. method of preparing fish or meat by rubbing with salt. vid fester. och p i 1700-talet blev det vanligt att brama br2nnvin som man gjorde av potatis. drink coffee Exercise 5 Fill in the missing words: 1Man drack d mycket 01 efiersom det fanns . 4 Att . De stora runda br6dkakorna hade hill i mitten d att man kunde h u g a dem p i stiinger under taket. grava. . Vocabulary nuartiden. fermented herring ursprungligen. 5 . den eller . . och . och . sill och . . . . . fry llggta -er lade in. titer man vid fester p i h6sten. vinegar brlnn/a -er -de. Till den salta maten drack man mycket 61. i maten.crispbread hillla -er hiill. . . I skogen plockar man ockd b k p i hosten. spices and keeping it for some days surstriimming -en -ar. . Svamp v M e i alla skogar men det var first f i r 100 k sedan som folk p i landsbygden b6rjade 2ta denna mat som de kunde plocka helt gratis. den. .man 12gga in sillen i t ex tittika och lbk. 9 I skogen plockar man mycket . burn. . . Knsckebrddet eller tunnbr6det bakade man f i r att det skulle hillla luge. 6 I augusti brukar man 2ta . . . fungi fikd -r -de. pole svamp -en -ar. originally lax -en -ar. Att ha krMskiva k mycket vanligt i augusti. . here: keep sting -en stlnger. . . .lutfisk vid jul k ett mime f r h den tiden. . Innan salt blev vanligt torkade man fisk . peg. De nordiska folken iir idag vkldens mest kaEedrickande folk. dry lutfisk -en. .

medan nigra ensamma blibibk ligger och skramlar i Bills lilla . Allemansratten ger alla manniskor riitt att vistas i och njuta av skog och mark hela bet. bada i sjoarna och duka fram picknick p i angen. Gunnar och Ulla fgller snabbt och effektivt jattelika korgar. kanske ssrskilt p i sommaren. Det 5ir viktigt fdr svenskarna som alskar naturen.13 Skogsvandring A walk in the forest In this lesson w e will look at: article use the definite declension of the adjective Type 3 adjectives and adverbs how to express permission and prohibition reflexive pronouns and verbs present participles the spring Text i 3 m * Skogsvandring A walk in the forest I Sverige f i r man plocka svamp och bibk i stort sett tiverallt. Man fSlr t o m Ma och gora upp eld p i privat t ondide. Om man vill Ma mer 2n ett dygn. Men alla kan vandra fritt i skogarna. och det & inte t tillitet att bryta av levande kvistar p trad eller att plocka fridlysta A blom~nor. bara man inte stor tigarna eller forstiir naturen. miste man be markagaren om lov. Innan Bill 5ker tillbaka till staden foljer han darfdr med Gunnar och Ulla p i bhtflykt.

pleasant tasting komma giende. 24 hours marklgare -n -. freely blrutflykt -en -er. gigantic korg -en -ar. bilbeny. llgjakt -en -er. stay. elk hunt trygg -t -a. break levande. the right of common access plockd -r -de. day. e k cow genast. That made his day. environment. anywhere allemansrltten. Vocabulary i stort sett. fire bara man inte = s i llnge man inte. Tyv2rr fdrsvinner iilgkon genast trots att det enligt jaktlagen k fdrbjudet att skjuta iilg sil hiir hs. protected fritt. trust - . in the main. especially vllsmakande. jlttelik -t -a. hunting regulation firbjudlen -et -na. area iigare -n. Men det kanske k b2st att inte lita p i en engelsman. i. rattle fylUa -er -de.hink. coming along Dagen iir rlddad. owner eld -en -ar. private omride -t -n. secure firsvinnla -er firsvann. efficiently. disturb dygn k t . vanish. Svamp vigar han inte plocka eftersom m h g a sorter k giftiga eller i vaj e fall inte skskilt viilsmakande. ask someone's permission natur -en. as long as one does not st8rIa stiir -de. countryside brytla -er briit. right vistds vistas -des i. Hostens stora 2lgjakt har inte bodat. branch t r l d -et -. even tiiltd -r -de. poisonous slrskilt. here: virtually iiverallt. safe. beny-picking expedition effektivt. enjoy t o m = till och med. fill hink -en -ar. autumn jaktlag -en -ar. landowner be nigon om lov. here: be njutla -er njiit av. d bide han och agen kan vara trygga. immediately enligt. bucket giftig -t -a. at this time of year l i t d -r -de pi. prohibited skjutla -er skiit. pick r l t t -en -er. live kvist -en -ar. N2r Bill fdr forsta ghgen f3r se en iilg komma giende k dagen r2ddad.tree fridlyst -a. according to hiist -en -ar. put up a tent privat -a. disappear iilgko -n -r. lonely b l i b l r -et -.e. shoot s i h l r irs. basket ensam -t -ma. bluebeny skramlal -r -de.

There are two further cases of this kind: Count nouns in a general sense: Man f i r giira upp eld. On Fridays they go out to the country. Fredrik goes to church/school. Priserna stiger.indefinite article in English There is no article before nouns of nationality. They are expecting a child and are looking for a flat. . Nouns after vilken. mlngen: Vilken vacker dag! What a beautiful day! One may light a fire. (b) No article in Swedish . Eva iker till stadedlr i staden. In (the) winter you can skate. See p. profession. religious and political belief (Han Ir svensk. but notice the following differences: (a) End article in Swedish .Article use ( I ) Use of indefinite and definite (end) articles in Swedish is often the same as in English. De vlintar barn och siiker If gcnhet. Sidant Ir livet. Hon har inte bilA<iirkort. Eva is going tolis in article in English Abstract nouns in a general sense: Svenskarna Zilskar naturen. She does not have a carldriving licence. Locations: Fredrik g l r i kyrltadsl<olan. Days. Such is life. Time flies. Prices are rising. seasons and festivals: P i fredagarna i k e r de ut pi% landet. Swedes love nature. P i vintern kan man i k a skridskor. Tiden gir.33).

natur . as in the above examples. . sjilva poingen with bida (both).? 6 P . . . kan man plocka . .157) that on occasion the front article is omitted. . 2 Han fir inte skjuta . . ren. . . . halva dagen. A Definite declension of the adjective. 4 F&r man g6ra upp . . fdrra veckan. mhdagar . . . b k . . when the adjective loses its stress.iilg. . . .Exercise 1 Fill in the articles where necessary: 1Bill brukar Aka till . . i Sverige. hdst . . ena (the one). Type 3 Remember (see p. sometimes -e) and the noun has an end article: Svenska akademien Rbda korset (the Swedish Academy) (the Red Cross) Fiirenta staterna (the United States) This happens generally when the expression becomes a set phrase. svarnp . ena benet. the adjective takes the definite ending (-a. vill M l a . i . sjzlva (the very): hela tiden. enda barnet And open in the following cases: in geographical locations: Gamla stan. pii . . . . . . . . eld . 3 Svenskar . . . . stad . . hiir? 5 F&rman plocka . halva (half the). Diida havet with nationality adjectives: franska revolutionen brittiska iiarna with colour adjectives: Riida armCn the the the the . Compare: det e t a hgset the white house the White House and: Vita hgset But the construction always occurs: with hela (the whole). . skog . . . enda (the only): bida flickorna. . . fdrra (last). . . . .

eftermiddag). be confused with the -t forms of adjectives: Ulla i r vacker. Some other adverbs are not derivatives. Ulla sjunger vackert. kviill) gick de i skogen. luft). 2 V M a n d ligger i (vaster. inte. therefore.e with words for location: pfl hligra sidan i mellersta lidan with compass points: vlstra halvklotet on the right hand side in the middle drawer the western hemisphere with ordinal numbers: firsta gingen. e. Alla kan vandra fritt. Sverige). Adjectives and adverbs Some adverbs (but not the 'adverb' that has figured so far of the kind that modifies the meaning of the sentence as a whole) derive from adjectives by adding the ending -t to the stem of the adjective. The room is beautiful. 3 (Ton. dir. val. Rummet 3r vackert. andra vhingen the first time. ADJ ADV ADJ (t-form) De plockar snabbt och effektivt. nog. 4 Det iir skont att vandra i (frisk. the first floor Exercise 2 Complete the' sentence using definite declension Type 3 : 1 (Hel. Naturligtvis dricker Bill whisky. They pick quickly and effectively. aldrig. dit. 5 De plockade bar (halv. Some adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding -en or -tvis: Han kommer mlijligen senare.g. hit. ir) sig Bill en alg f i r (Erst. Ulla is beautiful. Naturally Bill drinks whisky. ging). ju. He will probably come later. Ulla sings beautifully. har. . They may. Everyone can walk freely.

Adverbs that end in en. om jag fir frBga? England ar underbart ph mbnga satt. Och n k man gAr ut med hunden mhte man plocka bort hundskiten. . . 6 Han Akte lbngsamt. Socialstyrelsen sager vad du bdr gora. -tvis are sentence adverbs like inte and go in the same position as inte. Annars ar det sSI mycket man inte fir. 8 Egentligen k han student. BILL: Trevligt att man fir en g h g s skull kan gora vad man vill i det har stranga landet. BILL: Sarnma storebrorsfasoner. inte kopa vin p i lordagar. kan jag plocka dem ocksb? ULLA:Det gAr bra. BILL: Och sit ska du ata sex skivor brod om dagen. men i Sverige k det i alla fall rent. Dialogue 13 Of course you may! Bill and Ulla discuss what you may and may not do BILL: FBr jag plocka vad som helst i skogen? f ULLA: Ja. det fu du viil. ULLA:DUfir visst gb mot rott ljus om det roar dig. . inte . kla dig ratt. ULLA:Ja. BILL: De h k blommorna. och du fir garna ata en he1 limpa om du vill eller inget brod alls. vad ar det for fel med det. 5 Han kan fdrmodligen jaga. ULLA:Lagg av! Inte vill du viil slb dina barn. 7 Det ilr fdrbjudet att jaga. inte slb barnen . Man fir inte gb mot rott Ijus.Adverbs that end in -t are expressions of manner (MPT-expressions) and often come at the end of the clause. gymnastisera. . Exercise 3 Which words are adverbs? 1 Huset k vackert. . 2 Det k otroligt vackert. 3 h det mojligt att han inte kornrner? 4 Hon k inte &skilt vacker.

dog hundskit -en. cb Fiirbud mot . One does not need to do that. dress attitude hund -en -ar. . . Reflexive pronouns and verbs There is only one special reflexive pronoun form for the third person singular and plural. . hit liggta -er lade av. for once string -t -a. . . if you wish'. stop limpa -n -or. Var sn%lloch . Remember that miste is often a 'false friend': Man miiste giira det. ! One ought to/should do that. cross the street slP -r slog slagit. 'You may . One must/should not do that.82) are used for first and second person: . do exercises klU -r -dde sig. 'It is (not) allowed'. . . Social Welfare Board storebrorsfasoner. clean Permission and prohibition Find phrases in the text and dialogue meaning: 'That's all right.big brother against a red light roal -r -de sig.Vocabulary visst. Man har r i t t att plocka svamp. of course vad som helst. otherwise g i mot r6tt ljus. amuse (oneself) skiva -n -or. slice gymnastiserd -r -de. and notice: Man firlska inte giira det. One is permitted to pick mushrooms. Please do not . 'One can do what one likes'. of course'. One must do that. Ordinary object forms (see p. inte! Man b6r giira det.' Here are some other useful phrases: Man f%r(inte) giira det. anytiung (at all) fir en gangs skull. 'It is prohibited. strict annars. dog dirt ren -t -a. . . . is prohibited. You may (not) do that. loaf Socialstyrelsen. but: Man miste inte giira det. .

gifta sig (get married). They had no money on them. Han bad doktorn tvitta honom. SUBJ < A number of non-reflexive English verbs have reflexive equivalents in Swedish: raka sig (shave). k l i sig (get dressed).Jag tvittar mig I wash (myself) etc. . Du tvittar dig Han tvittar sig Hon tvittar sig Den tvittar sig Man tvittar sig Vi tvittar oss Ni tvlittar e r De tvittar sig The reflexive pronoun is used as the object of the verb or after a preposition but refers to the subject of the clause. kamma sig (comb one's hair). Han stingde diirren efter sig. I have cut myself. fdrirra sig (get lost). skynda sig (hurry). Sting diirren efter dig. riira sig. He has cut himself. OBJ< He asked the doctor to wash himself. (move). Close the door behind you. l l r a sig (learn). The usage after a preposition is different from English: Jag har skurit mig. vinda sig (turn round). bege sig (go). He asked the doctor to wash him. De hade inga pengar p%sig. kfnna sig (feel). resa sig (get up). fdrkyla sig (catch cold). He closed the door behind him. ligga sig (lie down). Han har skurit sig. Notice one dZicult exception to the rule: in object + infinitive constructions (see p. nlrma sig (approach). infinna sig (present oneself). Many reflexive verbs indicate movement: sltta sig (sit down).171) the reflexive pronoun refers to the object and the object pronoun to the subject of the clause: Han bad doldorn tvitta s g i.

7 We have caught a cold.208). present. past tense). Stressed objects: Olle tviittar aldrig 'bilen. moved to the chair and then sat down again. reflexive pronouns) : Olle tviittar sig 'ddrig. For this reason the present participle is learned as a separate word. Olle t b k e r inte k6pa den. IV Verbs with sterns ending in a long vowel add ende: trol > trolende Conj. Olle bar inte tvattat den. i. Present participles Present participles end in -nde: Verbs with stems ending in a consonant or -a add -(a)nde: studera. 4 The children got dressed and combed their hair. 5 He has not learned Swedish. Unstressed object pronouns (incl. reflexive pronouns may come immediately after the verb (see p. I1 skriv/a > skriv/ande Conj. 3 I must wash and shave first. III gu > guende irregular verbs Present participles are only rarely used as verbs in Swedish. If there is a complex verb or two-verb construction the unstressed object pronoun follows VERBZ: Olle har inte tvtittat sig idag. usually: (a) an adjective: levande trad vglsmakande svamp stigande priser live (living) trees pleasant tasting fungi rising prices .Like other unstressed object pronouns. This happens only when there is a simple verb VERB^. Olle kiiper den 'inte. Olle kliper inte 'mattan. I levla > levlande Conj. Exercise 4 What is the Swedish for: 1He got up.e. 2 We are getting manied next Saturday. > studeralnde Conj. 6 I didn't feel good. rather than after the adverb which is the usual position for stressed objects.

when Tgender a verbal abstract. g A and bli and verbs of motion in the same way as English '-ing' forms: filgen ltom giende genom skogen. ~ n n u idag bakar svenskarna fettisdagsbullar eller semlor som innehaler vispgradde och mandelmassa. But '-ing' forms are often translated by the Swedish infinitive.171. P skartorsdagen k l k smbbamen ut sig till A pAskk2ringar . med demonstrationer och politiska t l a. P pdskaflon ater A man maade ligg. Under fastan samlar man fortfarande bjorkris och pryder det med fargade honsfjadrar och ornkring pAsk brister knopparna ut i fina ljusgrona blad. samma vag som kung Gustav Vasa W e k 1520 (fast han M e A andra t hbllet). The elk came walking through the forest. Den sista april (eller 'Valborgsmassoafton') hdsar man 2ntligen vAren vlilkommen med eldar och fyrverkeri. I mars &er tusentals skidAkare de nastan nio milen frAn Saen till Mora i Dalarna.och tigger godis. (c) an adverb: fortfarande still Occasionally present participles are used after the verbs komma. sedan 1938 en allmlin helgdag i Sverige. Factual text 13 Pa" va"ren In the spring a M h g a traditioner k fdrknippade med vken i Sverige.(b) a noun: en studerande en siikande ett fdrhillande a student an applicant a relationship When N-gender the participle usually denotes a person. see p. . arbetarriirelsens hogtidsdag. Innan fastan bojade . Fore reformationen fastade man i 40 dagar fram till pbsk och flera traditioner har Gverlevt frbn den katolska tiden.pb fettisdagen .egentligen h h o r .brukade man iita upp den feta mat man inte fick 2ta under sjalva fastan. Valborg firas silrskilt i studentsaderna med fester bAde Ute och inne hela eftermiddagen och natten. Dagen darpi k det forsta maj.

8 Han har samma (ful. hens' feathers skiirtorsdagen. 3 1520. 10 I studentstiiderna. 11 Sedan 1938. 1 FrAn Siilen till Mora. 3 Vi &e hitta (en annan) die. 5 Den (kort. associated i t andra hillet. almond paste bjiirkris -et. 6 Sedor. Shrove Tuesday buns mandelmassa -n. 181. gatnmal) stuga. 11 Han Mler samma (dm. 9 Bills (trevlig. sprilk). Vad kan friigorna vara? L& texten. Maundy Thursday hiixa -n -or. beg godis e t . 169. witch tiggla e r -de. sweets Valborgsmiissoafton. 7 Fkgade Mn~Bdrar. 10 Han hade med sig A nAgra (fin. flicka) heter Lena. d Exercise 6 Revise the d o n s on adjectives on pp. Then put the words in brackets in the correct form: 1 Man i inte plocka (dgon. jacka) p sig idag. tystlAten) Erik.Vocabulary firknippdd 4 -de. lent fettisdagsbullar. 9 Man mder eldar och har fpverkerier. 2 I Dalarna. fihga) vaje ghg. 4 Den (vacker. in the other direction iiverlevla e r -de.4 Fastan. bra) blAbk % fick vi. the next day arbetarriirelsen. 2 (Ingen. 6 Deras (liten. . 8 De tigger godis. 7 Hon %ktedit f i r att l b sig (svensk. 157. vw).62. birch twigs hiinsfjiidrar -na.speech Exercise 5 Htir k d g r a svar. engelsk) tjejen. 12 Ullas (egen. public holiday tal e t -. Walpurgis Eve dagen diirpi.survive fastan. the labour movement allmiin helgdag. 5 Man A upp den t mat man inte fick iita under fastan. ghva) till sina (god. fridlyst) blommor. bhtflykt).

Kvallspressen ar likadan har som i England. Det ar ju lattast at. Visserligen brukar hon titta p TV-nyheterna p A H kvdlarna men att lasa tidningen iir lite mer givande. och hon fr a l l d varje morgon vid femtiden en 3 tidning i brevlhdan. Vid frukosten skummar hon fdrsta sidan och efter att ha -tat en snabb blick p A ledaren och Mtursidan bliiddrar hon fram till utrikesnyheterna for att se om det hant ndgonting i England. Rebecca prenumererar pb en dagstidning.14 Tidningar Newspapers In this lesson we will look at: comparison of adjectives how to express similarity and dissimilarity the definite forms of superlatives article use how to be understanding slang expressions political life in Sweden Text 1 4 E¶ Tidningar Newspapers Kvdlstidningen som Rebecca koper i tunnelbanekiosken verkar ha storre och svartare rubriker 2x1 nhgonsin. Ndgot som ar annorlunda iin i engelska tidningar k alla foton av glada brudpar p i familjesidan. lasa om sidant som man kanner till. bara nHgra snyftreportage kring en olycka. Eftersom Rebecca inte kanner sb varst . eftersom det iir billigare I n att kopa losnummer. Men den innehiller inga stora nyheter.

evening paper tunnelbanekiosk -en -er. Nigon g h g l&er hon filmrecensionerna. to let. prefers sport -en -er. photograph brudpar -et -. see 'Comparison of adjectives' below rubrik -en -er. t ex du. not that many vigsel-.. situations vacant advertisement 'uthyres'. review platsannons -en -er. ever nyheter-na.single copy brevlida -n -or. Vocabulary kvlllstidning -en -ar. laser sporten. bridal couple familjesidan.Sremot battre om det engelska liisbladssystemet. De sitter ihop. svartare.247 kiinnla -er -de till. respect sittla -er satt ihop.och diidsannonserna. Hon soker varken plats eller lagenhet. fast ibland undrar hon om svenska brudpar &. tar serierna. leaf through utrikesnyhcter -na.' Rebecca tycker bast om serierna. you see . daily paper liisnummer -numret -. yngre. look. etc.m b g a svenskar. subscribe dagstidning -en -ar. the arts page bliiddral -r -de. rewarding skummal -r -de. news snyftreportage -t -. page kastal -r -de. unlike foto -t -n...yngre eller gdre iin engelska. siiger han. occasionally recension -en -er (pron. N4gra k nmligen p i engelska. 'Det iir vtil bra att kunna dela med sig'. t ex jag. share tycker blst om. story sob prenumererd -r -de. E i tycker d. glance ledare -n -. Den andre. De ser faktiskt rJdtt gamla ut p4 bilderna. notices of births. vacant properties avseende -t -n. leader kultursidan. throw kasta en blick. tycker rk Rebecca. 'Den ene. picture nagon ging. iildre. bild -en -er. admittedly givande. loose page delal -r -de med sig. fidelse. skim through sida -n -or. sport serie -n -r. marriages and deaths sel -r s i g ut. letter box visserligen. foreign news om det hiint = om det har hiint. hoppar hon 6ver vigsel-. headline nigonsin. I ett avseende k svenska tidningar trevligare an engelska. resansjgn). see p.och dijdsannonserna. kiosk at tube station stiirre. . . Platsannonserna och 'uthyres' ar hon inte intresserad av. different from. cartoon niimligen. fidelse. . be familiar with annorlunda iin. be stuck together lasblad -et -. the social page inte s i vPrst minga.

unlike their English equivalents. modern. 'funny . forming the comparative and superlative forms) three of which are similar to English (cf. skicklig (skilful) and svir.WAGZ8tfOVEWER 1995*MCKA48 Arbetet Nyheterna .funnier . Note: also intelligent.e. . (a) Adds -are. Eng.funniest'). including all in -Oig. intressant. -ast: rolig (funny) roligrre (funnier) roligast (funniest) Most adjectives compare this way. SVENSKA DAGBLADET DELI ..Swedish newspapers SVERICES STORSDiMORGONTIDNINC DAGENS NYHETNR. Comparison of adjectives Swedish has four methods of comparing adjectives (i. .

especially long or polysyllabic adjectives. -st: stor (big) stiirre (bigger) stiirst (biggest) (c) Irregular comparison . Notice that adjectives compared in this way have to agree with the noun in the indefinite or take a definite ending: ett mer komplicerat problem. det mest komplicerade problemet As only a few adjectives compare according to methods (b) and (c) it is possible to list them and learn them individually: Vowel change + -re.changes stem: liten (little) mindre (smaller) minst (smallest) (d) Comparison with mer. tall @eople) narrow few small Yo'-'% heavy high.(b) Vowel change and adds -re. + -st o > ii ic>% stor grov 1icg lhg trhg fic smic ung -g hiig stiirre griivre lagre lingre trhgre firre smPrre yngre tyngre hiigre stiirst griivst l%gst lhgst triingst big coarse u> y 6 wgst tyngst hiigst low long. mest: komplicerad (complicated) idyllisk (idyllic) mer komplicerad (more complicated) mer idyllisk (more idyllic) mest kompiicerad (most complicated) mest idyllisk (most idyllic) All past participles compare this way as well as all bisyllabic adjectives ending in -isk and an increasing number of others. tall (objects) .

Whisky is stronger than beer. Jag liknar min bror. His dialect is different from yours. Similarity and dissimilarity Dissimilarity: Whisky %r starliare c?n81. . Hans dialclit iir olik din. I am like my brother. The whisky is too strong. Han iir lika intelligent som jag. Similarity: Jag iir lik min bror. His dialect is different from yours. mest are used only with non-count nouns fler. flest are used only with count nouns Compare: Vill du ha mcr kaffe? Would you like more coffee? Jag undenisar fler elever i ir. He is as intelligent as me. His brother is different from yours. Whisky11iirfirr stark.Irregular comparison godhra god dilig diliglond gamma1 liten minga mycket biitt re godare siimre viirre gldre mindre fler mer bf st godast siimst vldrst gldst minst flest mest good good to eat bad bad old little Y a lot Notice about the use of these last: viirre = more of an originally bad property simre = less of an originally good property Compare: the worst lie I had heard den viirsta lbgn jag hiirt byxor av siimre kvalitct iin bans trousers of worse quality than his mer. Hans dialekt f r annorlunda c?n din. I am like my brother. Hans bror iir olik din. I teach more pupils this year.

9 Han har alltid varit duktig men nu borjar han bli (dilig). och Malin Brogren. Vigsel har igt r m i Angelstads kyrka den 23 juni u 1995 mellan an-&eNyIdn. 10 Svenskarna iir kanske (idealistisk) i n . dotter till Mats Brogren och hans maka Kerstin f NystrBm . Halmstad. 3 & svenska tidningar (dyr) iin engelska? 4 Ja. VigselfiSrrPttare var JBrgen Westerberg. He speaks as well as he can. men de tir mycket (bra).Han talar samma dialekt som He speaks the same dialect as jag. 5 Rebecca k (intresserad) av recensionerna. me. Exercise 7 Give the adjectives and adverbs in the comparative form: 1 ~r Henrik (gammal) tin Rebecca? 2 Han ser faktiskt (ung) ut. son till Arvid Nyhlh och hans maka Ulla-Lisa. Angelstad. 6 Svenskarna laser (mbnga) tidningar an andra nationaliteter.f BjBrk. Your cap is like mine. Han talar sd bra SO^) han kan. Din miissa f r likadan som min. 7 Man lker en engelsk kvilllstidning (snabb) 2n man l%er en svensk. 8 De serverar (god) bakelser pb Wahlstroms konditori.

engelsm-en. vackrare flickorlstiirre hus den vackrare flickan det stiirre huset de vackrare flickornal de stiirre husen But the superlative inflects: 1Superlatives ending in -ast always add -e: en vackrare flicka ett stiirre hus den vackraste flickan 2 Superlatives ending in -st add -a (or -e with masculine singular): den stiirsta flickan den stiirste pojken det stiirsta huset de starsta flickornat husen 3 Superlativesusing mest add -a (or -e for masc. NSgra geografiska fakta om Sverige: Den storsta sjon: Den storsta on: Det storsta landskapet: Det folkrikaste landskapet: Det storsta Ianet: Den storsta staden: Det folkrikaste lanet: Den Iangsta kanalen: Den Iangsta bron: Nagfa andra fakta: Vanern Gotland Lappland Vastergotland Norrbottens Ian Storstockholm Stockholms Ian Daislands kanal Olandsbron 5 585 km2 3 001 km2 109 729 km2 1 1 08 0 1 7 invdnare 98 906 km2 1 400 000 invdnare 1 524 266 invanare 225 km 6 072 m Det storsta foretaget: Den storsta dagstidningen: Den storsta veckotidningen: Den storsta mdnadstidningen: Den storsta serietidningen: ABB Expressen lcakuriren VAr bostad Kalle h k a & Co 200 000 anstiillda 4 1 8 300 exemplar 410 600 ex. 139 300 ex. . 1 049 300 ex. 11 Engelsmhnen dricker kanske (mycket) 61 iin svenskama. sing.) to the adjective: Hon Ir den mest intelligenta flickan i hela gruppen. Definite forms of superlatives The comparative does not inflect in the definite. men (liten) sprit. Han Ir den mest sympatiske studenten i hela gruppen.

punkt) iir Smygehuk. samma (the same). He took the wrong road. fdljande (the following). punkt) i Sverige tir Treriksraset. Hon lyssnar p i radio.221 m.720 km. We are watching (the) TV. 4 Den (djup. 5 Does Rebecca subscribe to the same paper . temperatur) i Lappland kan ligga omkring 40-45 minusgrader. rltt (the right). Filjande hiist var torr. minad) tir februari. What is the Swedish for: 1 Aren't the headlines as big in the evening papers? They're bigger. 7 Den (kall. fel (the wrong). flod) i Sverige k Klartilven-GbWv . 3 Does she play as well as Erik? She plays better. figel) i Sverige tir kungsfigeln (the goldcrest). She is listening to the radio. We are having dinner at the Olsson's. 2 Is the newspaper as rewarding as the TV news? It's more rewarding. I play the piano. 6 Den (liten. Vi tittar p i TV. 5 Det (hag.2111 m 6 h. 3 with proper names: Vi slca iita middag hos Olssons. Exercise 3 You have to continue to the next village. berg) i Sverige k Kebnekaise . but notice the following difference: No article in Swedish . The following autumn was dry.Exercise 2 Study the table above and then insert the words in the correct form: 1 Den (ling. 2 Den (nordlig. with nouns after nlsta (the next). Article use (2) Use of indefinite and definite (end) articles in Swedish is often the same as in English. sjii) i Sverige k Hornavan . 8 Den (lig. 4 Are the boys like their father? They're taller.definite article in English: with instruments and machines: Jag spelar piano. firegiende (the previous): Du ska fortsltta till nasta by. 3 Den (sydlig. Han tog fel vIg.

cheat har for mig. up to now orolig -t -a. grasp Det iir brittom. cope viinjla -er vande sig. guess fuskal -r -de. Du beh6ver inte vara orolig. It's richer and more beautifid. Em: Det k viil inte d konstigt. get used to oroal -r -de sig. Oroa dig inte! REBECCA: Fattar du inte? Det iir brAttom. REBECCA:Vill du pHst4 att jag ska klara mig genom att gissa. understand. be fantastic at something . eI1er ska jag fuska kanske? Em: Jag har fdr mig att du sa att du var fena p l att fuska i skolan. Det har ju gHtt fint H hittills. but she pays less. 8 Sweden is vexy different from England. tental -r -de (= tentera). understand konstig -t -a. quickly iimne -t -n. 6 The sports pages are not the same as in English papers. begripla -er begrep. It to is too dEcult. imagine vara fena p i (= fenomenal).7 The leader is more diff~cult read. so far. calm down hittills. worry fattal -r -de. maintain gissal -r -de. take an examination lugnal -r -de sig. REBECCA: Men hur ska jag kunna klara mig om jag inte fdrstPlr vad han dger? Em: Du vlnjer dig. Em: Lugna dig! Det kommer att g bra. REBECCA:Vad sa du? Nu begriper jag inte dig heller. Han talade fort och det var ett svHrt you? Yes. Jag tentar ju niista vecka. strange fort. Dialogue 14 m Jag begriper ingenting! 1 don't understand anything! After a lecture Rebecca is worried about her exam REBECCA: Jag begrep inte ett ord av vad han sa. worried p i s t 3 -r pistod. subject Maral -r -de sig. They're fewer. It's urgent.

