ORACLE BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE WORKSHOP

Creating a Repository Using the Oracle Business Intelligence Administration Tool

Purpose This tutorial shows you how to use the Oracle BI EE Administration Tool to build, modify, enhance, and manage an Oracle BI repository on the BIC2G:EE 10.1.3.2 VMWare image (Linux Edition v1.0). Time to Complete: Approximately 3 hours Topics This tutorial covers the following topics: Page Prerequisites .....................................................................................................2 Building the Physical Layer of a Repository ......................................................3 Building the Business Model and Mapping Layer of a Repository...................16 Building the Presentation Layer of a Repository..............................................44 Testing and Validating a Repository................................................................46 Creating Calculation Measures .......................................................................57 Organizing the Presentation Layer ..................................................................87 Using Initialization Blocks and Variables .........................................................93 Adding Multiple Sources................................................................................110 Executing Direct Database Requests............................................................125 Using Aggregates..........................................................................................129 Creating Time Series Measures ....................................................................137 Summary .......................................................................................................147

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OVERVIEW This tutorial shows you how to build an Oracle BI metadata repository. You learn how to import metadata from databases and other data sources, simplify and reorganize the imported metadata into a business model, and then structure the business model for presentation to users who request business intelligence information via Oracle BI user interfaces, such as Oracle BI Answers and Oracle BI Interactive Dashboards.

Prerequisites
This tutorial is for a Windows client environment connecting to the Linux BIC2G image as a server. Instructions for installing VMWare software and client BI tools and data source drivers are found in the file “Prerequisites for Oracle BI Workshop” After installing VMWare and opening the BIC2G Linux image, follow these instructions to map a network drive on local client to the Linux Server: Go to http://192.168.209.134/go/setup.html and click on the Map button.

Execute the downloaded file to map the chosen drive letter (G:) to the Linux Server. Open up the mapped drive and rename the existing SH.rpd repository: Open up G:\biee\10.1.3.2\OracleBI\server\Repository in windows explorer Rename the existing SH.rpd to SH_backup.rpd

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Building the Physical Layer of a Repository
In this topic you use the Oracle BI Administration Tool to build the Physical layer of a repository. The Physical layer defines the data sources to which Oracle BI Server submits queries and the relationships between physical databases and other data sources that are used to process multiple data source queries. The recommended way to populate the Physical layer is by importing metadata from databases and other data sources. The data sources can be of the same or different varieties. You can import schemas or portions of schemas from existing data sources. Additionally, you can create objects in the Physical layer manually. When you import metadata, many of the properties of the data sources are configured automatically based on the information gathered during the import process. After import, you can also define other attributes of the physical data sources, such as join relationships, that might not exist in the data source metadata. There can be one or more data sources in the Physical layer, including databases, spreadsheets, and XML documents. In this example, you import and configure tables from the sample SH schema included with the Oracle 10g database. To build the Physical layer, you perform the following steps: Create a New Repository Create an ODBC Data Source Import SH Schema Create Physical Joins

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2\OracleBI\server\Repository Name the file SH. click on STOP. Click Start > Programs > Oracle Business Intelligence > Administration to open the Oracle BI Administration Tool.3. Browse to the Linux server repository folder in the drive mapped during the pre-requisite steps to this section: Browse to G:\biee\10. Open the BIC2G Process Control for Services. the local Repository folder is selected by default. In the New Repository dialog box.oracle. 4.Create a New Repository To create a new repository. 4 . 5. 2.rpd. 3.1.com/go/process_control/pc. perform the following steps: 1.us. Wait for the flag to turn RED. http://oracle2go. Click File > New to open the New Repository dialog box.html Select the checkbox next to BI Server.

5 . then the Business Model and Mapping layer. The Physical layer is where information on physical data sources is stored. You can work on each layer at any stage in creating a repository. Business Model and Mapping. Click Save. The Business Model and Mapping layer is where measurements and terms used in business are mapped to the physical data sources. but the typical order is to create the Physical layer first.6. The new repository opens in the Administration Tool and displays three empty layers: Presentation. Leave the Administration Tool open. and Physical. and then the Presentation layer. select Tools > Options > Show toolbar to display the toolbar. If necessary. The Presentation layer is where the business model is customized for presentation to the user.

Click Start > Programs > Administrative Tools > Data Sources (ODBC) to open the ODBC Data Source Administrator.Create an ODBC Data Source An ODBC data source is needed to import schema information about a data source into an Oracle BI Server repository. 6 . 2. perform the following steps: 1. To create an ODBC data source for importing the SH schema information. Click the System DSN tab and click Add. The Create New Data Source dialog box opens.

4. and enter SH as the User ID for the SH schema.3. enter a Data Source Name (this can be any name). 5. 7 . 6. select the Oracle driver. Click Test Connection to open the Oracle ODBC Driver Connect dialog box. Click Finish to open the Oracle ODBC Driver Configuration dialog box. select the appropriate TNS Service Name from the drop down list (ORCL in this example). In the Oracle ODBC Driver Configuration dialog box. In the Create New Data Source dialog box.

7. 9. Click OK to close the Testing Connection message. In the Oracle ODBC Driver Connect dialog box. 8. You should see a "Testing Connection" message indicating the connection is successful. Click OK to close the Oracle ODBC Driver Configuration dialog box. 8 . 10. Verify that the SH system data source is added in the ODBC Data Source Administrator and click OK to close the ODBC Data Source Administrator. enter the password SH for the SH schema and click OK. 11.

. . 3. and click OK to open the Import dialog box. locate the SH schema folder. 9 .Import SH Schema To import the SH schema information into the repository. select the SH ODBC DSN you created in a previous step. In the Oracle BI Administration Tool. In the Select Data Source dialog box. 2. click File > Import > from Database . enter SH as the user name and password. perform the following steps: 1. In the Import dialog box.

COUNTRIES. TIMES 5. COSTS. and click the Import button. which is the default. PROMOTIONS. PRODUCTS. CUSTOMERS. Expand the SH schema folder and use Ctrl + Click to select the following tables: CHANNELS. Verify that only the Tables and Keys checkboxes are selected. It is best practice to only import objects needed to support your business 10 . SALES.4. The Connection Pool dialog box opens.

6. Leave the rest of the settings as they are and click OK to close the Connection Pool dialog box. In the Physical layer of the repository. expand the SH schema folder and verify that the correct tables are imported. However. The import process starts. 9. 7. on the General tab. When the Import process completes.ora entry ( ORCL in this example). 11 . 8. not the ODBC DSN. You can always delete objects later if they do not support your business model. In the Connection Pool dialog box. don’t worry if you import extra objects at this point. Please note that this is the TNS service name.model. click Close to close the Import dialog box. verify that the call interface is set to Default (OCI 10g) and change the data source name to the appropriate tnsnames.

you can select the SH database object and then click the Physical Diagram button on the toolbar. 12 . click Tools > Update All Row Counts. perform the following steps: 1. right-click the SH schema folder and select Physical Diagram > Object (s) and All Joins.10. verify that the row counts are displayed in the Physical layer of the Administration Tool: Create Physical Joins To create physical joins in the Physical layer of the repository. 11. In the Physical layer. To verify connectivity. When update all row counts completes. Alternatively.

Click the Channels table and then the Sales table. 13 . 3. Rearrange the tables so they are all visible in the Physical Diagram. 5. In the Physical Diagram. and adjust the size. Click the New Foreign Key button on the toolbar. if the tables are too big.2. right-click in the white space. 4. The Physical Foreign Key dialog box opens. select Zoom.

It matters which table you click first. The Administration Tool makes a best "guess" and automatically determines which columns should be included in the join. Click OK to close the Physical Foreign Key dialog box.CHANNEL_ID 6. 7. The join between Channels and Sales is displayed in the Physical Diagram. Make sure the join expression is: CHANNELS.CHANNEL_ID = SALES. The join is creating a one-to-many (1:N) relationship that joins the key column in the first table to a foreign key column in the second table. Continue to create the following joins: 14 .

click the X in the upper right corner to close the Physical Diagram. In the next topic you learn how to build the Business Model and Mapping layer of a repository. All other tables join directly to Sales.PROD_ID CUSTOMERS.CUST_ID COUNTRIES.PROMOTIONS. You learn more about consistency check later in this tutorial.PROD_ID = SALES. 10. 15 . 9. When you are finished. and defined keys and joins. set up an ODBC data source.PROMO_ID TIMES. Select File > Save or click the Save button on the toolbar to save the repository. bypass this check until the other layers in the repository are built. imported a table schema from an external data source into the Physical layer.CUST_ID = SALES. 8.PROMO_ID = SALES. Some of the more common checks are done in the Business Model and Mapping layer and Presentation layer. Congratulations! You have successfully created a new repository. Checking Global Consistency checks for errors in the entire repository.COUNTRY_ID Note that Countries joins to Customers and Costs in not joined for now.TIME_ID PRODUCTS.COUNTRY_ID = CUSTOMERS.TIME_ID = SALES. Since these layers are not defined yet. Leave the Administration Tool and the SH repository open for the next topic. Click No when prompted to check global consistency.

A business model object contains the business model definitions and the mappings from logical to physical tables for the business model. The main purpose of the business model is to capture how users think about their business using their own vocabulary. To build the Business Model and Mapping layer. model of the data and specifies the mappings between the business model and the Physical layer schemas.Building the Business Model and Mapping Layer of a Repository In this topic you use the Oracle BI Administration Tool to build the Business Model and Mapping layer of a repository. Collections of logical columns form logical tables. Logical dimension tables contain the data used to qualify the facts. There are two main categories of logical tables: fact and dimension. The business model simplifies the physical schema and maps the users’ business vocabulary to physical sources. Each logical column (and hence each logical table) can have one or more physical objects as sources. This is where the physical schemas are simplified to form the basis for the users’ view of the data. The Business Model and Mapping layer of the Administration Tool can contain one or more business model objects. or logical. The Business Model and Mapping layer of the Administration Tool defines the business. you perform the following steps: Create a Business Model Create Logical Tables Create Logical Columns Create Logical Joins Rename Business Model Objects Delete Unnecessary Business Model Objects Build Dimension Hierarchies 16 . Logical fact tables contain the measures by which an organization gauges its business operations and performance. Most of the vocabulary translates into logical columns in the business model.

perform the following steps: 1. The red symbol on the business model indicates it is not yet enabled for querying. Leave it empty. name the business model SH and leave the Available for queries box unchecked. right-click the white space and select New Business Model. You enable the business model for querying later after the Presentation layer is defined and the repository passes a global consistency check. In the Business Model dialog box. 3. The new SH business model appears in the Business Model and Mapping layer.Create a Business Model To create a new business model. 17 . 2. Click OK to close the Business Model dialog. In the Business Model and Mapping layer. The Description edit box is used to add a comment for yourself or another developer.

