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System Concepts Information Concepts Decision Support System Organization and MIS SAP Case Studies on ◦ Effect of MIS on Business ◦ Use of Wireless technologies in business ◦ Use of Internet technology in business ◦ Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems ◦ Business Development Process (Ex of SDLC)
What is SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT ?
“System Development” refers to the process of –
Examining a business situation with the intent of improving it, through better procedures and methods.
System Development is having two major component in it
System Analysis – Analysis of current system for Problems & Demerits in it and Additional requirements in new system System Design – Process of planning new system which will replace the old one
. Excessive time spent in correcting errors. Present system no longer efficiently and effectively meets the Goals of organization. Evolving environmental changes such as Competition. Adding new business or product line to present business. Escalating customer and vendor complaints.Why System Development New design idea to smoothen the process in the organization. Present system does not satisfy the users information needs. Current Reports / Outputs not meting users decision making skills.
documented set of activities used to manage a system development project. Managers. REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT PROCESS by TOP Management on periodically by getting deliverables.e. TESTING OF SYSTEM thoroughly prior to implementation to ensure that it meets user’s needs. It can be characterized as follows: DIVISION OF PROJECT into the identifiable phases which can be managed without having any problem. standardized. Users. Analyst and Auditors). TRANNING of user who will operate the new system. APPROVALS from all the participants of the Development (i.System Development “Methodology” A system development methodology is a formalized. POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW for effectiveness and efficiency of new system .
Testing the system.Steps of System Development System Investigation ◦ Conduct of Product feasibility ◦ Development of project management plan System Analysis ◦ Analyze the information needs of all stakeholders in a business ◦ Development of functional requirements ◦ Development of Logical Models of existing system System Design ◦ Development of specifications ◦ Development logical modes of new system System Implementation ◦ Develop S/W. Convert . Acquire H/W. Training.
SDLC Phases Preliminary Investigation System Operation & Maintenance System Analysis System Implementation n System Design System Development .
Six Phases of the System Development Life Cycle Preliminary Investigation ◦ Assesses feasibility and practicality of system System Analysis ◦ Study old system and identify new requirements ◦ Defines system from user's view System Design ◦ Design new/alternative system ◦ Defines system from technical view .
and tested System Implementation ◦ System installation and training System Operation & Maintenance ◦ Daily operation ◦ Periodic evaluation and updating .Six Phases of the System Development Life Cycle System Development ◦ New hardware and software is acquired. developed.
Who participates in the system development life cycle? .
Systems Analyst A person responsible for designing and developing information system He is the Liaison between users and IT professionals .
when. where and why ◦ Suggest alternative solutions ◦ Prepare a short report . determine what information is needed by whom. Three primary tasks: ◦ Define the problem By observation and interview.Phase 1: Preliminary Investigation / Feasibility Study The objective of this phase is to review all requests and identify those proposals that are most beneficial to the organization.
Phase 1 Cntd… Preliminary Investigation object can be achieved in following steps: Request Clarification Feasibility study Estimating Costs and Benefits Request Approvals .
Request Clarification Defining the Scope and Objective of Request: ◦ An analyst has to define for which objective a request for development is submitted. Conducting the Investigation ◦ This is nothing but the Collection of data / inputs by: Reviewing internal documents (i. Supervisory Personal and Managers Questionnaire Joint-Application Design (JAD) session Research . Conducting interviews of User. operating procedures etc.e Organizational Charts.
Feasibility Study Evaluation of alternative systems through cost and benefit analysis: Measure of how suitable system development will be to the company Technical feasibility Four feasibility tests: Legal feasibility Economic feasibility (also called cost/benefit feasibility) Schedule feasibility Operational feasibility .
technical capacity to hold data and future expansion. Easy to Access. Technical Guarantee of Accuracy. Increased Revenue.Feasibility (Possibility) Study Technical Feasibility: Hardware and software availability.Cost Savings. Data security. Decreased Investment . Economical Feasibility: Evaluation of cost & Benefits expected. Reliability. Benefits.
customers & suppliers about the use of new system. . How well the proposed system will solve the identified problem How well the proposed system will fit with existing system • • Finding views of workers. Government etc. copyright and licensing policies of company.• Feasibility (Possibility) Study • • • • Operational Feasibility: Finding the possibilities on How well the proposed system supports the business priorities of the organization. Legal feasibility: Testing whether new system will comply the patent. employees. Schedule Feasibility: Estimation of time to take for new system to become operational.
Management Decision skill Intangible Benefits: . Intangible Costs: Loss of employee productivity. Improved information availability. self confidence etc. Operation Costs: This includes operator salary. maintenance costs. BENEFITS: Tangible Benefits: Increase in sales / Contribution / Profits Decrease in investment. start up costs. salary to designers.Estimating Cost & Benefit • • • • • COSTS: Development Costs: This includes cost of testing. acquisition cost of hardware & software. analysis. etc. operating and processing cost. training.
