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Results of plate tectonics: 1.volcanism 2.diastrophism 3.earthquakes
Deformation of crust due to tectonic stress:
• Folding (bending) • Faulting (breaking and displacement)
Types of Stress and Strain
(Stress is force acting on rock; strain is rock’s response to stress)
Compression (shortening) Extension (stretching)
EXTENSION COMPRESSION .
Folding Compressional stress causes rocks to buckle and fold • Anticline: arch-shaped fold • Syncline: sink-shaped fold .
. Anticlines begin as ridges . synclines begin as valleys.
Differential erosion leads to: • Anticlinal ridges and valleys • Synclinal ridges and valleys Differential erosion: less-resistant types of rock strata will weather and erode more rapidly than more-resistant rock strata .
Anticlinal mountain/ridge Synclinal valley .
What’s this? Synclinal mountain/ridge .
rock fractures.Faulting Rock is strained beyond ability to remain intact. one side is displaced with respect to the other . • Fault plane: surface along which 2 sides move • Fault scarp: cliff formed along fault face .
1959 What’s this? Fault scarp .Fault from Hebgen Lake. Montana earthquake.
Types of Faults 1. Normal Fault: from extensional stress Vertical movement along an inclined fault plane .
Horst and Graben (result of normal faulting) Horst : upfaulted block Graben: downfaulted block .
Block mountains .
often creates landslides . Reverse Fault from compressional stress Vertical movement along inclined fault plane such that one side rides up over the other.2.
3. Overthrust fault Reverse fault with very low angle More horizontal than vertical movement .
3. Transcurrent (Strike-slip) Fault horizontal movement no fault scarp .
Transcurrent HEY! Who moved my wood pile?!@* .
San Andreas .