Dynsim LNG Main Cryogenic Heat Exchanger Validation

16 December 2005

Dynsim 3.2 released in Summer 2004 included a multi-stream heat exchanger designed to simulate spiral wound main cryogenic heat exchangers (MCHE) found in LNG liquefaction plants. This report highlights the validation of the model for use in LNG liquefaction plant dynamic simulation studies and operator training simulators.

LNG Heat Exchanger Model
The Dynsim Multi Exchanger model simulates a multi-stream heat exchanger with discretized metal nodes between the streams. It can be used for the following applications.
• • • • •

A simple pipe exchanging heat with ambient conditions A shell and tube heat exchanger with multiple zones A plate fin exchanger with two or more streams contacting a metal surface A spiral wound LNG heat exchanger with a shell side and multiple tube side passes. A plug flow reactor with jacketed or internal cooling streams.

The Multi exchanger is configured with any number of flow passes, metal walls, and number of discretized elements per wall. Each flow pass in the Multi Exchanger determines its flow from its input stream to its output stream. Each flow pass has a flow rate dependent heat transfer calculation to any of the surrounding walls. The walls include thermal inertia of the metal and can lose heat to the surroundings. Multi Exchanger has a custom geometry configuration so that any flow pass flow pattern can be simulated.

Validation Data
To validate the heat exchanger model, SimSci-Esscor obtained the following PhD thesis from the University of Trondheim. Melaaen, Erik, “Dynamic Simulation of the Liquefaction Section in Baseload LNG Plants”, University of Trondheim, Oct 199 Dr. Melaaen’s thesis provided internal temperature profiles for the following spiral wound MCHE configuration.

Company Confidential


Two multi exchangers were required. one for the top section and one for the bottom section. Validation Results The following Dynsim model was created to match the University of Trondheim results.S07 S11 VL02 S06 S10 S03 VL03 VL01 S02 S09 S01 S08 S05 LNGHX01 S04 The PhD thesis furthermore provides a temperature profile using an accepted LNG exchanger design program to provide the following internal temperature profile. and pressure drop data. heat transfer coefficients. The analysis was performed independently by specifying the proper fluid compositions. surface areas. Company Confidential 2 .

5 0.6 R elative length 0.9 0.1 0 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 Temperature (K) Company Confidential 3 .3 Shell pass NG pass 0.7 0.2 MR vapour pass MR liquid pass 0. Temperature profile 1 0.8 0.4 0.The following figure provides the internal temperature profile calculated by Dynsim.

Heat transfer coefficients are adjusted with process flows and conditions to predict performance at other operating conditions. There is no need to exaggerate volumes or masses for stability. Also.The model was tested for transients. the model simulates zero and reverse flow in a stable and accurate manner. Since the model includes actual fluid volumes and metal masses. This analysis can be used to determine if mechanical failure can result during startup or other severe transient conditions Company Confidential 4 . Although this was a plate fin exchanger design. the dynamics are accurate. the model can be used for transient design validation by exchanger design companies or engineering contractors to determine the thermal stress on the exchanger. Since the dynamic model accepts accurate metal masses and calculates metal temperature dynamics. The simulation is also able to run many times real time. Dynsim was found to be a useful tool in the analysis of this process where the LNG exchanger model from competing commercially available dynamic simulation programs were unable to produce a workable dynamic simulation. Feedback and Other Applications Dynsim was evaluated by engineering contractors for licensed gas plant designs.

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