WELDING TECHNOLOGY

By: Engr. Elmer B. Dollera, MSME

Welding - is process or technique of joining firmly two similar or dissimilar metallic pieces on the basis of heat effect. Welding - or more specifically fusion welding may be defined as a group of processes in which metals are joined by bringing abutting surfaces to a molten state. General Types of Welding: 1. requiring heat only(fusion welding) a. arc welding b.gas welding c. thermit welding 2. requiring heat and pressure(plastic welding) a. spot welding b. forge welding c. seam welding d. projection welding e. flash welding f. upset welding Advantages of Welding: 1. lends flexibility to machine designs 2. facilitates lighweight construction 3. permits the use of standard rolled shapes 4. repair and maintenance of worn parts 5. requires relatively low investment cost Also, 1. welded portion becomes strong as the original metal 2. welding a joint is cheaper than any other method of joining two metallic pieces 3. two similar or dissimilar metals can be joint firmly 4. welding is possible under water 5. broken and worn out parts of machines can be made workable 6. helpful in preparing huge structures 7. welding can be done anywhere with the help of a portable welding set Disadvantages of Welding: 1. skilled mechanic is required for fine welding 2. welding changes the inner structure of the metal under welding and requires heat treatment later on 3. light and gases evolved during welding are harmful to the mechanic 4. edges preparation is required before welding 5. welded joints cannot be re-opened easily Classification of Weldable Metals: 1. ferrous a. wrought iron b. cast iron c. carbon steel(low, medium, high carbon steel) d. alloy steel (stainless, nickel, molybdenum and manganese, etc.) 2. non-ferrous a. copper b. aluminum c. zinc

d. brass e. lead General Methods of Welding: 1. Autogenous welding - a weld joint is made by using a filler rod of the same metal or without any filler rod. 2. Heterogenous welding - a weld joint of two dissimilar metals is made by using a filler rod having a lower melting point than that of the main metal. Main Welding Methods According to the Principle Employed. A. Pressure or plastic welding - a weld joint is made by applying pressure over the job pieces in their semi-molten state. 1. forge welding(lap, butt and “T”- welding) 2. resistance welding (spot, butt, seam projection and percussion) B. Non-pressure or fusion welding - a weld joint is made by heating the job pieces up to their melting point and that too without applying any pressure. 1. gas welding(oxy-acetylene) 2. electric arc welding (carbon arc, inertgas arc, submerged arc welding) 3. chemical reaction welding (non-pressure type thermit welding)

Checklist of Good Arc-Welding Practices
A. Work. 1.material: for easiest welding, use steel within the following preferred analysis range: carbon 0.13% to 0.20% manganese 0.40% to 0.60% silicon 0.10% max. sulfur 0.035% max phosphorous 0.035% max Steels with a higher alloy content may require special treatment such as preheat in order to produce sound welds. 2.thickness: exceptionally thin material(20 gage or thinner) and very heavy material( 1 inch or thicker) may require special procedures or fixtures. 3.assessibility: joints must be accessible to the operator, if he is to weld them satisfactorily in a reasonable length of time. 4. position: material 3/16 inch and thicker is welded fastest and best in flat position while lighter material is best welded in a 45-degree downhill position. 5.fixtures: proper fixtures will reduce handling time, improve position and maintain alignment of the work. 6.cleanliness: the joint must be clean for best results, dirty joints are frequently the cause of porous and cracked welds and also increase welding time. 7. rigidity: heavy, rigid parts should be welded from the center out toward the edges to avoid locked stresses in the work that may cause weld cracks. 8. joint designs: proper joint design provides a minimum amount of weld metal, yet provides adequate penetration. B.Process 1.manual welding: welding with manual electrodes is the most versatile method of welding 2. automatic submerged arc welding: is substantially faster than manual welding but is more limited in application, quality of deposits is consistently excellent. 3.semi-automatic submerged arc welding: combines the advantages of versatility of manual welding and the high speed and consistent quality of automatic welding. C. Welding Material 1. manual electrode: for most efficient welding with best quality, select the type and size of the electrode, as well as the amount of current used on it, to meet the requirements of the material, joint and position of the particular job on which it is being used. 2. electrode and flux for automatic and semi-automatic welding: selection of electrode and flux for these welding operations affects the quality of the weld as well as the welding speeds attainable on any particular job that is being performed in the welding shop. D. Welding Procedures 1. current: use the highest current possible consistent with good bead shape and quality, alternating current reduces arc blow while direct current gives best operation on critical applications. 2. travel speed: the speed with which the electrode is moved across the work will determine the size and shape of the weld, too fast a speed produces a rough bead with undercut.

3. grounding: the location of the ground may affect arc blow, particularly on lighter materials. 4.sequence: the sequence may affect the amount of distortion created by the welding operation, where distortion is critical, a specific sequence must be established. 5. equipment: equipment must be the proper type, with adequate capacity and controls, that is best suited to the application.