The Sources folder is populated in the next step when you create a logical column. In the Logical Table dialog box. 3. perform the following steps: 1. 18 . right-click the SH business model and select New Object > Logical Table.Create Logical Tables To create a new logical table. Click OK to close the Logical Table dialog. The Sales Facts logical table appears in the SH business model in the Business Model and Mapping layer. name the table Sales Facts. 2. In the Business Model and Mapping layer.

Create Logical Columns To create a logical column. expand the Sales physical table. 19 . 2. In the Physical layer. Select the column AMOUNT_SOLD. perform the following steps: 1.

However. SALES. 20 . Drag the AMOUNT_SOLD column from the Physical layer to the Sales Facts logical table in the Business Model and Mapping layer. 4. it is possible to change names in the Business Model and Mapping layer without impacting the mapping. A logical table’s Sources folder contains the logical table sources. A new AMOUNT_SOLD logical column is added to the Sales Facts logical table. Expand the Sources to see the logical table source that was created automatically when you dragged the AMOUNT_SOLD column from the Physical layer. the logical table source name.3. is the same name as the physical table. Logical table sources define the mappings from a logical table to a physical table. Because you dragged a column from the Physical layer.

8. select SUM.5. Click the Aggregation tab. Notice that the logical column icon is changed to indicate an aggregation rule is applied. Click OK to close the Logical Column dialog box. 21 . In the Business Model and Mapping layer. In the Default aggregation rule drop down list. 6. double-click the AMOUNT_SOLD logical column to open the Logical Column dialog box. 7.

22 . Drag the selected tables from the Physical layer onto the SH business model folder in the Business Model and Mapping layer. In the Business Model and Mapping layer. This automatically creates logical tables in the Business Model and Mapping layer. CUSTOMERS. perform the following steps: 1. Select the following tables in the Physical layer. PROMOTIONS.Create Logical Joins To create logical joins in the business model. The icon color for dimension tables changes to white in a later step when you create logical joins. this indicates a fact table. PRODUCTS. Select only these tables: CHANNELS. Because you have not yet created the logical joins. all table icons are yellow. TIMES 2. Notice that each logical table has a yellow table icon.

The Logical Join dialog box opens. Right-click the SH business model and select Business Model Diagram > Whole Diagram. Also note 23 . 4. and cardinality. Rearrange the table icons so they are all visible. tables.3. driving table. 5. Place the Sales Facts table in the middle. Leave the default values as they are. The order is important. Click the New Complex Join button in the toolbar. The second table clicked is the many side of the relationship. join type. but note which properties you can set: name. if desired. business model. Adjust the zoom factor. Click the Channels table icon first and then click the Sales Facts table icon in the Logical Table Diagram window. 6.

Typically. Repeat the steps for the remaining tables. you leave the defaults as they are. Sales Facts.which properties you cannot set: the join expression and the join columns. is at the many end of the join: 8. Do not change the default values. and verify your work in the Logical Table Diagram. when defining logical joins. 24 . 7. Your final result should look similar to the picture. click OK. Notice that the fact table.

Defining the join relationships determined which tables are the logical dimension tables and which is the logical fact table.9. Rename Business Model Objects To use the Rename Wizard to rename the objects in the business model. and Times. You now have a logical star schema consisting of one logical fact table. and five logical dimension tables: Channels. Click the X in the upper right corner to close the Logical Table Diagram. Notice that the color of the table icons for the dimension tables has changed to white in the business model. Save the SH repository. In a business model. Do not check global consistency. Click Tools > Utilities. Products. Customers. Sales Facts. Promotions. perform the following steps: 1. a yellow icon indicates a fact table and a white icon indicates a dimension table. A fact table is always on the many side of a logical join. 25 . 10.

7. Click the Add Hierarchy button. In the Utilities dialog box.2. In the Rename Wizard. 5. 6. click the Business Model and Mapping tab and select the SH business model. 4. 3. Click Select None. Check Logical Table and Logical Column. Click Next. click Rename Wizard and then Execute. 26 .

8. Click Next. 9. Select All text lowercase.

10. Click Add 11. Click Change specified text. In the Find box, type an underscore. In the Replace box, type a space.

12. Click Add.

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13. Click First letter of each word capital and click Add. 14. Click Change specified text. In the Find box, type a space and the letters Id. In the Replace With box, type a space and the letters ID. Check Case sensitive.

15. Click Add. 16. Click Next and review changes.

17. Click Finish and verify that logical tables and logical columns in the Business Model and Mapping layer are changed as expected.

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18. Save the repository. Do not check global consistency.

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2. Right-click either of the highlighted columns and select Delete to delete the columns.Delete Unnecessary Business Model Objects To delete logical columns that are not needed in the business model. For the Channels logical table in the Business Model and Mapping layer. Click Yes to confirm the delete. 30 . Alternatively. use Ctrl + click to select the Channel Class ID and the Channel Total ID logical columns. 3. you can use the Delete key on your keyboard. perform the following steps: 1.

Repeat the steps to delete the following logical columns in the Customers table: Cust City ID Cust State Province ID Country ID Cust Main Phone Number Cust Total ID Cust Src ID Cust Eff From Cust Eff To Cust Valid 31 . Verify that the Channels logical table now has only four logical columns.4. 5.

32 . Place the cursor over the icon to display the screenshot and verify that the Customers logical table has only the following logical columns: 7. Place the cursor over the icon to display the screenshot and repeat the steps to delete the highlighted logical columns in the Products table.6.

Do not delete any columns in the Times table.8. 10. Place the cursor over the icon to display the screenshot and repeat the steps to delete the highlighted logical columns in the Promotions table. Save the repository. Place the cursor over the icon to display the screenshot and verify that the Promotions logical table has only the following logical columns: 11. Do not check global consistency. 12. Place the cursor over the icon to display the screenshot and verify that the Products logical table has only the following logical columns: 9. 33 .

Build Dimension Hierarchies Dimension hierarchies introduce formal hierarchies into a business model, allowing Oracle BI Server to calculate useful measures and allowing users to drill down to more detail. In a business model, a dimension hierarchy represents a hierarchical organization of logical columns belonging to a single logical dimension table. Common dimension hierarchies used in a business model are time periods, products, customers, suppliers, and so forth. Dimension hierarchies are created in the Business Model and Mapping layer and end users do not see them in end user tools such as Oracle BI Answers or Interactive Dashboards. In each dimension hierarchy, you organize dimension attributes into hierarchical levels. These levels represent the organizational rules and reporting needs required by your business. They provide the structure that Oracle BI Server uses to drill into and across dimensions to get more detailed views of the data. Dimension hierarchy levels are used to perform aggregate navigation, configure level-based measure calculations, and determine what attributes appear when Oracle BI users drill down in their data requests. To build the Channels dimension hierarchy in the SH business model, perform the following steps: 1. Right-click the Channels logical table and select Create Dimension.

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2. Right-click the ChannelsDim object, which was created by the action in the previous step, and select Expand All.

3. Place the cursor over the icon to display the screenshot and verify that the ChannelsDim dimension hierarchy matches the picture.

4. Right-click the Channels Detail level and select New Object > Parent Level.

5. In the Logical Level dialog box, name the logical level Class and set the

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Number of elements at this level to 3. This number does not have to be exact. The ratio from one level to the next is more important than the absolute number. These numbers only affect which aggregate source is used (optimization, not correctness of queries).

6. Click OK to close the Logical Level dialog box. The new Class level is added to the hierarchy.

7. Right-click the Class level and select Expand All.

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The level key defines the unique elements in each logical level. 37 . Right-click Channel Class and select New Logical Level Key.8. verify that Channel Class and Use for drilldown are selected. Drag the Channel Class column from the Channel Detail level to the Class level to associate the logical column with this level of the hierarchy. 10 In the Logical Level Key dialog box. Each level key can consist of one or more columns at this level. 9.

Click OK to close the Logical Level Key dialog box. name the logical level Channel Total Attribute and set the Number of elements at this level to 1.11. 12. Right-click the Class level and select New Object > Parent Level. 13. In the Logical Level dialog box. 14. The Channel Total Attribute level is added to the hierarchy. 38 . The Channel Class column now displays with a key icon. Click OK to close the Logical Level dialog box.

verify that Channel Total and Use for 39 . In the Logical Level Key dialog box. Right-click the Channel Total Attribute level and select Expand All. 16.. Drag the Channel Total column from the Channel Detail level to the Channel Total Attribute level. 18.15. Right-click Channel Total and select New Logical Level Key. 17.

drilldown are selected. 21. In the Logical Level Key dialog box. Right-click the Channel Desc column and select New Logical Level Key. notice that Use for drilldown is selected. The Channel Total column now displays with a key icon. Click OK to close the Logical Level Key dialog box. 19. 40 . 20.

41 .22. 24. Both Channel Desc and Channel ID display with key icons. Click OK to close the Logical Level Key dialog. Click the Keys tab. Double-click the Channels Detail level to open the Logical Level dialog box. 23.

Notice that the key icons are different. Click the Edit button. 27.25. In the Logical Level Key dialog box. 28. uncheck Use for drilldown. Click Channels Detail_Key. Click OK to close the Logical Level Key dialog box. 26. Channel Desc is used for drill down Channels Detail_Key is 42 .

Place the cursor over the icon to display the screenshot and verify that the finished ChannelsDim hierarchy looks like the picture. Do not check global consistency.not. Save the repository. Optional: Build a dimension hierarchy for the Products logical table. when a user drills down from the Channel Class column (the next highest level). Later. the default drill is to the level key that has Use for drilldown checked in the next lowest level. In Part Two of this OBE. not the Channels Detail_Key column. Don't worry if you cannot complete this step. Click OK to close the Logical Level dialog box. 30. when a user drills down in Answers or a dashboard. the screenshot. 32. Based on this example. the default is to drill down to the Channel Desc column. you use a different repository that already has the dimension hierarchies prebuilt. set Number of elements at this level to 43 . 29. Use the preceding steps. and the characteristics below as a guide. The ProductsDim dimension hierarchy should have the following characteristics: For the Subcategory level. 31.

