Urban Management Program

Urban Management Program

ISBN 978-3-9812769-1-6

Urban Management Program

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo

4

Preface

5

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 6 .

Preface 7 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 8 .

Table of Contents 9 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 10 .

Tables 11 .List of Maps. Figures.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 12 .

.

.

1 Theoretical Background 15 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 16 .

1 Theoretical Background Fig. 1 Eight rungs on the ladder of citizen participation Source: Arnstein 1969 8 Citizen Control 7 Delegated Power Citizen Power 6 Partnership 5 Placation 4 Consultation Tokensim 3 Informing 2 Therapy Nonparticipation 1 Manipulation 17 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 18 .

.

.

2 Context Qalyoubia Cairo Giza Helwan 6th of October 21 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 22 .

2 Context 23 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 24 .

2 Context 25 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 26 .

2 Context 27 .

electricity. Basatiin.9% Illiterate males: 53.3% Illiterate males: 28. Also religious complex like mosques* Completely illegal: No legal paperwork • • • • Illiterate females: 40. more related to middle class income Boulaq el Dakrour.4% Households living in single room: 26. Waraq el Hadir.4% public sector • 16% private sector • 65% self-employment Major activities / Income sources Examples One can find professionals and other kinds of workers. then subdivided by owner or pioneer Housing conditions are generally worse than Typology A N/A Final product / Use Frontage 7 to 10.7% Households without public water supply: 21% N/A Infrastructure Legal situation / Legal Development process Who lives there Who Limited basic services: lack of social and public services* Completely illegal: No legal paperwork but the legalisation process is quite straightforward • • • • Illiterate females: 65.5 metres • 100% Plot coverage • Some light wells • minimum 5 floors Basic services: roads.3% Only in Manshiet Nasser people work in: • 12.9% Households living in single room: 18. water.5% Households without public water supply: 33. and Embaba Income heterogeneity Manshiet Nasser 28 .Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Type A (Informal settlements on former agricultural land) On privately owned formerly agricultural land Emplacement Layout/Pattern Agricultural land* Irrigation patterns / No open public spaces* Type B (Informal settlements on former desert state land) On formerly state-owned desert land Vacant state land* Incremental subdivisions* Where Plot Material How / What Process of construction Small: Average 80m2 • Floor slab construction Concrete frame with red brick infill walls Incremental (Room by room and floor by floor) First: Quite large plot.

Most are slated for removal or have already been converted into parks. and parts of Masr el Qadima.9% • Illiterate males: 36. and deteriorated structures Old buildings and medieval urban fabric N/A Dilapidated.7% • Household without public water supply: 32. El Khalifa. among others. Income heterogeneity Masr el Qadima. This type represents less than 1 per cent of the urban population. multi.1% Very poor families or “Ultra poor families” Income heterogeneity Darb el Ahmar and El Gamalia. crowded. Hekr Sakakini in el Wali. and Teraa el Towfiqia in Mataria. Most are slated for removal or have already been converted into parks. N/A From residential spaces to commercial and workshop use N/A As a result of confusing ownership and/or owner Due to precarious land tenure situations neglect Quite poor families: • Illiterate females: 48. Boulaq Abou Aala.2 Context Type C (Deteriorated historic core) Type D (Deteriorated urban pockets) Neighbourhoods with old.storey structures N/A N/A Generally deteriorated buildings N/A N/A Very precarious type of housing This type represents less than 1 per cent of the urban population.8% • Households living in single room: 32. 29 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 30 .

implemented by local administration. • Designing capacity development concepts for local administration civil society and the partners involved.Table 2 PDP . • Institutionalising participatory methods through training of local stakeholders. National Level Phase 2008-2011 Regional Level Phase 2004-2007 Local Level Phase 1998-2003 31 . • Maintaining Boulaq el Dakrour and Menshiet Nasser as pilot areas for participatory urban development and as showcase areas for local administration. • Creating urban upgrading units for informal areas at governorate level. Egypt (PDP 2010e) 2 Context Programme Levels • Policy advice on decentralisation and the promotion of ministerial support while dealing with informal areas. • Supporting governorates in priority areas. • Developing participatory urban upgrading methods within a comprehensive conceptual framework.Programme Levels Source: Participatory Development Programme in Urban Areas.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 32 .

