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Chapter 16

Brussels capital Belgium Jose Albert young student from Manila who accompanied Rizal in Brussels Jaceby sisters (Suzanne & Marie) run the modest boarding house Jose Alejandro engineering student who replaced Albert wrote La Solidaridad in Brussels o articles appeared in La Solidaridad A La Defensa (To LA Defensa) reply to a Spanish author Patricio de la Escosura La Verdad Para Todos (The Truth For All) defense against the Spanish charges that the native local officials were ignorant and depraved Vicente Barrantes Teatro Tagalo- exposes Barrantesignorance on the Tagalog theatrical art Una profanacion (A Profanation) a bitter attack against the friars for denying Christian burial to Mariano Herbosa, husband of Lucia who died of cholera Verdades Nueva (New Truths) a reply to Vicente Belloc Sanchez w/c assertes that the granting of reforms in the Philippines would ruin the peaceful and maternal rule of the friars. Crueldad (Cruelty) defense of Blumentritt from the scurrilous attacks of his enemies Diferencias (Differences) reply to biased article Old Truths w/s ridiculed those Filipinos who asked for reforms Inconsequencias (Inconsequences) defense of Antonio Luna against the attack of Pablo Mir Deas in El Pueblo Soberano Llanto y Risas (Tears and Laughters) A denunciation of Spanish racial prejudice against the brown Filipinos Ingratitudes (Ingratitude) reply to Governor Valeriano Weyler who told to the people of Calamba that they should not allow themselves to be deceived by the vain promises of their ungrateful sons. Rizal was first to advocate the Filipinization of its orthography. salacot (peasants head-gear) Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagala (The New Orthography of the Tagalog Language) article published in La Solidaridad. Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera auhthor of El Sanscrito en la Lengua Tagala (Sanskrit in the Tagalog Language)

Laong Laan(Ever Ready) A Mi. . . ( To my Muse) a pathetic poem that lacks the exquisiteness of To the Flowers of Heidelberg and is less polished than To the Filipino Youth but passionate in feeling 2 things brought cheer to Rizal: o summertime festival of Belgium Carnival style o Romance w/ Petite Suzzane Jacoby Belgian girl; pretty nice of his lanladies Nellie Boustead

Chapter 17 Rizal fought 2 duels: Antonio Luna & Wenceslao E. Retana talented Spanish scholar and press agent of the friars Leonor Rivera married a British(Englishman) engineer M.H. del Pilar acted as Rizals lawyer Dr. Dominador Gomez secretary of the Asociacion Hispano-Filipina Minister of Colonies - Seor Fabie El Resumen Madrid newspaper w/c sympathized w/ the Filipino cause, To cover the ears, open the purse, and fold the armsSpanish colonial policy
Queen Regent Maria Cristina ruler of Spain during the minority of Alfonso XIII Jose Ma. Panganiban talented co-worker of Rizal in the Propaganda Movement died in Barcelona @ 27. (Eulogy for Panganiban) La Ecopa anti-Filipino newspaper in madrid Teatro Apolo where gold watch chain with a locket containing the picture of Leonor Rivera lost Pablo Rianzares first proprietor of M.H. Del Pilar where he purschased La Solidaridad election between Rizal & del Pilar for Responsible took place during the 1st week of Feb. 1891 2 hostile camps (Rizalistas & Pilaristas) Madrid one of gayest cities of the world according to Rizal

Chapter 18
Biarritz resort city in French Riviera & where Rizal finished his second novel El Filibusterismo Eduardo Boustead father of Adelina and Nellie (Nelly) living in Villa Eliada

Nellie (Nelly) prettier and younger daughter of Mr. Boustead, protestant Father Pablo Pastells accused Rizal that he is a protestant Jose Ma.Basa (Hongkong) British colony where Rizal want to practiced ophthalmology in order to earn his living Propaganda Movement/reform crusade Mr. A.L. Lorena pseudonym of Deodato Arellano May 30,1891 revision of fili mostly completed

Chapter 19 Ghent famous university city in Belgium Rizal met 2 compatriots: o Jose Alejandro from Pampanga; roommate of Rizalin cheap boarding house o Edilberto Evangelista from Manila both studying engineering in University of Ghent F. MEYER-VAN LOO PRESS publisher found by Rizal to print his Fili Valentin Ventura his friend in Paris who sent him the necessary funds for the printing of Fili Sept. 18, 1891 El Filibusterismo came off the press Riza sent 2 copies of Fili in Hongkong for Basa and Sixto Lopez Rizal donated the original manuscript and an autograph printed copy to Valentin Ventura La publicidad where the members of Filipino Barcelona newspaper published a tribuneeugolizing the novels original style w/c is comparable only to the sublime Alexander Dumas and a model and a precious jewel in the now decadent literature of Spain El Nuevo Regimen liberal Madrid newspaper whom serialized the Fili in its issues; consists of 279 pages of long sheets of paper El Filibusterismo was dedicated to Gomburza (Mariano Gomez,73yrs old; Jose Burgos, 35yrs old; Jacinto Zamora, 37yrs old Filipiniana Division of the Bureau of Public Libraries, Manila where the Original Manuscript of El Filibusterismo is being preserved P10,000 amount of acquiring the original manuscript from Valentin Ventura by Philippine Government FOREWORD( found before the dedicatory page) & WARNING(found on the other side of the dedication) features of Fili that do not appear in the printed book to save printing cost

the title page of El Fili contains inscription written by Ferdinand Blumentritt El Filibusterismo is a sequel to the Noli. Little humor, less idealism, less romance than Noli, more revolutionary, more tragic Sypnosis: Simoun hero of Fili who was Crisostomo Ibarra in Noli; rich jeweler Tabo- roundish shaped steamer sailing from Manila to Laguna de Bay through Pasig River Doa Victorina ridiculously pro-Spanish native woman Don Tiburcio husband of Doa Victorina who deserted her Paulita Gomez - Doa Victorinas niece Ben-Zayb anagram of Ibaez; a Spanish journalist who write silly articles about the Filipinos Padre Sibyla Vice-Rector of UST Padre Camorra parish priest of town Tiani Don Custodio pro-Spanish Filipino holding a high postion in the government Padre Salvi thin Franciscan friar and former cura of San Diego Padre Irene a kind friar who was a friend of the Filipino students Padre Florentino - a retired scholarly and Patriotic Ffilipino priest Isagani a poet-nephew of Padre Florentino and a lover of Paulita Basilio son of Sisa Noli and El Fili Compared: Noli is a romantic novel, work of the heart, book of feeling, has freshness, color, humor, lightness, and wit Fili is a political novel, work of the head, book of the thought, contains bitterness, hatred, pain, violence and sorrow El Fili contains 38 chapters while Noli has 64 Noli is superior than Fili Unfinished 3rd novel has no title, consists of 44 pages(33cm x 21 cm), preserved in National Library Prince Tagulima son of Sultan Zaide of Ternate Malapad-na-Bato A big rock on the bank of the Pasig River Kamandagan hero of the 3rd novel; descendant of Lakandula, last king of Tondo

Other unfinished novels: Makamisa novel in agalog, written in a light sarcastic style and is incomplete for 2 chapters, consists of 20 pages (34.2 x 22) Dapitan written in ironic Spanish, consists of 8 pages (23cm x 16cm) novel about the life in Pili, town in Laguna consists of 147 pages (8 x 6.5) Novel about Cristobal youthful Filipino student who has returned from Europe, consists of 34 pages o Amelia his sweetheart o Capitan Ramon father of Cristobal

Chapter 20
Rizal left Europe for Hongkong Melbourne steamer bound for Hongkong Manuel Camus a compatriot living in Singapore Father Fuchs a Tylorese whom he played with chess; a Father Damaso w/o pride and malice Jose Ma. BAsa welcomed Rizal in Hongkong Rizal opened his clinic sad news of deporting of twenty-five persons from Calamba including his family Queen Victoria of England whom Hidalgo will write if the Queen of Spain will not listen in appealing for their protection Santa Cruz capital of Laguna Dr. Lorenzo P. Marques Portuguese physician who befriended by Rizal and admirer of him, helped him to build up a wide clientele Dr. Ariston Bautista Lin sent Rizal a congratulatory letter and a book on Diagnostic Pathology by Dr. H. Virchow and Traite Diagnostique by Mesnichock Don Antonio Vergel de Dios offered him his services for the purchase of medical books and instruments establishment of Filipino North Borneo(Sabah) Menon ship on board to Sandakan