WELDING DEFECTS, REMEDIES AND INSPECTIONS Why is the inspection of weld joints is necessary? Sometimes, there arise defects in the course of welding which may damage the job as well as may cause accident. Importance of weld joints inspection. Eyes cannot inspect all the defects only and some other means and procedures are to be adopted in order to find the mechanical and metallurgical defects. General Classification of Welding Defects. 1. External defect. These are the defects which are visible such as crack, aptter, overlapping and undercut, etc. 2. Internal defect. These are the defects which are invisible and can be detected by destroying the job or by other methods without destroying the job. Various External Defects. 1. Spatter - the deposition of weld metal around the joints in the form of small pills. Causes: 1. high current 2. long or instable arc 3. wrong polarity or damp electrode 4. dirty job 5. wrong selection of electrode Remedies: 1. cleaning by a chipping hammer, grinder or a file 2. apply oil or paint on the job before starting the welding 3. select proper and dry electrodes 4. keep the voltage and current values proper 2. Overlap – is the formation of an excess layer of weld bead on the joint. Causes: 1. low speed 2. improper melting of the joint edges 3. improper selection of electrode weaving method 4. wrong polarity 5. electrode is lengthy 6. wrong angle of the electrode 7. interrupted current Remedies: 1. keep the correct polarity and amount of current 2. keep the job clean 3. keep the electrode at a proper angle 4. choose proper electrode weaving method 5. set the arc’s length properly 6. use deep penetrating electrode Undercut – the defect is reverse to the overlap defect, deep slots are left behind in the joint. Causes: 1. wrong electrode angles 2. high current 3. long arc and wrong polarity 4. fast speed of the electrodes movement 5. large crater

3.

Remedies: 1. 2. 3. 4.

do not allow to spread the length of arc and the crater do not use damp electrode keep the electrode’s movement speed within limit keep the electrode angle proper

4. Inclusion – is the presence of foreign materials in the weld metal Causes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Remedies: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. improper edges preparation fast freezing of the molten metal use of very thin or thick electrode lengthy arc do not allow to freeze the weld metal fastly clean the slag before tacking another bead keep the electrode angle proper the job should be pre-heated use higher voltage range

5. Blow hole – large sizes holes left behind in the weld bead produced by the gas bubbles. Causes: 1. use of damp or rusty electrodes 2. use of a long arc 3. increase in the arc blow 4. lack of welding properties in the main metal 5. wrong selection of welding technique Remedies: 1. use high quality electrodes 2. use proper arc 3. do not allow excessive warming up the main metal 4. use proper welding technique 5. adopt proper electrode weaving method for making the joint 6. Incomplete penetration – is the insufficient approach of weld Causes: 1. improper edges preparation 2. low current 3. fast speed of the electrode’s movement 4. wrong welding technique Remedies: 1. keep sufficient gap between the edges of the joint to be made 2. use thin electrode in narrow spaces 3. use proper amount of current 4. move the electrode slowly 5. tack the second bead only after chipping the first bead 7. Crack – is the development of internal or external crack on the weld joint and makes the job incapable to bear a load. Causes: 1. incomplete penetration 2. smaller joint in comparison to the thickness of metal 3. improper selection of welding technique 4. improper edge penetration Remedies:

1. 2. 3. 4.

use proper electrode weaving method for making a joint thickness of the weld should be kept in accordance to the plate’s thickness the job should be pre-heated starting from mid-point complete the welding towards both the ends

8. Twisting or distortion – the weld metal contracts in such a way that it twists the job due to its pull. Causes: 1. unbalanced cooling of the job 2. use of proper welding technique 3. dissimilar metal thickness 4. use of improper jig 5. improper tacking of joints Remedies: 1. the tacking of the joint should be proper 2. heavy plates should be pre-heated 3. use proper welding technique 4. do not allow unbalanced pull to act on the joint 5. the metal should first be annealed 6. use back-up plate with the joint 9. Sagging – is the swinging of metal to the weld line Causes: 1. overheating of the weld metal 2. use of wrong electrode 3. use of wrong welding technique Remedies: 1. use proper amount of current 2. use proper amount of electrode 3. use proper welding technique 10. Crater – is the development of a pit at the end of a weld line Remedy: 1. The electrode should be kept on the weld line so long as the pit does not get filled completely. 11. Porosity – is formation of a number of small holes in the weld bead Causes: 1. the electrode is damp or its flux is broken 2. high current 3. long arc is being used for welding 4. increase in the arc blow 5. improper selection of welding technique Remedies: 1. use proper type of electrodes 2. adopt correct electrode weaving method 3. keep moderate arc length 4. do not allow excessive warming up of the main metal 12. Lack of fusion – is due to which the main metal and the weld metal do not mix properly on account of insufficient melting. Causes: 1. improper length of arc 2. use of wrong type of electrode 3. variation in the magnitude of current during the course of welding

4. 5. Remedies: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

improper heating up of the main metal adoption of wrong electrode weaving method use high current for heavy plates use proper type of electrode keep the weaving wide enough keep moderate arc length keep the joint’s surface clean

Various Destructive Test: 1. Hardness test – the toughness of a joint is measured by a Brinell or Rockwell machine. 2. Impact test – the job is tied to the jig of an impact measuring machine and when the hammer blows are applied to the job, the dial gage of the machine shows the impact power of the job under test. 3. Bending test – the welded portion is bent between two marked points and the percentage of elongation of the job is calculated as increase in the distance % elongation = --------------------------------------original distance of the marked points 4. Tensile- test – the job is fastened in the jaws of the machine and then pull is applied on the job, the dial gage will show the tensile strength value at the instance of breaking of the job placed under pull, a tensile testing machine is used for this purpose. Nick break test- two small pieces are cut from both sides of the bend of a job and these pieces are heated up and then broken into pieces with the help of a vice and hammer, welding defects are inspected in the broken parts.

5.

General Information In addition to heat, either filler rod or pressure is necessary for making a firm joint. Temperature equivalent to the melting point of the metal under welding is needed for welding. Defective welding reduces the utility of the job and it may cause an accident.