.

.

3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr. Cairo Qalyoubia Qalyoubia Qalyoubia Giza Cairo Qalyoubia M M MHelwan 6th of October 6th of October 35 .

district chief and LPC) Final Report: Berlin Identifying main issues and dividing groups into units • Accessibility • Economic integration • Service provision Livelihood assets: • Human capital • Social capital • Financial capital • Physical capital • Natural capital Inter-related • Stakeholder meeting (GTZ. Urbanisation process in Cairo 2. local leaders) • Interviewing community • Observation of area Formulating questions Collecting data: (3 Days) Processing Data: • Synthesising input from GTZ • Identifying crosscutting issues • Prioritising issues Steps: 1.Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Fig.Street upgrading 2. Identifying mechanisms 3. NGO. Interrelating main topics 2. GTZ document: • Classification study manual • Classification study report Site visit: Ezbhet El Nasr Field Work: Cairo Stakeholder meeting (GTZ. Waste management 3. Informality 3. Methodology 5. Upgrading 4.Stakeholder analysis SWOT analysis & Inter-linkages Identifying intervention: Proposal Clustering possible solutions into 3 main topics: 1. 7 Conceptualising Process Source: UM TU Berlin Conceptualising Process Preparatory Study: Berlin Literature review: 1.Land development Editing & finalising report 36 .

water and air Human capital Access to training and health service opportunities Availability of local training opportunities Health of local workforce 37 . Cairo Tab.3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr. 3 Dimensions of Livelihood Source: UM TU Berlin Accessibility Social capital Reciprocal networks with surrounding areas Efficiency and reach of regional infrastructure and facilities Earnings ability Travel cost burden Priority Areas Economic Integration Linkage between local households and business Community-driven investment and maintenance of local infrastructure Price of local goods and services job availability Sanitation Trust of government Dimension of Livelihood Physical capital Road and bulk infrastructure conditions Financial capital Health of local workforce Natural capital Dependency on motorised travel Provision of water Equitable land use Condition of land. soil.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 38 .

3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr. Cairo 39 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 40 .

Cairo 41 .3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Table 4 Externalities of Light Industries Source: UM TU-Berlin Particulate Matter/ Noxious Gas Marble processing Metal works Car repair Slaughter house Carpentry High Low Low High Low Noise High High High Low Medium Vehicular Traffic High Medium High None Low 42 .

3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr. Cairo 43 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Fig. 9 SWOT Analysis Ezzbet Al Nasr Source: UM TU-Berlin Strengths Opportunities • Available Space (Cheap Land) • Vacant Land (State Owned) • Proximity to Transfer Facility • Perception • Morphology • Available Skills in Strategic Sectors • Knowledge of Construction • Self-organisation • Almost Finished Layout • Well Equipped School • Consolidated Corridors • Strategic Location • Workshop Attracts External Business • Unrealised Demand (Marble & Car) • Willingness to Pay • Selling plots • Finance • Solid waste • Tunnel • Well demarcated layout • Street upgrading • Participatory building programme • Self-organised lighting system • Business ownership of public spaces • Recycling construction waste • Reuse of industrial & residential waste • Lower sewage removal cost burden • Building trust with local authority • Use of school by community • Activity corridor • Solid waste opportunities 44 .

traffic congestion. Cairo Weaknesses Threats • Distance to bus station and health care • Lack of Open Spaces or Greenery • Unsafe Area • No Street Lighting • Physical Barriers • Construction Waste • Unsafe walkways • Traffic accidents • Future densification • Lack of health care facilities Limited livelihood • Continuous degradation • Weak Civil Society • Mistrust of Local Authority • Noise & Pollution from Workshop • Lack of Local Economic Linkages • Insecure Tenure • Sewage: illegal system. invasion. construction delays • Casual Labour • Delay in sewage removal completion • Police extortion • Extortion by service providers • Pollution & health problems • Unemployment • Pollution.3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr. fatal accidents • Environmental problems 45 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 46 .