Bengkoka River in Maradu Bay offered by the British North Borneo Company Manuel T. Hidalgo brave Batangueo, who objected to the colonization project. Weyler Cubans odiously called The Butcher Gov. Gen. Eulogio Despujol Count of Caspe who announced to the Filipino people a fine program of government Writings in Hongkong o Ang Mga Karapatan NAng Tao (The Rights of Man) proclaimed by the French Revolution o A la Nacion Espaola (To the Spanish Nation) appealto Spain to right the wrongs done to Calamba tenants o Sa mga Kababayan (To my Countrymen) explaining the Calamba agrarian situation o The Hong Kong Telegraph British daily newspaper o Mr. Frazier Smith editor of The Hong Kong Telegraph o Una Visita a la Victoria Gaol (A Visit to Victoria Gaol) a account of Rizals visit to the colonial prison of Hong Kong, contrasted the cruel Spanish prison system w/ the modern and more humane British prison system o Colonisation du British North Borneo, par de Familles de Iles Philippines (Colonization of British North by Families from the Philippine Islands) wrote to elucidate his pet Borneo colonization project o La Mano Roja (The Red Hand) denounces the frequent outbreaks of intentional fires in Manila o Constitution of the Liga Filipina printed in Hong Kong (LONDON PRINTING PRESS) o Liga Filipina (Philippine League) an association of patriotic Filipinos for civic purposes o Jose Ma. Basa originally conceived the Liga Filipina but Rizal wrote the constitution

o Domingo Franco- friend of


Rizal in Manila where he sent the printed copies of Liga constitution o Dr. Marques where he gave his last Hong Kong Lettters for safekeeping. o Luis de la Torre secretary of Despujol

Chapter 21 The battle field is in the Philipines biblical Daniel bearding the Spanish lion in its own den Arrival of Rizal w/ Lucia meticulous diarist (description of 2nd homecoming) Gen. Eulogio Despujol, Conde de Caspe Spanish gov. gen. visiting friends in Central Luzon o Malolos, San Fernando, Tarlac, Bacolor and Pampanga Doroteo Ongjungco Chinese-Filipino mestizo ; where the meeting was conducted, Ylaya Street,Tondo, Manila
Liga Filipina civic league of Filipinos

Defense against all violence and injustice Encouragement of education, agriculture, and commerce Study and application of reforms Provincial council province Popular Council town entrance fee 2 pesos & monthly due 10 cents Pobres Frailes (Poor Friars) satire against the rich Dominican friars; printed bt the Imprenta de los Amigos del PAis, Manila Fr. Jacinto author of Pobres Frailes Ramon Despujol nephew of Gov. gen. Despujol who arrested Rizal and escorted to Fort Santiago Nilad first Filipino Masonic Lodge Supreme council governing body Gaceta de Manila published the story of Rizals arrest Cebu steamer sailing for Dapitan Cpt. Delgras cpt. of steamer Cebu Cpt. Ricardo Carnicero Spanish commandant of Dapitan

Unus Instar Omnium (One like All) motto of Liga


o Ambrosio Salvador president

o Deodato Arellano secretary o Bonifacio Arevalo (Harem) treasurer o Agustin de la Rosa fiscal o Apolinario Mabini Katabay o Andres Bonifacio warehouse employee o Pedro Serrano Laktaw Panday Pira o Domingo Franco Felipe Leal o Jose Ramos Socorro o Moises Salvador Araw o Faustino Villaruel Ilaw o Numeriano Adriano Ipil Constitution of Liga Filipina to unite the whole archipelago into one compact and homogenous body Mutual protection in every want and necessity