Principal Methods of Inspection: 1. Non-destructive – job is tested without damaging or distracting it. 2. Semi-destructive – a part of the job is damaged which requires repairing. 3. Destructive – the job is damaged completely and this test is meant for measuring the mechanical properties of the job. Various Non-Destructive Test: 1. Visual inspection – surface defects of a job can be located by viewing such as spatter, overlapping and porosity, etc. and the uniformity of a job can be checked with the help of try-square and weld gage. 2. Paraffin oil test – a mixture of paraffin and vermilion is coated on the weld and when the coating layer becomes dry, a line appears on the weld at the place of crack. Chalk powder may also be used in place of vermilion. 3. Magnetic test – iron fillings are sprayed on the fillings get powerful magnet is placed beneath the job, arc fillings get concentrated on the cracks and blow holes. 4. Hydraulic test – this is useful for boilers and tanks by filling with an oil or water and then, air pressure is applied on the liquid the same starts to leak off through the cracks. 5. Air test – air is compressed in the job having some soap water, the soap bubbles begin to appear at the cracks and this is useful for such jobs in which it becomes difficult to fill an oil or water. 6. Stethoscopic test – the sound of hammer’s blow is heard by means of a stethoscope and if there is a crack, a bell type sound is heard. 7. X-ray test – is useful for the testing of cracks, slag inclusion, and incomplete penetration and a black spot appears on the defected spot. 8. Gamma-ray test – gamma-rays are used in place of X-rays and rest of the testing procedure is the same. 9. Ultrasonic test – waves of 5MHz frequency are transmitted towards the job and a picture of the job is obtained on the screen of a cathode ray tube utilizing the principle of reflection of ultrasonic waves from the metallic job, the defects appears on the CRT screen.

Various Semi-Destructive Tests: 1. Cutting test – is a part of the welded metal is cut and defects are located by inspection and by other mechanical testing methods. 2. Acid test – the job is dipped into an acid which enlarges the defected spots and makes them visible. 3. Drilling test – a hole is drilled in the welded portion and the drilling dust will show inclusion defects and lack of fusion defect.

ELECTRIC ARC WELDING

Electric arc welding – is an electro thermal process in which the requisite temperature is developed by means of electric current. Electric arc – is produced across an air gap due to electric pressure or voltage which produces heat. - an air gap is formed between the job and the electrode after touching them with each other once. - Temperature of the arc formed reaches up to 3 400C. Augesty-D-Marimus – is a French scientist who discovered electric arc welding Principal Methods of Arc Welding 1. Metal arc welding – an arc is produced between a job and a metallic rod or electrode. 2. Carbon arc welding – graphite or diamond carbon electrodes are used and the arc is produced between two electrodes or between a job and an electrode. Carbon electrodes – non-consumable electrode but its size reduces during welding due to evaporation and oxidation. - A.C. or D.C. both types of current supplies can be used in carbon arc welding. - Suitable for the welding of copper nickel and other monel metals 3. Atomic hydrogen welding – the job is not used as a terminal for electricity but the arc is produced two electrodes by A.C. supply. - Hydrogen is supplied to the arc from back side of the job during welding. - the gas gets converted into atomic form temporarily and then it regains its original form - the advantage of supplying hydrogen is that the metal of the joint cannot oxidize in the presence of hydrogen, hence, the joint becomes firm and permanent - the temperature reaches up to 5 000C - suitable for the welding of thick plates of hard metals - utilizes non-consumable electrodes made of tungsten - hydrogen pressure is supplied at 0.4 kg/sq. centimeter - hydrogen gas acts a shield around the joint and therefore the oxidation of the joint’s metal is approximately nil - suitable for hard facing of ferrous and non-ferrous metallic jobs such as dies 4. Submerged arc welding – the arc is produced between a consumable bare electrode and the job - granular flux is dropped on the joint by means of a ‘hopper’ during welding - the flux covers the welding area and the electrodes, hence, the shield of the flux eliminate oxidation - this method is employed for butt welding - suitable for the welding of thick plates of carbon steel and low alloy steel - wire roll type of electrode is used in this welding method - precaution, the surplus flux should be removed from time to time for proper welding as the flux becomes hard, non-meltable and non-reactable Resistance welding – both heat and pressure is used. - high temperature is produces by passing a heavy current through the appropriate part of the job so that the metal of that area gets melted and then pressure is applied to obtain a weld - discovered in the year 1886 - no filter rod is used - pressure is applied in according with the job requirements - a spring or lever operated electrode is used for applying the requisite pressure - suitable for the welding of medium carbon steel, low alloy steel and fine sheets of other metals

5.

Principal Methods of Resistance Welding 1. Spot welding – the job is placed between two electrode and a heavy current is passed at a low voltage through the system. - one electrode is kept stationary and the other is kept movable for applying the require pressure - a foot operated switch is used for the operation of the spot welding machine - useful for the welding of motor-car’s body, refrigerator’s cabinet and other fine metallic sheets jobs - the advantage of this method is the reduction of the use of rivets which requires a lot of time in fitting - classified as stationary single spot machine and portable single spot machine 2. Seam welding – wheel type electrodes are used in place of rod electrode - the sheets to be welded are overlapped and then passed through the wheel type electrodes - air tight joints are made by this method - this method is employed for the welding of fuel tanks, drum and other types of tanks - types are longitudinal and circular seam welding - suitable for the welding of fine sheets of carbon steels, low alloy steel, stainless steel, aluminum, nickel and magnesium steel 3. Butt welding – the two edges of the job are kept side by side and then welded a) Upset butt-welding - One edge of the job is kept stationary and the other movable with the help of fixed and movable clamps respectively. - Current is passed through the joint and the two edges of the job are brought together - Both the edges get welded due to the pressure exerted by the movable clamp - The clamp acts as an electrode which is usually made of copper or its alloy - Hydraulic, pneumatic or mechanical pressure is employed b) Flash butt-welding - the clamp is moved slowly in such a way that an arc or flash is produced between the two edges of the job - the heat developed by the flash melt’s the job’s edges and they are joined together by applying a suitable pressure - advantage are, (1) it is a speedy process, (2)cheap process, (3) joints made by this method are strong enough, (4) welded joints do not require finishing - this method is employed for the welding of sheets, bars, pipes and tubes