3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr. Cairo 47 .

Cairo`s governorate Development • Physical intervention: electricity-line provision • Organisational development: Mutual trust between govt.Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Resources • Street morphology • Financing (household savings) Management • Participatory maintenance for street lightning: • Installation of lamps • Maintenance • Actors: The community and NGOs. & the community 48 .

Cairo 49 .3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 50 .

the local community and NGOs. construction waste depot • Organisational development: Capacity building for recycling materials • Physical intervention: Pedestrian bridge • Organisational development: Improvement of mobility and safety • Physical intervention: Tree planting • Organisational development: Responsibility to the community • Strategic location • Actors: Cairo‘s Governorate • Financing (household savings) • Participation and education • Actors: The community and NGOs. Cairo Table 6 Paving Proposal Source: UM TU-Berlin Table 7 Pedestrian Access Proposal Source: UM TU-Berlin Table 8 Tree Planting Proposal Source: UM TU-Berlin Resources Management Development • Construction waste materials • Construction skills • Vacant land • Recycling workshops • Actors: Stone workshops. schools 51 . Cairo‘s governorate • Physical intervention: Street paving.3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 52 .

sewage) • Direct connection with main avenues Management • External funding (donors. business) • Community development programmes Development • Land development programme: 1. Construction waste depot 3.3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr. gov. Market 6. Nursery . Cairo Table 9 Land Development Source: UM TU-Berlin Resources • 6 ha of unused vacant land • Already existing infrastructure (public school. Waste transfer station 2. Industrial cluster (masonry workshops) 4. Bus terminal 5. lampposts.compost 7. Community centre 8. Park 53 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 54 .

street rangers. Public Funding Agency 55 . users and government.3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr. Cairo Table 10 Solid Waste Management Proposal Resources • Vacant land Management • Environmental awareness education • Capacity development • Meeting local leaders Development • Intervention • Relocating waste transfer station • Construction of street garbage containers • Income generation through recycling material • Participatory design of garbage container • Capacity building • Process of waste collection • Actors • Environmental management committee • House-to-house collection NGO.

government.Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Table 11 Composting Plant Proposal Source: UM TU-Berlin Resources • Proximity to transfer station Management • Forming management committee involving community. installation company (private) Development • Providing temporary mechanised pumping station • Repairing damage control structure in the network • Capacity building for community • Cooperation with construction company 56 . NGO. NGO and government Development • Providing modern machinery • Capacity building for community regarding technical knowledge of composting agriculture Table 12 Sewage System Proposal Source: UM TU-Berlin Resources • Existing sewage system Management • Community proposal to government • Actores: community.

Cairo Table 13 Construction Waste Management Proposal Source: UM TU-Berlin Resources • Vacant land • Surplus of construction waste Management • Forming management committee Development • Designated storage facility • Capacity development in reusing construction waste • Maintenance • Supervising selection process for material • Organising transferring of material to designated points • Actors NGO.3 Case Study: Ezzbet Al Nasr. Public Funding Agency 57 . community and government expert.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Table 14 Priorities / Phases for Interventions Source: UM TU-Berlin Designated streets lighting Formalising electricity system Access for pedestrains (bridge) Physical Organisational Paving Greening/Planting trees Access for transportation (bus) Sewage Building wastes Street rangers Storage for building waste Land tenure Waste collection Waste transfer station Recycling of material Workshops Vocational training Participation Time Phase 1 Phase 2 Long term 58 .

.

.

Giza Qalyoubia Cairo Giza Helwan 6th of October 61 .4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 62 .