• • • • . Observation: Surprise Visit of users work palace to get a clear picture of user’s environment. forms. who will be benefited from the system In order to determine the requirement of those peoples he can use following facts finding techniques: Documents: This includes the Manuals. the analyst often interact extensively with the people. diagrams. It should be ensured that all documents are accurate & up to date Questionnaires: These are skillfully drafted group of standard question which can be given to all personal and can be analyze quickly. Interviews: To get a complete picture of problems and opportunities. Phase 2: Collection of data and facts Analysis of Present System System Analysis of Proposed system Analysis to meets some set of needs and to Every system is built assess these needs. organizational charts etc.
to show relationship between inputs and outputs System flowcharts .Phase 2: System Analysis Tools Used Checklists . processing. break down into smaller parts through each successive level Grid charts .charts flow of input data. and output which show system elements and interactions .list of questions Top-down analysis .start with top level components.
Phase 2: System Analysis Documentation Procedure Complete description of current system and its problems Requirements for new system including: ◦ Subject ◦ Scope ◦ Objectives ◦ Benefits Possible development schedule .
Is reliable technology and training available? ◦ Operational feasibility .Phase 3: System Design In depth study of the existing system to determine what the new system should do. ◦ Expand on data gathered in Phase 1.Will the managers and users support it? .Do benefits justify costs? ◦ Technical feasibility . examine: ◦ Formal lines of authority (organization chart) In addition to observation and interviews ◦ Standard operating procedures ◦ How information flows Reasons for any inefficiencies Uses specifications from the systems analysis to design alternative systems Evaluate alternatives based upon: ◦ Economic feasibility .
Examples: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Diagramming Tools Data Repositories Prototyping Tools Test Data Generators Documentation Tools Project Management Tools .Phase 3: System Design Tools Used Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools are software-based products designed to help automate the production of information systems.
benefits .Phase 3: System Design Documentation Produced System Design Report ◦ Describe Alternatives including: Inputs/Outputs Processing Storage and Backup ◦ Recommend Top Alternative based upon: System Fit into the Organization Flexibility for the future Costs vs.
tests system as one unit ◦ Create manuals for users and operators .Phase 4: System Development Build the system to the design specifications ◦ Develop the software Purchase off-the-shelf software OR Write custom software ◦ Acquire the hardware ◦ Test the new system Module (unit) test .tests each part of system Integration testing .
Phase 5: System Implementation Convert from old system to new system Train users Compile final documentation Evaluate the new system .
individual parts of new system are gradually phased-in over time. in one step Parallel approach .Phase 5: System Implementation Types of Conversion Direct/plunge/crash approach – entire new system completely replaces entire old system. .once new system is operating smoothly.launched new system for only one group within the business -.both systems are operated side by side until the new system proves itself Pilot approach . implementation goes companywide Phased/incremental approach . using either crash or parallel for each piece.
Phase 5: System Implementation User Training ◦ Ease into system. and gain their support ◦ Most commonly overlooked ◦ Can be commenced before equipment delivery ◦ Outside trainers sometimes used . make them comfortable.
Phase 6: Operations & Maintenance Types of changes: ◦ Physical repair of the system ◦ Correction of new bugs found (corrective) ◦ System adjustments to environmental changes ◦ Adjustments for users’ changing needs (adaptive) ◦ Changes to user better techniques when they become available (perfective) .
modifications if necessary .Phase 6: Operations & Maintenance Evaluation Methods ◦ Systems audit .“checkups” from time to time.performance compared to original specifications ◦ Periodic evaluation .
Deliverables of the SDLC Preliminary Investigation System Analysis System Design Approved Feasibility Study Problem Specifications Abort Project Goto next phase Goto Previous phase Design Specifications System Development Coded and Tested System System converted Users trained Begin building new system System Implementation System Maintenance Operational System Documentation completed .
MFG-PRO. Evolution of ERP. DSS. Case studies. Application Technologies: ERP concepts. Types of websites. MIS. E-commerce security issues. Systems Development: the concept of systems development life cycle (SDLC). Strategic role of information in management. Oracle. B2C. .Types of SDLC. Web Publishing: web publishing. B2B. Use of flow charts. ESS. ERP and BPR. Baan. E-commerce. telecommunications networks. TPS. Ethical issues 5. Information Systems: data vs Information. ERP Implementation. ERP Evaluation. ERP packages. Networking concepts. Organization as an information system. 4. SAP. OAS.MIS Syllabus Management Information Systems 1. 2. Functional modules in business. . C2C. Extended ERP. Web surfing. Practicals on ERP -.
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