4. Projection welding – similar to spot welding in which the edges to be joined are slightly projected with the help of a die. - when the projected portions meet together the magnitude of current gets increased which develops a high temperature - the projected portions get welded due to the pressure exerted on them - advantages are: 4. more than one joint can be welded at a time 4. electrodes of this system have long working life 4. welding is almost continuos 4. electric consumption of the system is low and a moderate pressure is sufficient 5. Percussion welding – is a speedy welding method in which the two parts of a job are gripped by two clamps. - one clamp is kept stationary and the other is movable

-

the movable edge of the job is brought close to the stationary edge quickly after passing the current through the system an arc is developed which produces heat welding is completed by applying a hammer’s blow on the joint suitable for the welding of wires of 0.05mm to 0.38mm diameter two dissimilar and nichrome or copper and stainless steel

ELECTRIC ARC ELECTRODES Electric arc electrode – is a metallic bar or wire which carries the current from the electrode holder to the job and the arc is produced by the electrode. - are made in the form of a bar or a wire - core diameter may be of the order of 1.60mm to 9.0mm - electrode having small diameter and short length are used in the welding of small and fine jobs - for fastening an electrode in a holder, its 20.0mm length is left bare Types of Electrodes 1. flux coated electrodes 2. bare electrodes Classification of Welding Electrodes 1. non-consumable electrodes a) graphite electrode b) carbon electrode c) tungsten electrode 2. consumable electrode or metallic electrode a) bare electrode b) flux coated electrode 1. light coated electrode, medium coated electrode, heavy coated electrode 2. non-ferrous electrode cast iron electrode alloy steel electrode mild steel electrode NOTE : selection of an electrode depends mainly on the metal to be welded. Non-consumable electrode – is meant for producing an arc between the job and itself and it does not consume during welding. Consumable electrode – is made of a metal and also produces an arc between the job and itself but melts during welding and it gets consumed in the form of a filler metal. Merits from a Flux-Coated Electrodes 1. a good quality weld is made 2. the arc remains stable 3. the weld penetrates deep into the job 4. the slag produced during welding reduces the cooling rate of the weld metal 5. low oxidation 6. protects the weld metal to become brittle 7. overhead and vertical welding are easy 8. the spatter loss is low and the bead remains controlled Coating factor – is the quality of electrodes coating material - is the ratio of the electrode diameter to the core wire diameter total diameter of an electrode = -----------------------------------

core diameter of the electrode Types of Coated Electrodes 1. light coated electrode, coating factor = 1.24 approx. 2. medium coated electrode, coating factor = 1.44 approx. 3. heavy coated electrode, coating factor = 1.6 to 2.2 approx. Materials Used for coated Electrodes. 1. ferrosilicon or ferromanganese - for deoxidation of the molten pool 2. magnesium silicate, potassium silicate and calcium carbonate - for obtaining a stable arc 3. aluminum silicate, sodium silicate and magnesium silicate - for producing a slag 4. wooden sawdust, cellulose, calcium carbonate - for covering the arc 5. iron fillings - for obtaining a fine arc and uniform bead Materials Used as Flux 1. iron ore 2. manganese dioxide 3. asbestos 4. titanium oxide

5. Lime 6. Clay 7. Silica 8. Alumina

Factors in the Selection of an Electrode 1. Structure of the original metal 2. Thickness of the original metal 3. Welding position 4. Type of welding joint 5. Type of machine used for the welding purpose 6. Type of electric current used 7. Type of weld Methods of Making Flux Coated Electrodes 1. dipping method - the core wire is dipped in the solution molten flux - when a coat of desired thickness gets deposited on the core wire, then the electrode is dried 2. extrusion method - the core wire is inserted in a mould filled with flux - after drying, the electrodes surface is leveled by an electric operated brush Storage of Electrodes 1. electrodes should not be affected by the moisture 2. electrodes should not bend 3. flux of the electrodes should not fall off 4. electrodes should be kept in their own box Effects of Dampness of an Electrode 1. the arc produced by it remain unstable 2. cracks or holes may be left in the weld Methods of Electrode Coding 1. B.S or BEAMA method

2. 3.

(British Standard or British Electrical Allied Manufacturing Association) A.W.S. or A.S.T.M. method (American Welding Society or American Society of Testing Materials) I.S. method (Indian Standard)

Indian Standard (I.S.) Coding MOOOOOOA or MOOOOOOP 1. First digit indicates the kind of flux a) more cellulose b) more titania c) moderate titania d) more iron-silica e) more iron-oxide f) more calcium carbonate and fluoride Second digit indicates the welding position a) for flat, vertical, horizontal and overhead welding [F.V.H.OH.] b) for flat and horizontal welding [F.H] c) for flat welding [F] d) for flat, horizontal and inclined surface welding [F.H.I.] e) for flat, horizontal and overhead welding [F.H.OH.] f) for vertical, overhead welding [V.OH.] Third digit indicate the amount of current required a) D + (direct current, electrode positive) b) D + A 95 (A.C. open circuit voltage 95 V) c) D – A 70 (A.C. open circuit voltage 70 V) d) D – A 45 (A.C. open circuit voltage 45 V) e) D + A 75 (A.C. open circuit voltage 75 V) f) D +/- A 95 (D.C. straight or reverse polarity 95 V) g) D +/- A 70 (D.C. straight or reverse polarity 70 V) h) D +/- A 45 (D.C. straight or reverse polarity 45 V) Fourth digit indicates the tensile strength of the weld metal a) 31 kg/sq.mm b) 41 kg/sq.mm c) 44 kg/sq.mm d) 48 kg/sq.mm e) 52 kg/sq.mm f) 56 kg/sq.mm g) 68 kg/sq.mm h) 69 kg/sq.mm Fifth digit indicate the % elongation of the weld metal a) 14% b) 18% c) 22% d) 26% e) 30% Sixth digit indicates the impact power of the weld metal a) 4.10 kg/m b) 5.70 kg/m c) 7.00 kg/m d) 8.90 kg/m e) 10.40 kg/m