Giza Table 15 Topics in the interviews Source: UM TU-Berlin Main Questions • What is the condition of the buildings in the area? • Are the buildings served with infrastructure? What is the quality of the services? • What is the relation between owners and renters in the area? • What is the level of owner fluctuation in the area? Physical Structure Open Space & Road Network Four Topics • How do different groups use the different types of spaces in the community? • Is there any lack of public services and infrastructure? • What are the mobility patterns of different groups in the community? • What are the community perspectives on future development of open space-road network? Economic Livelihood • What are the sources of income for the residents in the community? • What are the major business activities in the area and how do they function? • What is the legal status of the businesses in the area? Social Organisation • How does the community organise itself at a grass roots level? (neighbours/associations business corporations. such as NGOs. local networks. political stakeholders? 63 . common decision making) • What is the leadership system in the community? • What is the community‘s relationship with different institutions.4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia. private sector actors. CBO`s.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 64 .

4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia. Giza 65 .

building owners. renters Cooperation between actors to promote on-site redevelopment. including all interested stakeholders Threats Real-estate speculation Growing socio-spatial segregation between the neighbourhood and its surroundings Vicious interrelation between real estate speculation.Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Table 16 SWOT Analysis Dayer el Nahia Source: UM TU-Berlin Issues Location Strengths Prime/central location Historical value High land values Legal tenure of buildings Long-term stability of ownership Weaknesses Contrast with surrounding formal/middleclass neighbourhoods Opportunities On-site redevelopment. sharing mutual benefits and costs Consolidated and livable urban structure Limited accessibility (roads) Empty private land used as dumping ground low quality of open space Improve accessibility with minor interventions Reassignment of private empty land for: • Land-pooling (on-site redevelopment) • Public/Communitarian open spaces or facilities Cooperative management of the neighbourhood`s public space between all locally involved stakeholders Open Space Use/ Management Open space intensely used by the community Security: porous relation between private (houses) and surrounding public space Lack of communitarian responsibility for the overall neighbourhood Gender inequality Illegal occupation of open spaces by business workshops Weak ventilation and lighting Small plot size Unsafe structures and building materials Low quality of service supply (water. new law 119 (rent issue) and the intentional deterioration of unsafe houses Empty private land contributing to real-estate speculation/hindering intervention Urban Structure/ Ownership Fabric Complexity of actors regarding property: land owners. gas) Unsafe sewage system Lack of social infrastructures Growing socio-spatial discrimination of vulnerable groups Buildings Condition Incremental process of construction: housing process adapted to changes in family structures Concentration of unsafe buildings as a potential for bulk redevelopment Unsafe buildings affecting interdependent structures Infrastructure Available and accessible physical infrastructure Upgrade physical infrastructure using appropriate and sustainable technologies Empty private lot as a potential to facilitate public services Sewage system affecting public health and contaminating the soil 66 .

political interests) Politicised institutions (NGO/Mosques) Invisibility of vulnerable groups 67 . Giza Issues Land-Use Strengths Proximity and mixture of uses (productive. commercial and residential) Weaknesses Polluting manufacturing activities mixed with residential uses Opportunities Grouping/Clustering of economic activities Livability due to intensive and mixed use of open public spaces Invisible “women workers” as potential target groups Interdependency as potential for collaborative initiatives and clustering Threats Informal eviction of residential uses due to the polluting productive activities Economic Activities Specialisation of economic activities: car repairing.4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia. mosque. carpentry and daily goods supply Partial interdependency betwen activities Good level of entrepreneurship Environmental and social impact of polluting workshops Illegal status of manufacturing activities High percentage of unemployment (especially youth) Low level of education Dismantling of the economic fabric due to external relocation of all polluting workshops Low capacity of adaptation to market demands Social Composition Strong communitarian identity Strong rooting Strong cultural capital Good level of self-perception Low level of social mobility Low social status/high level of prejudice regarding Ashwayat dwellers Community associated with the “culture of poverty” Potential for strengthening the community`s organisational pattern through cooperative associations Social encroachment Discrimination and marginalisation Internal solidarity Cooperative initiatives between close neighbours Low level of integrative community organisation Lack of natural leaders Lack of representation Distrust and miscommunication between community and political stakeholders Scale-up cooperative initiatives between locally involved stakeholders Governance Organisational pattern related to specific groups/ interests (men.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 68 .