What are they? Here are one or two other expressions of the same kind: Det antar jag. I wonder. I assume so. function stupid. obehaglig Zicklig. Det gissar jag.Understanding and being understood There are three ways of saying 'understand' in the dialogue. ball -t -a bergis (indeclinable) bussig -t -a deppig -t -a.remAl sak. senile thing thing bike 'boss' rotten. deppad dumburk -en -ar extralcnick -en fik -et funkd -r -de gaggig -t -a grej -en -or (-er) grunka -n -or hoj -en -ar hiijdare -n kass -t -a klantig -t -a kul (indeclinable) klft -en -ar kZik -et k8kd -r -de k l r r a -n -or k i k -en -ar lira/ -r -de laskig -t -a labbig -t -a rolig sllcer vlnlig deprimerad TV-apparat extra arbete kaf6 fungera virrig. Det Grmodar jag. I presume so. senil sak. fumlig rolig mun mat %ta bil hus spela acklig. That is my guess. kind depressed TV-set moonlighting caf6 work. fd. bad stupid. What are the three phrases Erik uses to tell Rebecca to calm down? Slang (2) See also p.164.g. obehaglig - - fun certain friendly. Det undrar jag. trikig dum. football) horrible horrible . fdremfil cykel hiigt uppsatt person dllig. clumsy fun mouth food eat car house play (e. Below are other frequent slang words and expressions (not already included in the dialogues) with their standard equivalents.

Kring 4%-strecket ligger KdS (Kristdemokratiska samhallspartiet). och alla svenska medborgare som k over 18 C har rostritt och fir stiiIla upp som kandidater i valet. Socialdemokraternak mycket storre H Vp. ett borgerligt parti. policeman currency money toilet stupid Factual text 14 a Det politiska Iivet Political life Svenskarna rostar i riksdagsval den tredje dndagen i September vart fjHrde Ar. fHnig petrol station sandwich toilet fiddle. Det finns 349 Iedamoter i riksdagen uppdelade i block: Det socialistiska blocket best& av ArbetarepartietSocialdemokraterna(s) och Vasterpartiet (Vp). Det r parti som fir flest mandat (riksdagsledamoter) bildar regering antingen ensamt eller i koalition.2002 etc.mack -en -ar macka -n -or mugg -en myglal -r -de packad pry1 -en -ar raggal -r -de upp sabbal-r-de snask -et snut -en -ar spZinn stHlar toa -n tiintig -t -a bensinstation smtirgb toalett fiffla. Valdeltagandet H hogt . som st& utanfor blocken. De tvA blocken har ungefd lika mHnga mandat. Centern (c) och det konservativa Moderata Sadingspartiet (m). Partier som k representerade i riksdagen ftir sedan 1966 statliga bidrag beroende p l antalet mandat. sm%stjZila full sak skaffa (t ex flickor1 pojkar) sabotera godsaker polis -en -er kronor pengar toalett -en durn. Det finns ockd flera vansterpartier som inte i r s l stora som Vp.omkring 90% av vdjama brukar rosta. dvs. och Miljiipartiet de grona. object get hold of. Det borgerliga blocket bestir av Folkpartiet n liberalerna (fp). wangle drunk thing. . 'chat up' sabotage sweets cop. Andra partier som fiir mindre iln 4% av rosterna fir inte vara med i riksdagen. 1998.

r Endast det parti som f"ar349 mandat far bilda regering. 90% av alla over 18 A rostar. Det socialistiska blocket har ungefair lika m h g a mandat som Moderata samlingspartiet. government bidrag-et. member of parliament regering -en -ar. the European Union samarbete -t. grant beroende pH. . Socialdemokraterna k mycket storre W kommunisterna. nor EU = Europeiska Unionen. prime minister ihjiil. co-operation omkomm/a -er -kom. turnout mandat -et -.. Man f3r bli kandidat om man k Sver 18 riksdagsledamot -en -ledamiiter. rIitt (right) fel (wrong) . riistriltt -en.. depending on vare sig eller. neither. a (Place a cross in the box) Alla som k 6ver 18 hr brukar rosta. dead . vote valdeltagande -t.under Kongokriget 1961 och Olof Palme. Vocabulary riksdagsval -et -. right to vote riistal -r -de. Exercise 4 SZtt ett kryss i rutan: .Sverige har varit neutralt i krig och k inte medlem i NATO men gick med i EU 1995 och har samtidigt ett starkt sarnarbete med de Svriga nordiska lhderna. support. die (an unnatural death) statsminister -n -rar. svensk statsrninister som skiits ihja i Stockholm 1986. FNs generalsekreterare som omkom i Rhodesia . . parliamentary election citizen medborgare -n -. T A W a svenska stabmiin f& senare Ar k v d Dag Hammarskjiild.

but it is found in the following cases: compounds in which the first part is itself a compound: nouns whose first part ends in -(n)ing. -(a)tion: koalitionlslregering regeringlslchef (head of government) Further methods for compounding are: NOUN minus -a/-e + NOUN pojke + namn > pojklnamn flicka+ namn > flicklnamn vlljarc + k i r > viljarjkir NOUN + link vowel + NOUN familj + sida > familjlelsida tunnelbana + kiosk > tunnellbanlelkiosk * NOUN + old case ending + NOUN vecka + slut > vecko(s1ut vara + hus > varulhus This last method is now seldom used to form new compounds. Sverige P inte medlem i EU. of two main types: NOUN NOUN + NOUN + s + NOUN riistlrltt vlnsterlparti valldeltagande kvilllslpress There are few firm rules for whether the link +-s is used. Alla politiska partier fib statliga bidrag. -an. -ling. nouns made w up of t o (or more) nouns joined together. -(i)tet. -nad.Vp 21 det stbrsta vibsterpartiet efter socialdemokraterna.e. i. . I3 Compounding There are several compound nouns in the above text.

... < .. . ... .. < .Exercise 5 What two nouns do the following compounds derive from? Example: ett Iaarintyg 1 ett I&arrum 2 en veckotidning 3 ett hjmbyte 4 ett grannbarn 5 en soflkudde 6 en ficklampa 7 en gatubild 8 (en) kvinnokamp 9 en skoltemin 10 ett invharantal < en Ware + ett intyg doctor's certificate staff room weekly newspaper heart transplant neighbour's child sofa cushion pocket torch street scene feminist struggle school term number of inhabitants <. < .... . < . < .... <. <. < .. . <...

Men hon vaknade. en kjol.15 Rebecca satter iggng och packar Rebecca starts packing In this lesson we will look at: reflexive possessive pronouns (hans. en bh. etc. och first hlirde hon den inte. och eftersom hon avskydde att ligga och dra sig. Hon hade vaknat i god tid. continuing and ending subjunctives emigration and immigration Text I5 m Rebecca sat ter ig3ng och packar Rebecca starts packing Vackarklockan ringde ovanligt tidigt hos Rebecca den dar morgonen. strumpbyxor. etc. Rebecca trevade med fotterna efter tofflorna. satte p i sig morgonrocken och borjade Iagga kltider i travar p siingen: nhgra trosor. nhgra blusar. tvb lbrigarmade TH shirts och en tjock olle. Pernilla. Pernilla svarade att hon redan var uppe. Hogarna . Hon strackte sig efter telefonluren och slog numret till sin kompis. hade hon redan packat sin ryggsack och stod nu resklar med ytterkladerna pb.) article use transitive and intransitive verbs the position of unstressed object pronouns how to express beginning. som hon lovat ringa och vacka.lsin. gnuggade sig i ijgonen och satte sig pb sangkanten.

stretch telefonlur -en -ar. pack hiirla hiir -de. Vocabulary slttla -er satte ighng.) i sitt stilla sinne. rouse. gorgeous senhiist -en. men det kunde vara d stralande vackert p l senhiisten och Pernilla ville visa Rebecca nlgra av sina iilsklingsstiillen. Ju mindre. offer fortvlvlat. deep down fires12 -r -slog. De skulle resa norrut. grow fintrans. here: dial viicWa -er -te. drog en triija 6ver huvudet. long-sleeved olle -n -ar. study skidsf song -en -er. outdoor clothes treval -r -de efter. skirt strumpbyxor -na. suggest veckoslut -et -. wake up (intrans. grope for toftla -n -or.t de. tights hiig -en -ar.) svaral -r -de. blouse kjol -en -ar. answer ligga och dra sig. accept erbjudande -t -n. stoppade tandborsten i fickan. heap vPda -er -te.late autumn iilsklingsstiille -t -n. De kunde behiiva lite avkoppling frAn sina studier. Det var inte skidsilsong i h u . men nu tittade hon firtvivlat p l alla sina olika kliidesplagg. reach. awaken (trans. och hans rAd hade varit att bara packa det niidvhdigaste. favourite place tackd -r -de ja. lie in bed (in the morning) ryggsPck -en -ar. Rebecca besl6t att ta honom p l orden. telephone receiver slU -r slog.) gnuggal -r -de. hit. start packat -r -de. hear a vaknat -r -de. ready to leave ytterklgder -na. break. hoppade i jeansen. pile trosor -na. in desperation klgdesplagg -et -. rucksack resklar -t -a. bra lhngiirmad . desto btittre. weekend avkoppling -en. Vad beh6vde man n2r det enligt vaderleksrapporten skulle bli vwande molnighet och enstaka regnskurar i s6dra Norrlands inland och fjaltrakter? Henrik hade IAnat henne sitt regnstiill.v M e och hon U e i sitt stilla sime att hon borde ha gjort detta firegAende M I . tog regnsalet under armen och gick ner till den vantande bilen. Pernilla hade fireslagit att de skulle ta hennes bil och &a bort ett par dagar kring veckoslutet. knickers bh -n -ar. relaxation studie -n -r. edge of the bed striicWa -er -te sig. dressing gown trave -n -ar. Rebecca hade firs& tackat ja till erbjudandet. article of clothing . slipper morgonrock -en -ar. skiing season striilande vackert. wann sweater blus -en -ar. rub siingkant -en -er.

He has a car. toothbmh ficka -n -or. .. sina) never qualifies the subject of the clause: Hans bil H gammal. . 'her'.advice Reflexive possessive pronouns (hans etc. then use sin etc.. hcnncs. . If the possessor is subject of the clause and the noun that the possessive qualifies is object. Han har silt sin bil.) English 'his'. 'its'. sina) is reflexive. . sina) which agrees with the noun following. <--> OBJ (sin etc. dess. pocket arm -en -ar.what was ju desto the . r SUBJ One way of being sure of reference to the subject is to draw an arrow from the possessive to the possessor. mountain area inland s t . scattered word tandborste -n -ar. His car is old. He has sold his car. weather det niidviindigaste.e.viiderleksrapport -en -er. refers to the subject of the clause) Sin (sitt. qualifies the object of the clause. deras (all indeclinable as they end in -s).) SUBJ < > (sin etc. < > (i. r Han har en bil. sin (sitt. wait showers fjilltrakt s n s r . arm v5intaJ -r -de. bright intervals enstaka regnskurar. cloudy with absolutely necessary .) . Hans bil H gammal.. take him at his report viixlande molnighet. A has sold A's car. Sin (sitt. . ta honom p i orden... interior regnstiill -et -. It may only qualify the object of the clause and always refers to possession by the subject of the clause.lsin etc. waterproof rid s t -. Han har sllt sin bil. the . He has sold his car. 'their' have two possible renderings in Swedish: hans.

.) Exercise 7 Translate only the words in italics: 1Pernilla rang herpiend Rebecca. . bil startar aldrig pb morgonen . Varf"ordet? h e gick ut med haus fru. 6 But are her clothes suitable for the country? 7 Pernilla was going to take her own car. . = De hatar sina lektioner. Rebecca kan inte f% . . efc. l (cf. De tycker.Non-reflexive forms (hans. . .e. because 'their lessons' is the subject of the new sub clause. Han tog sin fru med sig. = He took his wife with him. . hennes.)do not refer to the subject: Olle H sur. Exercise 2 Insert either hans/hennes/dess/deras or sin/sitt/sina: Rebecca ville inte packa . . . Why? h e went out with his (i. Pernilla kan inte f% i g h g . blusar och strumpbyxor. 3 She was packing her case. r Olle is angry. .) when there is a double subject: He and his wife went away for the weekend. not h e ' s own) wife. 8 Her car never starts in the mornings. 5 She put her clothes on the bed. kliidesplagg lig 8verallt p i rummet. because 'he and his wife' is al subject use hans. 9 Pernilla had to lend her her warm sweafer. Problems arise in the following cases: when there is more than one clause: They think that their lessons are boring. (cf. . att deras lektioner iir trAkiga. 4 Her case was heavy. motor krhglar. 10 She thinks that her warm sweafer suits Rebecca. bil. They hate their lessons. 2 It wasn't her rucksack. Han och hans fru &te bort fir helgen. 11 Pemilla and herpiend have a marvellous time in the country. .

kompis Henrik om Ad och han sa att han tyckte att hon inte behovde ta med alla . H She put on her dressing gown. stomach achela headache. Hon tog av sig skoma She took off her shoes. Han odlar potatis.^ Honsov lbge. She is going to wash her hair. . Hon filjde till slut . Hon drog en trtija aver huvudet She pulled a sweater over her och stoppade tandborsten i fickan.possessive pronoun in English Notice that when the ownership is obvious. kliider den ghgen. . Han har out i ryggenl He has a pain in his baclda magen/huvudet. Intransitive The potatoes are growing well. Eon h6r& v%ckarklockan. . trans. I0 Do Whereas in English many verbs may be either intransitive or transitive. Swedish does not use a possessive (see p. Hon satte p sig morgonrocken. intrans. . Ad. Hon ska tvHtta hlret. . MPT (time) Ditransitive verbs have both a direct and an indirect object: the indirect object is often a person and the direct object a thing: Henrik ldnade henne ett regnstiilL ditrans.205). vbka. . . . v&ka L besvLlig. . Hon bad . . . . Hon tycker att . in Swedish there is often a sharp distinction in that separate verbs are used: Transitive He grows potatoes. Article use (3) End article in Swedish . Transitive and intransitive verbs Transitive verbs take a direct object. for example with parts of the body and clothing. . head and put her toothbrush in her pocket. intransitive verbs do not. . re 1 hade hon fitt i julklapp av Henrik. Potatisen vdxm bra.igen .

The chimney was smoking. strong): Transitive sHttJa -er satte satt put 1Hggla -er lade lagt lay faYa e r -de -t fell b r b d a -er -de -t burn kyYa -er -de -t chill triiwa -r -de -t tire Exercise 3 Intransitive sittJa e r satt suttit sit. . ADV OBJ Pronoun (unstressed): Hon gillar den inte 'alls. . Lampan sent piinatten. . . slutade hon fimdera. upp alla gamla tidningar? Niir han studerade . Det rykte i skorstenen. as in the text: Fiirst hiirde hon den 'inte. . . .Noun (always stressed): f Hon gillar inte alls 'popkonst. Vi . . Hon kunde inte somna och hon W e .) ADV OBI ' C . . N& hon hade . Churchill riikte cigarrer. OBJ ADV (Cf. . p i m g e n och funderade. . . be liggla -er 1Pg legat lie. . .Fiirst harde hon inte den. Var bar jag . There are a number of pairs of transitivelintransitive verbs in Swedish that are distinguished by different verb inflection (e. Jag har . p i radion. . be faWa -er Ell fallit fall brinda -er brann brunnit burn kallnd -r -de -t cool triittnd -r -de -t get tired Choose one of the verbs and insert it in the correct form in the sentence: sdttdsitta Rebecca . OBJ ADV . weak vs. Unstressed object pronouns When object pronouns are unstressed they often move in front of the adverb. brevet i Har du . ldggdligga a Jokkmokk iir en liten stad som . i Lappland. mina byxor? brdnnahrinna den. brevlidan i gb. mig p i spisen.Churchill smoked cigars. . .

)) Exercise 4 ( don't know him.) I Replace the noun with a pronoun and re-arrange the word order as in the example: Example: Hon h6rde inte vfckarklockan. 1 Hon tog inte blusarna med sig. Jag vet inte var jag ska Mirja. 5 Du gliimmer vill inte ollen? 6 Du viicker vill inte Rebecca? Dialogue 15 Det ar bast vi startar tidigt We had beffer start early Pernilla. De W e r i REBECCA: klarar inte det W. vad det k jobbigt! -: A Om jag vore du skulle jag bara ta lite triijor och dgonting om vi gplr ut p l faktiskt ett disco h p p e . Stressed pronoun (for contrast): Jag k b n e r inte honom (men Unstressed pronoun: Jag k b n e r honom 'inte. REBECCA: ! k du inte klok? Jag har precis vaknat. det lir dags att stiga upp. 2 Kbner du inte Henrik? 3 Nej jag W a d e aldrig Henrik. is keen to get going REBECCA: morgon. an early riser. F%RNLLA: Det problemet tar vi itu med n& vi p miinster kan vara jiittesnyggt. Fy. god morgon. och nu ska jag G A siitta i g h g och packa. 4 Han gav mig inte regmalet. God PERNJLLA: God morgon. OBJ ADV ' ADV OBJ jag kfnner 'heme). ( don't know him (but I do I know her. Varken mi Jag randiga skjortor passar till de mtiga enf&rgat har jag inte d d med. Jag skullejust g nlit A du ringde.Cf. > Hon h6rde den inte. Jag har varit vaken liinge. A .

. get the car started en dryg halvtimme. . 'I have just .. were (see 'Subjunctives' below) underkliider -na. crazy jobbig -t -a. .'.ganska l b g tid. stunning. . firvina.'. deal with miinster miinstret . % skjorta -n -or. slacks enGrgad -t -de. in piles. There are also a number of expressions for beginning. Nu ska jag s&ta iging och packa. shirt passd -r -de (till). . be in full swing varken . problem t d -r tog itu med. . . . Vocabulary startd -r -de. Now I am going to start packing. time to stigla e r steg upp.. REBECCA: bil startar aldrig p5 morgnarna d jag har en dryg Din halvtimme p mig att fi igen vtiskan. . 'for a couple of days'. d det iir b2st att vi startar tidigt. REBECCA: Vi ses . awake inte klok. Morgonpigga Hej. hurry up fil -r fick iging bilen. at least half an hour f i igen vPskan . 'it is time to . continuing .pattern . start dags att. om jag kommer upp ur mgen. . of a single colour) ha r i d med. Hej d ltinge. nor. jiittesnygg -t -a. Beginning. m W s k o r upphtir aldrig att B r v b a mig. be suitable. hard work vore.get the case closed morgonpigg. 'already'. . a good half hour. 'I have a good half hour to . . continuing and ending Find words in the text and dialogue which mean 'at first'. aEord problem e t -. plain (lit. .. eller neither . 'for a long time'. go (with) lingbyxor -na. . dryg. . get up vaWen e t -na. A PERNILLA: Vi foar se. . very attractive snol -r -dde sig. see 'Beginning.'. upphiir. continuing and ending: Rebecca barjade llgga kllder i Rebecca began to lay out clothes travar. underclothes hiller iging. . . Jag kor nu . om jag fhr i g b g bilen.' below . .

. Subjunctives The subjunctive is rarely used in modem Swedish. The past subjunctive of strong and irregular verbs is used now only as an alternative to the ordinary past tense in order to express unreal situations: Om jag vore myclcet rik skulle If1 were very rich I would buy jag Iciipa ett slott i Frankrile. stop' is sluta: Matchen har slutat.) Leve brudparet! Tack vare din hjiilp .Starta is a 'false friend'.) . Morgonpigga mfnniskor People who are lively in the upphlir aldrig att Grvina mig. Om jag var . Another word for 'end. Vi startar tidigt. (cf. . . It has stopped raining. We will set out early. a chateau in France. right Han hiller p i med att laga bilen. now). . . is found only for a few verbs such as vore (from vara): Det vore kul om du kunde komma ikvi11. Dct skulle vara kul . (cf. ending in -e. or 'take off (aeroplanes).e. . The match is still going on. I can't start the engine. . Notice also: hilia p i och/h&la p i med att (be (engaged in) doing something): Han haler p i och lagar bilen. 'start up' (engines). meaning 'set out'. Det har slutat regna. Usually the subjunctive is found in fixed expressions: Long live the bridal couple! Thanks to your help . . He is mending the car (i. Jag kan intefd igdng motorn. Another word for 'continue' is pig& Matchen p i g i r fnnu. The match has finished. morning never cease to amaze me. It would be nice if you could come tonight. and a special subjunctive form of the verb.

Den storsta gruppen 2r finnar . rapidly betydla -er -de.immigration Mellan 1850 och 1920 utvandrade over 1 rniljon svenskar till Nordamerika. harvest failed frihet -en -er. trivs m h g a invandrare inte i Sverige.Factual text 15 Utvandring 98 . P i 60-talet och 70talet kom minga jugoslaver och greker.invandring - Emigration . Grekerna flydde undan rnilitiirjuntan i Grekland 1967-74. freedom avrlttd -r -de.ornkring 250 000. P i 1800-talet firmdrades Sverige mycket befolkningen okade hastigt och p i landet betydde detta fler jordlosa och arbetslosa.years when the. mean missvixtHr -et -. Under 1860-talet blev det missvWr och m h g a dog av hunger. change hastigt. men arbetare f r h staden M e ocksi med. De flesta kom f r h landsbygden. countryside firfndrd -r -de. the authorities det forna. och m h g a chilenare flydde till Sverige efier kuppen mot president Salvador Allende k 1973. Vocabulary utvandrd -r -de. Samtidigt erbjod USA gratis jord och vdbetalda arbeten i de vaande sttidema. De saknar sina hemlander och accepteras inte alltid av svenskama. former. emigrate landsbygd -en. writer roman -en -er. executed militf rtjlnst -en. I b6rjan sokte vissa svenskar ocksPl religionsfrihet i den nya vilrlden. Om tidig utvandring frfin Smiland har firfattaren Vilhelm Moberg (18981973) skrivit i 'Romanen om utvandrarna' i fyra delar. Trots att myndigheterna g6r mycket fiir att hjslpa. ex- . coup myndigheterna. Det har kommit andra flyktingar frhn Iran och Somalia och p i senare k f& det form Jugoslavien. Sedan andra varldskriget har det kommit minga arbetare och flyktingar till Sverige. novel kupp -cn -er. Senare reste socialister som Joe Hill ( a d t t a d i Utah 1915) och unga man som inte ville gora den fdrlangda miliartjansten (1901). military service firfattare -n -.

. . till en. . . eller . . . . . 6 Joe Hill. .Exercise 5 Hitta ett eller flera ord i texten som passar W . . . . blev . . . roman om utvandringen f d n . 7 Vilhelm Moberg k . . 1Han kommer inte f i b staden utan f r h . i Utah. . . . . . .frHn . . . . . . . . . 11 F d n fjiirran Sstern har det ocksH kommit . 5 & 1901 fdrlagdes . . . till Sverige. k 1973. . 10 President Allende dog under . den berUmda . . 9 Miliwled-ningen i Grekland kallades . . 8 F r b sodra Europa kom det m h g a . 3 I USA kunde man d . 4 Religionsfrihet kunde man d i . 2 Den stora folktikningen p& 1800-talet betydde att m b g a hade varken .

d det ville han helst inte lbtsas om. Det sistnihnda tyckte han emellertid var fdr oheroiskt. pliitsliga s-or i korsryggen och dessutom skavdr p i h8larna. kunde g i till sjukhusakuten eller till en vhdcentral utan att first b e a a tid. Slutligen talade doktom om fir honom att hostan berodde p i riikning. . imlande huvudvkk. blev stucken i lhgfingret fdr blodprov och fick kasta vatten fdr urinprov. huvudvlirken p i alkohol. om man blev sjuk. the flower king Text 16 E ! Hos 1a"kren At the doctor's Bl hade h t sig lite vissen en 1g. Han blev kliimd p i magen och knackad i ryggen. ont i magen. Bill blev o-dertagen trots att han saknade bide persomummer och patientbricka. fick gapa och a g a 'aah'. Han kom &Ag att en v h hade sagt att man. Han hade en besvlirande il hosta.ngre tid.16 Hos lakaren At the doctor's In this lesson we will look at: past participles particle verbs and their participles compound verbs the position of particles affixation words for parts of the body warnings words for people from certain towns and regions Linne.

ignore sjukhusakuten. relax hillla -er hiill med om. clinic. invigorating promenad -en -er. cough ihillande. open one's mouth sticWa -er stack. make an appointment blev omhiindertagen. doctor visslen -et -na. be due to magpliga -n -or. stomach ache smiirta -n -or. shut in slit/a -er slet ut. be without.personal identity number patientbricka -n -or. health centre bestiillla -er -de tid. W e Bill p i sina skavsh och log sammanbitet.magpllgoma p l stress och ryggsm2rtorna p l den fdga sittvwiga bilen.blood test kastal -r -de vatten. agree with stiirkande. sting (of insects) blodprov s t -. back gapal -r -de. urine test slutligen. skiira ner sin a tillconsumtion och koppla av p jobbet. press knackal -r -de. with poor seats cigarett -en -er. was treated saknal -r -de. back pain Gga sittviinlig. prick. pain korsrygg -en. heel det sistnlmnda. wear out lel -r log. this last emellertid. urinate (hospital language) urinprov -et -.207). men niir doktorn fdreslog att han kunde ta lhnga st2rkande promenader i stiillet fir att sitta insmgd i en obekvm utsliten bil. have no personnummer -numret -. constant huvudviirk -en. however oheroisk -t -a. blister hiil -en -ar. Vocabulary liikare -n -. unheroic inte litsals -des om. lack. cigarette skiirla skar ner. walk obekviim -t -a. squeeze. knock. uncomfortable stiingla -er -de in. troublesome hosta -n. H n undrade om Bill kunde ltigga av med cigarettema. beer consumption kopplal -r -de av. gave a dog (polite) smile - . patient card (a plastic medical card) kl%mm/a-er kliimde. cut down iilkonsumption -en. stomach pain ryggsmiirta -n -or. off colour besviirande. Bill kunde hiIlla med om att det A var en god id&. small of the back skavsir -et -. tap rygg -en -ar. casualty department virdcentral -en -er. finally berol -r -dde pi. headache ont i magen (see p. smile log sammanbitet.

e. a newly paintad house the newly painted house . however. The past participle of Swedish verbs is. -t. a completely separate form which is used as an adjective in the indefinite and definite declensions (Roman numerals refer to verb conjugations): Indefinite Predicative Indefinite Attributive Definite Attributive I Stolen Pr nymilald en nymilald st01 den nymilalde stolen The chair is newly painted.Past participles How to form past participles: ek (a) W a verbs that have a stem in -a or a voiced consonant (i.e. 116). ek -x. 11) add +-d: packal sthgla (pack) (close) packald sthgld (packed) (closed) @) W a verbs that have a stem in a voiceless consonant (-k.i. -s. Conjugations I. -p. hade to form the perfect and pluperfect tenses respectively (see p. Infinitive skrivla (write) Supine skriv/it (written) Past participle skrivlen (written) Using past participles: The supine is an indeclinable form used together with har. Conjugation~IIb verbs) add -t: kGp/a (buy) ki3plt (bought) ek (c) W a verbs that have a stem in a long stressed vowel (Conjugation III verbs) add -dd: klB[ (dress) MUdd (dressed) (d) To form the past participle of a strong verb: delete the supine ending in -it and then add en: 0 . a newly painted chair the newly painted chair Huset Pr nymilalt ett nymildt hus det nymilalde huset The house is newly painted.

? 2 (fvdtta I) k kladerna . . . 5 (sthnga IIa) k S k e r n a redan . . . . 8 (bjuda IV) &a $ . Tbe definite and plural form of past participles ending in -ad is -e irrespective of gender (cf. . 7 @ 1%) De . ett omskrivlet drama det omskrivlna dramat a rewritten drama the rewritten drama Note: Both the N-form and T-form of Conjugation IIb past participles end in -t. Then insert the indefinite past participle form of the verbs provided: 1 (skriva IV) k brevet .229). en stiingld diirr a closed door ett stiinglt finster a closed window en oliislt bok anunreadbook ett o l W brev an unread letter den sting/& diirren the closed door det stiinglda finstret the closed window den oliislta boken the unread book det oliislta brevet the unread letter IIb Boken iir oliislt The book is unread. Dramat iir omskrivlet The drama is rewritten.? 6 (bygga IIa) Villorna blev . . nu.146). Resultatet iir uppniltt The result is reached.? 3 (sfressa I) Bill har blivit . tack. en uppnildd enighet den uppnUdda enigheten an achieved unity the achieved unity ett uppniltt resultat det uppnildda resultatet the fmd result the f n l result ia en omskrivlen dikt a rewritten poem den omskrivlna dikten the rewritten poem N Dikten iir omskrivlen The poem is rewritten.IIa Diirren iir stiingld The door is closed. Exercise 1 Revise strong verbs (see p. . . . till slut. agg och en . . . m Enigheten iir uppnildd Unity is achieved. Brevet iir ollslt The letter is unread. . The definite and plural form of other past participles is -aThe past participles of strong verbs have the same root vowel as the supine: Past participles are also used with forms of bli and vara to comtmct one type of passive (see p. . 4 (steka IIbIgrilla I) Jag vill ha ett . korv. Fiinstret iir stiinglt The window is closed. . p. .134).

6 (laga I) Den . . . .. . . . He sits on the raincoat. Blcv det mycket vin liver? Vi miste arbeta iiver idag. . 4 (kdnna IIa) Den.biljetterna. Jag skall se efter. 5 @arkera I) Den . .vi bhda . korven. . Han sitter sig regnrocken. I don't wish to add anything.. 3 (Idsa 1%) De . Don't do that again! She is getting changed. You need to relax. . . Was there much wine left? We have to work late today. 2 (rdka IIb) Den . Du behiiver koppla av. . Jag vill inte ligga till nigot. 8 (bebo 111) Den . I'll go and look. . paret. Put the radio on! Turn off the stereo! Olle doesn't agree with me. Particle verbs Particles are stressed adverbs or prepositions which together with a verb form a particle verb. maten. ? 9 (sticka IV) Olle blev . . He puts on the raincoat. . The following prepositions are. . . av ett bi.filmstjhan. . . 10 (bestdlla IIa) De . There is often a difference in meaning: Unstressedprepositionpi: Stressed particle pi: Han sitter sig pP 'regnrocken. the two words together form one unit of meaning: Jag tycker om dig. bordet.e. . . One difference between a preposition and a particle is that a preposition is unstressed and usually precedes a noun. 10 (tffnda IIa) h.r ljuset . . i. bilen. Ldgg av med att rBka! I like you. dorrarna. ? Exercise 2 Insert the definite past participle form: 1 (duka I ) Det . when stressed. . often used as particles: pi av med efter om till Bver Sitt pP radion! Sting av stereon! Olle hiller inte med mig. . stugan. boken. 9 (lffsaIIb) Den om. . . 7 (gifla 1%) Det ny. Giir inte om detta! Hon klir om sig. Stop smoking! Prepositions may be used as particles. .

3 (sld s6nder IV) Vasen . . i g h g N i r skall vi siitta i g h g ? ivlg Har du skickat ivlg kortet? undan Tjuven ltom undan polisen. When are we going to start? Have you sent off the card? The thief evaded the police. They walked round in Rome. often used as particles: omkring De gick omkring i Rom. omhindertagen (< ta hand om 'taken care of ). Some examples from the text are: instingd (< stinga in 'shut in'). She travelled round in Sweden. She gave back the pen. Have &e and Eva moved in together? Now they have moved apart. En bortkastad Zilburk. kvar Vi stannar kvar och diskar.? 5 (kora om IIa. Pennan gick itu. sfinder Vem har slagit sSnder vasen? fast Splnn fast biltet! Jag Itan inte f loss muttern. The enemy killed him. She is a very popular teacher. Hon l r en mycltet onltyclrt Iirare. The pen broke in two. omkull Jag slog omkull stolen. . He throws away his beer can. Fienden slog i h j a honom. . I knocked over the chair. Who has smashed the vase? Fasten your belt! I cannot loosen the nut. You must catch up. We like our teacher. Exercise 3 Insert past participles in the correct form: 1 (stdnga av 11) Stereon ar . utsliten (< slita ut 'worn out'). fdrbi Jag kZirde a r b i skolan. tillbaka Hon llmnade tillbaka pennan.The following adverbs are. A loss ihop Har Alte och Eva flyttat ihop? islr itu ikapp ihjil Nu har de flyttat islr. when stressed. Han kastar bod sin Zilburk. Participles of particle verbs In the present and past participle forms of particle verbs the particle becomes a prefix attached to the verb: Vi tycker om vAr Ilrare. . runt Hon reste runt i Sverige. A discarded beer can. 2 (kld om 111) Hon var . 4 (resa bort 1Ib) k de . I drove past the school. . . . We'll stay and wash up. = . . Du miste hinna ikapp.

Generally speaking the separated forms of the separable compound verb have a lower style andlor have a concrete meaning. . I underlined (i. av Porschen. stressed) the importance of the matter. . Subject Adverb Verbl Particle Obj/Comp W T Nu Nu D H Han De tycker jag du iir mHste vi har kastadc - om inte inte omtyckt faktiskt ringa upp blivit uppringd.'overtake') Han blev . The participle forms are always joined up. 8 (spela in I. Compound verbs There are two kinds of compound verb: with inseparable prefixes: betala (pay). . Eleven stryker under ord& The pupil underlines the word.e. Ilngre. . but has two alternate forms for every tense. oroa (worry). in Swedish after the particle: cf. 'threw the heckler (hlcklaren) out'. . The position of particles Front Verb. . . bjuda idinbjuda (invite) The separable kind is similar to the particle verb. firklara (explain). - - Notice that in English the object comes before the particle. 6 (shiva upp IV) h alla priserna . . . Jag undersfr2k sakens betydelse. ut - dig llngre. = 'record') Alla shgerna k nyligen . while the joined up forms have a higher style andlor an abstract meaning: Defgrbigick mig i prisutdelnidgen. They passed over me in the prizegiving.? 7 (kasta ut I) Pojkarna blev . undkomma (avoid) with separable prefixes: klnna igedigenklnna (recognise). hlcklarcn. 'ring him up'. They walked past me on the road. De gickfbrbi mig p i viigen. honom.

wrongly' uncooked intolerant misunderstand be unsettled 'together with' 'together with' 'against' collaborate co-worker resistance Time and place: eftergenu r'after' 'return' 'original. wrongly' 'bad. translate into Swedish: 1 (ringa upp) Don't ring us before 7! 2 (skriva ner) Did you write the number down? 3 (tycka om) Didn't he like them? 4 (kasta bort) They never throw away old clothes. inmissvanAttitude: sammedmot- 'not.. wrongly' 'bad. 5 (sld stinder) I didn't smash the window! 6 ( k h om sig) Isn't she getting changed? 7 (resa bort) Don't they go away over the summer? 8 (skicka ivdg) Hasn't he sent the letter? Affixation New words can be formed by adding a prefix before a stem or a suffix after a stem.Exercise 4 Using the verbs provided. Prefixes do not alter the word class or inflexion of the stem. oldest' . opposite o f 'bad. but suffixes are often used for this very purpose: o NEGATIVE PREFIX tacksam ADJ + tacksam + ADJ + het +NOUNSUFFIX > oltacksam ADJ = ungrateful > tacksamlhet NOUN = gratitude Below is a list of some common prefixes and suffmes with an indication of their meaning and function (< indicates derivation): Prefixes Negative: 0.

+ -a makes transitive Gr. adjective > verb: -a -era -na -ja tvatta demonstrera 'become + adj' gulna 'become + adj' v%nja(< van) wash demonstrate go yellow grow accustomed to . settle renew set free. -ent -in& -ist Feminines: -inna -(er)slta -essa vardinna stlderslta prinsessa <~ 3 r d < stldare < prins arbetare studerande giende emigrant konsument skining cyklist < arbeta < studera <g i < emigrera < konsumera < Skine < cykel worker student pedestrian emigrant consumer inhabitant of SkAne cyclist hostess cleaner princess Conversion: verb > adjective: -bar -lig -ig -abel htijbar " < htija begriplig < begripa < brlka briltig diskutabel < diskutera raisable understandable noisy debatable Conversion: noun > adjective: -enlig -missig -aktig -(i)sk avtalsenlig klnslomiissig pojkaktig brittisk. puerile British Germanic Conversion: noun.+ -a 'make into' belbo fdrlnya belfria (< bo) (< ny) (< fri) inhabit. < german according to the agreement as regards feelings boyish.Conversion .verb: be. liberate Nouns denoting people: -are -ande -ende -ant. germansk < avtal < klnsla < pojke < britt.+ -a 'make into' + adj be.

Ja. change stress -en. G18m inte att du kan fi mag* av stress och lbt bli att alltid k6ra bil till arbetet! Och 4tiink p i att en rask promenad k bra inte bara f i r ryggen utan f i r alla de andra W p o m a ocMl Man skulle inte kunna fi ett par nya skor i sallet f i r medicin? Vocabulary i litla -er llt bli. press obehaglig -t -a. stress firsiktig -t -a. as far as iindral -r -de pi. step inside brits -en -ar. . temple ben -et -. Tack. A Det gAr bra att sitta p den h k britsen. be painful hiift -en -er. here: serious sivitt. hip biijla -er -de. Det sticker till liksom. det kiinns lite obehagligt. och sb gor det ont Mr (iver htiflerna niir jag bojer mig. careful magsir -et -. SAvittjag firrstiir k det ingenting som ni inte sjllv kan h d r a p& LAt bli cigarettema och var firrsiktig med spriten.stomach ulcer - . couch buksmlrta -n -or.Dialogue 16 m LB t bli! Stop it! Bl goes to the doctor's il Var sb god och stig in. stop stigla -er steg in. & det nigot farligt? Det ska vi v%l inte tro. abdominal pain giirla gjorde ont. breathe farlig -t -a. feel trycWa -er -te. Det var hosta och b u k s m o r . Sidlir ja. Nu ska vi se . Nu kan ni sitta upp igen. . Var snall och lBgg upp benen h k SA f8r jag kinna lite pb magen. Kams det nbgot om jag trycker hiir? Ja. Andas djupt! . . bend otiick -t -a. Hmmm. terrible tinning -en -ar. och jag har jamt en oack huvudvkk vid tinningarna. unpleasant andals andades.leg - kiinda -er klnde. .

Vidligt. iiga -t iigon (eye). tand -en tinder (tooth). stjart-en -ar (bottom). . . 'Is it dangerous?' Warnings on signs are ncft always immediately obvious: Varning! (Warning!). Some other useful ones are: hand -en hiinder (hand). arm -en -ar (arm). but let's hope all that is needed is a recept from the lakare for some medicine from the apotek Can you guess what these are in English? . t i -n -r (toe). 'The doctor suggested that . hals -en -ar (throat). . fot -en fdtter (foot). Gift (Poison). . vrist -en -er (ankle). 'Leave off the cigarettes'. 'Bear in mind that . Not to be taken). brisk kriimpa -n -or. briist -et (breast.'. .'. medicine Parts of the body A number of parts of the body are mentioned in the text and dialogue. njure -n -ar (kidney). instead of medicin -en -er.'. and if you cannot be patched up immediately you will be sent to a viirdavdelning where you will be looked after by a sjukskiiterska and we can come and visit you during besiikstid. lunga -n or (lung) - - - . If you need more serious attention you may go to ltirurgi and be attended to by the kirurg. l i r -et (thigh).'. Obstervera)! (Look out!). handled -en -er (wrist). chest). ailment i stiillet fir. Warnings Find in the text and dialogue phrases meaning 'Remember that . 'Don't forget that . . Explosionsfara (Danger of explosion). axel -n axlar (shoulder). If you have fallen over you may be sent to the riintgen.'. High voltage!). hjarna -n -or (brain). hjarta -t -n (heart). Exercise 5 If you are unlucky enough to have to visit the sjukhus or lasarett and the problem is urgent you go to akutmottagning (or akuten). If it is routine you may be sent from the mottagning to the vlntrum. . . lira -t 6ron (ear). 'Be careful with .rask -t -a. Farligt att f i r t i r a (Danger. lever -n (liver). Fritande (Corrosive). . . nacke -n -ar (back of neck). Livsfarlig ledning! (Danger.

ett bestitende arbete. och Carl von Linn6 var ett av landets storsta naturvetenskapliga snillen. PA viren red LinnC normt frin Uppsala och i fern minader vandrade han over 500 mil genom Nordkalottens vildmarker. Varje dag fdrde han dagbok med noggranna observationer av flora. Han fdddes i sodra Smaand 1707. Som forskare gjorde han sin fr&nsta insats inom botaniken och zoologin med Systema naturae (1735). en klassifikation av naturens tre riken (dvs. . fdr vmlivets del. I Uppsala larde han sig ingenting av forelasningarna. vllxter. sexualsystemet. mineraler) med. son till en fattig kyrkoherde som liirde honom uppskatta naturen.Factual text 16 99 Blomsterkungen The FIo wer King 1700-talet k en vetenskapens g u l a d e r i Sverige. I Lund 1Qte LinnC medicin men hans egentliga karlek var till botaniken. djur. Han var den fdrste forskaren som i detalj redogjorde fdr sarnernas liv (i boken Lapplandsresan). I Species plantarum beskriver han de d i kWda viixtarterna. H n hittade p i latinska namn i t a inte mindre an 8000 vtixtarter och 4400 djurarter. fauna och folkliv. men H 1732 fick han stipendium till en forskningsresa i det dA nastan r okada Lappland.

respektive djurviirld. contribution vlxt -en -er. be born kyrkoherde -n -ar. Men fir efiervirlden & Linnd mest k2nd for de friska och omedelbara reseskildringar & han ingAende beskriver olika provinser: Oldndska och gotldndska resan (1745). give an account of - journey Nordkalotten. The dialects spoken in these towns are: giiteborgska. prist. Someone from the province of S k h e is en skining. stockholmsk. plant viixtart -en -er. geni. tidemarken. Skiningar and Stockholrnare Someone from Stockholm or Goteborg is en stockholmare or en gtiteborgare. detailed Exercise 6 Find synonyms in the text for the following words: beskriver. appreciate klrlek -en. Someone from Lund is. investigative redogiirla -giir -gjorde fir. lasting reseskildring -en -ar . -ar) Smiland en smilinning NIrke en nirking . genius fidfas -s -des.travelogue ingiende. 'the northern 2ap' insats -en -er. however. fauna. species of plant hittal -r -de pi. Iapparna. science snille -t -n.Senare kom Flora suecica och Fauna suecica i vilka han skildrar Sveriges v h t . stockholmska. en lundensare. rector uppskattat -r -de. Vocabulary vetenskap -en -er. love forskningsresa -n or. landskap. This method is used for several provinces: Virmland en virmliinning @1. To form an adjective merely add -sk: giiteborgsk. think up bestiende. lit. beskrivning. the arctic area of Scandinavia. flora. Vdstglitaresan (1747) och Skdnska resan (175 1) som iin i dag ger de basta beskrivningarna av hur 1700-talets Sverige sag ut. Linnd var professor i medicin och naturhistoria i Uppsala 1741-77 och blev Kungliga vetenskapsakademiens firste president 1739.

Dialects spoken are: skbska. the towns of Jdnkdping. sm&bdska. en Londonbo. lapplhdsk. Kristianstad. Dalsland. Some provinces are difficult: Dalama en dalmas (pl. cf. vgstgiitska. viimlbdsk. iistgiitska. vlrmlbdska.Notice. however: Ostergiitland Vlstergtitland . e r ) en dalkulla (p1. Halland. Miirsta? What dialect is spoken in: Gotland.-or) dalmAl Exercise 7 male inhabitant female inhabitant dialect What is someone called who comes from: Norrland. People who live in towns usually add -bo (pl. Sd(de)rm(an)land? .en iistgtite The adjective from Skhe is skbsk. -r) to the name of the place: en Giivlebo.en vlstgiite .

17 TvZi skadade vid seriekrock Two injured in multiple collision In this lesson we will look at: passives the position of passive agents independent clauses words for males and females abbreviation some frequent abbreviations Swedish industry Text 1 7 m Tva"skadade wid seriekrock Two injured in mu/tip/e coolsion Tvb personer skadades lindrigt. siikte vaja fir en mtitande Volvo. BHda bilarna bromsade kraftigt fdr att awarja en frontallcrock. som f&dades sbderut. diir bilarna 1Simnats kvar. en engelsk afE&sman. d tre personbilar p fredagsefterH H H middagen kolliderade p en skogsvag i narheten av riksvag 81 utanfdr Sveg. I bilarna f&dades inalles sex personer. Volvon . av o k u d anledning kommit over pb fel sida av vagen och fiiraren. Olyckan intrwade nar en Saab. och vid inbromsningen p&ordes Volvon bakifrh av en Toyota. Engelsmannen och en ung engelsk studentska fdrdes till sjukhus f i r att pldstras om men kunde snart kervanda till olycksplatsen. som ej sett Saaben mrma sig.

oncoming bromsal -r -de. slightly personbil -en -ar. Samtliga inblandade befinner sig viil. an ' 'road. scene of the accident lilmnats kvar.framfZirdes av en medeluders ingenjtir fib Stockholm och Toyotan av en 20-Axig kvinna. take plistrd -r -de om. be doing well Passives Before trying to construct the passive it is advisable to revise s-forms of verbs (see p.) . major A route utanfir. involved betinnla -er befann sig vill.216). Vocabulary skadal -r attempt viijal -er -de. occur Eirdals Eirdas -des. drive into bakifrhn. all inblandald -t -de. carry. patch up olycksplats -en -er. which use the s-form of the verb (the most common type) 2 bli-passives which use forms of bli + a past participle 3 vara-passives which use forms of vara + a past participle First compare the sentences below: Active: En svensk uppfann skijlnyckeln. prevent frontalkrock e n -ar. unknown anledning -en. travel okilnd -t -da.160) and forms of past participles (see p. (private) car kollideral -r -de. reason Erare -n -. person studentska -n -or. brake kraftigt. driver affarsman -mannen -miln. head-on collision inbromsning -en. in the vicinity of riksvilg -en -ar. (female) student firla f i r -de. in all person -en -er. collide i nilrheten av. SUB1 OBJ (+ agent) (A Swede invented the adjustable spanner. The reason is that passives are formed in one of three different ways: 1 s-passives. approach inalles. outside intrilffal -r -de. swerve to avoid miitande. hurt seriekrock -en -ar. multiple collision lindrigt. braking kiirla kiir -de pH. from behind nilrmal -r -de sig. hard awiirjla e r -de. injure. businessman s6Wa -er -tc. had been left samtliga.

was driven . was driven into (no agent) (no agent) (agent) (agent) Bli-passives are often used to express a single action and frequently have an agent. as in the text above: TvA personer skadades. Vara-passives are often used to express the result of an action and are descriptive: Himlen a r tIckt av moln. . . % . Han inten3uades av Olle Olsson. Volvon pikiirdes av en Toyota. . (who bore him is Qr1763. has been) sold. Huset I r sllt. were injured . The agent is then usually significant: England blev slaget 2 3 av Sverige i finalen.e.207) can be used in the passive form. Volvon kiirdes av en ingenjar. The passive is most often used when the person carrying out the action is unknown or unimportant in the context. . . was taken . He was interviewed by Olle Olsson. S-passives are often found in objective newspaper style. The sky is covered in clouds. He has been run over by a motorcycle. . Middag serveras kl8. (who serves it is unimportant here) S-passives are often used to express a repeated action and often have no agent: Diirrarna iippnas kl7. . The house is (i. . SUBJ AGENT (The adjustable spanner was invented by a Swede. En studentska firdes till sjukhuset.) Only transitive verbs (see p. . unimportant here) Dinner is served at 8 o'clock. England was beaten 2-3 by Sweden in the final.Passive: Skiflnyckeln uppfanns av en svensk. The agent is then omitted: Bernadotte fdddes i Frankrike Bernadotte was born in France in 1763. Han har blivit phkiird av en motorcykel. The doors are opened at 7 o'clock.

. 2 Man stack. av jf garen av jlgaren avmoln vid sj6n.207) as in the example: a Example: M n kliimde honom p i magen. . There is no object in the passive clause. 4 A head-on collision was avoided. 5 Man skickar ivag kortet. vid sjiin. 8 Man har &t huset. 1 Man knackade honom i ryggen.honomi iinget. 10 Man ska servera middag. Exercise 1 Re-write using the s-passive (seealso p. 6 An appointment was made yesterday with the doctor. 2 Their names are written down by the policeman. The position of passive agents Front Verbl Subj Adv Verbl Obj/ Agent Comp MPT Bilen k6rdes - ofta - h g e n sk6ts h g e n blev Himlen var . 3 The Saab was not seen by the other driver. 10 Al the newspapers will be bmed. 9 The case had been packed that morning. Exercise 2 Translate into Swedish using the s-passive: 1 Driver is sought by the police. 9 Man har oppnat d8rrarna. 4 Man libmar tillbaka pennan. igir. ju skjuten tlckt The passive agent goes after VERBZ and before the MPT-expression. 3 Man fdrs2krade bilen.LY . 8 Long walks have been suggested by l the doctor. 7 Bl' beer ils consumption must be cut down. 11 Man ska plslstra om henne. 7 Man s a g e r av stereon. 11 Potatoes are gown there. 5 The car should be left behind. > Han klihdes p i magen.- - av en p i den ung flicka tiden. 6 Man behover en sittv&dig bil.

Det . Vi kan viil i och fdr sig g6ra upp i godo. men du ska nog andB inte dra nHgra fdrhastade slutsatser. Om. I I I I I I Dialogue 17 m Aft jag kunde vara s8 durn! How could 1 be so stupid! Ajier the car crash Vilket elande! Att det ska vara d svHrt med h6ger och vtinster! Jag tar naturligtvis p mig skulden. . ISkarbcdk fiirorwkns allt ottare av stress.Exercise 3 Change the passive sentences in the fictitious headlines below (to texts 11 to 17 in this book) into active sentences. .det bara f a n s telefon i nkheten! PERNILLA: lSlg nSlgra stugor bakom k u ~ a nJag ghr dit och fdgar. det Ader det viil knappast n%gottvivel om. Engelsmiin tiirs till s)nklrus efter bilolyeka. Fjiillv6rlden invaderas av turister p i sonhiisten. Knattetotboll uppmuntras av aktiva pappor. kanske vi 2ndB ska tillkalla polis. B JAN: Ja. Dagstidning liises av 95%i Sverige. Ska jag ringa med detsamma. BU: Beh6vs inte. men eftersom den htir unga damen ockd k inblandad. Valborg firm i Lund med fester hela natten.? BILL: . eller . Det var mitt fel. Jag har en yuppienalle. if necessary introducing as subject the word man. Alkoholkonsumtionen mbte skiiras ner.

verkar lite omturnlad. be no doubt about dra Grhastade slutsatser. d tar jag fram f6rbandslHdan r och kaffetermosen. scratch katastrof -en -er. mobile phone (nslle = teddy bear) Grslkringsbolag -et -. inform med detsamma.Vi kan ju skriva upp varandras narnn och f6rslkingsbolag d lage. BILL: Jag har ju l h t den htir bilen av en bekant. take the blame on oneself ridla -er -de inget tvivel om. arrive at an amicable settlement dam -en -er. here: is registered bakom kurvan. document glove box handskfack -et company s t a r stod stitt. lady tillkalld -r -de. jump to conclusions g8ra upp i godo. coffee thermos inte stressa. grass Grbandslida -n -or. SBtt dig h k i gr2set och hgsa p Rebecca som H ockd kommer f h England. send for kurva -n -or. keep calm buckla -n -or. Jag borde kanske meddela honom med detsamma. H Minsta rispa iir en katastrof fdr en svensk. Det iir bast att inte stressa BILL: Jag ser inte nigra storre bucklor p bilarna. Min bil st& i mitt narnn. beyond the bend en bekant bckanta. bend yuppienalle -n. shaken up g r k -ct. Kanske vi and&ska tillkalla polis? Att jag kunde vara si durn! Om jag andi var rik! Perhaps we should call the police anyway? That I could be so stupid! If only I were rich! . acquaintance handling -en -ar. catastrophe Independent clauses An independent clause is a sub clause that stands alone as a sentence and does not form part of a main clause sentence (see also pp. Sjav iir jag firs2krad i England. Han visade mig att alla handlingar lHg hiir i handskfacket. Bill. REBECCA: JAN: Vocabulary vilket ellnde!. what rotten luck! t d r tog p i sig skulden. meddcld -r -de. first aid box kaffetermos e n -ar. 148-9). EVA: Ta och v h t a lite med allt det d k ! Du. immediately firslkral -r -de. stand. insure omtumldd -t -de. dent rispa -n -or.

i. (b) By adding the endings -e (male)/-a (female) to an adjective (see p.The word order is that of the sub clause. S(ubjecf) . Exercise 4 Re-order the words in the different answers to the question: VarfUr ager du det? Ftir att Ftir att Ftir att Ftir att Ftir att aldrig/jag/tyckt/harJhenne/om jag/dig/medMller/faktiskt inte dulfelJhar/egentligen gtira/ni%gothi/~t&W~erkligen rntijjligeddutborde/om/di@% Male and female a The distinction between male and female is indicated in a number of different ways: (a) Ety adding a su£Eix (see p. a female cleaner is not en staderska but en stldare.e. so that a female teacher is no longer called en lHrarinna but en larare.) F l r att jag just har skurit mi& . Many independent clauses are either exclamations or the result of ellipsis: (Jag trodde inte) att jag kunde vara s i dum! Answers to questions are often of this kind: (Varflir har du plister p i fingret?) (Jag har plHster pB fingret .I(nte) -V(erb)..222): Male v n % kasslr skidespelare masslr aktlr Female vhinna kasslrska skidespelerska massiis aktris (friend) (cashier) (actor) (masseur) (actor) Sexist job titles are declining.159): .

hingstlsto (stallion1 mare). ett bitrlde (assistant). ett vittne (witness).) (c) By different words: tuppthfina (cockerelken). ett statsriid (cabinet minister). Some nouns denoting persons are T-words: ett barn. Solen .hon (den). . MInniskan . flex(ibe1 arbets)tid el(ektricitet).den gamle the old man den gamia the old woman 6. ett snille (genius) Exercise 5 Are the following males or females?: 1 en servitris 2 en frisor 3 h e 4 Asa 5 en agarinna 6 den sjuke 7 en sjukskoterska 8 en dansds 9 en forfattarinna 10 den morka? Abbreviation Different parts of a word may be lost in abbreviations: the beginning: the middle: the end: @i)cykel. Sometimes these are re-spelled: behi. Signe is female. (Exceptions: Ola is male. Torflora. Some nouns not denoting females have feminine gender: r Hur mycket H klockan? Hon @en) Hr fem. kunddrottning (king/queen). reaoisation) (= 'sale') Reduction may go so far that only the initial letters are left: LO (Landsorganisationen) ( = Swedish TUC) SAAB (Svenska aeroplans aktiebolag) Acronyms (words consisting of initials) are of two kinds: 1 Alphabetisms (pronounced as the individual letters): bh (bysthlllarc). ett geni. (automo)bil mo(torveloci)ped.hon. teve. UD (Utrikesdepartementet). makelmaka (spouse). en hanethona (malelfemale). Helgel en Helga.

Sometimes hybrid forms emerge: T-bana (tunnelbana).2 Acronyms pronounced as words: NATO. AB ATP eKr em f Kr fm forts from filj ggr hIft i-land inb inv jvstn mfl NB omkr PM S sa s . BC a. p-plats (parkeringsplats). Some frequent abbreviations See also p. . vard. Co.m. SAAB. lower ground (floor) about memo Page noun subject total so-called number floor Foreign Ministry developing country approx. Ltd state retirement pension AD p. SAS.71.m. continued from following times paperback industrialised country bound inhabitant railway station etc.k st tr. u-bit (undervattensbit). vgv aktiebolag Allmln tjbstepension efter Kristus eftermiddag fire Kristus firmiddag fortslttning frin och med feljande ginger haftad industriland inbunden inviinare jlrnvlgsstation med flera" Nedre botten omkring promemoria sida substantiv subjekt summa s i kallad styck(en) trappa (trappor) Utrikesdepartementet utvecklingsland ungefir vardagar var god vlnd plc. UD u-land ung. weekdays PTO .

fordon och malm.maskiner och verkstadsprodukter. Sverige exporterar maskiner och utrustning. Bara 800 bolag har mer 2n 500 anstiillda. Sverige har hoga loner och ett mycket hogt antal(80-90%) fackligt anslutna. skogsprodukter. kemiska produkter och matvaror.Exercise 6 T y your hand at abbreviating the following: r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Statens j h v a g a r Dagens Nyheter (newspaper) v&ldsmastarskapet (world championship) Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut meromdttningsskatt (VAZ) Arbetsmarknadsstyrelsen (Labour Market Board) biograf (cinema) kylskAp (refrigerator) konsumentfdreningen (Coop) legitimation (ID) flexibel arbetstid verkstiillande direktBr (managing director) varudeklaration (declaration o contents) f Factual text 17 a Svensk indusfri Swedish industry En stor del av den svenska befolkningen arbetar . . 90% av landets industri 2r i privat igo medan 55% av arbetskraften arbetar inom den privata sektorn.91% av milnnen mellan 20-64 Plr och 75% av kvinnorna.och importhandeln sker med EU och en fjardedel med det ovriga Europa. Mer &n hiilften av export. och importerar olja och petroleumprodui<ter. Traditionella skillnader melIan manligt och kvinnligt arbete haler p i att suddas ut. M h g a svenska fdretag har dotterbolag utomlands och m h g a utlandska firmor har dotterbolag inom Sverige. rivaror. PA 90% av de mer 2x1 43 000 bolagen arbetar mindre 2n 5 personer.

Skhmka Cementgjuteriet som bygger mycket utomlands har tagit bort den lilla ringen over a-et och har blivit 'Skanska' som 8. happen.personbilar.vehicle malm -en -er. lastbilar och bussar frAn Volvo och Saab-Scania. ViiWnda i utlandet 8. telefonqstem f r h Ericsson. here: blur bolag -et -. ore rivara -n -or. member of a trade union lastbil -en -ar. product cementgjuteri -et. Kosta. svenskt glas (Orrefors. company anstPlYa -er -de. truck vara -n -or. here: be carried on arbetsliishet -en. unemployment fackligt ansluten -et -ns. Vocabulary suddal -r -de ut. equipment fordon -et -. goods.Svenska produkter k h d a v&lden runt .r lattare for utlWngar att uttala. elektriska varor ffAn Electrolux. employ utrustning -en. occur. Enbart Electrolux har 130 000 ansalda. cement works Exercise 7 Hitta ord i facktexten (Factual text) som betyder detsamma som: 1 invilnarna i Sverige 2 olikheter 3 firetag 4 miinniskor 5 i utlandet 6 frwmande 7 bilar 8 halva 9 25% 10 m h g a Exercise 8 Vad kan du sLga om: 1 hur stora de flesta bolag I r i Sverige? 2 hur milnga kvinnor som arbetar? 3 hur d n g a som arbetar inom den statliga sektom? 4 vilka lhder Sverige siiljer till och kiiper ifrh? 5 vilka svenska varor som k m d a i utlandet? 6 vaRTr det numera heter 'Skanska'? .r ock& ddana varor som kiiksmaskiner (Husqvarna). mer 2n in av dem i sina 360 bolag i mer an 40 lwder. erase. Boda) och svenska mobler WA). raw material skel -r -dde.

och dig. . D f A h innan dess ses vi till jul och till pkk. Jag ko . D skiirg4rdsbAt nu eller flanerar i Kungsan .P brev och ett vykort Two letters and a picture postcard Bradford den 5 September 1996 K h Erik! Hur har du det? Sjav har jag det bra. och i d fall kan jag bd rja mina do n2r jag iir Mar med min examen h a . Resan gick vackert f i r att vara i England och hiir kan jag frossa i i men gud. Min l&are trodde inte det skulle vara stipendium.I 8 Tv8 brew och ett vykort Two letters and a picture postcard I this lesson we will look at: n 0 how to write letters s u b clauses with main clause word order and conditional clauses determinative pronouns differences between written and spoken constructions punctuation schools and colleges Text 18 m Tv. . vad jag saknar Stockholm .

Soundet var suverilnt bra och du skulle ha sett gitanistens amp. Vi onskar ocksi tillagga att vi k synnerligen nojda med den klara och vederhaga presentation av varan som Er representant Iat oss ta del av p i oklanderlig svenska. ?I Med viinlig hasning Dag Fristedt marknadschef Postadress Box 345 412 63 Gdteborg Besdksadress MdlndalsvSgen 83 Telefon 03 1131 87 54 Telefax 031131 87 75 Post iro 64 1829-5 tttt Tjena! Du skulle hilngt med p i konserten alltdi.och morka vinterkva1a. Vid en jwdrelse med produkter saluftrrda av en firma i Japan har vi overtygats om att Era priser och leveransvillkor k de B r oss mest f6rdelaktiga och vi bestiiller h m e d 5 000 (5 tusen) plasthandtag. Rebecca Pry1 och Grej AB Marknadsavdelningen Push and Pull plc Bestdllningsorder -plasthandtag VAr firma hade nyligen besok av Er representant.r och vAren och galna soldyrkare och ljusa niitter. Bill Moms. Sbngaren hade tryckt till med en h a i g make alltdi. Du har banne mig gitt miste om nbgot. enligt fdrsiiljningsvillkor i brev av den 5 april. Det var precis att jag hann med burken efierit. och s i universitetet Brs& . Josd. som gav oss utfdrliga upplysningar om Era nyligen lanserade plasthandtag. Den var pb 500 kalla w. artikelnummer 353 mest av allt efter dig. Hehe. Hksningar Jocke .

long for soldyrkare -n -. Indian saknal -r -denhere: miss skiirgQrdsbQt -ar. bring onto market. boat to the -en archipelago flaneraJ -r -de. (university)degree sambo -n -r. recently ha besiik av. hug marknadsavdelning -en -ar. full upplysningar -na. detailed.sun worshipper kram -en -ar. information lanserd -r -de. representative utfirlig -t -a.Vocabulary frossal -r -de. scholarship doktorandstudier. studies for a doctorate vara klar med. grant. park in central Stockholm omiijlig -t -a. gorge oneself indisk -t -a. comparison saluGr/a -Gr -de. convinced leveransvillkor -et -. receive a visit from representant -en -er. complete examen (ett).(or boy-) friend innan dess. before that 18ngtal -r -de efter. offer (for sale) iivertygal -r -de. introduce j8mf"orelse -n -r.t e r n of delivery Grdelaktig -t -a. wander Kungsan = Kungstriidgirden. advantageous bestiilUa -er -de. live-in girl. marketing department nyligen. impossible stipendiium -et -er. .

reliable presentation -en -er. Business stationery often has the address printed at the bottom and you add the address of the person you are writing to at top left. go konsert -en -er.singer. concert soundet = ljudet. pleased vederhiiftig -t -a. presentation vara -n -or. hi! hiingla -er -de med.. sound gitarrist. The word Kram (Love) is becoming frequent. hiiftig . introduction. In private letters your detailed address is written on the back of the envelope. really gi/ -r gick gitt miste om. impeccable marknadschef -en -er. come. wish tilliiggla s r tillade. and only the town and date at top right of the letter itself. There is no equivalent in Swedish to 'Dear Sir'. a cool 500 watts suveriin. put on make = sminkning. product ta del av. amplifier kalla 500 w. miss out on - Writing letters For most letters it is not necessary to use an especially formal kind of Swedish. To end a friendly letter use: Hjlrtliga htilsningar or just: Hilsningar. according to iinskat -r -de. add synnerligen. make up burken = bussen.en -er. extremely niijd -a. . inform oneself oklanderlig -t -a. For layout study the letters above.terrific singare -n . vocalist t y c k t till med = lagt sig till med. Either insert a heading outlining the purpose of the letter or start straight in. marketing director tjena! = tjiinare. guitarist amp = firstiirkare-n. the bus banne mig = verkligen. most. For friendly letters use: Kiira John! or Hej! To end a formal letter use: Med v h l i g hllsning. Exercise 7 Write a letter: (a) from Pry1 & Grej AB to Sayonara Enterprises thanking them politely for their offer but rejecting it. There are two common forms for the date: 960724 or den 24 juli 1996.enligt.

These cl order as in the yedno question. Most conditional clauses are introduced by om/ifall: Om du inte bjuder henne blir hon ledsen. NON-SUBJ VERB SUB1 IElTE Cf.see p. (b) Attclauses in the spoken language only: Han sa att han kunde infekomma. But conditional clauses are also found that have no o inverted order to express the condition. Sub clauses with main clause word order and conditional clauses There are two kinds of sub clause which form part of the main clause and yet do not have the usual (S-I-V) sub clause order. They are: (a) Att clauses beginning with a non-subject (rather than beginning with the subject . and planning a visit to Bradford at Christmas. then the clause has main clause order (and the verb and subject are inverted): Janne stiger att imorgon taker han inte Aka hem. (si) blir hon ledsen. but they are not que Bjuder du inte heme. If a non-subject comes immediately after att. S I V This is now common in both spoken and written Swedish. (Cf. the yedno question: Bjuder du inte he . (c) Some conditional clauses with yedno question word order.@) from Erik to Rebecca in answer to her letter. Janne stiger att han inte taker &a hem imorgon. saying what he and their friends have been doing. This is not acceptable in written Swedish but is heard in spoken Swedish.149). Instead they have main clause word order.

blir hon kanske d smihingom professor. Determinative pronouns Compare the following forms: Demonstrative pronoun: Determinative pronoun: Den mannen var full. . De turister som ikte ti!! Island har fAtt mycket so!. . (Determinative) Those tourists who. skulle han hiirt en suveant bra konsert. . 5 Om Erik &er till Bradford. Exercise 2 Alter the following sentences so that the conditional clauses have main clause order: 1 Om Rebecca fi3r ett stipendium. .Clauses somewhat similar to this occur in English: Had I known you were coming. 3 Om Bill blir VD. The noun after the determinative has no end article. (Demonstrative) Those tourists. kan han betala reparationskostnaderna. medan de turister som ikte ti!! Italien har fitt regn varje dag. fi3r han frossa i indisk mat. Notice that a contrast is usually implied. I would have waited. 4 Om JosC hade hhgt med. using where necessary either a determinative or demonstrative pronoun: 1 Engelska firmor som har svensktalande representanter f"ar fler order frin svenska firetag. kan hon borja sina doktorandstudier. Den man som var full ramlade i golvet. Demonstratives are increasingly used instead of determinatives in informal written and spoken Swedish. The determinative pronoun is a kind of demonstrative (see p. . 2 Om Rebecca blir doktor. Exercise 3 Re-write the sentences below.95) used with a following som-clauge where this clause is necessary to complete the meaning. De turisterna har fhtt mycket so!.

Bill Morris som kiirde siinder din bil. det k Bill. S i roligt! BILL: Ja. Dialogue 18 m D8 sager vi det! That's all right then! Bill Morris gives everyone a pleasant surprise BILL: Kan jag fSI anknytning 3431 VIV[ELN:Ett iigonblick. Jiisses. Nej. inte &nu. Jag fir verkligen gratulera. hej . Vad sager du om det? i JAN: Jag ir stum. JAN: Det giir vi. BILL: Hej. . JAN: Jan Forsberg. det kan man siga. 5 En av Bill Morris framlagd (made) presentation. JAN: N u e n hej! h du i Sverige igen? BILL: Nej dA. som jag dkade vara med p$ fiirmedlades heit p i oklanderlig svenska. BILL: Db ager vi det. JAN: Det var det vasta. Mina Wsframgbngar och mina svenskkunskaper har gjort mig till VD i mitt foretag. Men skicka mig alla uppgifter och kontakta Pernilla ocksb. BILL: Hej a.2 Engelska studenter som studerar flitigt i Sverige f%rhiiga betyg i sina examen. 4 En utfdrlig presentation som Bill firmedlade i Giiteborg ledde omedelbart till en besmlning. nasta g h g k det viil Rebecca som blivit professor i litteraturvetenskap. Man tackar. men det komrner nog inte att driija lhge. 3 En svensk kille som jag h e r sambor med en engelsk flicka. . Hasa familjen! JAN: Hej. jag ringer fir att erbjuda mig att betala alla kostnader i samband med krocken. . Hur komrner det sig? BILL: En annan har liksom kornmit p i griin kvist. s i ordnar sig allt. JAN: Det ska jag giira.

Mannen som jag pratade med . . knowledge of Swedish VD = verkstiillande direktar. here: speechless gratulera -r -de. end up 'in clover' affirsframging -en -ar. offer congratulations uppgift -en -er.Hon sade att . cost i samband med. (d) U e of main clause word order after att (see 'Sub clauses with main s clause word order' above): Hon var arg p i honom d2irf"or att han kom aldrig i tid... 'yours truly' liksom..Vocabulary kiirla kiir -de sander. business success svenskkunskaper -na. dlCor att han aldrig kom . in connection with Det var det viirsta. dumb. come about. Cf. get in touch with ordnar sig allt.. 176): s Erik.. Well I never! kommla e r kom sig. offer kostnad -en er. Theory of Literature Written and spoken constructions Features of spoken and less formal written Swedish are: (a) Omission of att after v&hsof saying and thinking: Eon sade hon hade fitt brevet.. smashed up inte driija liinge.. happen en annan =jag. . Cf. detail kontaktal -r -de. (c) U e of duplicates (this is very colloquial. professor litteraturvetenskap e n .. sort of komma p i griin kvist. not be long erbjudh e r erbjiid. Cf. everything will be sorted out hiilsal -r -de. ban %r hemskt intelligent. see p. give one's regards Jiisses! Blimey! professor -n er. managing director stum -t -ma. (b) Omission of som as object: Mannen jag pratade med heter Johansson. han.

Punctuation There are only a few signiiicant differences from English: (a) There is no comma: before an att-clause: Han sade att han tlnkte komma. (i) Use of the s-passive: Manflrde dem till sjukhus f"oratt man skullepldstra om dem. (c) The exclamation mark is used more frequently in Swedish: Vad vackert det a r hIr! Lycka till! Obs! . + Krocken hade anstdllt skadeg8relse p i bilens lackering. after introductory or closing phrases in letters: Med vInlig halsning Baste herr Olsson! Erik (b) There is no apostrophe before or after genitive a: pojkens far.Features of more formal written Swedish: (e) Omission of harlhade in the sub clause: Han pktod a# han blivit bestulen. f (0 Leftward movement of MPTexpressions (to the adverb position): Han har stannat hemma under de senasfe dagarna. (g) Fronting of heavy elements such as sub clauses and infinitive phrases: Att tillverka ett gott brad enligt det gamla traditionella receptet med anvdndande av modern teknik och kontroll i r en princip f"or faretaget. + Defiirdes till sjukhus f i r att ompldstras. C . pojkarnas far + . (h) Use of nouns rather than verbs: Krocken hade skadai bilens lackering (= 'paintwork'). + Han har under de senaste dagarna stannat hemma.Han pistod att han hade blivit bestulen.

Den obligatoriska utbildningen .och .(d) The hyphen is used in some cases where there is a common element: p l lig. Swedish school timetable Factual text 18 Skolor och hogskolor Schools and Colleges I Sverige ansvarar kommunerna fir de flesta skolor. P i 1Ag. och skolan iir examensfri.grundskolan . Det finns ingen uppdelning p i linjer efter beghning eller kunskaper.och mellanstadiet = p l llgstadiet och mellanstadiet. Betyg satts endast i klasserna 8 och 9.k nio&rig och omfattar alla barn mellan 7 och 16 Ar. Det finns mycket ffi privatskolor.

education grundskola -n. I samhiillsvetenskapliga programmet finns dA mojlighet att viilja ekonomisk.och administrationsprogrammet och omvplrdnadsprogrammet och tvi iir studiefdrberedande.ibland redan i fdrsta klass. Det finns numera sju universitet (de tvi iildsta iir Uppsala och Lund) och over 20 statliga hogskolor. free of charge studiebidrag e t -. continue gymnasieskola -n. handels. matriculation avgiftsfri -tt -a. grant takt -en e r . knowledge betyg e t . Hogskoleutbildningen k avgiiMi och u de flesta studenter E ett statligt studiebidrag samt ett l i b som utgor stiirre delen av studiemedlen. 6ver 90% av alla 16Puingar foMtter i gymnasieskolan.student - . P i hogstadiet meddelas unde~sningenav Smnesliirare. d i g e n naturvetenskapsprogrammet och samhiillsvetenskapsprogrammet. at the same time fortsiittla -er fortsatte. Senare liir de sig ofta tyska och franska eller d g o t annat sprik. eftersom alla programmen ger all& beh(irighet for studier p i hogskola. som barnen Mirjar Itha tidigt . compulsory school for 7-16 year olds begivning -en. d v s under de fdrsta sex h e n skots unde~sningen av klassliirare sorn undervisa i de flesta iimnena. pace fiirviirvsarbete -t -.grade.mellanstadiet. preparatory to higher education naturvetenskap. skill-oriented studiefiirberedande. social science behiirighet. teach iimne -t -n. Engelska k ett obligatoriskt aimne. (natural) science samhiillsvetenskap. Fjorton av dessa k yrkesinriktade. subject samtidigt. D i kurser ofta ockd ges p&hiillstid och i lhgsam takt kan man studera vid sidan om responsible for utbildning e n . t ex estetiska programmet. d&r de viiljer mellan 16 olika nationella program. Vocabulary ansvard -r -de . mark undervisd -r -de. Nigot over h m e n av antalet hogskolestuderande k kvinnor. paid work studerande -n -. kunskap e n e r . och det finns m h g a iildre studerande. Aven en elev som l&t ett yrkesinriktat program kan fo-tta med hogskolestudier. intelligence. sixth form college yrkesinriktat. humanisti& samh2llsvetenskaplig eller EU-inriktning. Alla programmen k treiiriga och f o m hskurs 2 viiljer eleverna gren.

Exercise 4 1 Hur mhga hr &e man g i i skolan i Sverige? 2 Hur ofta fhr man betyg? 3 Vad undervisar Masslhre? och ihmeslilrare? 4 Vilka sp& unde~sas? Hur mhga forWtter sin utbildning efter 16 h? 6 Hur 5 mhga viiljer teoretiska linjer p i gymnasieskola.? 7 Hur finansieras studierna pi hegskola eller universitet? 8 Vilka sorters studenter studerar i lhngsam takt eller p lcvUstid? A .

8 Nej. today's special. det har vi inte. till. 10 h. det k en fabrik. det k Sven. tray.r han hungrig? Exercise 2 1 Studerar de? 2 Kommer hon? 3 Har ni ett pkon? 4 5 h det en stor hogskola? Exercise 3 k det Sven? 1 De lliser. 2 Nej. 5 Ja. det k du. 4 Har hon ett iipple? 5 & det en hogskola? 6 Nej. cutlery. ml or light beer or coffee. glass. Exercise 5 hot dog stand.Key to exercises Lesson 1 Exercise 7 1 h det ett pkon? 2 Vad k det? 3 Det k en persika. restaurant. det k det. 8 h det Rebecca? 9 Nej. 3 Hon bor i Stockholm. 'street kitchen'. . hot dogs. self service. det k jag inte. cafd or coffee shop. det iir han. 6 Nej. 4 Studerar du? 5 Kommer de? Exercise 4 1Ja. 3 Ja. lit. det har hon inte. 2 Vi studerar. det k de inte. det har jag. plate. 4 Nej. with bread and butter. ik return trays. 7 Ja. no smoking. menu. 7 Det k ett iipple.

4 Vi bor i Stockholm. skriver. 5 Ja. kilot. tack. det har det. . 7 Vi har en lagenhet. Kan jag fi en ostsm6rgh och ett glas 61. det har sNan mycket sno p i vintern. 3 Hon &er tunnelbana. kakan. en industri. 10 Nej.LY L Exercise 6 Kan jag fi en skinksmiirgh och ett glas 61. en fabrik. en pojke. lagenheten. - hata. I. ett vin.en ski&. Exercise 2 1Han ltiser. 11 Hon w a r klockan sex pii morgonen. det har det. iipplet. 6 Hon b6rja. 5 Just nu i hon p i universitetet. 5 Jag bor i England.rjust nu. 7 Ja. Exercise 3 uppsatsen. 2 Det iir irk& ett land. 3 De talar engelska. det iir det. Exercise 4 1Hon kommer I%n England. 4 P i morgonen 1r (studerar) hon svenska. 6 Jag & e m London. Vardgod! Tack d mycket! Exercise 7 1Ja. dagen. &er. Lesson 2 Exercise I ha. 9 Ja. tack. det har man inte. landet. en tunnelbana. 3 De &er. 11Nej. Kan jag fi en kopp M e och en kaka. 8 Jag 1r (studerar) svenska. 10 Viickarklockan ringer klockan itta. 8 Klockan itta tar hon tunnelbanan. 9 De kommer fib London. giira. 2 Ofta &er hon till Stockholm. heter. en klocka. det iir det. 4 De talar svenska. 12 De hatar vackarklockan. 6 Den heter Stockholm. tack. tack. en bulle. 8 Nej. kommer. koppen. 7 Ibland sitter hon p i h biblioteket. 2 Han iir student. ett &r. 9 Klockan sex ringer viickarklockan. Kan jag f& en kopp te och en bulle. flickan. det har det inte.

8 Han Aker inte buss. fel. Exercise 3 1 Har man inte tunnelbana i Bradford? 2 Kommer ni inte f r h England? 3 h du inte svensk? 4 Borjar vi inte klockan h a ? 5 L&er hon inte svenska? 6 Forst& de inte engelska? 7 Bor du inte i staden? 8 k e r vi inte buss? 9 Ligger stationen inte i centrum? . riltt. . Jag studerar svenska. ratt. 5 Jag t r inte kaffe. fel. 3 Hon heter inte a Maria. Ark. 5 De kiiper aldrig plasthandtag av Bill. Lesson 3 Exercise 7 1Det iir inte ett foretag.Exercise 5 1W r de? 2 Bor de i Stockholm? 3 FtirstAr du? 4 Vad heter de? 5 Var bor du? 6 Vad laser du? 7 Vad g6r de? 8 Var kommer han ifrh? 9 Vem iir hon? 10 Niir kommer de? 11 Talar du med Rebecca? 12 Lker hon? 13 FtirstAr han svenska? Exercise 6 Hej! Jag heter . riltt. 10 Han tar alltid in p i ett hotell. Exercise 2 1 Han reser aldrig utomlands. . Jag bor i . 4 Det tar alltid en t i m e . 9 Det t r natan tvA timmar till a Ktipenhamn med flyg. . 9 Han bor inte dilr. 8 Han tar inte tunnelbanan till Arlanda. kommer f r h Jag England. 2 Han tar ofta tunnelbanan. 3 Han tar alltid taxi. . 4 De studerar inte svenska. riltt. . . riltt. fel. 7 De tillverkar inte plasthandtag. fel. Jag iir . 6 Jag vill inte ha en kopp te. 7 Vi trHar inte representanter. 6 Han flyger inte till Sverige. 2 Hon bor inte i Stockholm. Exercise 7 fel.

5 Man serverar alltid god mat i Skhe. 3 IZir W e r de inte 6vernatta. platform. 3 en t i m e s resa. fern minuter i halv tolv).Exercise 4 1firmans produkter. 7 Gothenburg and Norrkbping. . Exercise 6 1 klockan elva. those who just got on at Hallsberg. 6 Inexpensive local trains running in Western Skiine. 4 Bigger and more comfortable but slower. Den) k fern. left luggage office. luggage. train to Oslo. 4 Eva vill ofta titta PA gamla kyrkor. 3 M%ste det vara icke-rbkarg? 4 Kan jag f en enkel till M&ta. 4 firmans representanter. tack? 3 5 Vi ska k6pa M e irnorgon. 4 fem minuter i halv nio (tjugofem minuter aver Attax 5 klockan (Hon. 6 Stockholms universitet. 6 Du mhle studera idag. 2 Because Swedes are careful drivers. Exercise 5 railway station. 'where in the train the carriage is'. departures. 7 Vill du komma till Sverige? Exercise 8 1The roads are good. 9 hur dags flyger Bill till London? Exercise 7 1 Jag ska &a till London imorgon. 6 kvart 6ver tv& 7 fem minuter i tolv. 3 Because of the cheap rail tickets. 2 Londons flygplats. 3 hart i sju. 5 studentens lggenhet. 8 tjugotre och tjugofem (tjugofem minuter Over elva. 8 There are no railways left. 5 Because it is H c u l t to drive in the centre of towns and because of the cheap monthly rail pass. Lesson 4 Exercise I 1Du &e alltid giira som jag ager! 2 Jan brukar aldrig k6ra bil p l semestern. a l l tickets. 2 halv fyra. 2 Bill W e r fomtta till Oslo. 7 flickans uppsats.

6 en varm dag. tub. 12 Deras son k inte alls intresserad av god mat. 2 ett vackert slott. Exercise 3 1 en trevlig dialekt. 4 ett hbgt fjal. 8 ett rikt folk. 3 Deras produkter k dyra. 7 Jag mhte b e m l a tvi enkelrurn B r i natt. 9 finnar. youth hostel. 4 Fbr bara tre hundra Ar sedan var H landskapet en del av Danmark. 7 Ar. 7 Resan var mycket lang. 4 M e t k varmt. 9 fattiga studenter.6 20 000 studenter. Exercise 7 1Knut den store. 10 Kan du vara d snal och skicka ett vykort till Olle? 11Ikvdl tiinker vi bvernatta p i ett traditionellt skbskt gistgiven. 10 trSLkiga popskivor. Exercise 6 1I &rbesbker Forsbergs staden Lund som ligger i sbdra Sverige. 6 Den ligger precis om hbrnet. Kulturhistoriska museet. 3 Joakim iter en enorm hamburgare p hotellet. 2 De brukar servera smbrgisbord p i gtistgiveriet p i kvQlen. 5 miljoner. gents (toilet). shower. wardrobe. 6 sjbar. 8 Studenter k ofla roliga. 7 Mer iin 3 miljoner bbcker. 5 Domkyrkan var underbar. 2 Ett astronomiskt ur fx%n1300-talet. 7 'kallt 01. 2 Fbretaget k stort. 4 Ett friluftsmuseum med en samling av gamla byggnader frSln olika delar av sbdra Sverige. Botaniska trtidgkden. ladies (toilet). 3 bjbrnar. 5 Efter lunch vill de titta p i domkyrkan. 5 h 1658. 4 byar. 8 portioner. 3 Konstmuseet. 5 en vhlig svensk. 8 SMle du kunna hjiilpa mig? 9 Vi har tvH stora rum p Qkde H vfiningen med dusch och toalett.Exercise 2 1 tirnmar. . 2 invbare. dining room. Exercise 4 1 Firman k stor. 10 h Skineslsitten trilkig? Exercise 5 boarding house or cheap hotel. lift. 9 Klimatet k kallt. 3 underbara kyrkor. 6 Slottet var gammalt. 10 liinder.

piiron. en f i s k p i ~ e . en liirare. fabrike?. P biblioteket sitter hon och antecknar.Exercise 8 Lesson 5 Exercise 1 Just nu bor Rebecca i Stockholm. 2 exemplet. ett vykort. timmar. mgnniskor. 5 professorn. en vackarkIocka. Sedan &er hon tunnelbana hem. Ot b6j a r hon Mockan kta pb morgonen. I Ax lLer hon svenska vid Stockholms fa universitet. en gHng. tigg. bullar. katoliker. kaka. ar du snall! 2 Kop en ny bil till billigt pris! 3 Servera alltid vitt vin till fisk! 4 Tala bara svenska i Sverige! 5 Anviind inte socker om du inte vill bli tjock! 6 Las artikeln hogt s i vi kan hora! 7 Skriv ett vykort till Eva niir ni kommer fram! 8 Res till Grekland i sommar! 9 St211 flaskan pb bordet. Exercise 4 ett fdrklade. toaletter. glas. Varje dag &er hon tunnelbana till universitetet. Br du sniill! 10 Hal tyst! . stugor. invhare. portioner. byten. affiirer. KaEe tycker hon om. iikningar. drottningar. skottar. ett hotell. turister. en dag. en m W s k a . olyckor. Exercise 5 1 Kalla mig fdr Janne. 4 fingret. maskiner. kronor. biljetter. Exercise 2 1elektrikern. H Ibland skriver hon en uppsats. namn. 081. en en bondstuga. kyrkor. miljoner. Efterk dricker hon kaffe. finnor. en olycka. hamburgare. en t i m e . Sju g b g e r i veckan gAr Rebecca p i fdrelasningar. ett hus. ett museum. 3 system. ett glas 61. skolor. veckor. hotell.

. trHa honom? . 8 En sarnling klassisk konst. dlja dem? . . det k roligt . . .Exercise 6 1 Still1 mj6lken i kylskipet. trma dig?. 4 P Norrmalm. 12sa det? . . . 8 Har du alltid grtidde i kaffe? 9 Du A t e smaka riktigt engelskt 61. prata med er? . 7 Inget namn och ingen adress. . 16 Vi titer l ingenting varmt till lunch. . Ita det? . . Kan vi . 7 I Gamla stan. . . . 2 Affischerna tir vackra. k 1252.4 Tala om Wpmat! 5 De titer tre ghger om dagen. . bestillla dem? . t ex varg. . . Exercise 9 1 Nordens Venedig. 10 Nordiska djur. 12 P H ett av utekaf6erna. 4 Han ligger och 18ser p H . . 5 Nigra gula liikar och dgra tunna skivor potatis (potatisskivor). 3 De har inte rHd att klipa en djup bekvsim fit61j. hjQpa er? . trHa oss. P C)stermalm. . . 3 Olet k kallt. folja mig? . . 15 Att tita pommes frites hela tiden Ir triikigt. . 3 Tre smH 6ar mellan sjon MQaren och Ostersjon. . 5 En miljon. se det? Exercise 8 1 Maten k ddWg. . k du s d l ! 2 Hon mumsar alltid p en kex. . . . . . Exercise 7 Kan du . . 17 Ingenting k trfigt. . k6pa det? . . lo och Qg. . 9 Det tir underbart. . fdlja dig? . titta p det? H H . . . tala med henne? . . H 3 Vi behover nhgra burkar 61. hjiilpa oss? . 10 De titer fiskpinnar framflir teven. 2 Birger Jarl. Lesson 6 Exercise 1 1 Deras liigenhet k stor och gammal. 6 Svenskarna dricker dltid kallt brmvin. 8 Vi har inga kex och inga kakor. tro p henne? . . 9 P H Skansen. . skicka honom? . A H 6 1 Gamla stan. det k dyrt! 10 Vilken trAkig bok! 11 Vilket stort glas! 12 Vilka stora kakor! 13 Vilka enorma portioner! 14 Att laga mat k roligt. . 6 En annan kokbok med ett annat recept. hsimta honom? . 11 Ett krigsskepp som sjlink i hamnen 1628 och som man biirgade f7ir trettio k sedan. bjuda dem? . . . 2 Grtidden k tjock. 7 Jag anvtinder inte socker i te. . 4 Deras bakelser iir underbara. .

lift. Viktiga naturtillgbgar finns ockd hllr. 13 sm$ litet. exit. reduced prices. vandra. stand on the right. @) kor.2 miljoner. 2 enkla mtibler. 9 De behtiver d g r a breda m d a stolar till arbetsrummet. 1. 8 Eva tycker inte alls om skrivbordet. libgsamma. 9 W 10 milt. aktie. 16 nyktra. stadsbor. ak Exercise 5 (a) gamla. bil. ett hem. en mun. aftnar. en man. En ny bilvlg blev &dig f i r ett par k sedan. en sommar. (b) Man ser inte solen p i itta veckor i norra Norrland. ett nummer. (ett) timrner. midnattssolen. samerna. 14 gott. shop. 4 ett runt bord. ground floor. 3 eller. 4 men. 5 fir. basement. mer & hiilften. (c) en v a . 12 vackra. Exercise 6 (a) Gtitaland. (c) vintrar. en Widstam. itta veckor. tunna. 7 gammalt. boksaver. 11 vackert. Svealand. btinder. 5 Eva vill ha en stor bordslampa till vardagsrummet. w l on the left. . Exercise 4 sale. 6 Han ramlar i golvet hela tiden d&f&ir att hans s b g iir Lr smal. Exercise 2 1 nakna flickor. I rensktitare. escalator. 17 ledsna. Midnattssolen iir en stor turistattraktion p i sommaren. department store. bash. Man byggde en jihnvlg fCir att kunna utnyttja j3mmaImsfyndighetema. finger. dumma. first floor. bok. 3 rtitt. jiimvlg. . 6 ett nytt skrivbord. Exercise 3 (a) tand. 7 Vi vill skaffa en tavla till ett hyggligt pris.soffan. (b) ett program. 15 gamla. hustru. bargain. muskel. 5 ett brett rum. Norge. 2 fir. boutique or shop. finska. Lesson 7 Exercise 7 1 och. 8 slitna.

lihder lihderna. Exercise 7 1 den 23 mars 1980. 2 p$ pl. 6 Hennes man k tjock men han k mycket trevlig. 4 i. till. pb. 4 Ta sedan s p h a g n nurnmer sju. passagerare passagerama. 7 i. 7 Hans fru k vacker men hon k hemskt trAkig. Exercise 4 1 p$ i. hamburgare hamburgarna. 4 den bevisar att ktirnkrailen tir farlig. tirnmar timmarna. 8 Bill g L l u g s Kungsportsavenyn med dess dyra aEirer.Exercise 2 h hen. (genom) llngs. landskap landskapen. 3 Mitt kontor ligger i London.p$ i. 6 Det k inte sirskilt l h g t hWrAn . 3 . skor skorna. A 2 Hans kontor ligger p den h k sidan parken. vintrar vintrarna. 9 in i. 8 vid. veckor veckorna. Brbi konstmuseet. besokare besokarna. 3 Gb A 6ver kanalen och ta sedan till vlnster. 2 12. pl. 9 Jag vet en bank d k du kan v&da dina resecheckar. med. 5 f r h . Exercise 5 1 Vart ska du (gb)? 2 Jag ska ut snart. 5 G l u g s floden och det ligger nira kyrkan innan man (du) A kommer till stationen. Exercise 6 1 A£Werna ligger i centrum . 4 Var k dina skor? 5 Jag mDste vWa mina resecheckar. 3 inga kiimkraftverk. nun nunmen. 10 ut ur.hogst tre minuter. 5 Kan du komma in hit genast f i r jag ska ut snart? 6 Finns det en bank d k ? 7 Var ligger banken? 8 Det ligger diiborta vid kanalen. 2 VArt hotell tir mycket litet och enkelt. biljetter biljetterna. 3 Var k du nu? 4 Jag k hilrhemma. till.g rakt fram och de ligger till hoger. skivor skivorna. hotel1 hotellen. fllrldilden forldadena. 5 fir att deras renar Brblir radioaktiva i mbnga . Exercise 3 1 Deras hus iir mycket ovanligt. 6 hos.

5 FasW jag har 1 s t boken tidigare har jag svHrt att fdlja med. 8 ett fint konstmuseum. 2 kopte. milj6v&nerna. 6 M a intresse. 5 var. somrarna. 4 bojade titta. 8 har skrivit. spraen. 5 har stiillt. 7 har tyckt. Exercise 2 1 har pratat. H Exercise 5 1 N k Rebecca kommer in i salen sitter ett trettiotal studenter diir. sol. 2 Det ghr ett d g till Goteborg kl. 2 har antecknat. 4 Om vi jobbar h&rt kommer vi att kunna forsd stockholmarna. tow och markvme. Exercise 4 'h 1Det ligger ett konditori vid kanalen. orden. 3 ett bra konditori. 8 ja. 6 har frigat. 8 . stockholmarna. frlgorna. 9 de k radda fdr att nya vattenkraftverk p l norrlandsdvarna kommer att fdrstora 3 har vlgat stiilla. 6 kol. 4 Det st%r m%ngastudenter i kdn. 2 goda bakelser. 3 Det kommer en liirare hit till Rebecca. vind. ordbockerna. 5 ett stort kollegieblock. Exercise 6 1 ett gratis vykort. kollegieblocken. 5 Det finns en miljon bocker p universitetsbiblioteket . . 4 ett samtida drama. 3 lkde a. 7 nej. 7 ett frammande ord. 2 Ifall du behover sll upp nlgra ord miste du ha en ordbok. kurserna. Lesson 8 Exercise 1 1 anmdde sig. 3 Eftersom hon stiiller en friga kommer nigra fram och pratar med heme. foreliisningarna. Exercise 3 kraftverken. 4 har behovt slH upp. 6 sdlde sig.

6 Men om man har liist lite innan man kommer till Sverige kan man firstA svenskama. 12 lade. 5 ska de kSpa. riitt. 5 glomde. 2 Det var han sorn lurade heme att l k a svenska. fel. riitt. 11 hlirde. 16 stiillde sig. fel. 10 avskydde. 8 blir. fel. Exercise 8 fel. 3 behSver. . 8 det hkda brSdet. 9 den unge pojken. 7 det svenska 61et. 2 den safliga persikan. 10 det grSna iipplet Exercise 4 1 Det 2r Pernilla som iir k2r i Henrik. 8 Nej. 4 Svenska 1 hemskt s v h att first& eller hur Rebecca? 5 Ja. Exercise 2 1 stannade. inte alls. 10 Att bli & i en svensk kille k det biista siittet att l&a sig fdrstA landet. det s-er. riitt. 3 Det k hon sorn kommer frAn England. att. Exercise 3 1 den trevliga festen. 10 mk. 4 den goda maten. 7 & det lika a i g t sorn det verkar i Stockholm. 8 rtikte. 15 sa. 5 det danska brhnvinet. 6 thder. 11 lever. 2 skulle kopa. 4 vill ha. 3 valde. 6 kopte. 9 stlimde. 4 handlade. 9 Jag haler med dig (om) att det iir anonymt och jag firredrar egentligen Bradford. 3 EfterAt frtigar ett par studenter varifrhn hon e k kommer och hur lmge hon har studerat svenska. 9 anlhder. 4 & det du sorn pratar d bra svenska? 5 & det i kaffekon sorn han har sallt sig? 6 & det h k sorn man fiir roka? 7 Det k Bradford som jag fdredrar. riitt. 14 satte. 6 den fina iippelkakan. 13 gjorde. 7 tyckte.Exercise 7 1 Hela sommaren har de andra solat sig. 2 &er. 12 anv&der. 3 det stora bordet. riitt. 2 Till fdrelkningen hade hon tagit med ett kollegieblock som hon kSpte i bokhandeln. men Rebecca har arbetat hht. Lesson 9 Exercise I 1 ordnar. 7 kostar.

canned goods. . 3 systerson. Exercise 2 1 led. Exercise 7 bread. 8 sitter. 3 sover. 9 Jan 2r L r d Ar 1955. 3 shot. 7 morbror. milk. 4 sjong. fiuit. 2 sprang. fish fingers. 7 I julas var jag hemma. 5 morfar. 5 Ska vi k6pa d g o t ol? 6 Vi har inget hemma. 7 ham. 4 kusin. 2 brorson. Exercise 3 1 dor. deep frozen. 2 IgAr kopte vi mat till festen. 5 regeringstid. meat. vegetables. 3 beiiielsekrig.f a dAr 1956. 5 & 6 ser. butter. 7 tiger. 6 reformationen. . rapid till (max. 8 moster. 4 skatt. 6 farbror. Exercise 5 1 Imorgon ska (thker) jag 1 Strindberg. 2 unionstiden. sour mik. 6 NWa juni kan du se A midnattssolen. 6 stack. 5 satt. 7 uppror. 2 ger ut. Exercise 6 1 Jag tycker om ddana vindrwor. 5 P tisdag ska jag biirja en ny kurs. 8 kom. 7 NAgon har gltimt servetterna. men vi har inga persikor. 2 Har ni d g r a iipplen? 3 Ja.12 Ingrid dog 1981. 4 P kvalen brukar vi titta p A A TV. dairy produce. 3 N&ta vAr &er de till England. 4 Hon fdrsiikte kopa d g o n ost men de har ingen. drinks. 8 viWeuropeiskt. Exercise 8 a 1 union.L V L 8 Det 2r hennes kunskaper som lliraren blir imponerad av. 5 items). 11Kent & . 4 ater. 8 Men du dricker ingenting! 9 Det var en &an trevlig fest. 10 Vilhelm dog &r 1991. Lesson 10 Exercise 7 1 dotterson.

om hon ofta trHar sina kusiner. 3 He founded a number of towns. 7 De har inte bjudit nhgra flickor. 5 Han undrar. 2 De har inte fitt d g r a fler barn. 4 Det har inte blivit nigon fest. 4 Jan frigar om hans gamla mor glnnu lever. 8 Tsar Peter. Exercise 8 1 Less than 100 years. om han alltid varit fWIskad i henne. 4 N@ han iintligen fick dagisplats. 3 Joakim siger att han inte a har nhgra syskon. 4 Bitradet s att de inte hade dgra bananer. 3 De har inte druckit nhgot kaffe. Exercise 6 1 De har inte atit nigra persikor.2 Olle undrar om han inte drack nigon sprit igh. 5 Eva fdrklarar att Joakim alltd har flera kusiner. 10 Her Baltic provinces. 3 Vi undrar om Jan fortfarande har slmngar i Norrland. att Jans pappa inte var stockholmare. Exercise 7 1 Jag fdrklarade att det inte finns d g r a algar i Stockl~olm. Exercise 5 1 Sven ager att han inte k sjuk. created high schools and revitalised the army and the national economy. 2 Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII. 4 Kristina had intellectual interests. . kunde Eva btij a utbilda sig. 6 Hon har inte skrivit nigra brev. 9 He was shot while fighting in Norway. 7He gained the provinces of SkAne. att han aldrig dmck sprit. 3 Hon undrade. 2 Han sa. 8 Han har inte sett nigra agar. 5 She was an intellectual and a woman in a male chauvinist society. 6 He marched his army over the sea ice to Denmark.Exercise 4 1 Han sa. Halland and Blekinge. 5 Olle undrar om det inte fims nhgot kaffe hernma. 2 Jan firklarar att han genast blev fddskad i henne. 5 Vi har inte gjort nigonting. especially philosophy.

. Exercise 3 (a) den korta. . vad som har hant med den. vem som har min rUda trija. 6 de d3r gr6na lipplena.. . 2 talades vi vid. 5 de intressanta miinniskorna. . 3 de d3r nya glasen. 10 den danska osten. 7 H n ser inte alls ut som Jocke. den vackra. Exercise 2 1 den d3r unge killen. 2 det vanliga barnet. 5 det dlir milda vadret. . . vad de koper. den blonda. 7 de d2r andra studenterna. 8 de s d sportskorna. 9 det lilla ljuset. 5 funnits. den trWge. vad Jose tycker om. 4 den d3r gamla tiickjackan. . den morka. 2 Jose och hans kompisar brukar samlas (tr3Eas) p ldrdagarna. 4 fdljdes de At. . vem som spelar fotboll. 3 den trevliga boken. 7 lyckats. 8 Liknar a . 4 den goda maten. . . . . 2 det d k stora bordet. 5 Kristoffer k den lbnge miirke i sportskor. . . 10 det diir bra fotbollslaget. vem han talar med? Exercise 6 1 De d3r unga pojkarna trivs mycket bra ihop. 9 den d k medelillders damen. vem den korte k. 3 ses. 6 trbgdes. den lille. den tystlkne.Lesson 11 Exercise 7 1 den dAliga filmen. . den livliga. 8 det d3r nya kollegieblocket. . Exercise 5 Jag undrar . . 6 den s d l e pojken. . . vad Jocke gor. . . 11 det v3xande intresset. 6 Jocke k helt olik den allvarlige MArten. vem hon trwar ikviill. . 8 umgicks. . den file. den snygge. vem som gAr nedt stan. . . 7 den vackra system. den intelligenta. 11 de diir saftiga persikorna. . 3 Mhte du ha den A nya? 4 Det enda som han gillar (tycker om) k att spela fotboll. . . . 4 Exercise 4 1 tyck. (b) den lbnge.

4 brhna brannvin. tycker om. syra (grava). runda. 5 surstromming. water. 9 deras lilla by. Sjalen. farniljesport. Arligen. 6 kriiftor. 7 Vill du ha en kopp kaffe? 8 Jag miste dricka kafTe p i morgnarna. 2 Hon skulle l a boken om hon kunde hitta den. 9 svamp. 5 Att jogga & bra fir hdsan. 4 Man @u) kan hora dem spela. 6 pappas egen r6da ~ n g s o v e r a l l . jogga. sportintresserade. simbasmg. 10 denna kringliga resa. 8 p i stanger (under taket). Exercise 2 1 Rebecca borde l a den h& boken. utfiirshing. Exercise 3 1 Han W e r ha fest. Lesson 12 Exercise 7 1 Bills gamle van Gunnar. 3 torka. 3 Vi slutade roka.ungdomarna (de unga pojkarna) varandra? 9 Sky11 dig sjSv om du inte kan hala reda p i dina klader. Exercise 5 1 salt. vandra i skogen. 3 Men kommer hon att I& den? 4 Och viI1 hon liisa den? 5 Sven flr inte dricka d mycket 61. potatis. 4 samma vackra stuga. workshop. 5 Jockes r6da troja. Iagga ned pengar. Exercise 4 filling station. car-wash. stjiirna. upplyst motionssp&. . turn off your engine. klubbanslutna spelare. b a . 8 mannens linga affkssamtal. 2 Bills svenska bil. 3 nasta lilla avtagsviig. 6 Han miste inte dricka d mycket. spare parts. 7 stora. petrol pump. 2 stekt salt. 7 Varmlands stora skogar. 10 kafTe. air. 2 De Iyckades hitta hit. service. 6 Vi slipper kora p i de stora viigarna. Exercise 7 idrott.

7 Vi har fdrkylt oss. 4 vackra engelska. Exercise 4 1Han reste sig. lingsamt. 3 Jag A t e tviitta mig och raka mig fdrst. 12 dumma fr5ga. fdrmodligen. 13 egen gamla. egentligen. 2 Vi gifter oss nlsta lordag. inte. 4 eld. . 5 Han har inte 12rt sig svenska. 6 lilla flicka. rorde sig till stolen och sedan satte han sig igen. 3 fdrra ket. skogen. 8 fula jack. 1 Exercise 5 1 Vilken viig M e kung Gustav Vasa k 15201 2 Var ligger Mora? 3 Niir M e Gustav Vasa till Mora? 4 Vad heter de 40 dagarna fram till pisk? 5 Vad brukade man gora p fettisdagen? 6 Vad heter H fettisdagsbullarna? 7 Vad pryder man bjorkriset med? 8 Vad gar phsmringar? 9 Hur firar man Valborg? 10 Var firas Valborg arskilt? 11Hur lange har forsta maj varit hogtidsdag? Exercise 6 1 nAgra fridlysta. 2 vi[stra Sverige. 4 fiiska luften. fdrsta ghgen. 4 Barnen kladde @A) sig och kammade sig. naturen. 2 inga bra. 5 svamp. 6 Jag Mnde mig inte bra. 5 korte tystlhtne. Exercise 2 1 hela kviillen.Lesson 13 Exercise 7 1 staden. inte sarskilt. 11 goda viinner. 6 hosten. 5 halva eftermiddagen. 3 ett annat. 3 svenskarna. b&. mhdagarna. 2 Qg. 7 svenska spr&et. 10 fina ghvor. 9 trevliga b&utflykt. Exercise 3 otroligt.

2 k tidningen lika givande som W nyheterna? Den k mer givande. 8 Sverige k mycket oliktEngland. 6 Sportsidorna k inte samma som i engelska tidningar. 8 en kvinnafen kamp. Exercise 3 1 & inte rubrikerna lika stora i kvalstidningarna? De k stiirre. fel. 8 godare. 6 fler. 4 Liknar pojkarna fadern? De lir langre. 6 minsta figeln. 9 sin olle. Exercise 2 1 langsta floden. . ratt. 10 en invharelett antal. 3 sydligaste punkten. idealistiska. 8 hemes bil. Det k irr s v h . 11 mer. 3 sin vaska. riitt. 5 hogsta berget. 9 sibme. Exercise 5 1 en lararelett rum. 4 hemes vgska. 6 hemes klader. 4 battre. 7 kallaste mihaden.Lesson 14 Exercise 1 1 adre. 2 yngre.Ledaren k svhare att lass. 2 en veckden tidning. De k f ~ e7 . 10 hennes olle. 7 en gatalen bild. 2 nordligaste punkten. 4 en grannelett barn. 5 mer intresserad. 2 hemes ryggsack. 10 mera. 8 liigsta temperaturen. fel. 5 Prenumererar Rebecca p samma tidning som A du? Ja. 5 sina klader. Exercise 4 att. 9 en skolalen termin. men hon betalar mindre. riitt. fel. ratt. 4 djupaste sjon. 12 mindre. 7 snabbare. riitt. Det k rikare och vackrare. Lesson 15 Exercise 7 1 sin v h . 3 ett h j w e t t byte. 11Pernilla och hemes v h . 5 en soffden kudde. 3 dyrare. 3 Spelar hon lika bra som Erik? Hon spelar battre. 7 sin egen bil. 6 en fickden lampa.

ham. 5 parkerade. satt. 4 stekt. Exercise 3 1 avsangd. sin. 8 bebodda. 7 gifta. 10 b e a l d a . 4 Han gav mig det inte. lagt. 10 ant. sill. brann. dess. brht. at . arbete. 4 bortresta. Exercise 7 1 skrivet. 2 jord. sin. lade. briint. 2 ornkladd. Smaand. 7 firfattare. hemes. 10 kuppen. 3 stressad. 5 Du glommer det viil inte? 6 Du viicker henne val inte? Exercise 5 1 landsbygden. hennes. ligger. 5 Jag slog inte sonder . Vietnam. 9 juntan. 6 byggda. 3 sbnderslagen. 4 kiinda. Exercise 4 1Ring inte upp oss fdre sju! 2 Skrev du ner numret? 3 Tyckte han inte om dem? 4 De kastar aldrig bort gamla klader. sitt. 2 rokta. sina. 2 K m e r du honom inte? 3 Nej jag trfiffade honom aldrig. 5 omkord. Exercise 3 satt. 9 omlasta.Exercise 2 sina. 6 uppskrivna. 6 socialisten. 3 gratis jord och vdbetalda arbeten. 9 stucket. 11 flyktingar. grillad. 5 stiingda. Lesson 16 3. 8 jugoslaver och greker. 8 bjudna. hennes. 6 lagade. 3 lista. 8 inspelade. 7 utkastade. 4 den nya valden. 2 tvittade. 7 nygifta. ta Exercise 4 1 Hon tog dem inte med sig. avriittad. 5 militiirtjlnsten. Exercise 2 1 dukade.

vildmarken. snille. skildring. Kristianstadsbo. 4 Turister invaderar fjallvhden pb senhosten. 5 Man mhte skara ner . 3 Bilen firdcmdes. 4 Pennan ltinmas tillbaka. doctor. djur.finstret. chemist's. 10 Alla tidningarna ska br&mas. surgeon. kyrkoherde. 2 Deras namn skrivs ner av polisen. surgery. 11Potatis odlas dar. ward. 11 Hon ska plHstras om. Exercise 7 norrlfinning. 4 En frontalkrock undveks. 10 Middag ska serveras. provins. 8 L h g a promenader har ereslagits av 1 W e n . 9 Dbrrarna har bppnats. 3 95% i Sverige laser dagstidning. 2 Man firar Valborg i Lund med fester hela natten. casualty. stirmlandska. prescription. 5 Bilen borde lthmas kvar. Lesson 17 Exercise 1 1Han knackades i ryggen. 3 Saaben d g s inte av den andra eraren. Exercise 3 1 Aktiva pappor uppmuntrar knattefotboll. waiting room. reception. Exercise 6 skildrar. samerna. 7 Bills tillconsumtion miste skliras ner. hallanning. gotlfindska. viixter. 6 En sittv2nlig bil behbvs. 2 Han stacks i fingret. 6 K & hon inte om sig? 7 k e r de inte bort tiver sommaren? l 8 Har han inte skickat ivag brevet? Exercise 5 hospital. 6 En besalning gjordes hos l h e n igh. dalslanning. X-ray. visiting hours. Exercise 2 1Forare soks av polisen. Jbnktipingsbo. 5 Kortet skickas ivag. 8 Huset har d t s . 9 Vilskan hade packats den morgonen. Wstabo. nurse. 7 Stereon stAngs av. hospital.

glas och mobler. Lesson 18 Exercise 2 1 Fi5r Rebecca ett stipendium. 12 VD. 2 DN. Exercise 5 1 a waitress. 11 flextid. 2 skillnader. . elektriska varor. For. 8 hiilfien. blir hon . 3 bolag. 13 VDN. 9 en fjiirdedel. Exercise 8 1 de flesta bolag tir mycket sm%. skulle han . fhr han . .3 Blir Bill VD. 9 konsum. 3 45%. . . koksmaskiner.alkoholkonsumptionen. 7 bio. 6 the sick person M. 3 VM. 9 an author F. 2 Blir Rebecca doktor. For att du mojligen borde klii om dig. Exercise 6 1 SJ. 6 firetaget hette Skhska firr men har tagit bort den lilla ringen over a-et. Exercise 7 1 befollcningen. . . kan hon . telefonqstem. For att jag faktiskt inte haler med dig. 8 a dancer F. 5 an owner F. . 75%. . Exercise 4 For att jag aldrig har tyckt om henne. 4 SMHI. 10 ett mycket hBgt antal. 7 Man for engelsmtin till sjukhus efter bilolycka. 8 kyl. 7 a nurse F. att vi verkligen mhte gUra nAgot. 4 girl's name. 4 personer. 5 bilar. 5 utornlands. 4 Sverige siiljer mest 2 till och koper mest frAn EU och det Bvriga Europa. 7 fordon. 5 moms. For att du egentligen har fel. kan han . 3 boy's name. 2 a hairdresser M. 6 AMS. . 6 utlilndsk. . 6 Stress firorsakar allt oftare l&arbesUk. 4 Hade JosC hmgt med. 10 leg. 10 the dark one F. . 5 h e r Erik till Bradford.

6 (her hiilfien. . . 4 Engelska plus tyska. 3 Klasslibre u n d e ~ s a r alla &men. franska eller nIigot annat spr&. 5 Mer & 90%. . I 7 HogskolestuderandeE ett statligt studiebidragplus ett lin. . . . 2 De engelska studenter som studerar Den svenske killen som jag k-er .. . 4 Den utfdrliga presentation som Bill fdrmedlade . 8 De som i r fliw&Vsarbetarvid sidan om. i h e s l h r e undervisar ett eller &A &men. .. .Exercise 3 1De engelska firmor som har . 5 Den av Bill Moms framlagda presentationen.3 Exercise 4 1 9 k. som .2 I klasserna 8 och 9. .

.Swedish-English glossary The order of the alphabet in this list is as in Swedish: A Thus brlnnta follows brytla. really be accepted nobleman goodbye administrative address PO* .a r anstWa -er -de anstiilld -a a n s v a d -r -de the right of common access public holiday too always therefore serious alternative amateur American breathe second (telephone) extension reason arrive enrol (for) other othenvise different (from) anonymous anchovy employ employee be responsible for number . -6. el. etc. d i follows dyr..d s e adelsman -nen .. abdikation-en-er absolut accep@ra/s.m k adj8 administ&iv -t -a adress -en -er abdication defdtely.) business business district businessman business discussion business contact evening university bookshop watch out for share in a company TV news programme never alcohol all Pllmffn helgdag alltfdr dtid alltsi allvarUg -t -a alternativ -t -a amat8r -en -er amerikansk -t -a andals d e s andra anknytning -en -ar - anlednine -en -ar anUnd/a -er -e anmWa -er de sig (till) m a n m a t andra annm annorlunda (En) anonym -t -a ansjovis -en. akta/ -r d e sig fir aktie -n -r aldrig alkohol -en all -t -a shop.

. type artikelnummer -numret -part number arton eighteen astronomisk -t -a astronomical att that augusti August 06 by av a v f d -et waste. just child childish babysitter sauna bath ask (someone to do something) ask soineone's permisson be doing well population liberate war of liberation understand intelligence. prevent shoulder badal -r d e badrum -met bagagelucka -n -or bakd -r -de padwig) swim. avgiftsf1-i -tt -a fiee of charge avkoppling -en relaxation avriittal -r d e execute respect.a n t e c W -r d e antingen eller anvhdla . take notes either..e r e m v h t . regard avseende -t -n avslryl -r d d e hate. ability need acquaintance comfortable 1% fuel gauge petrol price filling station mountain be due to - - behfvln -er d e beknnt (en) bekantn b e k v h -t -a ben -et bensinmiitare -n bensinpris -et -er bensinstation -en -er berg -et berol -r -dde pH - - - . cake from behind behind the Baltic area bnna -n -or banan -en -er bank -en -er banldjiinsteman -mannen .. bathe bathroom a) boot (of c r bake pastry.m h bara barn -et barnvakt -en -er bastu -n -r be/ -r bad bett be/ -r bad om lov b e f d a -er befann sig v a befolkning -en -ar befria I-r d e befrielsekrig -et begripla -er begrep bcghvning -en -ar track. rink use apd arbetal -r d e arbetare -n arbetarkvarter -et crrbetarriirelse -n arbete -t -n arbetskraft -en arbetslf s -t -a arbetslfshet -en arbetsrum m e t a r b e t s t i i h d -et areal -en -er arg -t -a arktisk -t -a arm -en -ar a m 6 -n -er art -en -er species.d e s be phased out April work worker working class area labour movement work labour unemployed unemployment study work permit area angry arctic ann - banana bank bank clerk only. detest avsluta/ -r d e complete avstHnd -et distance avsiigla e r avsad'e avsagt sig renounce avtagsviig -en -ar side road avundsjuk-t -a envious avundsviird -t -a enviable awecklds . or .

mark bevisnl -r d e prove bra bh (behi) -n -ar bibel -nbiblar Bible library bibliotek-et bidrag -et SUPPOrf grant bil -en -ar car picture b i d -en -er bidat -r -de form b i t -en -er motorist ticket biljett -en -er biljettlucba -n -or ticket window biljetfpris -et cost of a ticket billig -t -a cheap. group. well. become glance block. fanner bondghd -en -ar farm peasant cottage bondstuga -n -or table bord -et bordslampa -n-or table lamp borgerlig -t -a middle-class. meaning betyg -et grade. fine blilczri bW r blev buck -en -ar block -et - - - - - - . inexpensive bindla -er band bind. tie bio(graf) -en -er cinema biskopssPte -t -n bishopric bith -er bet bjud/a -er bjbd bjbrkris -et b j 6 n -en -ar blad -et bland bland annat @I a) - bite invite. book b e s W a -er d e tid make an appointment bestiLllning -en -ar order bestlimmla -er bes-de decide best&/ -r bestod besUtt consist bestaende lasting besviklen -et -na disappointed besv& -et trouble. writing pad blodprov -et blood test blomma -n -or flower blomsterkrans -en -ar flower garland b l o m s t d -r d e flower blus -en -ar .beroende pP depending on berbvnl -r d e deprive beskrivla -er beskrev describe beskrivning -en -ar Mption beslutla -er beslbt sig fdr decide to bestP -r bestod (av) consist (of) bes*illla -er d e order. signif~cance. blouse blA blAtt blA(a) blue bldbiir -et bilbeny b l P d d d -r -de leafthrough bol -r -dde live book bok -en bbcker bokhandel -n bokhandlar bookshop bokstav -en bokstliver letter of alphabet bolag -et company bonde -n bbnder peasant. . offer birch twig bear leaf among among other things fall in love with be. non-socialist borrat -r -de bore bort away (direction) bob away (location) bostadskvarter -et residential area botanik -en botany awful botten Bottnbba viken the Gulf of Bothnia bra good. bother besvffrande troublesome bes6Wa -er -te visit besbkare -n visitor betralrtal -r d e regard betungande burdensome betydla -er -de betytt mean betydelse -n -r hporiance.

boat - berry carry. should begin (the) beginning - bygga ut byggnad -en -er byggnadsarbetare -n byrhlcrati -n -er byte -t -n bbjla -er d e bbrabbrbordebort b6rjd -r -de bbrjan central -t -a centrum (ett) chilenare -n cigarett -en -er cykel -n eyklar dag e n -ar dagbok-en -bbcker dagis -et (daghem -met -) dags att dagstidnlng -en -ar dam -en -er Danmark dans -en -er dansk-t -a de december del -en -ar deld -r d e delal -r d e med sig dem demonstration -en -er den (det.. develop building buildingworker bureaucracy change byxor -M Mda bPde.och. distil schnapps bread breast. that (Nwords) their deras ..... chest dent abdominal pain bun can. de) bvriga den (N-words) den diir den h L denna central town centre Chilean cigarette bicycle day diary nursery school time to daily paper lady Denmark - - dance Danish they December Prut divide share them demonstration the rest of it that (one) this this. bHt -en -ar biir -et bLIa bar bHrga/ -r d e bffrutflykt -en -er trousers both both.) burst couch bridge brake brake brother bridegroom bridal couple usually (do something) worryIcare/ bother about jetty break bum (trans. and. tin bus kind bus queue village build expand. wide spread beside letter letter box cornespond @Y letter) bum (intrans.. wear salvage berry-picking expedition bend ought to...).bred brett breda bredfa -er d e brett bredvid brev -et brevllda -n -or b r e w H W -r d e brinnla -er brann brisUa -er brast brits -en -ar bro -n -ar b r o w -en -ar bromsd -r d e bror brodern brbder brudpwn -men -mar brudpar -et bruka/r d e bry/ r d d e sig om brygga -n -or b w a -er brbt b d n d a -er d e brbnvin-et brbd -et brbst -et buckla -n -or buksmHrta -n -or bulle -n -ar burk -en -ar buss -en -ar bussig -t -a busskb -n -er by -n -ar byggla -er d e broad.

24 hours expensive. a good dr'Yg driijla -er d e be long. because posterity afterwards own real really. good enough set the table unpack. them domination dominate dukal -r d e dukal -r d e fram durn -t dumma dunkal -r d e dusch -en -ar dygn -et dyr -t -a dH d i och dH di! d d l l g -t -a dHck -et d& dSrborta dfiremot dHmr diiflor att diirifh diil -r dog diitt diid -cn cffektiv -t -a effektfdrvaring -en -ar effer e f t e d d d a g -en -ar efterriltt -en effersom eftervsrlden effedt cglen -ct -na egentlig -t -a egentligen cj ekonomi -n -er eld -en -ar eldfast -a clektecitet -en (= el) elektrisk -t -a be acceptable. those besides it detail this. delay driimmla -er driimde dream du you (sing. actually not. where over there on the other hand therefore.e r doktorandstudier -na its these.) dubbelrum -met double room - why because from there die death efficient left luggage office after afternoon sweet course as. dear then now and then now then bad tyre there. no economy fire ovenproof electricity electric(a1) .dess dessa dessutom det (T-words) detalj -en -er dettn dialeld -en -er dig dill -en din ditt dine direkt dit djup -t -a djur s t d j h -t -a doldor -n. set out (food) stupid pound shower day. that (T-words) dialect you (object) dill your direct there (direction) deep animal daring doctor studies for a doctorate hidden they. this is - doVd -t d a dom dominans -en domineral -r d e domkraff -en -er domkyrka -n -or dotter -n diittrar dotterbolag -et jack cathedral daughter subsidiary company dm/ -r drog draglt igen zip up d d -r drog sig i lie in bed (n the morning) dragig -t -a draughty drama dramatii -en dricWa -er drack drink drottning -en -ar queen druva -n -or grape about.

serious fast Lent although understand. ages examen (ett) (university) degree examensfri -tt -a without examinations fabrik -en -er factory fackligt anslutlen -et -na member of a trade union faktiskt actually f -t -a m finger fingret f i g r a r flnnas f i fanns finnas kvnr Fi Finnish-speaking celebrate firm . still exist the European Union Europa Europe evighet -en -er eternity.g. fattig -t -a februari felfern f e m p 0 h g ~ k U ~ -er -en femte femtio femtilapp -en -ar femton fest -en -er fet -t -a fettisdagen ficka -n -or wrong five 5-week course ffi fifty SO kronor note fifteen Party fat(ty) Shrove Tuesday pocket figure drink coffee yoghufl philosopher fine finger be. ticket) single room 1krona coin according to enomus agreed lonely.) a1 grandfather dangerous. alone odd you (object) your offer offer one faktum fnlduml faktumet fnlduml fakta fact family famllj-en-er . one unite only e"=w plain English English enligt enorm -t -a ense ensam -t -ma enstaka er er ert era erbjudla -er erbjfid erbjudande -t -n ett (T words) EU =Europeiska Unionen English(man) simple. exist remain. single (e. place of famlljenfije-t -n enhiainment for the whole family social page familjesida -n -or incredibly fantastiskt farfar farfadern @.eller eller hur elva e h d e -t ernellertid en (N-words) enal -r d e endast energi -n enfffrgald -t d e engelsk -t -a engelska engelsman -nen engelsmh enkel -t enkla or see text eleven bad luck however a.

escape from fredag -en -ar freestyle -n -s freatelse -n -r fMdlyst -a frihet -en -er fduftsmuseum museet -museer frisk -t -a fritt frontdkrock -en -ar frossd-r d e frukost -en -ar - fbture French French bread Friday personal stereo temptation protected freedom open air museum fresh freely head-on collision gorge oneself breakfast hit frozen question from foreign. be permitted get something shut get something going learn - - mdlghet -en -er m fyrkant -en -er fyrkantig -t -a Qrtio fyrverkeri -et -er Qsik -en fA fii f i r Bck fitt Pal -r fick igen ndgot - fU -r Bck reda pB . get. be able to.fiska/ -r d e fish -t fiskeby -n -ar akpinne -n-ar firal -r d e fjorton fa -et j fjiUtrakt -en -er - fjwe f l a n e d -r -de flaska -n -or fler flera flicka -n -or mtigt fish fishing fishing village f& finger fix. mend fourteen fell. alien foremost. ponder work. mountain mountain area fourth wander bottle more several fly airport refigee sheriff people way o£life of the people folkomriistning -en -ar referendum fordon -et vehicle form -en -ar baking dish forskare -n researcher forskningsresa-n -or investigative journey fort quickly fortfarande still fortsiitffa -er -satte -satt continue fot -en fitter foot fotboll -en football fotbollslag -et football team fotbollsplan -et football pitch foto -t -n photo frnm forward framfdr in front of f m g i i n g -en -ar success framme in front. there flod e n -er fly/ -r d d e flygla -er fliig flygplats -en -er flykting -en -ar fogde -n -ar folk s t folkllv -et girl assiduously river flee. function pine table cheat fill find four rectangle rectangular forty fuework physics few have. leading ugly think.

. mad tile Old Town (n i Stockholm) old old-fashioned .. take keep a diary . firegiende the previous firelbning -en -ar lecture firclbningssal -en -ar lecture room firemdrl -et object Erena/d -t -de united lreslu -r fireslog suggest . -* P in desperation earlier surprise.des w i g -t -a I r g -en -er I r g d d 4d e I r g t e v e -n -nr Fiiriiarna fidelse -n-r fidtas -s -des fitts filjla -er d e (med) filjande fir fir all del fir a n fir det mesta fir en g b g s sloln fir sedan firla fir -de firla fir -de dagbok firla fir d e M g firla fir d e samtal get hold of bud armchair prison travel ready. amaze paid employment parent . crazy.d e firsvinnla -er firsvann firsiikral -r d e firsSkrhgsbolag -et - try. . astonish. incidentally careful carefully terribly fvst fvst understand of course destroy disappear insure insurance company terms of sale fintin firstas firstsrla .W / -r ficktag pB Wgel -n Wdar fitiilj -en -er ffigelse -t -er mrdals .. accompany the following because. complete colour coloured colour TV the Faroes bii be born follow. for by all means because mostly for once ago carry. excuse me extend morning renew suburb before by the way.. firsktig -t -a G~siMigt mnwicuigt lrst mrstP l r s W -r firstod author. to. Writer tenibly explain apron associated lose sorry. wage war carry on a conversation f i r a r e -n driver fvst aid box SrbandslHda -n -or firberedla -er d e prepare lrbl past firbjudten -et -na prohibited GrbW -r firblev remain firbud mot is prohibited firdelaktig -t -a advantageous G r e d d -r -drog framErprefer .

apply gang willingly.glacilir -en -er glad glatt glada glas -et glass -en glesbefolkdd -t d e gliimmla -er gliimde gl5mt gnuggsl -r d e god gon gods goddag godh -et golv s t granne -en -ar gratis g r a t d e r d -r d e grej -en -er grek -en -er grills/ -r d e gropig -t -a grundd -r d e grundlllggare -n wpbaard. really guest gardin -en -er gatukorsning -en -ar g d -r gav u t genast geneds -t -a genom genomfsrla -Er -de gift -a gUVa -er -e sig (med) gimg -t -a g d -r d e i U eissa/ -r d e gitarrlst -en -er ghande . fairly open mouth m e schoolteacherin basic school group dr road it cruel grey bake cem ra loud. occasion fann be valid.ganska gapd -r d e garage -t garderob -en -er - rather. garish alley gr= green yellow golden age grammar school sixth fonn college take exercise m s out on is go. gratis congratulate inn do. make be painful receive a visit from have fin. wardrobe curtain junction spend immediately generous Uvough cany out married get married (to) poisonous lie gum guitarist rewarding glacier happy glass ice c r e w sp-1~ populated forget gymnastisem/ -r d e g miste om H gu-r gick gHtt g h g -en e r gird -en -ar g W a -er d e gang -et - ~b g&t -en -er gZstgiveri -et -er garla gjorde gjort giirla giir gjorde ont ha besiik av rub good how do you do? sweeties floor neighbour free. enjoy oneself afford be right (about) have meadow stick hall thatched roof half - - thing Greek grill potholed found founder - ha rHd (med) ha S t t 0) ha/ -r d e hail h a p -n -ar hakal -r -de upp sig hnll -en -ar halmtak -et hnlv (en) . walk time. by all means.

keep h W a -er htill med (om) agree with (about) W a -er hiill reda pH look after hArd hArt hHrda hard hHrt briid crispbread h a -en -ar heel hiilR -en -er half h W a -er -de pour hiilsa -n health give someone hiilsd -r -de nHgon one's regards (love) W a -r -de pH visit - - . friendly hAl -et hole haill-etdirection h W -er htill hold. weekend either preferably home home country at home awfully be called bucket catch. up to now help help she - - hel hela helg -en -er hcller helst hem -met hemland -et -1ffnder hemma hemskt hcnnes het/a -er hette hetat hink -en -ar W a -er hann (med) hiss -en -ar hit hittal-r -de hit hitW-rde p H hittal -r d e hittills hjiilp -en hjiilp/a -er -te hon honom him hoppas hoppas hoppades hope cough hosta -n threaten hotal -r d e hotell -et hotel hund -en -ar dog hundra (a) hundred hundralapp -en -ar 100 kronor note hundsldt -en -ar dog dizt hunger -n starvation. nice.halvtimme -n -ar hamburgare -n hamn -en -ar hamnat -r d e han hand -en hiinder handel -n handlal -r d e handling -en -ar handskfack -et handskrift -en -er hans hastig -t -a hastighetskontroll -en -er h a w -r d e hav -et halfhow hamburger harbour end up he hand trade shop document glove box manuscript his rapid (police) speed trap hate ocean hello the whole. OK hyrsat not so bad hygglig -t -a reasonable. hunger hur how hur dags? what time? how long hur l h g e hur som held in any case hus -et house husmanskost -en traditional food hustm -n -r wife huvud -et -en head huvudsnkligen mainly huvudstad -en -stlider capital city huvudviirk -en headache hyfsald -t d e nice. all holiday. have time to lift (to) here find one's way here think up find so far.

nonnon-smoker today idea idrott -en -er ifall ieb ihja ihjiilskjutlen -et -na spolt in case. occur hang come. festival hen's feather hear autumn in on business w a y tonight in the vicinity of in connection with instead of on the telephone sometimes not. no-one ingenjiir -en -er engineer nowhere ingenstans ingenting nothing in detail ingHende i n g h g -en entrance inkiip -et purchases inlagd sill pickled herring inland s t interior h a n (dess) before (that) h e in (location) h e W a -er -hiill contain inomhus indoor@) i n W d -t d e p H concentratingon h a t s -en -er contribution - - . tall (of things) right noisy college. none.whether Y&&Y hiist -en -ar i i afllirer i alla fall i natt i &heten av i samband med is m e t G r i telefon ibland icke icke-riikare '-n idag id6 -n -er - to death shot to death together bop ihilllande constant ikvlin this evening ilk3 bad imorgon tomorrow imorgon bltti tomorrow morning i morse this morning (earlier) i m p o n e d d -t d e impressed imponerande impressive in in (direction) inUinpH into inalles in all inblandald -t -de involved inbromsning -en -ar braking indier -n Indian indisk -t -a Indian industri -n -er industry industriland s t . go (along with someone) here fiom here wonderfUl hereby the other night up here witch hip heap high.h d e r industrial country no. university at most school classes for 16-yearelds celebration.dda hiigskola -n -or fetch happen.h b t a l -r d e h h d l a -er h h d e h h g l a -er d e h h g l a -er d e med har hii* hiirlig -t -a m e d hitromkvlinen hiiruppe h L a -n -or hiift -en -er hag -en -ar hag -t -a hiiger hiigljuldd -tt.

.)at all not a bit not bad not. . (comparative) the. canal candidate perhaps. hunt I see hunting law January oh.. really work hard work jog strawbeny landless peanut you know . jugoslav -en -er . get out of.. kafeteria -n -or kaffe -t kaffetermos -en -ar kaka -n -or Lal -t -a kall -t -a Md -r d e kallnal -r d e kanal -en -er kandidat -en -er kanske kant -en... solve - .... . either (comparative) ... always iron ore railway railway station gigantic dunning.institution -en -er inte intealls inte ett dugg inte farligt inte heller inte klok -t -a inte mycket inte sant? inte sffrskilt inte sB noga utan inte intellektucll -t -a intressant -a intressedd -t d e (av) introduceral -r d e intriiffd -r -de invandrlng -en -ar i n v h a r e -n irl5ndare -n iS -en isbana -n -or iSM -ti -a Island italiensk -t -a ..e r karta -n-or kastal -r -de en blick kastd -r -de vatten katastrof -en -er katolik -en -er katolsk -t -a kemisk-t -a kex -et W e -n -ar . kilo -t kjol -en -ar k l a d -r -de (sig) the. treeless cold call grow cold channel. maybe edge.. but intellectual interesting interested (in) introduce occur immigration inhabitant Irishman ice skating rink ice h e Iceland Italian Jut just nu j m r e l s e -n -r Jbt . really attractive cafeteria coffee coffeethermos cake bare. . Yugoslav July June precisely at present comparison all the time. corner map glance urinate catastrophe Catholic Catholic chemical biscuit boy kilogramme ski manage.dcsto. university department not not (. - - - crazy not much isn't it? not very not matter not. la ja visst jag jagd -r d e m a jaktlag -en -ar januari lash jobbd -r d e jobbig -t -a joggal -r -de jordgubbe -n -ar jordliis -t -a jordniit -en -niitter ju ju Yes of course I chase..

tap knopp -en -ar knappast kniickebr8d -et ko -n -r koalition -en -er kokbok -en -bGcker kol -et . be able . is going to k r a b c r k -et - Irram -en -ar kreditkort -et krig -et krigarkung -en -ar krigsskepp -et - go U to P come out remember come come about local authority communication fiend. troublesome crafl~sh ailment pillow fun culture - - coalition cook book coal check note pad collide will. buddy compromise coffee shop ticket collector conflict concert krona -n-or krypla -er kr6p kdnglig -t -a Mf a -n -or f kriimpa -n -or kudde -n -ar kul kultur -en -er lolltursida -n -or h g -en -ar kungmakt -en Kungliga slottet h a kan kunde kunnat konditori -et s r kondukt8r -en -er konflikt -en -er konsert -en -er Page king royal authority the Royal Palace can.klimat s t klubbansluUen -et -na - bunch class (n school) i classification classical put knobs of butter on top climate member of a club dress clothes article of clothing squknock. markedly. hard power station hug credit card war warrior king warship around unit of currency weep difficult. strength substantially. kollal -r d e kollegieblock -et kollided -r d e k o d a -er korn at4 + infiitive kommla -er korn framtill kommla -er korn fram kommla -er korn ihilg kommla -er korn kommit k o d a -er korn sig bud hardly crispbread COW kollpervend -r d e konst -en -er h t i g -t 9 konstmuseum -museet -museer konsumption -en k o n W -r d e kontor -et konung -en -ar kopp -en -ar kopplat -r d e av korg -en -ar korsrygg -cn kart -a korv -en -ar kostal -r d e kostnnd -en -er kraft -en -er kraffigt preserve art -ge art gallery consumption get in touch with office king CP U relax basket small of the back sholt -ge cost cost power.

spring basement be familiar with. be (located) as. know feel. stock team colour county countryside part of the county province rural bus market. store. behind female branch evening evening newspaper chill (trans. similar equal be like. know famous love nuclear power nuclear power station queue kitchen kitchen table kitchen equipment buy Copenhagen overtake drive into drive meat laboratory lager lagret - lg q ai X -en -er land s t lgnder h d s b y g d -en landsdel -en -ar landskap -et landsviigsbuss -en -ar lanseral -r -de Lastbil -en -ar latinsk -t -a lax e n -ar let -r log Iedare -n ledsen ledset ledsna legithation -en letal -r d e e f i r lcvla -er -de levande leveransvillkor -et lidla -er led liggla -er lilg legat l k . similar to sort of mauve loaf line slightly line.) cold refirigerator church rector food source. band trust a little a bit of everything a little little.= alike.kunskap -en -er kupp -en -er kurs -en -er kurva -n -or b i n -en -er b t -en -er kvar kyYa -er d e kyla -n QIsIrHp -et hyrh-n-or kyrkoherde -n -ar kiik -et M a -n -or M a r e -n W a -er d e till - - lcii -n -er kiik -et kiiksbord e t kiiksmash -en -er - - knowledge coup course bend cousin coast remaining. likadan -t -a like lllolal -r d e - - mend.. som ia.. prepare (a meal) layer. small - kiipla -er -te K8penhamn kiir/a kiir -de om kiirla kiir -de p H kiirla k6r d e kiitt -et laboratoh laboratoriet -ier liksom lila limpa -n -or lina -n -or lindrigt linje -n -r lital -r -de p H lite lite av varje lite grann liten litct smA . launch truck Latin salmon smile leader article sa4 sorry identification look for live live terms of delivery suffer lie. .

liter -n l i t t e r a h -en -er literature litteraturvetenskap -en theory of 1 i m livlig -t -a lively ljus -t -a nght lo -n -ar(lodjur -et -) lynx lockal -r d e attract loge -n -ar barn lokaltsg -et local train lovd -r -de promise luddig -t -a flu& downy luR -en air lugg -en -ar fringe calm down lugnal -r d e sig lunch -en -er lunch lunghfhnmation -en pneumonia lure/ -r d e deceive stockfish lutfik -en -ar lyckas lyckas lyckades succeed lfla .e r e la headlamp lykta -n -or lyda -er -te upp brighten. light light beer homework onion wage running Saturday solve loose page single copy leaf stomach ihin (person) stomachpain stomach ulcer May maypole power stuck up ore mummy one man.. pickle spend lay. husband (parliamentary) seat almond almond paste - - - - maj majsthng -en -stiinger mnkt -en -er mallig -t -a malm -en -er mamma -n -or man man -nen mbin mandat -et - mandel -n mandlar mandelmassa -n . lend W -r d e f i g -t -a long. location liigenhet -en -er flat Fggla -er lade av stop. put leave doctor (any) longer hrther back hrther on along long for teach get to know teacher read soft drink easy. lay off Eggla -er lade in Egg/a -er lade ned Eggla -er lade lagt Utnna/ -r d e lffkare -n b g r e bak b g r e fnun bgs b g t a / -r -de efter liirla liir -de liira h a lPrare -n 1Wa -er -te &k -en Utt -a Ettiil -et HxlSsning -en liik -en -ar liin -en -er liipning -en lbrdag liisla -er -te liisblad -et liisnummer -numret liiv -et mage -n -ar mager -t magra magpldga -n-or magsdr-et. economy ldgp* loan 1Hn -et borrow. 6 illuminate lyssnd -r d e listen low ltig -t -a budget. tall f i g b y x o r -na slacks f i g s a m -t -ma slow far figt 1HngtrHldg-t -a boring long-sleeved l h g i i m a l d -t d e Ut/a -er lZt bli stop ldtsds ldtsas d e s inte om ignore liige -t -n situation.

mostly metre meter -n metod -en -er method middag -en -ar dinner midnatt midnight midnattssol -en midnight sun midsommar -en -somrar Midsummer midvinter -n midwinter manllg -t -a manssamhiille -t -n - mild milt milda militih-tjiinst -en w o n -en -er mUj8 -n-er m U j k h -nen r e r milj8vArd -en min mitt mina mineral -en -er minnas mInns mindes minne -t -n me Swedishmile = 10 km or 6. meddelat -r d e communicate. give (tuition) medan while mcdcltida medieval medeladers middle-aged medicin -en -er medicine member medlem -men -mar meIittafSlUer -ret coffee filter mellan between mellersta central men . mine mineral remember memow. marmalade mars March maskin -en -er machine mat -en food matematii -en mathematics matlagning -en cookery matsked -en -ar dessertspoon matte = matematik maths matvara -n -or foodstuff matvrA -n -r d i g alcove med with medborgare -n citizen infonn. chew mumsal -r d e mun munnen munnar mouth museum museet museer museum music musk -en muscle muskcl -n muskler mutter muttral -r -de . but mer more mcst most. reminder displeased suspicion year when harvest fails in the middle of milk mother (maternal) uncle morning dressing gown grandmother mum - mitt i mjSlk-en mor modern m6drar morbror l r o d e r n -brEder morgon -en morgnar morgonroek -en -ar mormor -modern -m8drar morsa -n mossmark -en -er mot m o t i o n s ~ t l -en k motionssph -et - - bog to(wards1 keep fit nmnning/skiiig track car bonnet motorhuv -en -ar nibble.2 English miles mild military service million environment environmentalist environmental protection my.male male-dominated society mark -en ground marknadsavdelnlng -en marketing -ar department m a r h d s c h e f -en -er marketing director markiigare -n landowner marmelad -en jam.

) nine nio ninety nittio h g a d t em?hnlska -n -or d r k l a -er -te miibel -n miibler Norge norr norra norrlbdsk -t -a - novcmber nu numera nummer numret nufiirtiden ny nytt nya nyhet -en -er nykter -t nyMra nyligen nigon nigot nigra nigonsin nigonthg nhligen njir nHra nlirhet-en &ma/ -r -de sig nariippet (ett) n&ta niijespark-en -er . of course natural resource naturvetenskap -en -er physical science down ned defeat nederlag -et no nei down (direction) ner down (location) nere nervous ~ c N ~ S -t -a neutral -t -a neutral n i YOU (PI. charming feel sick paint month monthly rail p a s Monday many must. news sober recently some. Scandinavian arctic Scandinavia Norway north northern from the province of Norrland . much.mycket myndigheter -na mynt -et myr -en -ar mysig -t -a mH/ -r d d e illa mHlal-r-de m h a d -en -er mHnadskort -et mhdag - very. at present number nowadays new piece of news.November now nowadays. anything you see when almost vicinity approach corner shop (the) next almost necessary pleased amusement park - Pn notice (piece of) fiirniture possibly miijligen pattem miinster m h t r e t dark miirk -t -a oncoming miitande mate -t -n meeting name namn -et Napoleonbakebe -n -r type of creibn cake nation state nationalstat -en -er night natt -en n W e r natur -en -er nature. any ever something. a lot authorities coin mrh as cosy. have to nitton nJuUa -er njiit av noggran/ -nt -na nordNorden Nordirhd nordisk -t -a nineteen enjoy careful northern Scandinavia Northern Ireland Nordic. countryside naturally.

go (with) fit into patient card commutertrain commute money pensioner period peach person private car personal identity -number picturesque plastic handle place. too often @e) reluctant (to) unheroic impeccable October unknown dierent (fiom) oil wann sweater accident if. fix. policy politician political - 0 g o d d e -t -n omtumldd -t d e om6jlig -t -a ond ont onda onsdag ont i magen ord -et ordbok -en -biicker ordentligt ordnat -r d e passal-rdeini patientbricka -n-or pendelag s t pendW -r d e pengar -na pensionf r -en -er period -en -er persika -n -or person -en -er penonbil -en -ar penonnummer -numret pittoresk-t -a plasthandtag -et plats -en -er platsannons -en -er - - oroal -r d e sig orolig -t -a OSS ost -en -ar cheese plattal -r d e tiU plockal -r -de pluggla -r d e p l b t d -r -de om platslig -t -a pojke -n -ar polis -en -er politik -en politiker -n politisk-t -a - . land shaken up impossible evil Wednesday stomach ache word dictionary properly organise. seat situations vacant ad flatten pick study.obehaglig -t -a o b e k v h -t -a obligatorisk 4 -a observation -en -er och ow c unpleasant uncomfortable compu)sory observation and also. pair - - PA park political party Passport be suitable. sort out worry worried US o h o g b oheroisk -t -a oklanderlig -t -a oktober o W d -t d a olik -t -a olja -n -or olle -n -ar olycka -n -or om omedelbar -t -a omedelbart omfattal -r d e ostsm6rgb -en -ar osffker -t osffkrP 0aCk 4 -a ovaldig -t -a pacW -r d e p a w -r d e u r pappa r -or papper s t par-et park -en -er p a r k e d -r -de parti -et -er pass -et passa/ -r d e (till) cheese sandwich unmtain terrible unusual pack unpack daddy (piece of) paper couple. apply to environs. surroundiigs die (an unnatural death) about area. whether immediate immediately comprise. swot patch up sudden boy police(man) politics.

pommes frites PoPgNPP -en -er populfir -t -a portion -en -er postkontor -et potatis -en -1-ar potatischipa p r d d s k t taget prata I-r d e precis prenumerend -r -de present -en -er presentation -en -er pris -et privat - -a privatbllism -en privatskoln -n -or problem -et produkt -en -er professor -n -er program -met promenad -en -er proval -r d e provins -en -er prydla -er- de pump -en -ar pumpal -r -de punktering -en -ar

chips POP IzrOuP popular portion post o a c e POW

rand -en r b d e r randig -t -a rask -t -a rast -en -er recension -en -er recept -et


practically talk
just, precisely, quite subscribe present introduction, presentation price private private m 0 t 0 ~ g private school problem product professor

stripe striped brisk break review recipe; prescription already, as early as


Program"= walk, stroll
try.province decorate

Pump Pump puncture

PP pP grund av pHsk -en pHsWring -en -ar pHsW -r phtod pHstAtt pHrm -en -ar plron -et md -en -er radioaktiv -t -a rnffig -t -a rak-t -a ramla/ -r d e

& in because of

'Easter witch' maintain folder Pear line radioactive stunning straight fall


give an account of reformation -en Reformation regel -n regler rule regent -en -er monarch regering -en -ar government regeringstid -en -er reign rain regn -et regnskur -en -ar (rain) shower regnstffll -et waterproof r j -t -a ca solid relntiv -t -a relative religion -en -er religion ren -en -ar reindeer ren -t -a clean unflavoured renat schnapps renoveral -r d e renovate renskstare -n reindeer farmer representant -en -er representative representend -r d e represent resal -n -or journey travel; raise rcs/a -er -te resecheck -en -ar traveller's cheque spare wheel reservhjul -et rcseskildring -en -ar travelogue resldar -t -a ready to leave rcspektive respectively rest -en -er remainder, rest restaurant restaurang -en -er restaurangvagn -en -ar buffet car



result in knight rich kingdom, realm; sphere riches the Swedish Parliament the Parliament building
riksdagsledamot -n -1edamtiter

&ig -t -a

ring -en -ar ringla -er d e risig -t -a rispa -n -or r o d -r d e sig roddbHt -en -ar rolig -t -a roman -en -er rub& -en -er rufsig -t -a rum rummet rund runt runda rundvandring -en -ar rutig -t -a

member of parliament general election major road real really ring ring running (water) tatty, battered scratch amuse oneself rowing boat fUn(ny); interesting novel headline unkempt room round tour checked back back pain rucksack roomy, spacious have someone to oneself advice


be no doubt about W -r d e happen, chance rHvara -n -or raw material S d d -a afraid riiti right, really S t t -en right S t t -en -er dish, course riitta -n justification, justice riid rtitt r6da red rtid avghg cheap rate (train ticket) riiWa c r -te smoke rtikare -n- ' smoker r6kning -en smoking rtist -en -er vote rtistal -r d e vote rtistfitt -en right to vote smftig -t -a juicy saknal -r d e lack; m s ,have is no salt -a salty salt s t salt saluGr1a d e offer (for sale) samarbete -t -n cooperation sambo -n -r live-in giryboyfiiend m e -n -r sami Lapp samhZEivetenskap -en social science samiska -n Sami, Lappish
Mvel om



"Ygg -en -ar lyggsnGrta -n -or ryggszck -en -ar rymlig -t -a rH/ -r -dde om nHgon rAd -et d d l a -er d d e inget

samld -r de samlas samlas samlades samling -en -ar samma samt mtida mtidigt samtliga sann sant sanna schema -t -n

(lani9age) collect gather, meet collection (the) same and contemporary at the same time all true timetable

ad-rsHg...ut a d -r sHg sett sedan sedel n sedlar sedelautomat -en -er segelbht -en -ar s e g h g -en sekel seklet sekler semester -n semestrar

look see then, when, since @ank)note automaticpetrol Pump sailing boat sailing century holiday later latest, recent late autumn September cartoon multiple collision serve napkin meet six sixty sixteen side, page figure herring swimmingpool be stuck together sit seat reservation Seven hospital casualty depment sing sink seventy seventeen self self-confident sixth lake

skadal -r d e skafid -r d e (sig)
skala/ -r d e

injure, hurt get squire; have (children) peel Scand'uravia create not so bad tax blister happen, occur

Sbnndinavicn skapal -r d e skapllet skatt -en -er skavsb -et skd -r d d e skickla -r d e skida -n -or skidshong -en -er skiddknre -n skidhdng -en skUdd -r d e skiUnad -en -er skinka -n -or skhksmfrgis -en -ar skitla e r sket i sldtig -t -a skiva -n -or


senhiist -en september serie -n -r serlekrock -en -ar s e r v e d -r d e servett -en -er ses ses sPgs setts sex sextio sexton slda -n -or siffra -n -or siU -en simbassiing -en -er sitt/a -er ihop sitt/a -er satt sittplatsbiljett -en -er siu sjukhus -et -

sjungla -er sjiing sjunkla -er sjiink sjuttio sjutton sjav -t -a sjZlvilvsffker sjntte sjii -n -ar

ski skiing season skier skiing depict difference ham ham sandwich do not care about dirty slice; gramophone record; party record shop shirt skjorta -n -or shoot skjut/a -er skiit shoe sko -n -r forest skog -en -ar forested country skogsland -ct -Kinder skojig -t -a fun school skola -n -or skola s k d skulle skolat will, shall skoltriitt -a tired of school breadcrumbs skorpsmulor -na skotte -n -ar Scot Scotland Skottland skmmln/ -r d e rattle skate skridsko -n -r ik skating r n skridskobana -n -or skriia e r skrek yell write skrivIa -er skrev



skrivbord -et sf/P -er skr6t skriipmat -en skdd -en e r


boast junk food blame; guilt; debt

~ b -t -ak sMp -et skEtrla ner sWra skgr skar s&gHrdsbHt -en -nr


sk6n -t -a sk6Ua -er -te om sig sk6Ups -S -tes slag -et slags (ett) slnlomHkare -n slitfa -er slct ut sliUen -et -na slott s t slut -et slut slutal -r d e (med) slutligen sls/ -r slog signer s l y -r slog slagit



s w -r slog upp s l W h g -en -ar sliippla -er -te sl5tt -en -er smakal -r -de smal -t -a

(read) through have onaelfto blame schnapps flavoured with aniseed of S k h e cupboard cut down cut boat to the archipelago Maundy Thursday beautiful look after oneself be looked af&r battle kind of slalom skier wear out worn castle end fmished fmish, stop finally sit down hit; strike; dial; chime look up relative let drop plain taste nmw

smiUa -er smet MlHpengar -na .mffrtp -n -or m 6 r -et smikgiis -en -ar sm6rgHsbord -et


avoid, get out of small change pain bum sandwich smbrghbord, cold table

smbrjh -er smorde S ~ b -t -a b smgg -en snaps -en -ar snille -t -n snG/ -r d d e sig snorkig -t -a snyftrcportage -t snygg -t -a sno -n . socinldemokrat -en -er socinlist -en -er socinlistisk -t -a Socialstyrclsen socker sockret soffa -n -or sol -en -ar sold -r d e sig soldyrkare -n som sommnr -en somrar sommarlov -et son -en s6ner sort -en -er sovrum -met spad e t spnral -r d e speld -r d e spew -r -de in spelare -n sport -en -er sports4 -r d e sporthall -en -ar

quick crew cut akvavit, spirits genius huny U P superior (negative) sob story attractive snow Social Democrat socialist socialist Social Welfare Board sugar sofa sun sunbathe sun worshipper which, that summer summer holidays son sort, kind bedroom juice; stock save play record player sport pursue a sport sports hall





sportskor -na springla -er sprang sprit -en sprHk-et spy1-r d d e s p h -et spHrvagn -en -ar spiidh -er d e stad -en stiider stadsbo -n -r stadsdel -en -ar stannal -r d e startal -r d e statlig -t -a

trainers run spirits language vomit platform tram dilute

town town dweller
quarter, area of town stop

state-run, national, government

stormakt -en -er strand -en striinder treck s t stress -en r t d a -r d e strumpbyxor -na druntal -r d e i stdckla -er -te s t f i g -t -a strW -r d d e student -en -er studentska -n -or studera/ -r -de studerande -n studiebidrag -et studicmedel -medlet -


great power beach, shore lie stress get agitated tights not care reach strict sprinkle student (female) student study student study grant financefor students studies course of study cottage dumb, speechless be, be written; stand peg, pole Put ask a question stand cause stand (as a candidate) be wrrecf right shut in invigorating untidy disturb biggest overthrow gradually erase


statsman -nen - m k statsminister -n -ministrar stearinljus -et stekla -er -te stickla -er stack


prime minidm candle .

go off, disappear, prick, sting step, come, rise come inside; step inside get U P smell grant, scholarship

studier -M studieviig -en -ar stuga -n -or stum -t -ma st&/ -r stod stHtt s t h g -en stiinger stlillla -er d e stiiU/a -er -de en f d g a stiWa -er -de sig stiWa -er d e till stEillla -er d e upp stiimm/a -er d e stilngla -er d e in stiirkande stbklg -t -a stbrla star -de stbrst -a stbrta/ -r d e successivt suddal -r -de ut sup -en -nr surstrtmming -en

stigla -er stcg stigla -er steg in sagla -er steg upp stinkla -er stank stipenWum -et -er stjiirna -n -or stockholmare -n st01 -en -ar stoppal -r -de stor -t -a Storbritannien storebrorsfasoner

Stockholmer chair stop, prevent; stuff big Great Britain big brother attitude the Cathedral ( i Stockholm)

da rm
fermented herring

s u v e r b -t -a svamp -en -ar s v a d -r d e svart -a svensk -en -ar svensk svenska svenskkunskaper -na Sverige svordom -en -ar s v i r -t -a svfigerskn -n -or s v h g l a -er d e av syl -r d d e sydS Y ~

synnerligen syskon -et System@olag)et system s t syster -n systrar s i kallald -t d e sH smHningom sH...som SHngare -n dvitt Ggla -er sa(de) sagt sEker -t sfiIoP siikert d j a -er sHlde siillan f i g -en -ar siingkant -en -er siirskilt Gtt -et sZtt/a -er satte satt I t t l a -er satte i g h g sZtt/a -er satte slg siider


fantastic mushroom, fungi answer &ndag black finder Swede Swedish (~4.) w -r tog tagit W -r toglgen sig Swedish W -r tog in pH O~~guage) W -r tog p slg skulden H knowledge of Swedish W -r tog itu med Sweden oath, swearword tack tack sH myckct diicult sister-in-law tackal -r d e ja turn off sew tag (ett) tak-et southern takt -en e r shame tal -et most, extremely t d a l -r d e brother or sister, talang -en -er sibling tand -en tiinder liquor store tandborste -n -ar system tandliikare -n sister W -r d e so-called tavla -n -or eventually as...= singer, vocalist taxi -n as far as te -et say, tell telefonlur -en -ar sure, certain certainly telefonsmtal -et sell tempentur -en -er seldom, rarely tenW -r -de bed tcoretiik -t -a edge of the bed teve -n -nr especially tin -n -or way tid -en -er place, put tldig -t -a stiut tidlgare sit down tidning -en -ar south


seek attempt,
apply Sunday broken take recover, rest put up stay at take the blame on oneself deal with thanks,please thank you very much accept while roof Pace speech speak talent tooth toothbrush dentist fill up (with fuel) noticeboard, blackboard, picture





tea telephone receiver telephone call temperature take an exam theoretical TV, television 10 kronor note time early earlier newspaper


secure boring. tube tunnelbanekiosk-en -er kiosk in tube station tunnelbanellg -et tube train tur och retur return ticket turist -en -er tourist turldsk -t -a Turkish doubt tvivel tvivlet tvH two tvHrs l v c r right (straight) - across thitty tvktom vice versa . fat twenty gorgeous hi! toilet slipper twelve teenager tree trunk - dry tower Thursday peat tradition traditional traffic light area means of transport pile three third meet meet (reciprocal) wooden church train tracksuit stiff sweater tired tue (trans. nice get on well believe throne knickers despite although Prm safe.tig/a -er teg tiggla -er d e till be silent beg to as a result of even. pity tree tree line garden Tuesday look girl thick. until fdly till fiUd av 'till och med (t o m) till slut tillbakn back =%+t = == tillffgg/a -er tillade till&Uen-et -na timme -n -ar timmer timret tinnlng -en -ar ti0 tisdag UtW -r d e tjej -en -er tjock -t -a tJug0 tjusig -t -a tjflnare! toalett -en -er toffla -n -or tolv tonhring -en -ar t w -r d e o torn -et torsdag torv -en tradition -en -er tradlllFonell -t -a tra6kijus -et trald -en -er transportmedel -medlet trave -n -ar tre tredje trettio send for mandidwe. to. produce add permitted hour timber temple ten trettiotal tretton treval -r d e efter trevlig -t -a trivas trivs trivdes t d -r d d e tron -en -er trosor -na trots trob att trycWa -er -te trygg -t -a trHkig -t -a trlid -et trlidgrffns -en -er trlidgird -en -ar trHdstam -men -mar trlind -r d e t m a s t m a s tMades t-ka -n-or trlinal -r d e t ~ g s o v e r a l-en -er l triig -t -a triija -n -or triitt triitt -a triittal -r d e triittnd -r -de tunn tunt tunna tunnelbana -n -or about thirty thirteen grope for pleasant.) grow tired thin underground. a shame.

but outside train education out (location) pavement cafe excursion detailed. beneath. full downhill skiing to let foreign foreigner excellent exploit outdoor(s) abroad foreign oews equipment allowed. put on a light think oven below. set display. young person about university U P division up (location) clearly detail cease information illuminated repeat W a -er -te ugn -en -ar under underbar -t -a underhHllning -en underklilder -na undersiiWa c r -te undervisal -r d e undervisning -en undral -r -de undvikla -er undvek ungdom -en -ar unge* universitet -et uppror -et uppsats -en -er uppskattal -r d e ur-eturdHUg -t -a urinprov -et ursprungligen ut ut ur utan utnnmr utbildal -r d e sig utbidning -en -ar ute utekafk -et -er utflykt -en -er utmrlig -t -a utWrs&dng -en uthyres utlhdsk-t -a u t l h n h g -en -ar utmarkt utnyttjal -r -de utomhus utomlands utrikesnyheter -na utrustning -en utsatt utstffuning -en -ar revolt e Y appreciate clock really awful urine ts et originally out (direction) out of without.) - - UPP uppdelning -en -ar upplysning -en -ar upplyst . procession go interrailing cover quilted jacket put up a tent. marvellous entertainment underclothes investigate teach teaching. under wonder&l.tviltt -en tviltta/ -r d e tycWa -er -te Tyskland tystuten -et -M tyvb washing wash think.-a upprepal -r d e uttalal -r -de utvandral -r d e utvandrare -n utvandring -en -ar vacker -t -a vad vad som helst vngn -en -ar vaWen -et -na vaknd -r -de - . march. consider Germany quiet alas toe tii -n -r tiig -et - tiickjacka -n -or tffltal -r d e train. c-P light. tuition wonder avoid youth. exhibition pronounce emigrate emigrant emigration beautiful what anylhing at all carriage awake wake up (intrans.

. at marriage impottant wild wilderness want (to) which. usual where product be urgent be fantastic at complete be each other weekday living room either. . next to. or. awaken (trans.. vid vigsel -n vigslar w g -t -a vild vilt -a vildmark -en -er vilja vill ville veht vilken vilket vUka vilse vin -et -er vind -en -ar . why wolf where fiom every neither .. what lost wine wind windscreen wiper win winter show whipping cream certain off colour admittedly of course stay be were adult picture postcard dare floor... please where (direction) department store water hydroelectric ... nor.apartment spring our c l i c ..eUer..4 . common.) alarm clock morning alarm call normal var VPrP 9 -or vara brHttom varn fena pP vara klar med vara H var varit r varandra vardag -en -ar vanlagsrum -met vane sig eller varfiir varg -en -ar varhin varje varken.Walpurgis Eve valdeltagande -t (30 April) turnout (in election) wander.... vart varuhus -et vatten vattnet vattenkraft -en v e c b -n -or veckoslut -et vederhBftig -t -a vegetation -en -er vem Venedig verW -r -de verkllgen verkstUa -er -de - week weekend reliable vegetation who Venice seem really c q out vinnla -er vann vinter -n vlntrar v l d -r -de vispgriidde -n vlss -t -a vWen rr -na visserligen visst vista/s vistas -des vore m e n (en) v u n a vykort -et vHgal -r -de vHnlng -en -ar . hot whose here you are.. hike. vds -en -ar v k -t -a vhrdcentral -en -er - . health centre rouse. walk veVa vet visste vetat vetensk-l -en e r -miin vi managing director know science scientist we by.

vast vaay viilj/a -er vdde v?ajme -n viilj* -en viilkommlen -et viilkorrmp vUmakande vHR -nen -ner vhj/a -er vande sig v w -t -a viioster vHoW -r d e vWd -en -ar viirldsldg -et v W e -n vgSh -n-or VMvggter voistra vWa e r -te vhande vilxel -n vHrel -n v h h r v W -r d e zoology river go.) growing small change g change (moliey. real elk elk cow elk hunt love favouriteplace river subject than change change nevertheless meadow - world world war heat suitcase western west western grow (intrans. voter eledorate welcome pld-tastiag fiend getusedto jiiendly left wait Ymually return eight eighty own Owner egg egg sandwich owndp genuine. surface ytterklfider -na outdoor clothes fiuther ytterligm zoo (e#) zoologi -n H -n -pr W a e r -te Alder -n-gldrar h g d -r -de sig Pr e t Prligen HtervOind/a e r e 9th HMO oin/a e r d e zigm -n et? -et Hggsmiirgis -en -ar Hgo HldP men-ar Slgko -n -r Hlgjakt -en -er & W -r d e &sblingsstlllle -t -n U e n -ar v Hmne -t -n H n Hndd -r d e pP iindrhg en -ar HodP Hog -en -ar zoo well-paid enomlous. profession viixlnnde mohighet Hnnn HoUigen Hpple -t -n Itla -er Pt iittikn -n 6 -n-ar tide Y& still at last apple eat vinegar island desetted - . I hope. gear) varying cloud aver plant species of plant occupation. tnivel age wY t x= - report r o d way wall swerve to avoid surely. very choose elector. mighty. I s u p the world of work yrkesorientedd -t -de skill-oriented yta -n-or area.

bdemark-en -er bga -t bgon bgonblick -et bkal -r d e bkning -en -ar 61-et bnskal -r d e bpp/en -et -M bra -t bmn b~taster 6stersjbn

wilderness eye moment


increase, grow inmeape beer

ws ih


Bgtra eastem bver across, above bverallt everywhere 8vergU -r bvergick ( )convert (to) i averlevla -er d e survive bvermorgon day after tomorrow stay the night translation other convince

t l ~ Baltic e

Concise EnglishSwedish glossary

lite (grann) ett tag en (N-words) iiver faktiskt adress -en e r hal-r -de haft r i d med afraid riidd -a after efter eftermiddag -en -ar afternoon afterwards efterit ilder -n hldrar age f i r . sedan ago agree with hi1Ua -er hiill med die likadan -t -a all all -t -a, hela jiimt all the time niira, niistan almost alone ensam -t -ma liings along already redan ocksi also alltid always amerikansk -t -a American bland among och and svaral -r -de answer anything at all vad som helst i alla fall anyway iipple -t -n apple approximately ungefir

a little a while a, one across actually address afford


april snaps e n -ar omride -t -n fitiilj -en -er anliindta -er -e eftersom s i . . som as...^ lika ... som ask be1 -r bad bett ask a question stiilUa -er -de en friga ask someone's bet -r bad om lov permission at home hemma at most hiigst at present just nu at, in pi alhctive snygg -t -a August augusti avoid smitla -er smet awake vaWen -et -na awaken (trans.) viicWa -er -te away (direction) bort away (location) borta awfully hemskt back tillbaka bad dilig -t -a Baltic C)stersjiin, Baltikum bank bank -en -er bathroom badrum -met be vara iir var varit
April aquavit area armchair arrive as



be (located) be (written) be (become) be (exist) be able be acceptable be allowed be born be called

liggla e r 1Bg legat s t a -r stod stitt blil -r blev finnas finns fanns fi/ -r fick fitt dugla e r diig f a -r fick fitt fidlas -s -des hetla -er hette hetat be familiar with k i i d a e r -de till be in a hurry ha brittom be paidid giirla giir gjorde ont be right (about) ha f i t t (i) be valid, apply giillla -er -de beach strand -en stfinder beautifill skiin -t -a, vacker-t vackra because fir, W r att because of p i g m d av bed siing e n -ar bedroom s o m m -met beer 61 -et before forr O. begin biirjal -r -de beginning biirjan believe trol -r 4 d e below under bredvid beside besides dessutom mellan between big stor -t -a stiirst -a biggest biscuit ken e t bite bitla e r bet svart -a black blue bli blitt bli(a) boat b i t -en -ar book bok e n biicker bookshop bokhandel -n bokhandlar triikig -t -a boring borrow linal -r -de bida both bide. och both. . . and


pojke -n -ar bh (behi) -n -ar briid -et bred brett breda rast -en -er frukost e n -ar bro -n -ar bred brett breda siinder bror brodern briider brother or sister syskon e t (sibling) byggta -er -de build byggnad -en -er building bun bulle -n a r bus buss -en -ar businessman affarsman -nen -miin but men smiir e t butter buy kiipla -er -te by all means for all del by the way forresten kafeteria -n -or cafeteria kaka -n -or cake call kallal -r 4 e kunna kan kunde can,be able

boy bra bread broad break, pause breakfast bridge broad broken brother







bil -en -ar Grsiktig -t -a forsiktiit hinnla e r hann (medl Y siikert st01 e n -ar chair foriindral -r -de, change iindral -r -de iindring e n -ar change change (money, viixlal -r -de gear) change (train) byte -t -n cheap billig -t -a kollal -r -de check - cheese ost -en -ar child barn -et car careful caremy catch


chips choose church cigarette cinema clean clearly clock clothes

coffee coffee shop cold cold collect come come inside comfortable company complete comprise consist contain continue contribution correspond (by letter) cost cost cottage country countryside course cousin cream cream cake create credit card crispbread crisps CP U

yomnes frites viiljla e r valde kyrka -n -or cigarett e n -er bio(graf) e n e r ren -t -a uppenbarligen ur e t kliider -na kust e n e r kaffe -t konditori e t e r kall -t -a kyla -n samld -r -de kommta e r kom kommit stigla e r steg in bekviim -t -a foretag bolag e t -, etavslutd -r -de omfattd -r -de bestid -r bestod bestitt innehilVa e r -hiill fortsiittla e r -satte -satt insats e n e r brewiixld -r -de


kostd -r -de kostnad e n -er stuga -n -or land e t landsbygd e n k u n -en e r kusin e n e r griidde -n bakelse -n -r skapal -r -de kreditkort -et kniickebriid e t potatischips kopp e n -ar




skiira skiir skar skurit dad pappa -n -or daily paper dagstidning e n -ar dangerous farlig -t -a Danish dansk -t -a dare v i g d -r -de daring djiirv -t -a dark miirk -t -a daughter dotter -n diittrar day dag e n -ar day, 24 hours dygn e t December december decide bestiimmla e r bestiimde decide to beslutla e r besliit sig f i r deep djup -t -a definitely absolut Denmark Danmark department storevaruhus e t depict skildrd -r -de describe beskrivla e r beskrev description beskrivning -en -ar desk skrivbord e t despite trots dessert spoon matsked e n -ar detail detalj e n e r detest avsky/ -r -dde dictionary ordbok e n -biicker die diil -r dog die (an omkommla e r unnatural death) -kom difference skillnad -en e r different (from) olik -t -a dillicult svir -t -a dinner middag e n -ar dim, skitig -t -a disappear forsvinnla e r finvann disappointed besviklen -et -na dish (course) riitt e n e r disturb stiirla stiir -de do, make giirla giir gjorde doctor liikare -n






double room dubbelrum -met down (direction)ner down (location) nere dress klU-r -dde sig drink dricWa e r drack drink coffee fikal -r -de drive k i i d kiir -de driver Erare -n dry torkal -r -de each other varandra earlier firut, tidigare early tidig -t -a Easter pisk -en liitt -a W Y iitla -er i t eat iiggetegg eight Ptta heller either antingen eller either. . . or elva eleven anstiilua e r -de employ anstiilld -a employee slut e t end engineer ingenjiir e n e r English engelsk -t -a


evil expensive, dear explain fact






English (l~~guage) English(man)

(4 .)


engelsman -nen engelsmiin enjoy njut/a -er njiit enomow enorm -t -a enomous viildig -t -a entertainment underhilining -en entrance inging e n environment miljii -n e r equipment utrustning e n Europe Europa evening kviill e n -ar evening (early) afton e n aftnar evening kviillstidning e n newspaper -ar eventually s i sminingom every varje everywhere iiverallt

ond ont onda dyr -t -a f i r k l a d -r -de faktum f a k t u d faktumet faktudfakta factory fabrik e n e r fall ramlal -r -de fall in love with bli kiir i family familj e n e r far lingt farm (bond)gPrd e n -ar fast fasts/ -r -de fayty) fet -t -a Februaxy februari feel kiinnla e r kiinde mi/ -r -dde illa feel sick female kvinnlig -t -a fetch hiimtal -r -de few fi figure siffra -n -or figure figur e n e r finally till slut fmd hittal -r -de fine fin -t -a finger finger fingret fingrar finish slutal -r -de flnished slut e t Finn finne -n -ar fire eld e n -ar fm firma -n -or first first five fem fur fixd -r -de flat liigenhet -en e r flee fly1 -r -dde floor golv e t flower blomma -n -or fly flygla e r flag follow filjla e r -de food mat e n foot fot e n fitter foreign friimmande foreigner utliinning -en -ar



skog e n -ar gliimm/a -er gliimde forward fram four ryra free (gratis) gratis French fransk -t -a ~rench bread franskbriid e t fresh frisk -t -a Friday fredag viin -nen -ner friend friendly viinlig -t -a from fr&n from there diirifrin frozen fruslen e t -na hit frukt -en -er steWa -er -te b ' fun kul rolig -t -a fUn(ny) m e r ytterligare future framtid -en gather together samlals samlas samlades genuine iikta Tyskland Germany f i l -r fick fitt get get hold of f i l -r fick tag p i get married giftla -er -e sig get on well trivas trivs trivdes get to know liirla liir liirde kiinna stigla -er steg upp get U P get used to viinjla e r vande sig get, acquire skaffal -r -de (sig) gigantic jiittelik -t -a girl flicka -n -or give someone hiilsal -r -de nigon your regards glas -et glass go off, d i s a p m-sticWae r stack go @ravel) iWa -er -te gU -r gick gitt go (walk) bra, god gott -a good adjii goodbye government regering -en -ar

forest forget





mormor -modern -miidrar Great Britain Storbritannien grey g r i gritt gri(a) ground mark -en -er group grupp -en -er grow (intram.) viida -er -te grow cold kallnal -r -de grow tired triittnal -r -de growing viixande gW ss gissal -r -de IF& giist -en -er half halv, hiilft -en -er hand hand -en hinder happen (chance) r&ka/-r -de happen (occur) hiind/a -er hiinde happy glad glatt glada harbour hamn -en -ar hard h i d h i r t hirda hard work jobbig -t -a hate hatal -r -de have hal -r -de haft have fUn ha roligt have to miste he han head huvud -et -en headache huvudviirk -en health hiilsa -n hear hiirla hiir -de heat viirme -n hello hej help hjiilp -en help hjiilpla e r -te her(@ hennes here hit here hlr here you are varsigod herring sill -en -ar hi! tjiinare! high, tall hiig -t -a (of things) him honom his hans hit slU -r slog slagit

holiday semester -n -en semesterar. put learn f a -r tick reda p i leave liimnd -r -de left viinster 1% ben e t lend l i n d -r -de letter brev e t letter box brevlida -n -or library bibliotek e t lie. marmalade marmelad -en January januari jetty brygga -n -or jobb -et -. hurt skadd -r -dc instead i stiillet fdr interested in intresserad av interesting intressant -a into in ilin p i introduce introducerat -r -de investigate undersiikla -er -te invite. e r home hem -met hope hoppds hoppas -des hospital sjukhus -et hot varm -t -a hotel hotel1 e t hour timme -n -ar house hus e t how hur how do you do? goddag how long hur liinge snol -r -dde sig h~ U P husband man -nen miin I jag idea id6 -n -er identification legitimation -en if om ignore litsds -des inte om immediate omedelbar -t -a immediately genast. be liggla e r lig legat lift hiss -en -ar lift lyfVa -er -e light ljus -t -a light tiind/a e r -e like gilld -r -de line rad -en -er liquor store Systembolaget listen lyssnd -r -de litre liter -n little liten litet smi live bo/ -r -dde live levla -er -de - - - - - - - . offer bjud/a -er bjiid Irishman irliindare -n - - - - - - - - - island 6 -n -ar it den (N-words) it det (T-words) jam. grow 6kal -r -de incredibly fantastiskt Indian indier -n indoor(s) inomhus inform meddeld -r -de inhabitant invinare -n injure. helg en.arbete -t job -n juicy saftig -t -a July juli June juni keep hillla -er h6ll kilogramme kilo -t kitchen kiik -et kitchen table kiiksbord e t hock. recent senast -e liiggla e r lade lagt lay. tap knackal -r -de know veta vet visste vetat knowledge kunskap -en -er labour arbetskraft -en lake sj6 -n -ar l ~ ~ g ~ a g e sprik e t later senare latest. omedelbart impressed imponerad -t -de in i a in (direction) in in (location) inne in detail ingiende in the vicinity of i niirheten av increase tiloring -en -ar increase.

next night nine nineteen no musik -en miste namn -et smal -t -a naturligtvis - - natur -en -er niidviindig -t -a behiivla e r -de varken eller vare sig eller aldrig ny nytt nya nyheter -na tidning -en -ar niista nett -en niitter nio nitton nej . .. . a lot mum m Y museum mjiilk -en miljon -en -er iigonblick -et mindag pengar -na minad -en -er fler... mer morgon e n morgnar.. .. Grmiddag -en -ar mest f i r det mesta mor modern miidrar bilist e n e r berg -et -. nor. . ut - ml ik million momexit Monday money month more morning ... . of course nature necessary need neither .. look pretty) look for look up lose lost love love low luggage lunch machine majority make make an appointment male ma''age manufacture Y map March married May me mean meat medicine meet meet (togetha meeting member mend metre middle-aged midnight Midsummer vardagsrum -met kommun -en e r ensam -t -ma ling -t -a tittd -r -de sel -r s9g.g.. never new news newspaper. . letalr -de efter slid -r slog upp f i r l o d -r -de vilse Mrlek e n iilskat -r -de 19g -t -a bagage -t lunch e n -er maskin e n -er flertal e t giirla giir gjorde bestiilYa -er -de tid manlig -t -a k l a d -r -de (sig) tillverka/ -r -de minga karta -n -or mars gift -a maj mig betydla e r -de betytt kiitt -et medicin -en e r miitla -er -te. triiffd -r -de triiffals triiffas -des miite -t -n medlem -men -mar lagal -r -de meter -n medelilders midnatt midsommar -en somrar mild milt milda most mostly mother motorist mountain mouth room local authority lonely long look look (e. .fjiill -et mun munnen munnar mycket morsa -n mamma -n -or museum museet museer svamp -en -ar - - - - - mild music must name narrow naturally. ..

nord northern norra Northern IrelandNordirland Norway Norge not ej. nonicke not. spir -et play spelat -r -de - - - - - - . should biira biir borde bort our v i r -t -a out (direction) ut out (location) ute out of ut ur outdoor clothes ytterkliider -na outdoor(s) utomhus outside danfir own egten e t -na owner iigare -n ownership iigo pack packd -r -de sida -n -or Page pain smiirta -n -or park park -en -er part del -en -ar Party fest -en -er passport pass e t Past firbi pattern monster monstret peach persika -n -or Pear piiron e t people folk e t perhaps kanske Period period -en e r permitted tilIit/en -et -na Person miinniska -n -or. put siittla -er satte satt place. endast "Pa iipplen -et -na - . either inte . person -en -er photo foto -t -n pick plockd -r -de picture tavla -n -or piece of news nyhet -en -er pillow kudde -n -ar - - - - or eller order. (ja)visst offlce kontor e t often ofta oil olja -n -or old gamma1-t gamla old-fashioned gammaldags on business iasrer on the other diiremot hand on the telephone i telefon one ett (T-words) en (N-words) one one man one krona coin enkrona -n -or only bara.. heller note anteckning -en -ar note pad kollegieblock -et nothing ingenting notice miirMa -er -te November november now nu now and then dB och d i now then di si nowadays nufirtiden. none. book bestiilUa -er -de organise ordnd -r -de originally urspmngligen other annan annat andra otherwise annars ought to. inte not at all inte alls not care about struntd -r -de i not very inte siirskilt not. . no one inglen -et -a noisy hiigljuldd -tt -dda normal vanlig -t -a north norr -a. seat plats -en -er platform plattform -en -er. numera number nummer numret number (of) ante1-et B object foremil -et occupation yrke -t -n occur intriiffd -r -de October oktober of course firstis. .

iikta - - . way viig e n -ar roof tak e t room rum mmmet round kring.. . rund runt runda run springla e r sprang h g rinnande sad.. .. complete real ganska striicWa e r -te liisla e r -te firdig -t -a riktig -t -a. varsigod och.tack.hygglii -t -a fi-iendly recently nyligen recipe recept e t t d -r tog igen sig recover. pleasant trevlig pocket ficka -n -or polis e n e r police(man) fattig -t -a poor populiir -t -a popular portion portion e n e r possibly miijliien post office postkontor e t postcard vykort e t potatis e n -1-ar potato hiillla e r -de pour makt e n e r power practically praktiskt taget precisely just prefer.. sorry ledsen ledset ledsna safe. . rest red riid riitt riida refrigerator kylskip e t relaxation avkoppling e n religion religion e n e r remain. secure trygg -t -a sandwich smiirgis s n -ar - - - - .. v a n -n -or programme program -met prohibited forbjudlen e t -na promise lovd -r -de pronounce uttald -r -de properly ordentligt prove bevisd -r -de province landskap e t public holiday allmiin helgdag Put stiillla er-de put up at. still frnnas finnas... i -n -ar road. stay at ta/ -r tog in pP quarter (area of stadsdel e n -ar town) question friga -n -or queue kii -n e r quick snabb -t -a quickly fort quiet tystlitlen e t -na railway station jiimviigsstation e n rather (fairly) reach read ready. riitt e n right across tviirs iiver right riitt ring ringla e r -de river iilv e n -ar. - - - - er rain rarely regn e t siillan verkligen reasonable. exist fanns.. b a r remember kommta e r kom ihig repeat upprepd -r -de represented -r represent -de representative representant e n er respectively respektive restaurant restaurang e n -er return itewiindla e r e return ticket tur och retur rich rik -t -a right hiiger. f o r e d d -r -drog framfor preferably helst present present e n e r press trycWa e r -te price pris e t problem problem e t product produkt e n er. .

siidra tala -r -de tal -et gel -r gav ut sprit e n sked e n -ar idrott e n v i r -en -ar stiilUa e r -de sig startal -r -de biirjal -r -de. Skandinavien Scandinavian nordisk -t -a briinnvin -et schnapps school skola -n -or skotte -n -ar Scot Skottland Scotland second andra see sel -r sig sett Seem verkal -r -de seldom. siittla e r satte sig sex kjol -en -ar lingbyxor -na skiva -n -or lingsam -t -ma riiWa e r -te riikning e n smiirgisbord -et snii -n s i kallald -t kallade soffa -n -or liisk -en rejiil -t -a liisla -er -te ibland son -en siiner Grlit sort -en -er siider syd-. tell Scandinavia Norden. s9Wa e r satte iging (medl iivernattal -r -de vista/s -s -des - - - stigla e r steg in fortfarande stockholmare-n mage -n -ar ont i magen stannal -r -de slutal -r -de. be (somewhere) step inside still stockholmer stomach stomach ache stop stop (doing something) - sli/ -r slog sig ner.liirdag bastu -n -r korv -en -ar sausage save sparal -r -de siigh -er sade sagt say. litla e r liit bli - - . rarely siillan sjiilv -t -a self sell siiljla -er silde send skicWa -r -de send for tillkallal -r -de September September serious allvarlig -t -a serve serveral -r -de set the table dukat -r -de seven sju G shame synd share delal -r -de med sig she hon shirt skjorta -n -or shoe sko -n -r handlal -r -de shop affar -en -er shop kort -a short show visa/ -r -de shower dusch -en -ar shut stiingla -er -de side road avtagsviig e n -ar simple enkel -t enkla sing sjungla s r sjiing single enkel -t -a single room enkelrum -met sink sjunWa -er sjiink sister syster -n systrar sister-in-law sviigerska -n -or sit sittla -er satt Saturday sauna bath sit down six skirt slacks slice slow smoke smoking sm6rgaSbord snow so-called sofa soft drink solid solve sometimes son sort south southern speak speech spend spirits sport spring stand start start stay the night stay.

firskriickligt than in i thank you very tack s i mycket much thanks tack that att that (one) den diir the following filjande the other night hiiromkvallen the previous firegiende the same samma the whole. all hela their dens them dem then di then (after that) sedan there diir there (directio@ dit they de thick tjock -t -a thin (person) mager -t magra t i (ttung) hn tunn tunt tunna thing grej -en -er think tiinkla -er -te think (consider) tycWa -er -te think (ponder) funderal -r -de this den hiir this morning imorse (earlier) three tre through genom Thursday torsdag ticket biIjett -en -er tights strumpbyxor -na timber t i m e r timret time tid -en-er teacher - - . certain siiker -t siikra surroundings omgivning -en -ar sweater t 6 j a -n -or Swede svensk -en -ar Sweden Swerige Swedish (a@?. prevent straight strange strawberry stress stripe striped student studies study study study stupid subject sudden suffer sugar W e d - - - - ' liirare -n toniring -en -ar telephone call telefonsamtal -et temperature temperatur -en -er ten tio ten kronor coin tie -n -or terrible otiick -t -a terribly EKarligt.bathe wm badal -r -de swimming pool simbassiing -en -er table bord e t tal -r tog tagit take take notes antecknd -r -de talk pratal -r -de tall (of people) ling -t -a taste smakd -r -de tax skatt -en -er tea te -et teach liirla liir -de.) svensk -t -a Swedish svenska -n (l~~guage) sweet course efterriitt -en e r sweet$ godis -et s i . undemsal -r -de stop.stoppal -r -de rak -t -a konstig -t -a jordgubbe -n -ar stress -en rand -en finder randig -t -a student -en e r studier -na arbetsrum -met studeral -r -de pluggta -r -de dum -t d u m a iimne -t -n pliitslig -t -a lidla e r led socker sockret firesla -r fireslog suitcase viiska -n -or summer sommar -en somrar summer holiday sommarlov e t mn sol -en -ar Sunday siindag sure.

hiilsd -r -de p i besiikare -n liin -en -er viintd -r -de v a h d -r -de - - + - wander.time time to timetable tired to to let today toe together toilet tomorrow tomorrow morning tonight tourist town town centre trade traditional train ging -en e r dags att schema -t -n triitt triitt -a till uthyres idag t i m -r ihop toalett -en -er imorgon imorgon bitti unknown unpack unpleasant untidy u n d U P up (location) US okiinld -t -da packd -r -de upp obehaglig -t -a stiikig -t -a ovanlig -t -a "PP "PPe OSS i natt turist -en e r stad -en stader centrum handel -n traditionell -t -a triind-r -de.) walk walk anviindla -er -e brukal -r -de tviirtom by -n -ar besiiWa -er -te. from promenad -en e r gi/ -r gick gitt vandral -r -de vilja vill ville velat tviittd -r -de tviitt -en vatten vattnet siitt -et vi biirla biir bar onsdag vecka -n -or vardag -en -ar veckoslut -et. firsti/ -r firstod unemployed arbetsliis -t -a unfortunately tyviirr use WY (do something) vice versa village visit visitor wage wait wake up (intmns. utbildd -r -de sig train (railway) tig e t translation iiversiittning -en -ar travel resla -er -te traveller's resecheck -en cheque -ar trouble besviir -et trousers byxor -na truck lastbii -en -ar trust litd -r -de p i tube train tunnelbanetig e t Tuesday tisdag turn off sviingla -er -de av TV. hike want (to) wash washing water way we wear Wednesday week weekday weekend welcome westem what what time? when where where where (direction) where. helg -en -er viilkomnden -et viilkomna viist-.. . viistra vad hur dags? niir dHr var vart - .television teve -n -ar twelve tolv two tvi ful -t -a ugly uncomfortable obekviim -t -a underclothes underkliider -na underground tunnelbana -n -or understand begripla -er begrep.

what while who whose why wife wild wilderness will.) ja iglr iinnu dig er ni du . shall willingly win winter wish with without won- som vilken vilket vilka medan vem vars varfor hustru -n-r vild vilt vilda tidemark e n e r skola skall skulle skolat giirna vinnla -er vann vinter -n vintrar tinskal -r -de med utan hiirlig -t -a ord e t arbetal -r -den jobbal -r -de work (function) fungeral -r -de work arbete -t -n world viirld e n -ar bry/ -r -dde sig om wony about write skrivla e r skrev wong fel- word work yes yesterday yet you (object) you (object) YOU (PI-1 you (sing.which. that which.

continuing and ending 15 expressingindifference 11 expressing likes and dislikes 9 expressing opinions on people and things 10 expressing permission and prohibition 13 expressing similarity and dissimilarity 14 . +a 5.8 aldrig 3.8.2 expressing apologies 12 expressing beginning.Grammatical index Numbers refer to lessons in the book.4 agreeing and disagreeingwith people 6.13 definite declension Type 4 12 defrnte form of superlatives 14 definite forms 9 indeclinable 8 indefinite agreement 5 indefinite declension 4 indefinite forms 6 Adverbs 3.12 definite declension Type 3 11.14 biir 12 capital letters 1 centuries 4 compass points 4 Conjunctions coordinating 7 subordinating8 dates 4 days of the week 3 directions 7 du 4 diir 7 ej 3 eller 7 en 1.6 comparison 14 definite declension 11 definite declension Type 1 11 definite declension Type 2 11. abbreviations 17 address. forms of 4 Adjectives adjectival nouns 11 adjectives +t. English words are in italics.13 adverbs of location and direction 7 position in sentence 3.2 ett 1. 10 amplifiers 6 asking for things 1 att 8 be 4 bli (blir) 7 bra 4. Swedish words are in bold type.10 alltid 3.

13 miinniska 17 N-words (non-neuter nouns) 1 . nej 2 ni 4 no 2 nog 8 Nouns articles./sin etc.9 please 4 Prepositions o with quantities 1 f prepositions of place and movement 7 prepositions of time (see time expressions) 2 Pronouns demonstrative 6 den hiir.13. etc. plural 7 ending in -urn 6 plural forms 4.. 6 denna.s hans etc.9 icke 3 ingen etc. 14.2 greetings 2 gi3 g6ra (giir) 1 ha Bar) 1.12 letter writing 18 ligga (ligger) 4 liten 6. 15 hej 2 hela 13 hos 7 i 7. 10 family relationships 10 finnas (finns) 4 fir 7 f i r att 12 fir. indefinite and end (defmite) 2 article use 2.s. 11 determinative 18 interrogative 2 object pronouns 6 . singular 2. 15 end articles.7. 9 ingenting 5 inte 3 inte nigon 10 inte siirskilt 6 ja 2 ju 8 komma (kommer) att 7 kunna (kan) 3. 9 nigonting 17 niimligen 8 och 7 ofta 3. 14 Iiigga (liigger) 15 male and female 17 men 7 money 7 months 4 mycket 6 minga 14 miste 12. etc.expressing understanding 14 expressions of time 9.3 ordinal numbers 4 nbgon etc.6 plural with change of vowel 6 predicting plurals 5 r-plural6 s-genitive 3 . sedan 10 gamma1 6.+plural 6 Numerals 2. 10 om 8 parts ofthe day 3 parts of the body 16 p i 2.14 ganska 6 gender 1.

4 telephone phrases 5 Time 2.7 reflexive 13 reflexive possessive 15 Pronunciation see also Pronunciation. -mn 6 s-.15 two-verb ccmstmctiom 12 verbs for motion and travel 3 weak conjugations 9 vill12 vore 15 vf18 warnings 16 where 7 who 11 .possessive 4. j-. k-.2 r-stem 5 reciprocal 11 reflexive 13 s-passive 11 s-verbs 11 strong 10 subjunctive 15 transitive 6. -rs. 9 sftta (sftter) 15 T-words (neuter nouns) 1 tack 1. parts of the day. 3 some difiicult words 7 vowel hiatus 9 vowels 1 punctuation 18 seasons 6 sin. gn-.2 -gn. gj.5 varandra 11 varsiigod 1 vem som 11 Verbs a-stem 5 ' Conjugation 18.15 irregular weak 9 1-stem 5 modal verbs 3.9 ConjugationN 8.5 g-.10 conso~lant stem 5 deponent 11 future time 7 imperative 5 infinitive 2 infinitive use 12 intransitive 6.2. 15 sjflv 12 skola (ska) 3. stj. -rg 4 s. lj-. etc. 14 som 8 spelling of words in m and n 6. by the clock 3 duration 10 expressions 2 frequency 10 v-words 2 vara (iir) 1. siidan etc. etc.12 motion and travel 3 particle verbs 16 passive forms 11 passives 17 past participles 16 past tense of strong verbs 10 pa-8 perfecttense8 pluperfect tense 8 present participles 13 es present t n e 1. hj-. sk.etc.9 Conjugation DI 8. stress and accents dj-.9 see also days of the week.12 slang 11. t and voiceless consonants 8 sj-.9 1 Conjugation 1 8. kn-.

6 position of particles 16 position of passive agents 17 position of unstressed object pronouns 15 postponing the subject 8 real subject 8 sentencepattern 4 SIV (Subject. h t e .14 strengthening prefix 10 Word order and sentence structure formal subject 8 fionting 5 in questions 2 in subordinate clauses 10 independent clauses 17 position of complements 6 position of duplicates and heavy expressions 12 position of emphatic constructions 9 position of link words 7.8 position of MPT-expressions 4 position of objects 4.2 ika 3 .Word formation abbreviation 4 abbreviation of names 11 affixation 16 compound nouns 1 compound verbs 16 compounding 4.4 vquestions 1 . Verb) 10 statements 2 straight and inverted word order 2 subordinate clauses 8 subordinateclauses with main clause word order 18 two-verb constructions 3. 2 writing letters 18 written and spoken constructions 18 yes 2 yedno questions 1.

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