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Last letters: A = the electrode is suitable for automatic welding P = deep penetration Example: What is meant by code no. M 317353P marked on an electrode? M – it is meant for arc welding 3 – moderate titania in the flux 1 – suitable for all sorts of welding 7 – can be used in any polarity of D.C. 3 – tensile strength in 44 kg/sq.mm 5 – elongation is 30% 3 – impact power is 7.0 kg/m P – deep penetration Note: If number 9 is used as 1 to 6 digit of the code number, it means the electrode has some special quality other than stated above.

GAS WELDING Le-Chatelier – a the scientist who discovered gas welding in 1895 - he produce a high temperature by the combustion of oxy-acetylene gases mixture - welding torch was discovered in the year 1900 Basic Gas Welding Principle The combustion of fuel gas and the oxygen gas produces a high temperature, which makes a molten pool of the metallic joint and the filler rod and becomes welded when cooled. Mainly, acetylene is used as fuel in gas welding because, together with oxygen, it produces a high temperature. Beside it, hydrogen, propane, butane and natural gases are also used for the purpose. Propane and butane belong to the carbonic group while methane and hydrogen belong to the natural gases group. Oxygen -discovered by scientist Pristley in 1774. -is produced by heating a mixture containing ¾ potassium chlorate and ¼ manganese dioxide. -a tasteless, odorless and colorless gas -is stored in the liquid form so that the size of the oxygen cylinder is reduced as the liquid oxygen occupies less space in comparison to gas form. -1.43 kg/m3 @ OC and 760 mm Hg pressure. Hydrogen -discovered by scientist Cavendish in 1779 -is highly inflammable in the presence of oxygen. -is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas. -used in the welding of fine sheets of such metals whose melting point is low. Acetylene -is produced by the chemical action of water with calcium carbide. CaC2 calcium carbide + 2H2O water → Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide + C2H2 acetylene

-D.A. means dissolved acetylene -filler materials divides the D.A. cylinder into many small sections so as to void the decomposition of acetylene -filler materials used in D.A. cylinders are charcoal, kapok and monolithic compounds of asbestos. -calcium carbide is produced by smelting of coke and lime in an electric furnace. -the product obtained from the furnace is broken into small pieces, which are then filtered into different sizes.

ME 425 MACHINE DESIGN 2 Long Examination No:1 Name:____________________________ Score:____________ Date:_____________________ Instructor:________________ ********************************************************************************

Welding - is process or technique of joining firmly two similar or dissimilar metallic pieces on the basis of heat effect. Welding - or more specifically fusion welding may be defined as a group of processes in which metals are joined by bringing abutting surfaces to a molten state. General Types of Welding: 1. requiring heat only(fusion welding) a. arc welding b.gas welding c. thermit welding 2. requiring heat and pressure(plastic welding) a. spot welding b. forge welding c. seam welding d. projection welding e. flash welding f. upset welding Classification of Weldable Metals: 1. ferrous a. wrought iron b. cast iron c. carbon steel(low, medium, high carbon steel) d. alloy steel (stainless, nickel, molybdenum and manganese, etc.) 2. non-ferrous a. copper b. aluminum c. zinc d. brass e. lead General Classification of Welding Defects. 1.External defect. These are the defects which are visible such as crack, aptter, overlapping and undercut, etc. 2.Internal defect. These are the defects which are invisible and can be detected by destroying the job or by other methods without destroying the job. Various External Defects. 1.Spatter - the deposition of weld metal around the joints in the form of small pills. Causes: high current long or instable arc wrong polarity or damp electrode dirty job wrong selection of electrode Remedies: cleaning by a chipping hammer, grinder or a file

apply oil or paint on the job before starting the welding select proper and dry electrodes keep the voltage and current values proper 2.Overlap – is the formation of an excess layer of weld bead on the joint. Causes: 1.low speed 2.improper melting of the joint edges 3.improper selection of electrode weaving method 4.wrong polarity 5.electrode is lengthy 6.wrong angle of the electrode 7.interrupted current Remedies: 1.keep the correct polarity and amount of current 2.keep the job clean 3.keep the electrode at a proper angle 4.choose proper electrode weaving method 5.set the arc’s length properly 6.use deep penetrating electrode 3.Undercut – the defect is reverse to the overlap defect, deep slots are left behind in the joint. Causes: 1.wrong electrode angles 2.high current 3.long arc and wrong polarity 4.fast speed of the electrodes movement 5.large crater Remedies: 1.do not allow to spread the length of arc and the crater 2.do not use damp electrode 3.keep the electrode’s movement speed within limit 4.keep the electrode angle proper 4.Inclusion – is the presence of foreign materials in the weld metal Causes: 1.improper edges preparation 2.fast freezing of the molten metal 3.use of very thin or thick electrode 4.lengthy arc Remedies: 1.do not allow to freeze the weld metal fastly 2.clean the slag before tacking another bead 3.keep the electrode angle proper 4.the job should be pre-heated 5.use higher voltage range 5. Blow hole – large sizes holes left behind in the weld bead produced by the gas bubbles. Causes: 1.use of damp or rusty electrodes 2.use of a long arc 3.increase in the arc blow 4.lack of welding properties in the main metal 5.wrong selection of welding technique

Remedies: 1.use high quality electrodes 2.use proper arc 3.do not allow excessive warming up the main metal 4.use proper welding technique 5.adopt proper electrode weaving method for making the joint 6. Incomplete penetration – is the insufficient approach of weld Causes: 1.improper edges preparation 2.low current 3.fast speed of the electrode’s movement 4.wrong welding technique Remedies: 1.keep sufficient gap between the edges of the joint to be made 2.use thin electrode in narrow spaces 3.use proper amount of current 4.move the electrode slowly 5.tack the second bead only after chipping the first bead 7. Crack – is the development of internal or external crack on the weld joint and makes the job incapable to bear a load. Causes: 1.incomplete penetration 2.smaller joint in comparison to the thickness of metal 3.improper selection of welding technique 4.improper edge penetration Remedies: 1.use proper electrode weaving method for making a joint 2.thickness of the weld should be kept in accordance to the plate’s thickness 3.the job should be pre-heated 4.starting from mid-point complete the welding towards both the ends 8. Twisting or distortion – the weld metal contracts in such a way that it twists the job due to its pull. Causes: 1.unbalanced cooling of the job 2.use of proper welding technique 3.dissimilar metal thickness 4.use of improper jig 5.improper tacking of joints Remedies: 1.the tacking of the joint should be proper 2.heavy plates should be pre-heated 3.use proper welding technique 4.do not allow unbalanced pull to act on the joint 5.the metal should first be annealed 6.use back-up plate with the joint 9. Sagging – is the swinging of metal to the weld line Causes: 1.overheating of the weld metal 2.use of wrong electrode 3.use of wrong welding technique

Remedies: 1.use proper amount of current 2.use proper amount of electrode 3.use proper welding technique 10. Crater – is the development of a pit at the end of a weld line Remedy: 1.The electrode should be kept on the weld line so long as the pit does not get filled completely. 11. Porosity – is formation of a number of small holes in the weld bead Causes: 1.the electrode is damp or its flux is broken 2.high current 3.long arc is being used for welding 4.increase in the arc blow 5.improper selection of welding technique Remedies: 1.use proper type of electrodes 2.adopt correct electrode weaving method 3.keep moderate arc length 4.do not allow excessive warming up of the main metal 12. Lack of fusion – is due to which the main metal and the weld metal do not mix properly on account of insufficient melting. Causes: 1.improper length of arc 2.use of wrong type of electrode 3.variation in the magnitude of current during the course of welding 4.improper heating up of the main metal 5.adoption of wrong electrode weaving method Remedies: 1.use high current for heavy plates 2.use proper type of electrode 3.keep the weaving wide enough 4.keep moderate arc length 5.keep the joint’s surface clean Various Destructive Test: 1.Hardness test – the toughness of a joint is measured by a Brinell or Rockwell machine. 2.Impact test – the job is tied to the jig of an impact measuring machine and when the hammer blows are applied to the job, the dial gage of the machine shows the impact power of the job under test. 3.Bending test – the welded portion is bent between two marked points and the percentage of elongation of the job is calculated as increase in the distance % elongation = --------------------------------------original distance of the marked points 4.Tensile- test – the job is fastened in the jaws of the machine and then pull is applied on the job, the dial gage will show the tensile strength value at the instance of breaking of the job placed under pull, a tensile testing machine is used for this purpose. 5.Nick break test- two small pieces are cut from both sides of the bend of a job and these pieces are heated up and then broken into pieces with the help of a vice and hammer, welding defects are inspected in the broken parts.

General Information In addition to heat, either filler rod or pressure is necessary for making a firm joint. Temperature equivalent to the melting point of the metal under welding is needed for welding. Defective welding reduces the utility of the job and it may cause an accident.

Principal Methods of Inspection: 1.Non-destructive – job is tested without damaging or distracting it. 2.Semi-destructive – a part of the job is damaged which requires repairing. 3.Destructive – the job is damaged completely and this test is meant for measuring the mechanical properties of the job. Various Non-Destructive Test: 1.Visual inspection – surface defects of a job can be located by viewing such as spatter, overlapping and porosity, etc. and the uniformity of a job can be checked with the help of trysquare and weld gage. 2.Paraffin oil test – a mixture of paraffin and vermilion is coated on the weld and when the coating layer becomes dry, a line appears on the weld at the place of crack. Chalk powder may also be used in place of vermilion. 3.Magnetic test – iron fillings are sprayed on the fillings get powerful magnet is placed beneath the job, arc fillings get concentrated on the cracks and blow holes. 4.Hydraulic test – this is useful for boilers and tanks by filling with an oil or water and then, air pressure is applied on the liquid the same starts to leak off through the cracks. 5.Air test – air is compressed in the job having some soap water, the soap bubbles begin to appear at the cracks and this is useful for such jobs in which it becomes difficult to fill an oil or water. 6.Stethoscopic test – the sound of hammer’s blow is heard by means of a stethoscope and if there is a crack, a bell type sound is heard. 7.X-ray test – is useful for the testing of cracks, slag inclusion, and incomplete penetration and a black spot appears on the defected spot. 8.Gamma-ray test – gamma-rays are used in place of X-rays and rest of the testing procedure is the same. 9.Ultrasonic test – waves of 5MHz frequency are transmitted towards the job and a picture of the job is obtained on the screen of a cathode ray tube utilizing the principle of reflection of ultrasonic waves from the metallic job, the defects appears on the CRT screen.

Various Semi-Destructive Tests: 1.Cutting test – is a part of the welded metal is cut and defects are located by inspection and by other mechanical testing methods. 2.Acid test – the job is dipped into an acid which enlarges the defected spots and makes them visible. 3.Drilling test – a hole is drilled in the welded portion and the drilling dust will show inclusion defects and lack of fusion defect.

ELECTRIC ARC WELDING Electric arc welding – is an electro thermal process in which the requisite temperature is developed by means of electric current.

Electric arc – is produced across an air gap due to electric pressure or voltage which produces heat. - an air gap is formed between the job and the electrode after touching them with each other once. - Temperature of the arc formed reaches up to 3 400C. Augesty-D-Marimus – is a French scientist who discovered electric arc welding Principal Methods of Arc Welding 1. Metal arc welding – an arc is produced between a job and a metallic rod or electrode. 2. Carbon arc welding – graphite or diamond carbon electrodes are used and the arc is produced between two electrodes or between a job and an electrode. Carbon electrodes – non-consumable electrode but its size reduces during welding due to evaporation and oxidation. - A.C. or D.C. both types of current supplies can be used in carbon arc welding. - Suitable for the welding of copper nickel and other monel metals 3. Atomic hydrogen welding – the job is not used as a terminal for electricity but the arc is produced two electrodes by A.C. supply. - Hydrogen is supplied to the arc from back side of the job during welding. - the gas gets converted into atomic form temporarily and then it regains its original form - the advantage of supplying hydrogen is that the metal of the joint cannot oxidize in the presence of hydrogen, hence, the joint becomes firm and permanent - the temperature reaches up to 5 000C - suitable for the welding of thick plates of hard metals - utilizes non-consumable electrodes made of tungsten - hydrogen pressure is supplied at 0.4 kg/sq. centimeter - hydrogen gas acts a shield around the joint and therefore the oxidation of the joint’s metal is approximately nil - suitable for hard facing of ferrous and non-ferrous metallic jobs such as dies 4. Submerged arc welding – the arc is produced between a consumable bare electrode and the job - granular flux is dropped on the joint by means of a ‘hopper’ during welding - the flux covers the welding area and the electrodes, hence, the shield of the flux eliminate oxidation - this method is employed for butt welding - suitable for the welding of thick plates of carbon steel and low alloy steel - wire roll type of electrode is used in this welding method - precaution, the surplus flux should be removed from time to time for proper welding as the flux becomes hard, non-meltable and non-reactable Resistance welding – both heat and pressure is used. - high temperature is produces by passing a heavy current through the appropriate part of the job so that the metal of that area gets melted and then pressure is applied to obtain a weld - discovered in the year 1886 - no filter rod is used - pressure is applied in according with the job requirements - a spring or lever operated electrode is used for applying the requisite pressure - suitable for the welding of medium carbon steel, low alloy steel and fine sheets of other metals

5.

Principal Methods of Resistance Welding

1. Spot welding – the job is placed between two electrode and a heavy current is passed at a low voltage through the system. - one electrode is kept stationary and the other is kept movable for applying the require pressure - a foot operated switch is used for the operation of the spot welding machine - useful for the welding of motor-car’s body, refrigerator’s cabinet and other fine metallic sheets jobs - the advantage of this method is the reduction of the use of rivets which requires a lot of time in fitting - classified as stationary single spot machine and portable single spot machine 2. Seam welding – wheel type electrodes are used in place of rod electrode - the sheets to be welded are overlapped and then passed through the wheel type electrodes - air tight joints are made by this method - this method is employed for the welding of fuel tanks, drum and other types of tanks - types are longitudinal and circular seam welding - suitable for the welding of fine sheets of carbon steels, low alloy steel, stainless steel, aluminum, nickel and magnesium steel 3. Butt welding – the two edges of the job are kept side by side and then welded a) Upset butt-welding - One edge of the job is kept stationary and the other movable with the help of fixed and movable clamps respectively. - Current is passed through the joint and the two edges of the job are brought together - Both the edges get welded due to the pressure exerted by the movable clamp - The clamp acts as an electrode which is usually made of copper or its alloy - Hydraulic, pneumatic or mechanical pressure is employed b) Flash butt-welding - the clamp is moved slowly in such a way that an arc or flash is produced between the two edges of the job - the heat developed by the flash melt’s the job’s edges and they are joined together by applying a suitable pressure - advantage are, (1) it is a speedy process, (2)cheap process, (3) joints made by this method are strong enough, (4) welded joints do not require finishing - this method is employed for the welding of sheets, bars, pipes and tubes

4. Projection welding – similar to spot welding in which the edges to be joined are slightly projected with the help of a die. - when the projected portions meet together the magnitude of current gets increased which develops a high temperature - the projected portions get welded due to the pressure exerted on them - advantages are: 4. more than one joint can be welded at a time 4. electrodes of this system have long working life 4. welding is almost continuos 4. electric consumption of the system is low and a moderate pressure is sufficient 5. Percussion welding – is a speedy welding method in which the two parts of a job are gripped by two clamps. - one clamp is kept stationary and the other is movable - the movable edge of the job is brought close to the stationary edge quickly after passing the current through the system - an arc is developed which produces heat

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welding is completed by applying a hammer’s blow on the joint suitable for the welding of wires of 0.05mm to 0.38mm diameter two dissimilar and nichrome or copper and stainless steel

ELECTRIC ARC ELECTRODES Electric arc electrode – is a metallic bar or wire which carries the current from the electrode holder to the job and the arc is produced by the electrode. - are made in the form of a bar or a wire - core diameter may be of the order of 1.60mm to 9.0mm - electrode having small diameter and short length are used in the welding of small and fine jobs - for fastening an electrode in a holder, its 20.0mm length is left bare Types of Electrodes 1. flux coated electrodes 2. bare electrodes Classification of Welding Electrodes 1. non-consumable electrodes a) graphite electrode b) carbon electrode c) tungsten electrode 2. consumable electrode or metallic electrode a) bare electrode b) flux coated electrode 1. light coated electrode, medium coated electrode, heavy coated electrode 2. non-ferrous electrode cast iron electrode alloy steel electrode mild steel electrode NOTE : selection of an electrode depends mainly on the metal to be welded. Non-consumable electrode – is meant for producing an arc between the job and itself and it does not consume during welding. Consumable electrode – is made of a metal and also produces an arc between the job and itself but melts during welding and it gets consumed in the form of a filler metal. Merits from a Flux-Coated Electrodes 1. a good quality weld is made 2. the arc remains stable 3. the weld penetrates deep into the job 4. the slag produced during welding reduces the cooling rate of the weld metal 5. low oxidation 6. protects the weld metal to become brittle 7. overhead and vertical welding are easy 8. the spatter loss is low and the bead remains controlled Coating factor – is the quality of electrodes coating material - is the ratio of the electrode diameter to the core wire diameter total diameter of an electrode = -----------------------------------

core diameter of the electrode Types of Coated Electrodes 1. light coated electrode, coating factor = 1.24 approx. 2. medium coated electrode, coating factor = 1.44 approx. 3. heavy coated electrode, coating factor = 1.6 to 2.2 approx. Materials Used for coated Electrodes. 1. ferrosilicon or ferromanganese - for deoxidation of the molten pool 2. magnesium silicate, potassium silicate and calcium carbonate - for obtaining a stable arc 3. aluminum silicate, sodium silicate and magnesium silicate - for producing a slag 4. wooden sawdust, cellulose, calcium carbonate - for covering the arc 5. iron fillings - for obtaining a fine arc and uniform bead Materials Used as Flux 1. iron ore 2. manganese dioxide 3. asbestos 4. titanium oxide

5. Lime 6. Clay 7. Silica 8. Alumina

Factors in the Selection of an Electrode 1. Structure of the original metal 2. Thickness of the original metal 3. Welding position 4. Type of welding joint 5. Type of machine used for the welding purpose 6. Type of electric current used 7. Type of weld Methods of Making Flux Coated Electrodes 1. dipping method - the core wire is dipped in the solution molten flux - when a coat of desired thickness gets deposited on the core wire, then the electrode is dried 2. extrusion method - the core wire is inserted in a mould filled with flux - after drying, the electrodes surface is leveled by an electric operated brush Storage of Electrodes 1. electrodes should not be affected by the moisture 2. electrodes should not bend 3. flux of the electrodes should not fall off 4. electrodes should be kept in their own box Effects of Dampness of an Electrode 1. the arc produced by it remain unstable 2. cracks or holes may be left in the weld Methods of Electrode Coding 1. B.S or BEAMA method

2. 3.

(British Standard or British Electrical Allied Manufacturing Association) A.W.S. or A.S.T.M. method (American Welding Society or American Society of Testing Materials) I.S. method (Indian Standard)

Indian Standard (I.S.) Coding MOOOOOOA or MOOOOOOP 1. First digit indicates the kind of flux a) more cellulose b) more titania c) moderate titania d) more iron-silica e) more iron-oxide f) more calcium carbonate and fluoride Second digit indicates the welding position a) for flat, vertical, horizontal and overhead welding [F.V.H.OH.] b) for flat and horizontal welding [F.H] c) for flat welding [F] d) for flat, horizontal and inclined surface welding [F.H.I.] e) for flat, horizontal and overhead welding [F.H.OH.] f) for vertical, overhead welding [V.OH.] Third digit indicate the amount of current required a) D + (direct current, electrode positive) b) D + A 95 (A.C. open circuit voltage 95 V) c) D – A 70 (A.C. open circuit voltage 70 V) d) D – A 45 (A.C. open circuit voltage 45 V) e) D + A 75 (A.C. open circuit voltage 75 V) f) D +/- A 95 (D.C. straight or reverse polarity 95 V) g) D +/- A 70 (D.C. straight or reverse polarity 70 V) h) D +/- A 45 (D.C. straight or reverse polarity 45 V) Fourth digit indicates the tensile strength of the weld metal a) 31 kg/sq.mm b) 41 kg/sq.mm c) 44 kg/sq.mm d) 48 kg/sq.mm e) 52 kg/sq.mm f) 56 kg/sq.mm g) 68 kg/sq.mm h) 69 kg/sq.mm Fifth digit indicate the % elongation of the weld metal a) 14% b) 18% c) 22% d) 26% e) 30% Sixth digit indicates the impact power of the weld metal a) 4.10 kg/m b) 5.70 kg/m c) 7.00 kg/m d) 8.90 kg/m e) 10.40 kg/m

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Last letters: A = the electrode is suitable for automatic welding P = deep penetration Example: What is meant by code no. M 317353P marked on an electrode? M – it is meant for arc welding 3 – moderate titania in the flux 1 – suitable for all sorts of welding 7 – can be used in any polarity of D.C. 3 – tensile strength in 44 kg/sq.mm 5 – elongation is 30% 3 – impact power is 7.0 kg/m P – deep penetration Note: If number 9 is used as 1 to 6 digit of the code number, it means the electrode has some special quality other than stated above.

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