unsafe construction materials. lack of structure or foundation Safe Building affected by unsafe building (structural dependency) Action Detailed participatory survey needed to identify the buildings.4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia. Actors Safe Building with inefficient services Detailed participatory survey needed to identify the buildings. Giza Table 17 Physical Structures Source: UM TU-Berlin Physical Structure Classification Unsafe Building Old building. Upgrading • Governorate Safe Building located in unsafe building cluster • Affected renters and owners Onsite redevelopment 69 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 70 .

(2006a) Contribution • Legal support • Monitoring and control • Providing services facilities • Financial investment • Develop the area • Land sharing • Participation in plan preparation • Monitoring Benefit • Avoid costs of relocation • Potential profit • Shift informal to formal areas • Replicable model of intervention • Profit • Affordable housing to the rental group • New unit for flat owner • Land owner will be able to sell the land Governorate Investor Community 71 . W. Giza Table 18 Land Pooling Contribution and Benefits Source: John P.4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia.

(2006b) International Best Practices Land Pooling: Metrovivienda Bogota. www. administration and construction. and the land is then resubdivided into new plots. India Inclusionary Housing/Bonus Density California. no detailed land use plans are provided for the readjusted area. W.org Inclusionary Housing. parks and other public spaces. USA Public-private partnerships to develop big-scale social housing projects. • The pattern of property divisions (cadastral) is reformed and new infrastructure and public space. Each landowner must contribute a portion of their previous land holding (commonly 30% of the total) to provide space for roads. • LP projects are attractive to landowners because “substantial increases in the values of land may be achieved by the process”.archidev.co Enabling Slum Redevelopment by Community Base Organization.Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Table 19 Land Pooling Source: John P. • The land pooling provision guarantees the equitable sharing of costs and profits among landowners affected by redevelopment. Commercial land market and redevelopment pressure vs. roads and main infrastructure are built. Pros • Land Pooling (LP) has the potential to be a self-financing technique for urban land and infrastructure development. http://www. Colombia Private Sector Driven Slum Redevelopment Mumbai. Cons • Land pooling requires commitment and coordination by local administration and private landowners. and for reserve land.calruralhousing. Table 19 Land Pooling Source: John P. (2006b) Tool Box Land Pooling: A Land Development Technique Land pooling (sometimes called land readjustment) is a method whereby the ownership of scattered and irregular plots of land is pooled.org Table 20 Best Practices Physical Structures Source: Own elaboration (UM TU-Berlin) 72 . it becomes increasingly difficult to gain consensus. A project that requires a given share of new construction to be affordable by people with low and moderate incomes.gov. Management of Land Bank. it is difficult to assess contribution of land. • Often.metrovivienda. is acquired. particularly for roads and parks. W. http://www. sustainable land pooling • As increased contribution ratios impose heavier costs defrayment on landowners and leaseholders. • Where sites have already been subdivided into small lots. The reserve land is sold at the end of the project to pay the cost of planning.

4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia. Giza Public Space in Dayer El Nahia Source: UM TU-Berlin (2010) 73 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 74 .

Giza 75 .4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 76 .

org/ Temporary Uses of Empty Land Berlin.pdf 77 . USA Community Gardening.uk/useful-info/misc/MeanwhileinBerlin.greenthumbnyc.4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia. Germany Temporary Use of Empty Land in Berlin. http://www.meanwhile.org. Giza Table 21 Best Practice Open Space Source: UM TU-Berlin International Best Practices Community Gardening/ Urban Agriculture Green Thumb New York. http://www.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Table 22 Categorisation of Economic Activities According to the Environmental Law Environmental status Typ of Activities Black Grey White Car Repairing Main Activities Carpentry Daily Needs Side Activities Handicrafts 78 .