For example. such as Oracle BI Answers. For the Category level. Simplifying the view of the data for users makes it easier to craft queries based on users’ business needs because you can expose only the data that is meaningful to the users. organize the data in a way that aligns with the way users think about the data. 44 . Building the Presentation Layer of a Repository In this topic you use the Oracle BI Administration Tool to build the Presentation layer of a repository. The Presentation layer provides a means to further simplify or customize the Business Model and Mapping layer for end users. Presentation layer objects can then be renamed and reorganized. It is the view of the data seen by end users in client tools and applications. you perform the following steps: 1. Do not check global consistency. The Presentation layer is built after the Physical layer and Business Model and Mapping layer and adds a level of abstraction over the Business Model and Mapping layer. uncheck Use for drill down for Products Detail_Key (Prod ID). Drag the SH business model from the Business Model and Mapping layer to the Presentation layer to create the SH catalog in the Presentation layer. Check Use for drill down for all other keys in the ProductsDim hierarchy. and rename data as necessary for the set of users. For the Products Detail level. You typically create Presentation layer objects by dragging objects from the Business Model and Mapping layer.21. Corresponding objects are automatically created in the Presentation layer. save the repository. If you complete this step. set Number of elements at this level to 5. you can organize columns into catalogs and folders. For the Product Total Attribute level. To build the Presentation layer. set Number of elements at this level to 1.

Save the repository. Notice also that dimension hierarchies are not displayed.2. 3. Expand the SH catalog in the Presentation layer. 45 . Notice that the tables and columns in the Presentation layer exactly match the tables and columns in the Business Model and Mapping layer. Do not check global consistency.

the object type. Best Practices messages provide information about conditions but do not indicate an inconsistency. Repositories and the business models within them must pass the consistency check before you can make business models available for queries.Testing and Validating a Repository You have finished building the initial business model and now need to test the repository before continuing your development. display results using 46 . Warning messages indicate conditions that may or may not be errors. Finally. When a repository or business model is inconsistent. but is not a requirement for a consistent repository. but is not a requirement for a consistent repository. There are options to display only selected message types. you perform the following steps: Run a Consistency Check Enable Query Logging Create an empty Webcatalog to test your RPD Change the metadata files file and Start Oracle BI Services Use Oracle BI Answers to Execute Queries Use Query Log to Verify Queries Run a Consistency Check Consistency check is a utility in the Administration Tool that checks if a repository has met certain requirements. you examine the query log file to verify the SQL generated by Oracle BI Server. You begin by checking the repository for errors using the check consistency option. a detailed message alerts you to the nature of the inconsistency. The Consistency Check Manager displays three types of messages: Error messages indicate errors that need to be fixed to make the repository consistent. a best practice message is displayed. For example. if the Administrator user has an empty password this should be addressed. and provides a detailed description of the message. Defining keys for physical tables is best practice. For each message the Consistency Check Manager identifies the message type. depending upon the intent of the Oracle BI Server administrator. To test and validate a repository. You then test the repository by running queries using Oracle BI Answers. For example. the object. if there are physical tables with no keys defined.

To check consistency. The Consistency Check Manager displays. You should receive a message indicating that the repository is consistent and asking if you want to make it available for queries.qualified names. Click Yes to make the SH business model available for queries. you perform the following steps: 1. 2. 47 . Select File > Check Global Consistency. 3. and copy the results to another file. check all objects in the repository.

7. notice that the SH business model icon has changed to indicate the business model is now available for queries (the red circle with a line is gone). 48 . 8.4. Click No when asked to check global consistency (you just checked it). 6. In the Business Model and Mapping layer. Save the repository. Notice that Available for queries is checked. If the Consistency Check Manager displays any Error messages. Double-click the SH business model object to open the Business Model properties dialog box. 5. Click OK to close the Business Model properties dialog box. edit the repository to correct the inconsistencies and run the consistency check again. If you see only Warning and Best Practices messages. you can ignore the messages for now and click Close.

In the right pane. set the value to 2. 4. The Administrator user appears in the right pane.Enable Query Logging To enable query logging for the Administrator user. double-click Administrator. 3. In the Logging level field. perform the following steps: 1. In the Security Manager. In the Password field. type Administrator and then confirm in the Confirm Password field. The User dialog box opens. Verify that the User tab is selected. Select Manage > Security. select Users in the left pane. 49 . 2.

In production mode. and examine the query log. 50 . You log query activity at the individual user level. 5. 6. 8. you need to generate some queries. Click OK to close the User dialog box. debugging. and technical support. 7. 9. retrieve the results.To test the repository. Save the repository. Do not check global consistency. Select File > Exit to close the Administration Tool. Logging is intended for testing. logging is normally disabled because query logging can impact performance by producing very large log files. Click Action > Close to close the Security Manager. Select File > Close to close the repository.

ini instructs Oracle BI Server to load a specific repository into memory upon startup.. it logs the error to the server log file (.Create an empty Webcatalog to test your RPD The end-user report objects are stored in a Web Catalog. An entry in the Repository section of the initialization file NQSConfig.3. The Linux image includes a special Process Control page that allows us to easily perform this change to the server’s main metadata files through a web GUI. Modify the NQSConfig.log). 1. 51 . You will find instructions for doing this in the online documentation.2\OracleBIData\web\catalog Create a new folder in this location called SH_Start Change the metadata files file and Start Oracle BI Services In this step. you start the Oracle BI Server service to load the SH repository into memory. If Oracle BI Server detects a syntax error while loading the repository.rpd.1.ini only if you wish to change system settings like turning caching on. Browse to G:\biee\10..\\OracleBI\server\Log\NQServer. We will create a new Web catalog to start our testing of the SH.

oracle. Check the BI Server and BI Presentation Server boxes and click Start Wait until all the relevant flags go green 52 . If the Oracle BI Server.html Select Repository: sh.The path to the Web Catalog is stored in another initialization file called InstanceConfig. Open the Process Control Page: http://oracle2go.xml. Ensure that the previous step is completed and that the files listed under each service are correct.us. you will need to explicitly start them. The editing of this file has also been simplified on the Linux image by the Process Control page 1.com/go/process_control/pc. Oracle BI Presentation Server and Oracle BI Java Host services were not started prior to making the previous change.rpd and Web Catalog SH_Start Click SET 2.

7. Click the SH subject area. perform the following steps: 1. Click the Cust State Province column in the left pane to add it to the request criteria on the right. Click the Sales Facts folder in the left pane to expand it. 53 . 6. 5. Select Start > Programs > Oracle Business Intelligence > Presentation Services. 2. Notice that the folders and columns in Answers match the folders and column in the Presentation layer of the repository. click the Customers folder to expand it. Log in to Oracle Business Intelligence as Administrator with password Administrator 3. 4. Click the Answers link. In the left pane.Use Oracle BI Answers to Execute Queries To start Oracle BI Answers and execute a query.

10. consisting of a title and a table view.8. 54 . results are displayed in a compound layout. 9. By default. Click the Amount Sold column to add it to the request criteria. Click the Results tab.

under Cursor Cache. In the Session Management window. Click the Manage Sessions link to open the Session Management window. The log file should look similar to the picture. 2. Click Settings > Administration to open the Oracle BI Presentation Services Administration Window. 55 . 3. 4. click the View Log link for the last entry. The log displays the last query executed by Administrator.Use Query Log to Verify Queries 1.

Locate the General Query Info section. 7. Locate the Sending query to database named SH section. Click Close Window to close the Oracle Bi Presentation Services Administration window. and so forth. Congratulations! Up to this point you have successfully built the Physical. and tested the repository using Oracle BI Answers. 6. Leave Answers open. just below the General Query Info section. and Presentation layers of a repository. building variables and initialization blocks. run a consistency check. 56 .Locate the SQL Request section. 5. number of rows returned. and presentation catalog from which the query was run. just below the SQL Request section. subject area. mapping to aggregate tables. This section contains the logical SQL issued from Answers. This section identifies the physical data source to which Oracle BI Server is connecting and the physical SQL that was generated. Close the query log. Business Model and Mapping. The rest of the file contains information such as query status. adding multiple logical table sources. 8. Click Finished to close the Session Management window. and so forth. This section identifies the repository. For the remainder of this OBE you enhance the repository by performing tasks such as building calculation measures.

All three methods are covered in this OBE. you have to map for each physical source it could be derived from. or use the Calculation Wizard to automate the process. you perform the following steps: Create a BI Server ODBC Connection Load a Prebuilt Repository Create a New Measure Create a Calculation Measure Using Answers Create a Calculation Measure Using Logical Columns Create a Calculation Measure Using Physical Columns Create a Calculation Measure Using the Calculation wizard 57 . a business wants to compare values of a measure and needs a calculation to express the comparison.” An Expression Builder enables you to create expressions that are similar to expressions created with SQL. Oracle BI Server has a calculation engine to perform a multitude of calculations. The advantages to building calculation measures in the repository is the measures are built once and can be made available to all users. You use logical columns for calculation formulas that require an aggregation rule that is applied before the calculation. You can use existing logical columns as objects in a formula. In the examples in this lesson.Creating Calculation Measures Often. You use physical columns for calculations that require and aggregation rule to be applied after the calculation. Calculation measures allow end users to ask business questions like “Show me the accounts receivable balance as of Q3” or “Show me the difference between units ordered and units shipped. you use the Expression Builder to create calculation measures that appear as columns to users in Answers. use physical columns as objects in a formula. To create calculation measures. There are different methods for creating calculation measures in the Administration Tool. When you create formulas based on physical columns. You can also build calculation measures in Answers. The advantage of defining a logical column formula based on existing logical columns is that you only have to define it once. Users can then easily build queries using familiar terminology.

rpd file on it’s own. LinuxPEServer-SalesHistory Enter oracle2go for the Server Click Next > 4. Enter a suitable name for the DSN e. Click on the System DSN tab and select Add… 3. we need to first create the necessary ODBC DSN: 1. The Oracle BI Server provides an ODBC API just for this purpose. Login ID: Administrator Password: Administrator Port: 9703 Check the box “Connect to the Oracle BI Server to obtain default settings…” 58 . This is also the way that Presentation Services connects to the mid-tier BI Server.g.Create a BI Server ODBC Connection To edit the RPD while the server is running it is necessary to create a direct connection to the server rather than opening up the .rpd “Online”. Open Start > Control Panel > Administrative Tools > Data Sources (ODBC) 2. requests being sent to the server as Logical SQL queries. To connect to this layer to modify the .

Change the default Catalog to SH Click Finish 6.Click Next > 5. Hit OK to close the ODBC Administrator 59 .

3. The provided repository is similar to the repository you built in the first part of this OBE. in an earlier step.1. Click File > Open > Online. navigate to G:\biee\10. navigate to the SetupFiles folder and copy the SH_PartTwo. you modified the entry in the Repository section of the initialization file to instruct Oracle BI Server to load the SH repository into memory upon startup. There are four additional dimension hierarchies: CustomersDim. Type Administrator in the Password field and click Open. but with the following relevant differences: Physical joins are built for the the COSTS physical table in the Physical layer.rpd file to G:\biee\10. because.oracle.rpd file to SH_PartOne. Using Windows Explorer.us.2\OracleBI\server\Repository.rpd.3.Load a Prebuilt Repository A prebuilt repository is provided to expedite your completion of the remaining exercises in this OBE. 10 The SH repository opens in online mode.com/go/process_control/pc. 5. Rename SH_PartTwo. ProductsDim.html 2. To load the prebuilt repository.us. In the Open Online dialog box. PromotionsDim. Start the Oracle BI Server service from the process control page: http://oracle2go. perform the following steps: 1. Change the name of the SH. select the LinuxPEServer-Sales History DSN you created earlier.2\OracleBI\server\Repository. 4.rpd to SH. 8. 6. 60 .oracle. Using Windows Explorer.com/go/process_control/pc. There is no need to update the NQSConfig.rpd. Stop the Oracle BI Server service using the Process control page: http://oracle2go.1. 9. Click Start > Programs > Oracle Business Intelligence > Administration to open the Administration Tool.html 7.3.ini file. and TimesDim.

11 To verify connectivity. This may take a . Typically.. all the changes you have made to the repository have been in offline mode. row counts appear for all tables and columns. When you start the Administration Tool in online mode.e. expand the Physical layer and verify that . and the four additional dimension hierarchies: CustomersDim. click Tools > Update All Row Counts. makes changes to its in-memory copy. 61 . In offline mode the relationship between the Administration Tool and the repository is like the relationship between any Windows application and a file. If desired. An application. 12 When Update Row Counts completes. when told by the Administration Tool. PromotionsDim. few minutes. In particular. opens a file for editing. Oracle BI Server has already opened the repository file and the operating system has put a write-lock on the file. examine the structure of the provided repository before proceeding with the remaining steps in this OBE. The Administration Tool then communicates changes to Oracle BI Server and Oracle BI Server makes the corresponding changes to its in-memory copy. When the Administration Tool tells it to. you develop a repository in offline mode and use online mode for minor updates and changes. and TimesDim. and tells the OS to save the changed file. In this mode. Up to this point . the Administration Tool in this case. you can make changes to the metadata in online mode. you pick an Oracle BI ODBC DSN that points to the repository you want to edit (i. tells the OS to save the changed file. Then it listens for messages from the Administration Tool about changes. examine the relevant differences: the physical joins for the COSTS physical table. the relationship is different. makes those changes to its in-memory copy. the repository that is the default repository in the DSN). ProductsDim.. In online mode. and. Oracle BI Server sends the Administration Tool a copy of its in-memory repository. Oracle BI Server can act as an agent of the Administration Tool. Now that you have a consistent repository and Oracle BI Server is running and using the repository.

62 . Once the objects have been edited. Since Oracle BI Server may be processing queries while you are editing the repository in online mode. In this example. objects were checked out automatically when you ran Update Row Counts. Thus. you check them in again. you can save the changes to the repository. the Administration Tool is configured to check out objects automatically. you must check out objects before editing them. If you do not see the red check marks. When you are finished editing. At that point the changes you made become active.Notice that the objects have a red check mark. select Tools > Options > General Tab > Check out objects automatically.

navigate to COSTS > UNIT_COST. and rename the column to Unit Cost. select Rename.Create a New Measure To add a new measure to the Sales Facts table. 63 . Drag UNIT_COST from the Physical layer to the SALES logical table source for the Sales Facts logical table. Right-click the UNIT_COST logical column. In the Physical layer. 3. slowly double-click the column to make it editable. UNIT_COST appears as a logical column in the Sales Facts logical table. Alternatively. 2. perform the following steps: 1.

5.4. The Consistency Check Manager opens and displays Warnings and Best Practices messages. 7. Hint: doubleclick the column to open the Logical Column properties dialog box and click the Aggregation tab. Click File > Check In Changes or click the Check In Changes button on the toolbar to check in changes. 6. Drag the Unit Cost logical column to the Sales Facts presentation folder. 64 . Review the messages.. Click Yes when prompted to check global consistency. Set the aggregation rule for the Unit Cost logical column to SUM.

9. For the purposes of this tutorial.8. Expand Warnings folder. and then click the Disable button. 11 Click the Messages tab. you disable the Warnings and Best Practices messages. . . select Check Features Match Default. review the other Warnings items that are checked. If you desire. If you desire. and then click the Disable button. 10 Select Best Practices > Physical Table > Search for Tables With No Keys. Click the Options tab. 65 . review the other Best Practices items that are checked.

Sales Facts. and click the SH subject area. select Start > Programs > Oracle Business Intelligence > Presentation Server. click the Answers link. query log and examine the SQL generated by the request. . Times. 13 Click Close to close the Consistency Check Manager. 16 Click Reload Server Metadata. . . 19 Click Settings > Administration > Manage Sessions > View Log to view the . log in as Administrator with password Administrator. If Answers is not open. The Consistency Check Manager displays with no . 14 Save the repository.Unit Cost. 18 Click Results. 17 Build the following request: .Amount Sold. indicating a consistent repository. messages. 66 .Calendar Year. .12 Click Check All Objects. . Sales Facts. 15 Return to Answers to test the new column in Answers.

4.Create a Calculation Measure Using Answers Before you create calculation measures in the metadata using the Administration Tool. 3. To create a calculation measure using Answers. you create a calculation measure using Answers. You do this so you can compare your results later when you create similar calculations measures in the repository. Add another Amount Sold column to the request. The Edit Column Formula dialog box displays with "Sales Facts"."Amount Sold" in the Column formula field. Click the Criteria tab. click to the right of "Sales Facts". perform the following steps: 1. 67 . 6. Click the Minus operator to add it to the formula. 2. In the Edit Column Formula dialog box. Click the Edit Formula button for the Amount Sold column that you just added."Amount Sold" in the Column Formula field. The request from the previous set of steps should still be open. 5.

10. 9. type Gross Profit.7. Click the Custom Headings check box.Click OK to close the Edit Column Formula dialog box and verify the change to the request. click Sales Facts > Unit Cost to add it to the formula. 68 . 8. In the Custom Heading field. In the left panel.

Leave Answers open for the next topic.Click Settings > Administration > Manage Sessions > View Log to view the query log. 69 . 13.Click Results.11. 12.

name the logical column Gross Profit and check Use existing logical columns as the source. Click the Expression Builder button (three dots) to open the Expression builder. 1. using existing logical columns to define the calculation formula.Create a Calculation Measure Using Logical Columns In this topic. 3. 5. and click Insert. To create a calculation measure using logical columns. Right-click the Sales Facts logical table and select New Object > Logical Column. 6. Select Sales Facts in the middle pane. 70 . Return to the SH repository. 2. In the left pane. In the Logical Column dialog box. 4. you define a new calculation measure named Gross Profit in the Sales Facts logical table. which should still be open in online mode in the Administration Tool. Amount Sold in the right pane. perform the following steps. click Logical Tables. The Amount Sold column is added to the formula.

Click OK to close the Expression Builder. 8. Click the minus sign operator to add it to the formula. 9. Double-click Unit Cost in the right pane to add it to the formula. Notice that the formula appears in the Logical Column dialog box.7. 71 .

Drag the Gross Profit logical column to the Sales Facts table in the Presentation layer. 11. you must correct the errors before continuing. 14. 12. 16. Save the repository. Click Yes when prompted to check global consistency. Return to Answers. Check in changes.10. The Gross Profit logical column appears in the business model. 72 . 13. 15. which should still be open from the previous topic. Click OK to close the Logical Column dialog box. close the Consistency Check Manager. If there are Error messages. If the repository is consistent (no Error messages). Click Reload Server Metadata.

(If the request from the previous topic is still open.17.Amount Sold. 18. Create the following request.Gross Profit 73 .Unit Cost.Calendar Year Sales Facts.) Times. Sales Facts. Expand Sales Facts and verify that the Gross Profit column is now visible in Answers. delete the Gross Profit column you created in Answers and then add the Gross Profit column you created in the repository to the query. Sales Facts.

Click Close Window to close Oracle BI Presentation Services Administration. the columns are summed first and then the difference is calculated. You compare these results to the query results in the next practice. 20.SAWITH0. Leave Answers open for the next topic. 22.c1 as c4 in the example pictured here). Note that the difference between AMOUNT_SOLD and UNIT_COST is being calculated in the outer query block (SAWITH0. Close the query log. Because you defined the Gross Profit calculation using logical columns. Click Results. Verify that the results are the same as for the query you built using the Gross Profit column created in Answers. 23. Click Finished to close the Session Management window.19.c2 . Click Settings > Administration > Manage Sessions > View Log to view the query log. 24. Your results should look similar to the picture. 74 . 21.

5. you define a new calculation measure named Gross Profit Physical in the Sales Facts logical table. Set the default aggregation rule to SUM. perform the following steps. which should still be open in online mode in the Administration Tool. 4. Click OK to close the Logical Column dialog box. 1. name the logical column Gross Profit Physical. Return to the SH repository. 6. 2. 3.Create a Calculation Measure Using Physical Columns In this topic. using physical columns to define the calculation formula. Gross Profit Physical is 75 . To create a calculation measure using physical columns. Right-click the Sales Facts logical table and select New Object > Logical Column. In the Logical Column dialog box. Click the Aggregation tab.

Click the Column Mapping tab. select Physical Tables > SALES > 76 . 9. 10 In the Expression Builder. 8. Click the Expression Builder button for the Gross Profit Physical logical column. The Logical Table Source dialog box opens.added to the business model. Expand Sales Facts > Sources and double-click the SALES logical table source. 7.

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AMOUNT_SOLD and then click the Insert button to add the column to the formula.

11 Click the minus sign operator to add it to the formula. . 12 Select Physical Tables > COSTS > UNIT_COST and then click the Insert . button to add the column to the formula.

13 Click OK to close the Expression Builder. Notice that the expression is added . in the Logical Table Source dialog box.

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14 Click OK to close the Logical Table Source dialog box. The icon for Gross . Profit Physical changes to indicate an aggregation rule is applied.

15 Drag Gross Profit Physical to Sales Facts in the Presentation layer. .

16 Check in changes. . 17 Click Yes when prompted to check global consistency. If the repository is . consistent (no Error messages), close the Consistency Check Manager. If there are Error messages, you must correct the errors before continuing. 18 Save the repository. . 19 Return to Answers, which should still be open from the previous topic. . 20 Click Reload Server Metadata.

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21 Expand Sales Facts and verify that the Gross Profit Physical column is now . visible in Answers.

22 Create the following request. . Times.Calendar Year, Sales Facts.Amount Sold, Sales Facts.Unit Cost, Sales Facts.Gross Profit Physical

23 Click Results. Verify that the results are the same for the Gross Profit . Physical (built using physical columns) as they were for the Gross Profit column (built using logical columns).

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and have exactly the same results if you calculate the difference first (the value in ColumnA – the value in ColumnB for each row) and then sum the difference. 27 Click Close Window to close Oracle BI Presentation Services Administration. 80 . whereas the calculation formula for the physical columns looks like this: sum(AMOUNT_SOLD – UNIT_COST). . . Note that the difference between amount sold and unit cost is calculated first and then summed: sum(T245. . 24 Click Settings > Administration > Manage Sessions > View Log to view . So in this example.UNIT_COST)in the example pictured here. Your results should look similar to the picture. the results are the same for the logical column and the physical column calculations.The calculation formula for the logical columns looks like this: sum(Amount Sold) – sum(Unit Cost). Because of arithmetic laws. 28 Leave Answers open for the next topic. the query log. 26 Click Finished to close the Session Management window.T168. 25 Close the query log. . you know that you can sum ColumnA and sum ColumnB and then take the differences of those sums.AMOUNT_SOLD .

81 . perform the following steps: 1. Return to the SH repository. To create a calculation measure using the Calculation Wizard. you use the Calculation Wizard to define a new calculation measure named Share of Category in the Sales Facts logical table. which should still be open in online mode in the Administration Tool. 3. A new column named Amount Sold#1 is added to the business model.Create a Calculation Measure Using the Calculation wizard In this topic. Right-click the Amount Sold logical column and select Duplicate. 2.

Right-click Amount Sold and select Calculation Wizard. 8. 5. 82 .4. Level-based measures are useful for creating share measures. Click OK to close the Logical Column dialog box. You use the Calculation Wizard to create a share measure in the steps that follow. 6. Rename Amount Sold#1 to Category Sales. Double-click Category Sales to open the Logical Column dialog box. 7. Click the Levels tab and select Category as the logical level for ProductsDim. Category Sales is now a level-based measure that will calculate total sales at the category level when used in a query.

Uncheck Change and Percent Change and check Percent.9. Click Next.Click Next. 83 . 11.Check Category Sales as the column to compare with Amount Sold. 12. 10.

Drag Category Sales and Share of Category to Sales Facts in the 84 . 15.13. Share of Category is added to the business model.Click Next.Click Finish. 14. 16.Change Calculation Name to Share of Category.

24.Expand Sales Facts and verify that Category Sales and Share of Category are now visible in Answers. which should still be open from the previous topic.Click Reload Server Metadata.Check in changes. 23. 20. 85 . 19. If the repository is consistent (no Error messages).Expand the Times folder.Presentation layer. Notice the sort settings for the Prod Category and Amount Sold columns. 18.Place the cursor over the icon to display the screenshot and use it as a reference to create a query.Save the repository. close the Consistency Check Manager. you must correct the errors before continuing. 22.Return to Answers. If there are Error messages. 21. 17.Click Yes when prompted to check global consistency.

27. Only partial results are shown in the picture.Hold down the Ctrl key and click the Calendar Year column to open the Create/Edit Filter dialog box. 29. 86 .Click Results. The filter is added to the request. 28.25.Click the All Choices link.Click OK to close the Create/Edit Filter dialog box. 26.Click 2001 to add it to the Value field.

or delete Presentation layer tables. such as Oracle BI Answers. You typically create Presentation layer objects by dragging objects from the Business Model and Mapping layer. Corresponding objects are automatically created in the Presentation layer. and rename data as necessary for the set of users. You also can manually create catalogs and folders based on the needs of your users. Presentation catalogs contain presentation tables. For example. Presentation catalogs allow you to show different views of a business model to different sets of users. They cannot span business models. multiple presentation catalogs can refer to the same business model. Simplifying the view of the data for users makes it easier to craft queries based on users’ business needs because you can expose only the data that is meaningful to the users. The Presentation layer provides a means to further simplify or customize the Business Model and Mapping layer for end users. Organizing the Presentation Layer The Presentation layer is built after the Physical layer and Business Model and Mapping layer and adds a level of abstraction over the Business Model and Mapping layer. you can organize columns into catalogs and folders. where you can create and edit tables. Changes to 87 .Leave Answers open.30. You can use the Presentation Tables tab in the Presentation Catalog properties dialog box to reorder. It is the view of the data seen by end users in client tools and applications. However. organize the data in a way that aligns with the way users think about the data. You can also use this tab to access the Presentation Table dialog box. sort. Presentation catalogs have to be populated with content from a single business model.

Use presentation tables to organize columns into categories that make sense to the user community. you can drag a column from a single logical table in the Business Model and Mapping layer onto multiple presentation tables. A presentation table can contain columns from one or more logical tables. by default. such as Oracle BI Answers. Presentation tables contain presentation columns. Return to the SH repository. or delete Presentation layer columns. The names and object properties of the presentation tables are independent of the logical table properties. double-click the SH presentation catalog to open the Presentation Catalog dialog box. 3. identical to the logical column names in the Business Model layer. In the Presentation layer. You can also use this tab to access the Presentation Column dialog box. where you can create and edit columns. 88 . 2. To organize the Presentation layer. Presentation tables contain presentation columns. The presentation column names are. perform the following steps: 1. Use the Columns tab in the Presentation Table properties dialog box to reorder. Presentation tables appear as folders in the Oracle BI user interface. Click the Presentation Tables tab. which should still be open in online mode in the Administration Tool. Presentation columns define the columns used to build queries in the Oracle BI user interface. To provide a convenient organization for your end users. sort.the Presentation layer do not impact corresponding objects in the Business Model and Mapping layer.

Adding -> in the description nests the table under the table above it. The description displays as a tool tip in Answers.4. Repeat the steps and create another presentation table named Fiscal with >Fiscal time attributes in the Description field. 9. Drag the tables or use the Up and Down buttons to rearrange the tables in the following order: Times 89 . 7. Click the General tab and name the presentation table Calendar. 8. 6. In the Description field. To create a new presentation Table. 5. Click OK to close the Presentation Table dialog box. click the Add button to open the Presentation Table dialog box. type -> Calendar time attributes.

Fiscal Calendar Products Customers Channels Promotions Sales Facts 10.Click OK to close the Presentation Catalog dialog box. 12. 13.Click the Columns tab. 90 . The new tables are added to the Presentation layer and the presentation tables are reordered. A suggested approach is to order the columns hierarchically from top to bottom.Click OK to close the Presentation Table dialog box. The column order is changed in the Presentation layer.Double-click the Channels presentation table to open the Presentation Table dialog box. 14. 11.Drag the columns or use the Up and Down arrows to reorder the columns.

close the Consistency Check Manager. 21.15.Check in changes. which should still be open from the previous topic. 91 . 20.Use cut and paste to move all the fiscal columns from the Times presentation table to the Fiscal presentation table and all the remaining columns from the Times presentation table to the Calendar presentation table.Click Yes when prompted to check global consistency. If there are Error messages.Save the repository.Return to Answers. 19.Click Reload Server Metadata. If the repository is consistent (no Error messages). you must correct the errors before continuing. Use Shift+click and Ctrl+click to select multiple columns. 18.Expand the Times presentation table. 16. 17.

Leave Answers open.Verify that the Channels columns appear as expected. 24. 23.22. 92 . 25.Verify that the Fiscal and Calendar folders are nested under the Times folder.Verify that the columns in the Fiscal and Calendar folders appear as expected.

There are two classes of variables: repository variables and session variables. Oracle BI Server substitutes the value of a variable for the variable itself in the metadata. There are two types of session variables: system and nonsystem. Non-system variables are applicationspecific variables created by an Administrator. There are two types of repository variables: static and dynamic. and nonsystem session variables. System variables have reserved names and are used for specific purposes by Oracle BI Server.Using Initialization Blocks and Variables You can use variables in a repository to streamline administrative tasks and modify metadata content dynamically to adjust to a changing data environment. A repository variable has a single value at any point in time. such as authenticating users. Static repository variables have values that are constant and do not change while Oracle BI Server is running. system session variables. session variables. Repository variables are represented by a question mark icon in the Variable Manager. To create initialization blocks. Session variables are created and assigned a value when each user logs on. A variable has a single value at any point in time. Dynamic repository variables have values that are refreshed by data returned from queries in initialization blocks. System and nonsystem variables are represented by a question mark icon in the Variable Manager. Variables can be used instead of literals or constants in the Expression Builder in the Administration Tool. You use the Variable Manager to define variables and initialization blocks. Initialization blocks are used to initialize dynamic repository variables. and dynamic repository variables. you perform the following steps: Create an Initialization Block for Session Variables Test the Initialization Block and Session Variables Create a Dynamic Repository Variable 93 .

the initialization of session variables is not scheduled. When a user begins a session. Each instance of a session variable could be initialized to a different value. Oracle BI Server creates new instances of session variables and initializes them. however. To create an initialization block for session variables. Click Session > Initialization Blocks. A session is an instance of a user running the client application. 2. 3. Unlike dynamic repository variables. Return to the SH repository. Unlike a repository variable.Create an Initialization Block for Session Variables Session variables are like dynamic repository variables in that they obtain their values from initialization blocks. Click Manage > Variables to open the Variable Manager. The session starts when the application is started and ends when the application is exited. perform the following steps: 1. which should still be open in online mode in the Administration Tool. there are as many instances of a session variable as there are active sessions on Oracle BI Server. 94 .

Right-click in the white space on the right and select New Initialization Block. 95 .4. 5. In the Session Variable Initialization Block dialog box. 6. type setUser in the Name field. Click the Edit Data Source button to open the Session Variable Initialization Block Data Source dialog box.

'CountryManagers'. 8. The initialization string is visible in the Session Variable Initialization Block dialog box. In the Default Initialization String field. type the following initialization string: select ':USER'. Click OK to close the Session Variable Initialization Block Data Source dialog box. Click the Browse button and select SH > Connection Pool in the Select Connection Pool dialog box. 9. 96 . case when upper(':USER') = 'KURT' then 'Germany' when upper(':USER') = 'KEIKO' then 'Japan' when upper(':USER')= 'CHARLES' then 'United Kingdom' when upper(':USER') = 'KAREN' then 'United States of America' end.7. 2 from Dual 10. Double-click Connection Pool or click the Select button to add the connection pool to the Session Variable Initialization Block Data Source dialog box.

Click OK to close the Session Variable dialog box. 97 . 16. In the Name field. 14. Click New to open the Session Variable dialog box. The USER variable is added to the Session Variable Initialization Block Variable Target dialog box. type USER.11. Click Edit Data Target to open the Session Variable Initialization Block Variable Target dialog box. 13. Click Yes when prompted about the USER session variable having a special purpose. 15. 12.

Repeat the steps and add three more variables: UserCountry. 98 . The order is important.17. The order of the variables must match the order of the values for the variables in the initialization string in the initialization block. and LOGLEVEL. Click Yes when promoted about the GROUP and LOGLEVEL session variables having a special purpose. GROUP.

Click OK to close the Session Variable Initialization Block Variable Target dialog box. 21. Check in changes.18. The variables are displayed in the Variable Target section of the Session Variable Initialization Block dialog box. 22. Click Action > Close to close the Variable Manager. 99 . The setUser initialization block is visible in the Security Manager. 19. Click OK to close the Session Variable Initialization Block dialog box. 20. Save the repository.

Test the Initialization Block and Session Variables 1. Click Manage > Security to open the Security Manager. 2. Click the Permissions button to open the User / Group Permissions dialog box. 4. Name the group CountryManagers. Right-click the white space in the right pane and select New Security Group. 5. 100 . 3. Click Groups in the left pane.

10. Click the Expression Builder button (three dots) on the right to open the 101 . Click the Filters tab.6. Click the Customers presentation table. Click Select to add Customers to the User / Group Permissions dialog box. 7. 8. 9. Click the Add button.

Click the = operator to add it to the formula. 14. 102 . 12. Select Session Variables > UserCountry and click the Insert button to add UserCountry to the formula as an argument in the VALUEOF() function.Expression Builder (you may need to scroll to see the button). Click OK to close the Expression Builder. Select Logical Tables > Customers > Country and then click the Insert button to add Country to the formula. The filter is added in the User / Group Permissions dialog box. 11. 13.

Create the following query: Customers. 23. 16. 19. The results of the query should correspond to the the user's country (Kurt = Germany. 24. Charles. Click Action > Close to close the Security Manager. 17. 18.15. Click OK to close the Group dialog box. or Karen. Click Results. Click OK to close the User / Group Permissions dialog box. Keiko. The picture shows the results when the user = Kurt. Save the repository. CountryManagers is added as a group in the Security Manager. Sales Facts. Karen = United States of America).Calendar. 20. 103 . Log out of Answers. Check in changes.Country.Amount Sold.Calendar Year. Charles = United Kingdom. 22. Test the initialization block by logging in to Answers as one of the users in the initialization block: Kurt. 21. Return to Answers. Keiko = Japan. Times.

4. Click the Browse button to open the Select Connection Pool dialog box. Click Repository > Initialization Blocks. Right-click the white space and select New Initialization Block to open the Repository Variable Init Block dialog box. Return to the SH repository open in online mode.25. Click Edit Data Source to open the Repository Variable Init Block Data Source dialog box. Leave Answers open. 104 . Click Manage > Variables to open the Variable Manager. Create a Dynamic Repository Variable 1. 2. 7. Name the initialization block getMaxSalesDate. 3. 5. 6.

CALENDAR_YEAR. 9.Click OK to close the Repository Variable Init Block Data Source dialog box.8. CALENDAR_MONTH_ID from TIMES WHERE TIME_ID = (select max(TIME_ID) from SALES) 10. In the Default Initialization String field. The connection pool and initialization string are added to the Repository Variable Init Block dialog box. type the following SQL: select TIME_ID. Double-click the SH > Connection Pool object to add it to the Connection Pool field in the Repository Variable Init Block Data Source dialog box. 105 . CALENDAR_MONTH_DESC.

Use the New button to create four variables: maxSalesDate. maxYear.11. 106 .Click Edit Data Target to open the Repository Variable Init Block Variable Target dialog box. 12.

maxMonthDesc.Click Test and verify you get the results in the picture. 14. 13.Click Edit Data Source to open the Repository Variable Init Block Data Source dialog box. 16. 17. The order is important. and maxMonthID. The variables appear in the Variable Target field in the Repository Variable Init Block dialog box.Click OK to close the Repository Variable Init Block Data Source dialog box. 15.Click OK to close the Repository Variable Init Block Variable Target dialog box. The order of the variables must match the column order in the initialization string.Close Results. 107 .

Click the Add Filter button for the Calendar Year column.Check in changes.Select Repository > Initialization Blocks > Variables > Dynamic to see the variables displayed in the Variable Manager. 19. If the Consistency Check Manager displays any errors.Amount Sold.Click OK to close the Repository Variable Init Block dialog box. 21. The getMaxSalesDate initialization block is displayed in the Variable Manager.Select File > Check Global Consistency. 20. If there are no error messages.18. Sales Facts. 25.Build the following query: Calendar. 108 . 26.Calendar Year.Save the repository. edit the repository to correct the errors before continuing. 22. 23.Return to Answers. close the Consistency Check Manager. 24.Click Action > Close to close the Variable Manager.

29. 109 . 28. type maxYear. The filter is added to the request. click Add > Variable > Repository.In the Server Variable field.In the Create/Edit Filter dialog box.Click Results and verify that Calendar Year returns the expected result. 30.Click OK to close the Create/Edit Filter dialog box.27.

2. SHQuota.rpd that you backed-up as SH_backup. Oracle BI Server needs to know the content of the sources in order to pick the appropriate source for the query. 110 . the metadata is built so that Oracle BI Server handles the navigation to the appropriate source.Adding Multiple Sources Data is often partitioned into multiple physical sources for a single logical table in a business model. First. This equates to the folder /ora/ in the Linux file system. To add quota information to the business model. When a logical table source does not contain the entire set of data at a given level. Oracle BI Server can seamlessly access and process data from multiple sources in an efficient manner to satisfy users’ requests. Import the XML data source into the repository Map the Logical Dimension Columns Setup Time Alias on imported XML source Create the quota measures Test the Quota Measures. go to the Process Control page and change the BI Server to use the original SH. Return to the SH repository open in online mode. you perform the following steps. When individual sources at a given level contain information for a portion or fragment of the domain.xml. When there are multiple sources. Also. Import the XML data source into the repository 1. The goal is to provide seamless and efficient access from the users' perspective. You incorporate the quota numbers into the business model and create business measures to report variance from quota and percent of quota. In this example.xml to the network drive G:\. you need to specify the portion of the set that it does contain.rpd at the beginning of this entire tutorial. copy the file SHQuota. sales quota numbers are stored in an XML file. Select File > Import > from Database.

6. Change the Connection Type to XML in the dropdown.xml object.xml Leave the XSLT and other parameters blank. Click OK to accept the default configuration for the XML Connection Pool 111 . Verify that Tables are checked and click Import. Click OK. Insert the URL: G:\SHQuota. The Import dialog box opens.3. In the Import dialog box. select the top level SHQuota. 5. 4.

Click the XML tab. Since this file needs to be accessed by the Linux server we need to change the path to the file. 8.xml to /ora/SHQuota.xml 112 . 9. Change the URL from G:\SHQuota. When import completes. close the Import dialog box and verify that the SHQuota table has been imported into the Physical layer. Double-click the Table database object in the Physical layer (SHQuota) to open the Table dialog box.7.

Save the repository.Likewise. Double-click on Amt column and change Type to DOUBLE. this time we need to manually tell the server what format the column data is expected in. 13.10. Click on the Columns tab. 11. change the following other column types: Quota: DOUBLE Year: INT QtrNumber:INT 12. 14. 113 .Click OK to close the Table dialog box. Click OK.Check in changes.Since XML is all text by default.

5.Map the Logical Dimension Columns 1. is created automatically. 3. expand Customers > Sources and note that there are two logical table sources: CUSTOMERS and COUNTRIES. Notice the logical to physical column mappings. 2. 4. Drag the physical columns SubRegion and Region from SHQuota in the Physical layer to the corresponding logical columns in the Customers table in Business Model and Mapping Layer. 114 . Drag the physical column Country from SHQuota in the Physical layer to the logical column Customers. Double-click the SHQuota logical table source in the Customers > Sources folder to open the Logical Table Source dialog box. Click the Column Mapping tab.Country in the Business Model and Mapping layer. In the Business Model and Mapping layer. SHQuota. Notice that a new logical table source.

Repeat the steps and map Products. Click OK to close the Logical Table Source dialog box. 1. This can be easily achieved in most instances via the use of an alias. Specifically. Select New Object > Alias. Setup Time Alias on imported XML source The Time Comparison measure functions Ago() and ToDate() used elsewhere in this tutorial enforce requirements on the physical tables.Prod Category to Category and verify the logical table source mapping. Right click on SHQuota. Call the object TimeAlias 115 . the Time attributes must be in a separate physical layer table definition from other attributes.6. 11. We need to use this approach for the imported XML file.

The expression for the join should correctly map each column from parent to child but can be edited if it is not as shown below: 116 . Right-click on the XML database and select Physical Diagram > Selected Objects Only 3.2. Create a join on ALL COLUMNS by multi-selecting all columns from both table lists. Create a foreign key join from the TimeAlias table to the SHQuota table: Click on the foreign key button: The icon should remain pushed in Now click first on the TimeAlias table and then click on the SHQuota table (The join path should appear as a line from the source to target as you drag the mouse between the first and second click) 4.

9.Since we don’t have a dedicated dimension table at the quarter level. 5. 8. Save the repository. Fix any errors before proceeding. Check in changes. The joined Tables should appear in the Physical layer as follows: 7. Check global consistency. this join on all columns ensures we can model the XML file as an aggregate time dimension without worrying about double-counting quotas. Accept the table key creation by clicking Yes. 6. 117 .

so rename Quota to Quota (000). Double-click Sales Facts. Quota. 5. 12. The Quota logical column states quota in thousands. SHQuota. 3.Quota to open the Logical Table dialog box. are created.Set the Level of the Quota (000) Measure according to the granularity of the XML file: 118 .Create the quota measures 1. 4. Drag the column SHQuota. Notice that a new logical table source. and a new logical column. Close the Logical Table dialog box.Quota from the Physical layer onto the Sales Facts logical table. 2. Click the Aggregation tab and set the aggregation rule to Sum.

Click the Expression Builder button (three dots) to open the Expression Builder. 9. 7."Sales Facts". Right-click Sales Facts and select New Object > Logical Column to open the Logical Column dialog box."Quota (000)" 119 .6. Check Use existing logical columns as the source.Create the following formula: 1000*"SH". 8. Click the General tab and name the logical column Quota. 10.

Close the Logical Column dialog box. 16. 120 . 14. 13. 12. 15.Select the Quota column.Right-click Sales Facts. The Quota column is added to the business model.Amount Sold and select Calculation Wizard.Close the Expression Builder. The formula displays in the Logical Column dialog box.11.Click Next.Click Next.

Click Next.17. 20.Uncheck Percent Change. 21.Check Percent and make sure it is selected. In the Calculation Name field.In the Finish window.Make sure Change is selected. 121 . leave the name as is: % of Quota. verify the calculations that will be created by the Calculation Wizard. In the Calculation Name field. name the calculation Variance from Quota. 18. 19.

22.Add the Quota (000).Save the repository. Quota. If you receive any Error messages.Check global consistency. 25. 122 . 26.Check in changes. and % of Quota measures to the Sales Facts presentation table. 23.Click Finish. The calculation measures are added to the business model. Variance From Quota. Test the Quota Measures. 24. edit the repository to correct the errors before proceeding.

6.Quota. 8. Reload Server Metadata. Notice that two separate queries are executed to collect the data from the ORCL database and the SHQuota.1. 5.Amount Sold.xml file: 123 . Sales Facts. 2001. 11. 9. Click Results. Sales Facts. Create the following filter: Calendar Year is equal to / is in 1999. 4. 3. Create the following request: Calendar.Calendar Year. 2000. Return to Answers. Click Manage Sessions. Examine the query log Click Settings > Administration.% of Quota. 2. Locate the last query run under Cursor Cache and click View Log. Log out and then log back in as Administrator with password Administrator. Drill down on 2001. (Please note that SHQuota contains data only for 2001). 7. 10. Sales Facts.Variance From Quota. Sales Facts.

D1. ROW_NUMBER() OVER (PARTITION BY T268. T268.Sending query to external gateway database named G:\SHQuota. SALES T245 where ( T245. T268.c3 as c2.c2 as c1.xml (id: <<46004>>): <NQSQueryInput><NQSDatabaseName>G:\SHQuota.c1 as c3 from SAWITH0 order by c2 +++Administrator:b5ed0000:b5ed000b:----2007/05/22 01:16:07 -------------------.xml</NQSDatabaseName><NQSUser></NQSUser>< NQSPassword></NQSPassword><NQSQuery><NQSColumn> <NQSColumnType>int</NQSColumnType> <NQSColumnAlias>c2</NQSColumnAlias> <NQSColumnName>Year</NQSColumnName> <NQSColumnFullName>//Table/QUOTA/Year</NQSColumnFullName> <NQSTableName>SHQuota</NQSTableName> <NQSTableAlias>4194</NQSTableAlias> <NQSTableAliasName>SHQuota</NQSTableAliasName> <NQSTableFullName>/ora/SHQuota.CALENDAR_QUARTER_DESC.TIME_ID = T268.TIME_ID and T268.CALENDAR_YEAR ) D1 where ( D1.CALENDAR_YEAR as c2.c2 as c2. SAWITH0.CALENDAR_YEAR = 2001 ) group by T268.CALENDAR_QUARTER_DESC as c3.c1 as c1.CALENDAR_QUARTER_DESC ASC) as c4 from TIMES T268. T268. SAWITH0. D1.Sending query to database named SH (id: <<46098>>): WITH SAWITH0 AS (select D1.CALENDAR_QUARTER_DESC ORDER BY T268.xml</NQSTableFullName> </NQSColumn> <NQSColumn> <NQSColumnType>string</NQSColumnType> <NQSColumnAlias>c3</NQSColumnAlias> <NQSColumnName>QtrDesc</NQSColumnName> <NQSColumnFullName>//Table/QUOTA/QtrDesc</NQSColumnFullName> <NQSTableName>SHQuota</NQSTableName> <NQSTableAlias>4194</NQSTableAlias> <NQSTableAliasName>SHQuota</NQSTableAliasName> 124 .AMOUNT_SOLD) as c1.-------------------.c3 as c3 from (select sum(T245.c4 = 1 ) ) select SAWITH0.

this privilege is set only for users defined as Presentation Server Administrators. The results of the request can be displayed and manipulated within Oracle BI Answers. and subsequently incorporated into Oracle BI Interactive Dashboards and Oracle BI Delivers.Rows 201. By default. Executing Direct Database Requests Users with the appropriate permissions can create and issue a direct database request directly to a physical back-end database.xml</NQSTableFullName> </NQSColumn> <NQSColumn> <NQSColumnType>double</NQSColumnType> <NQSColumnAlias>c5</NQSColumnAlias> <NQSColumnName>Quota</NQSColumnName> <NQSColumnFullName>//Table/QUOTA/Quota</NQSColumnFullName> <NQSTableName>SHQuota</NQSTableName> <NQSTableAlias>4194</NQSTableAlias> <NQSTableAliasName>SHQuota</NQSTableAliasName> <NQSTableFullName>/ora/SHQuota. Leave Answers open.Rows 4. you can create direct database requests. Click Finished to close the Session Management screen.Query Status: Successful Completion +++Administrator:b5ed0000:b5ed000b:----2007/05/22 01:16:08 -------------------. Click Close Window to close the Oracle BI Presentation Services screen.<NQSTableFullName>/ora/SHQuota. The following privilege settings in Oracle BI Presentation Services Administration control whether you can create and issue physical requests: Edit Direct Database Requests: If this privilege is set for you. bytes 224 retrieved from database query id: <<46098>> 12. 125 . 13. 15. Close the query log. bytes 9648 retrieved from database query id: <<46004>> +++Administrator:b5ed0000:b5ed000b:----2007/05/22 01:16:08 -------------------.xml</NQSTableFullName> </NQSColumn> </NQSQuery></NQSQueryInput> +++Administrator:b5ed0000:b5ed000b:----2007/05/22 01:16:08 -------------------. 14.

By default. click Manage Privileges to open the the Privilege Administration screen. Note that the Edit Direct Database Requests privilege is granted to Presentation Server Administrators. 5. 2. perform the following steps: 1. 3. In Answers. Note that the Execute Direct Database Requests privilege is not granted to anyone. In the Privilege Administration screen. 4. you can issue physical requests. this privilege is not enabled for anyone. In the Oracle BI Presentation Service Administration screen. scroll down to Answers. It can be changed by a Presentation Server Administrator. To execute a direct database request. Click (not permitted) to open the Change Privilege Permissions screen. By default. click Settings > Administration. the Administrator user is a member of this group.Execute Direct Database Requests: If this privilege is set for you. 126 .

Click Finished to close the Privilege Administration screen. 7. 127 . Click Finished to close the Change Privilege Permissions screen.6. . 8. Click Close Window to close the Oracle BI Presentation Services Administration screen. 10 Click the Answers link to return to the Answers start page. 9. Notice the change to the privilege permissions for Execute Direct Database Requests. Click the Add button next to Presentation Server Administrators to give this group explicit access to this privilege.

128 . 13 In the SQL Statement field. 14 Click Validate SQL and Retrieve Columns to display the columns from the . source enclosed in double quotes ("SH".11 Click the Create Direct Request link. . type SELECT * FROM Channels."Connection Pool" in this example). type the connection pool name for the SH data . Your results should look similar to the screenshot. 12 In the Connection Pool field. 16 Leave Answers open . Channels table. . 15 Click Results. .

it is possible to quickly generate aggregate tables to improve system performance and have these tables automatically mapped into the central business model without the need to maintain these mappings manually. which are measures that have been aggregated (typically summed) over a set of dimensional attributes. The calculations are done ahead of time and the results are stored in the tables. Oracle BI Server allows users to concentrate on asking the right business questions. processing should be quicker. Hence from the business model we have already created. therefore.Using Aggregates Aggregate tables store pre-computed results. The following steps are included for Managing Aggregates: Run the Aggregate Persistence Wizard Execute the Aggregate Build Scripts Study the Aggregate Metadata and Test in Answers Run the Aggregate Persistence Wizard 1. There is a utility in Oracle BI EE called the Aggregate Persistence Wizard that enables model-first DWH development and maintenance. This eliminates the need for run-time calculations and delivers faster results to users. because the server decides which tables provide the fastest answers. Aggregate tables should have many fewer rows than the non-aggregate tables and. without query authors or tools having to specify aggregate tables in the queries. you need to configure certain metadata in the repository. go to Tools > Utilities Select Aggregate Persistence Wizard and click Execute… 129 . For Oracle BI Server to have enough information to navigate to aggregate tables. In the Administration Tool. The aggregate navigation capability of Oracle BI Server allows queries to use the information stored in aggregate tables automatically. Using aggregate tables is a very popular technique for speeding up query response times in decision support systems.

g. these should only include the dimensions for which quotas are stored and to the following maximum depth: ProductDim: Category TimeDim: Quarter CustomerDim: Subregion Click Next 130 . E. Click Next Select the whole fact table SalesFacts Select the levels of aggregation for each dimension. G:\AggregateDDL.Insert a path for the aggregate DDL file.sql. Since we are including SHQuota fields.

"Amount Sold MAgo". "SH"."ProductsDim"."Connection Pool" in "orcl SH"."Category"."Category Sales". "SH"."Quota (000)") at levels ("SH". Close the Administration Tool 131 ."# of Customers"."CustomersDim"."Subregion") using connection pool "orcl SH"."Gross Profit Physical"."SH" Check I am done and click Next Click Finish Save and Check-in Changes.."CountDays"."Unit Cost"."# Customers MAgo".Select the location for the aggregate within the existing SH schema. Click Next Notice the logical SQL generated by the wizard "ag_Salesfacts" for "SH"."TimesDim"."Unit Cost MAgo"."Salesfacts"("Amount Sold"."Quarter".

"Salesfacts"("Amount Sold"..."SH" Statement execute succeeded Processed: 1 queries Next run the following command to create the Aggregate tables in the database nqcmd -d LinuxPEServer-SalesHistory -s g:\AggregateDDL. "SH"."Subregion") using connection pool "orcl SH"."Unit Cost".sql -u Administrator -p Administrator Notice the executed command and output results: create aggregates "ag_Salesfacts" for "SH"."SH" Statement execute succeeded Processed: 1 queries 132 ."TimesDim"."Unit Cost"."Quota (000)") at levels ("SH"."Connection Pool" in "orcl SH"."Quarter"."CustomersDim"."# Customers MAgo"."# of Customers"."Amount Sold MAgo"."ProductsDim"."Salesfacts"("Amount Sold"."Category"."# of Customers"."Unit Cost MAgo"."Category". "SH"."# Customers MAgo"."Amount Sold MAgo". As we have not configured the scheduler yet. we will use the NQCmd utility."Gross Profit Physical". "SH"."Category Sales"."Unit Cost MAgo"."Gross Profit Physical"."Subregion") using connection pool "orcl SH"."Connection Pool" in "orcl SH"."Quarter"."Quota (000)") at levels ("SH". "SH".sql_DDL -u Administrator -p Administrator Notice the executed command and output results: prepare aggregates "ag_Salesfacts" for "SH".exe utility on-demand or."CountDays"."TimesDim". To execute the aggregate build scripts follow these steps: Open a command prompt: Start > Run > cmd Browse to G:\ and run the following command to create the Aggregate metadata nqcmd -d LinuxPEServer-SalesHistory -s g:\AggregateDDL.Execute the Aggregate Build Scripts These scripts can be executed either using the NQCmd. if the BI Server is to be responsible for rebuilding aggregates on a regular basis these jobs can be set up in the BI Scheduler."CountDays"."ProductsDim"."CustomersDim"."Category Sales".

Study the Aggregate Metadata and Test in Answers Open Admin Tool and connect to Oracle BI Server Online Notice the new Physical tables with a red icon have been created in the SH schema and new Logical table sources in the Business Model Studying the new SalesFacts table source. you can understand how preexisting aggregates are manually mapped into the business model by creating a new logical table source. defining the appropriate expression to map each Logical column to the aggregate table: Then the aggregation level of the logical table source is configured for each dimension under the Content tab to tell the server when it should be used vs the detail tables or other aggregates: 133 .

for the Time Dimension) that aggregate dimension tables are included and set to the correct level for that dimension. This further speeds up query times and ensures that tables are joined at the same level so as not to double count any records.g. Join on Category: 134 .Also you can see from the new Logical Dimension Table sources (e. The tables we created with the Aggregate Persistence Wizard have the following physical relationships: E.g.

"Sales Facts".Quota saw_2. Presentation: SH +++Administrator:b5fc0000:b5fc001b:----2007/05/22 05:42:10 135 ."Amount Sold" saw_1.Test the aggregates by logging into Answers and creating the same query as before: Run the query and check the results 8. "Sales Facts". 9.SQL Request: SET VARIABLE QUERY_SRC_CD='Report'. 10. Notice also that even though the physical aggregate tables do not include any calculated measures like Variance from Quota or % Quota."% of Quota" saw_4 FROM SH ORDER BY saw_0 +++Administrator:b5fc0000:b5fc001b:----2007/05/22 05:42:10 -------------------. Click Settings > Administration. Subject Area: SH."Variance from Quota" saw_3. Click Manage Sessions. "Sales Facts".SELECT Calendar. Locate the last query run under Cursor Cache and click View Log. "Sales Facts"."Calendar Year" saw_0. You can see from the SQL that the BI Server “aggregate awareness” ensured the new table was used without any guidance from the user and as a result all previously created queries will now run faster if they are at a sufficiently high level of granularity. the server uses the aggregate definitions for the base measures to calculate the derived figures in the most optimal way.General Query Info: Repository: BIEE. -------------------.

c1 * 1000.c3 as c1. T4315.Calendar_Q000007F5 = T4383. SAWITH0. ag_Salesfacts T4383 where ( T4315.0 / nullif( SAWITH0. 0) as c4.c1 * 1000 as c3. sum(T4383.Amount_Sol00000140) as c2.c2 * 100.c1 * 1000 . 0) end as c5 from SAWITH0 order by c1 +++Administrator:b5fc0000:b5fc001b:----2007/05/22 05:42:10 -------------------.c1 * 1000 = 0 then NULL else SAWITH0.-------------------. 0) .Query Status: Successful Completion 136 .c2 .Sending query to database named orcl SH (id: <<213522>>): WITH SAWITH0 AS (select sum(T4383. case when SAWITH0.Calendar_Y00000809) select distinct SAWITH0. nvl(SAWITH0.nvl(SAWITH0.Calendar_Q000007F5 ) group by T4315. SAWITH0.Calendar_Y00000809 as c3 from SA_Quarter0000097D T4315.c2 as c2.Quota_0008059661B) as c1.

For example. Time comparisons allow businesses to analyze data that spans multiple time periods. The ToDate function is used to aggregate a measure attribute from the beginning of a specified time period to the currently displaying time. SQL was really an interim language designed to allow relational table semantics to be expressed in a convenient and accessible form. and to enable researchers and early developers to proceed with building the first relational systems in the mid1970s.Creating Time Series Measures The ability to compare business performance with previous time periods is fundamental to understanding a business. Oracle BI Server runs multiple queries in parallel to get the results. How else can you explain the fact that there is no direct way in SQL to compare this year to last year?” – Ralph Kimball The solution is to model time series data in the Oracle BI repository. The queries that run in the background to support the time measure are transparent to the user. This allows users to make one request for the desired result. For example. the ToDate function can calculate Month to Date sales for a given year. To create time series measures. perform the following steps: Identify a Dimension as a Time Dimension Create a Month Ago Measure Create a Change Month Ago Measure Create a ToDate Measure Ensure Correct Month Sort-Order for To-Date Calculation Test the Time Series Measures 137 . providing a context for the data. SQL was not designed to make comparisons over time straightforward: ”The most difficult area of data warehousing is the translation of simple business analyses into SQL. the Ago function can produce sales for every month of the current quarter. Both of these functions operate on measures. as Ralph Kimball states. SQL was not designed with business reports in mind. Yet. Oracle BI Server provides Ago and ToDate functions for time series comparisons. The Ago function calculates the aggregated value as of some time period shifted from the current time. You use the Expression Builder to apply the functions. along with the corresponding quarter ago sales.

double-click the TimesDim dimension hierarchy to open the Dimension dialog box. In the Dimension dialog box. Click the Keys tab. 5. 6. 138 . 2. In the Business Model and Mapping layer. 4.Identify a Dimension as a Time Dimension: 1. Click OK to close the Logical Level dialog box. Expand TimesDim to the Times Detail level and double-click the Times Detail level to open the Logical Level dialog box. 7. Check the Chronological Key checkbox for Times Detail_Key. check Time Dimension. 3. Click OK to close the Dimension dialog box.

3. 5. Name the logical column Month Ago Sales. Select Functions > Time Series Functions > Ago. 6. 139 . 4. Check Use existing logical columns as the source. Click the Expression Builder button (three dots) to open the Expression Builder.Create a Month Ago Measure 1. 2. Click Insert to add the Ago function to the Expression Builder. Right-click Sales Facts and select New Object > Logical Column to open the Logical Column dialog box.

Click the second <<expr>> in the expression.Click <<integer>> in the expression and type 1. 140 . The Ago function calculates the Amount Sold value one month prior to the current month. 11. 9. 10.7. Click the first <<expr>> in the expression.Select Time Dimensions > TimesDim and then double-click Month to add it to the expression. Select Logical Tables > Sales Facts and then double-click Amount Sold to add it to the expression. 8.

141 . 13.Click OK to close the Logical Column dialog box.12.Click OK to close the Expression Builder. The formula is displayed in the Logical Column dialog box.

8. Select Logical Tables > Sales Facts and then double-click Amount Sold to add it to the expression. 7. 142 . Click OK to close the Logical Column dialog box. Click OK to close the Expression Builder. 6. 9. 3. The formula is displayed in the Logical Column dialog box. Insert a minus sign in the expression.Create a Change Month Ago measure 1. Right-click Sales Facts and select New Object > Logical Column to open the Logical Column dialog box. 2. Select Logical Tables > Sales Facts and then double-click Month Ago Dollars to add it to the expression. 5. Check Use existing logical columns as the source. 4. Click the Expression Builder button to open the Expression Builder. Name the logical column Change Month Ago Dollars.

Create a To-Date Measure 1. Name the new logical column Year To Date Sales. 4. Open the Expression Builder. Select Functions > Time Series Functions and double-click ToDate to insert the expression. 6. Right-click Sales Facts and select New Object > Logical Column. 7. 5. 3. 143 . Select Use existing logical columns as the source. 2. Click the first <<expr>>. Select Logical Tables > Sales Facts and then double-click Amount Sold.

8. Click OK to close the Logical Column dialog box. Select Time Dimensions > TimesDim and the double-click Year to add it to the expression. 9. Click OK to close the Expression Builder. The formula is displayed in the Logical Column dialog box. 10. Click the second <<expr>>. 11. 144 .

Drag the three time series measures from the Business Model and Mapping layer to the Sales Facts presentation table. The Calendar Month Name column is now automatically sorted by Calendar Month Desc whenever it is used in an Answers query. 2. 8. 3. Click the Set button. Check in changes. Click OK to close the logical column dialog box.Ensure Correct Month Sort-Order for To-Date Calculation 1. 6. expand the Times logical table. In the Business Model and Mapping layer. 7. Double-click Calendar Month Name to open the logical column dialog box. 5. The sort order column displays in the Logical Column dialog box. Select Calendar Month Desc and click OK. 4. 145 .

Return to Answers and reload server metadata. Fix any errors before proceeding. Create the following query and filter in Answers: Times. Check global consistency.Amount Sold Sales Facts.Save the repository. Click Results.Year To Date Sales Calendar Year is equal to / is in 2001 3. Test the Time Calculations 1. 2. 10. 146 . See here for how to resolve any Time dimension errors related to imported XML data source.9.Calendar Month Name Sales Facts.Change Month Ago Sales Sales Facts.Month Ago Sales Sales Facts.

Summary In this lesson. Business Model and Mapping. you can refer to: Additional OBEs on the OTN Web site. and Presentation layers of a repository Test and validate a repository Create calculation measures Use initialization blocks and variables Add multiple sources to logical tables in a business model Execute direct database requests Use aggregate tables to speed processing Create time series measures Related Information To learn more about Oracle Business Intelligence. you should have learned how to: Build the Physical. 147 .

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