4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia. Giza Table 23 The Positive and Negative Aspects of the Activities Source: UM TU-Berlin Categories Positive Good level of entrepreneurship Mix of activities Special activities and conventional activities Negative Basis products without addition value Environmental and social impacts Innovation/ creativity potential Low level of legal capacity Lack of skilled labour Potential workers in vulnerable groups: • Youth • Women Lack of managerial and technical skills 79 .

workers) • Mutual support (technical. legal and financial) Carpentry Maintain proximity and mixture of uses Internal clustering • Assign manufacturing pockets • Open access for customers • Enhance competitiveness and cooperation • Reduce conflicting uses Potential Economic activation of vulnerable groups • Women • Youth • Unemployed Capacity development • • • • Vocational training Adding values to product Distribution and market Handicraft shops 80 .Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Table 24 Economic Strategy Source: UM TU-Berlin Issues Categories Car Repairing Workshops Positive Negative Organisation to maintain the link Partial relocation • Cooperative associations • Reception desk for customers • Coordination of transportation (cars.

4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia./Incubation_and_ enterpreneurship_ The importance of social communities.pdf Business Incubation and Enterpreneurship: The importance of Social Communities. Giza Table 25 Best Practices Economic Livelihood Source: UM TU-Berlin International Best Practices Cluster of Small-Scale Enterprises OGWI Carpenters Union..uni-bremen.uni-bremen. Nigeria Business Angels: Sponsoring Micro-Business Portugal Entrepreneurship Incubation European Union Policy Small and Medium Scale Enterprises Cluster Development in South-Eastern Region of Nigeria.de/publikationen/pdf/b086.iwim.pdf http://www..proinno-europe.iwim.pdf 81 .eu/.de/publikationen/pdf/b086. http://www. www.

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 82 .

4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia. Giza Table 26 Current Situation and Recommended Actions Source: UM TU-Berlin Current Status Local popular council • Low level of recognition by the residents Objectives • Strengthen links with the community Recommended Action • Capacity training • Leadership workshops NGO • Activities are focused on specific groups and objectives • Expand the coverage of the existing NGO activities and other institutions • New registered NGOs • Presence of external NGOs in the area Natural leaders • Low representation • Strengthen links with the local power council and the community • Leadership mapping and capacity training • Raise awareness Community • Low level of integrative community organisation Individual • Strong community bond • Capacity training Empowerment • Vocational programmes • Courses • Upgrading skills 83 .

org/htm/pub/working-paper/brazil/brazil_goldsmith.worldbank.org/INTEAPREGTOPURBDEV/PublicationsandReports/20465088/ cdd-urban-upgrading. UPPRP. Bangladesh The Participatory Budgeting to overcome severe inequality in living standards among city residents of Porto Alegre.pdf Community Urban Development in Urban Upgrading. Brazil Neighbourhood Management Berlin.http://www.Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Table 27 Best Practices Social Organisation Source: UM TU-Berlin International Best Practices Participatory Budgeting Port Alegre.plannersnetwork. Germany Community Driven Slum Upgrading.pdf 84 . http://siteresources.

4 Case Study: Dayer El Nahia. Giza 85 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo Map 21 Design Proposal Source: UM TU-Berlin Existing urban fabric Upgrading of consolidated buildings Conservation of the mosque New public spacs New housing projects New building for mixed uses Greening of streets 86 .

.

.

5 General Conclusion 89 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 90 .

.

.

6 Guest Comment: Understanding Culture in Cairo`s Informal Areas 93 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 94 .

6 Guest Comment: Understanding Culture in Cairo`s Informal Areas 95 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 96 .

6 Guest Comment: Understanding Culture in Cairo`s Informal Areas 97 .

.

.

.

7 Annex 101 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo

102

7 Annex

103

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo

104

7 Annex 105 .

Improving Informal Areas in Greater Cairo 106 .

7 Annex 107 .

.

ISBN 978-3-9812769-1-6 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful