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A-LTE

A-LTE

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ATOLL LTE FEATURES

Training Program

1. LTE Concepts 2. LTE Planning Overview 3. Modelling an LTE Network 4. LTE Predictions 5. MIMO Modelling 6. Neighbour Allocation 7. Automatic Resource Planning 8. Frequency Plan Analysis 9. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10. Using Drive Tests 11. Terminology and Concepts

© Forsk 2009

Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Slide 2 of 149

1. LTE Concepts
Context and background

OFDM/OFDMA basics

© Forsk 2009

Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Slide 3 of 149

Context and Background What is LTE? What is 4G? Why LTE? LTE deployment RF planning/optimisation tool requirements for LTE Evolution of LTE © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 4 of 149 .

What is LTE? LTE = Long Term Evolution 3GPP1’s project name for Evolved UTRA2 (e-UTRA) Next generation of 3GPP-based mobile networks (GSM/GPRS/EDGE. UMTS/HSPA. and TD-SCDMA) One of the 3 standards on which 4G cellular networks will be based LTE WiMAX UMB3 1 2 3 from 3GPP from IEEE and the WiMAX Forum from 3GPP2 Third Generation Partnership Project UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Ultra Mobile Broadband © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 5 of 149 .

What is 4G? Provides improvements over existing 2G and 3G networks High data rates at high mobile speeds: ~100Mbps in DL. TV. streaming. VOD. etc. 50Mbps in UL with MIMO Inter-working and support for mobility: Handovers to 3G and 2G layers and roaming Service and content convergence: VoIP. All IP backbone Based on some form of OFDM Implement smart antenna/MIMO techniques Use higher order modulation techniques Support for scalability: Channel bandwidth adaptation © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 6 of 149 . download.

What is 4G? Evolution of Mobile Technologies WiMAX 802.16e-2005 OFDM All-IP MIMO AAS WiMAX 802.A IP transport EV-DO Rev.C OFDM All-IP MIMO AAS HSDPA / HSUPA IP Transport HSPA+ MIMO All-IP 3G LTE OFDM All-IP MIMO AAS EDGE Evolution 2006 2007 2008 2009 © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 7 of 149 .16m OFDM All-IP MIMO AAS CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev.

What is 4G? Evolution of 3GPP Standards Release ’99: Release 4: Release 5: Release 6: Release 7: Release 8: UMTS FDD UMTS TDD + FDD Repeaters HSDPA HSUPA (Enhanced Uplink) + MBMS HSPA+ (2x2 MIMO.) LTE FDD and TDD © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 8 of 149 . Higher Order Modulation. etc.

…) Number of mobile subscriptions worldwide: > 3. broadcast.8 % market share) Around 105 operators in ~47 countries Nearly 300 million subscribers worldwide Potential market share for UMB: 11 % Economic Possibility to reuse part of existing 3G equipment hardware with software defined radio Spectrum already allocated to operators Convergence of market and user needs Multi-play services (voice. data.4 % market share) Around 670 operators in ~200 countries More than 3 billion subscribers worldwide UMTS HSPA (7.8 billion © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 9 of 149 .Why LTE? Huge potential market share GSM (80.

4 MHz Highly sensitive to Frequency Selective Fading Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 10 of 149 Orthogonal Subcarriers © Forsk 2009 .7 Mbps Up to 100 Mbps DL and 50 Mbps UL Cyclic Prefix Highly sensitive to Inter-symbol Interference LTE vs. 3G Min 5 MHz Spectrum Min 1.4 Mbps & UL: 5.Why LTE? Improvements over 3G (UMTS HSPA) Data Rates DL: 14.

LTE Deployment 1st phase: A few trial sites in urban areas where provision of high data rate services has market potential Site locations probably the same as existing 3G sites Spectrum sharing with existing 3G cell (1 carrier dedicated to the trial LTE layer) 2nd phase: Replacement of 3G sites with on-air LTE sites. or Co-existence of 3G and LTE coverage layers High Speed © Forsk 2009 Handovers Confidential – Do not share without prior permission High Throughput Slide 11 of 149 .

LTE Deployment Migration from any 3GPP technology to LTE Rational choice for GSM and GSM/UMTS operators Some CDMA operators might also opt for LTE instead of UMB Very few GSM operators would opt for WiMAX Rarely any green-field scenarios GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS HSPA LTE Non-3GPP Technologies © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 12 of 149 .

16m 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps in DL • • 100 Mbps for fast moving users 1 Gbps for slow to stationary users © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 13 of 149 .Evolution of LTE Future: IMT-Advanced Most 4G networks will move to • • LTE Advanced WiMAX 802.

OFDM/OFDMA Basics OFDM definition and differences between FDM and OFDM Advanced OFDM : OFDMA Multiple access techniques and duplexing methods Benefits of OFDM/OFDMA OFDM/OFDMA in LTE © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 14 of 149 .

Distance between subcarriers) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 15 of 149 . In OFDM. the sub-carrier frequencies are chosen so that the subcarriers are orthogonal to each other Time period for modulation: OFDM symbol • • Adjustable guard periods : cyclic prefix used to dissipate multipath effect Symbol rate = f(channel bandwidth.What is OFDM ? OFDM = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Also known as Discrete MultiTone (DMT) or Multi-Carrier Modulation (MCM) Advanced form of Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) • • FDM : single modulated radio signal per user OFDM : hundreds to thousands of separate radio signals (subcarriers) spread across a wideband channel. carrier spacing .

OFDM Frequency and Time Domains Time Symbols Subcarriers Frequency 1 OFDM symbol © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 16 of 149 .

Differences between FDM and OFDM FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) Carriers separated by guard bands  low spectrum usage efficiency More carriers  more guard bands  decrease in efficiency Therefore. usually large carrier widths are used Large carrier widths  low symbol duration (f=(1/t)) more sensitive to time delays © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 17 of 149 .

… for higher throughput © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 18 of 149 . 16QAM.Differences between FDM and OFDM OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) Centre point of subcarrier c intersects with subcarriers c-1 and c+1 at their 0 values Narrowband orthogonal carriers  negligible inter-carrier-interference (ICI) Long symbol durations + cyclic prefix  negligible inter-symbol-interference (ISI) No ICI and ISI  no intra-cell interference Possibility to support less robust modulations like 64QAM.

Advanced OFDM : OFDMA OFDMA : Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access OFDM Each user is allocated the full channel : capacity wasting OFDMA Each user can be assigned only a part of the entire channel at a time Ability to subdivide the subcarrier population : more than one user served at a time Subchannels © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Subchannels Slide 19 of 149 .

Benefits of OFDM/OFDMA Negligible inter-carrier-interference (ICI) Thanks to orthogonal subcarriers which can be transmitted by the use of Fast Fourier Transform (equipment evolution) Use of less robust modulation •  Increased data rate Improved resilience (ISI) Sending data across parallel carriers  lower rate/carrier Fewer modulation symbols  longer symbol duration • Better chance to correctly sample signal Efficient usage of the spectrum Better resistance to frequency selective fading channel Multiple access (time and frequency multiplexing techniques) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 20 of 149 .

Multiplexing and Duplexing Uses SOFDMA (same as WiMAX 802.16e) in DL SOFDMA: Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Uses SC-FDMA in UL (an OFDM variant not much different from SOFDMA) SC-FDMA: Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access Can be deployed in FDD and TDD © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 21 of 149 .

Multiple Access Techniques 1g 4g 2g 3g © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 22 of 149 .

. can be adapted as needed 1.OFDM and OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Provides resource allocation flexibility Scalable OFDMA Channel bandwidth is scalable. i.e.4 3 5 10 15 20 Bandwidth (MHz) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 23 of 149 .

LTE Channel Structure OFDMA in DL and SC-FDMA in UL A channel is composed of more than 1 Frequency Block (FB) • • • • Equivalent of Subchannel in WiMAX Fixed width = 180 kHz (LTE system level constant) 1 Frequency Block over 1 slot = 1 Resource Block (RB) (Elementary unit assigned to 1 user) Benefit of SC-FDMA: Low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR)  Easier UE Design Each FB is composed of many Subcarriers • • • Two Subcarrier widths possible: 15 kHz. 7.5 kHz specified for MBMS/SFN services • Narrow subcarrier width  Longer symbol duration + Longer Cyclic Prefix = More resistant against multipath © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 24 of 149 .5 kHz 7.5 kHz 1 FB = 12 SCa of 15 kHz OR 24 SCa of 7.

68 MHz (2 x 3.84) 3.84) FFT Size Number of RBs 6 15 25 50 75 100 Number of Used Subcarriers 72 (73) 180 (181) 300 (301) 600 (601) 900 (901) 1200 (1201) 128 256 512 1024 1536 2048 15 kHz (7.72 MHz (8 x 3.5 kHz for MBMS) 7.84) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 25 of 149 .36 MHz (4 x 3.84) 15.LTE Channel Structure Spectrum Allocation 1.84) 30.04 MHz (6 x 3.84) 23.84 MHz (1 x 3.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz Subcarrier Spacing Sampling Frequency 1.92 MHz (1/2 x 3.

5 ms) = 6 or 7 symbol durations Control channels transmitted on subframes 0 and 5 (always DL) Two possible cyclic prefix durations: Normal or Extended (resp. SF 9 Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 ……………………………..LTE Frame Structure TDD and FDD Specific frame structures for TDD and FDD 1 frame = 10 ms = 2 half-frames (TDD) = 10 subframes or TTI (each 1 ms) = 20 slots (each 0..5 ms …………………………….5 ms) 1 slot (0. 7 or 6 OFDM symbols per slot) 10 ms LTE Frame 1 ms SF 0 SF 1 0. Slot 18 Slot 19 OFDM Symbol 0 OFDM Symbol 1 OFDM Symbol 2 OFDM Symbol 3 OFDM Symbol 4 OFDM Symbol 5 OFDM Symbol 6 CP CP CP CP CP CP © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission CP Slide 26 of 149 .

LTE Frame Structure FDD Frame FDD Frame = 10 ms Subframe 1 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TDD Frame with (DwPTS. GP. and UpPTS as in TD-SCDMA) Full.and Half-frame switching point periodicity Half-frame periodicity provides the same half-frame structure as a TD-SCDMA subframe TDD Frame = 10 ms (with SPP = ½ Frame) Half frame = 5 ms Subframe 1 ms 0 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 DwPTS GP UpPTS DwPTS GP UpPTS TDD Frame = 10 ms (with SPP = Frame) Half frame = 5 ms Subframe 1 ms 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DwPTS GP UpPTS © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 27 of 149 .

Physical Channels Random access HARQ feedback CQI reporting UL scheduling request CQI reporting for MIMO related feedback Traffic Slot/Frame synchronization & Cell Id identification HARQ feedback Transport format UL scheduling grant Resource allocation Confidential – Do not share without prior permission eNode-B Traffic. MBMS Control information Paging © Forsk 2009 Slide 28 of 149 .

Control and Traffic Channels Logical BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCH Transport BCH PCH DL-SCH UL-SCH MCH RACH Physical PBCH PDSCH PUSCH PUCCH PMCH PRACH DL TCH UL TCH © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 29 of 149 .

1 antenna. ΔF = 15 kHz • Standard frequency block • Any frequency block within the centre 6 frequency blocks: Legend: Downlink Reference Signals PBCH P-SCH S-SCH PDCCH / PHICH / PCFICH DL-SCH Subcarriers in a resource block are adjacent RBs allocated to mobiles are not necessary adjacent  Interference Coordination © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 30 of 149 .OFDMA LTE Frame (DL) Structure of a Resource Block Frame structure of Type I.

OFDMA LTE Frame (DL) 7 OFDM symbols at normal CP per slot (0.5 ms) OFDM Symbol 0 OFDM Symbol 1 OFDM Symbol 2 OFDM Symbol 3 OFDM Symbol 4 OFDM Symbol 5 OFDM Symbol 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 subframe = 2 slots (1 ms) Legend: Downlink Reference signals PBCH P-SCH S-SCH PDCCH / PHICH / PCFICH DL-SCH SF 7 SF 8 SF 9 Centre 6 RBs SF 0 SF 1 SF 2 SF 3 SF 4 SF 5 SF 6 1 frame = 10 subframes (10 ms) P-SCH and S-SCH ~ Preamble in WiMAX DL Reference signals ~ Pilot subcarriers in WiMAX © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 31 of 149 CP CP CP CP CP CP CP .

SC-FDMA LTE Frame (UL)
7 OFDM symbols at normal CP per slot (0.5 ms)
OFDM Symbol 0 OFDM Symbol 1 OFDM Symbol 2 OFDM Symbol 3 OFDM Symbol 4 OFDM Symbol 5 OFDM Symbol 6 CP CP CP CP CP CP CP

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 subframe = 2 slots (1 ms)

Legend: Uplink Demodulation Reference Signal Uplink Sounding Reference Signal PUCCH Demodulation Reference Signal for PUCCH

SF 0

SF 1

SF 2

SF 3

SF 4

SF 5

SF 6

SF 7

SF 8

SF 9

1 frame = 10 subframes (10 ms)

© Forsk 2009

Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Slide 32 of 149

Cell Search/Synchronisation

UE SCH detection over a 1.4/3/5/10/15/20 MHz spectrum

SCH in 1.25 MHz/72 subcarriers BCH in 1.25 MHz/72 subcarriers

Detect spectrum centre and 1.25 MHz spectrum 1.4/3/5/10/15/20 MHz spectrum

eNode-B SCH and BCH band

SCH and BCH frequency reception

1.25 MHz spectrum

72 subcarriers

Data transmission on assigned spectrum provided by System Information

BCH information reception Sub-carriers for data

© Forsk 2009

Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Slide 33 of 149

Frequency Planning
Usual 1x3x1 and 1x3x3 allocations

F1

F1

F1

F2

F3

F1

F1

F3

F2

Frequency

Fractional Frequency Allocation: like segmentation in WiMAX
Possibility to allocate 3 fractions of the a channel to 3 sectors of a site Provides better spectrum usage and interference reduction

Seg1 Seg1 F1 F1 Seg 3 Seg 2 Seg 3 Seg 2 F1 Seg 1 Seg 2 Seg 3

F1

© Forsk 2009

Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Slide 34 of 149

Handovers in LTE Hard handover Fast BS Selection No soft handover specified for LTE © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 35 of 149 .

MIMO Systems in LTE Multiple Input Multiple Outputs (MIMO) systems Stations and user equipment can support MIMO systems • Numbers of transmission and reception antenna ports at the transmitter and user equipment Supported MIMO systems: • Transmit or Receive Diversity (Tx/Rx Div) • More than one transmission antenna to send the same data • Improvement of CINR Single-user MIMO or spatial multiplexing (SM) • More than one transmission antenna to send different data streams on each antenna • Improvement of throughput for a given CINR Adaptive MIMO switch (AMS) • Technique to switch from SM to Tx/Rx Diversity as CINR conditions get worse than a given threshold Multi-user MIMO or collaborative MIMO • Multiplexing of several users with good enough radio conditions • More than one cell reception antenna to receive transmissions from several users over the same frequency-time allocation (UL only) • Can be used with single-antenna user equipment • Improvement of UL capacity in terms of number of connected users Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 36 of 149 • • • © Forsk 2009 .

LTE Planning Overview 3. Automatic Resource Planning 8. LTE Predictions 5. Terminology and Concepts © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 37 of 149 . Neighbour Allocation 7. Frequency Plan Analysis 9. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10.Training Program 1. LTE Concepts 2. Modelling an LTE Network 4. Using Drive Tests 11. MIMO Modelling 6.

LTE Planning Overview LTE features supported in Atoll LTE workflow in Atoll © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 38 of 149 .2.

LTE Features supported in Atoll Supports Evolved UTRA (3GPP Release 8 LTE) Networks Various frequency bands Scalable channel bandwidths Resource blocks per channel and sampling frequencies Support of TDD and FDD frame structures Half-frame/full-frame switching point periodicities for TDD Normal and extended cyclic prefixes Downlink and uplink control channels and overheads • Downlink and uplink reference signals. PBCH. P-SCH. S-SCH. Physical cell IDs Possibility of fixed subscriber database for fixed applications Support of directional CPE antennas © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 39 of 149 . etc. PUCCH. PDCCH.

LTE Features supported in Atoll Supports Evolved UTRA (3GPP Release 8 LTE) Networks Signal level based coverage planning CINR based coverage planning Network capacity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations Scheduling and resource allocation in two-dimensional frames Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems • • • • Transmit and Receive Diversity Single-User MIMO or spatial multiplexing Adaptive MIMO Switch (AMS) Modelling of Multi-User MIMO (collaborative MIMO – UL only) Tools for resource allocation • • Automatic allocation of neighbours and physical cell Ids Automatic allocation of frequencies (AFP) (Optional) Network verification possible using test mobile data © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 40 of 149 .

LTE Workflow in Atoll Open an existing project or create a new one Network configuration .Add network elements .Change parameters Basic predictions (Best server. signal level) Automatic or manual neighbour allocation Automatic or manual frequency planning Automatic or manual physical cell ID planning Traffic maps And/or Monte-Carlo simulations Cell load conditions Signal quality and throughput predictions User-defined values Subscriber lists © Forsk 2009 Frequency plan analysis Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Prediction study reports Slide 41 of 149 .

Modelling an LTE Network 4. Automatic Resource Planning 8. Using Drive Tests 11. MIMO Modelling 6. LTE Planning Overview 3. LTE Predictions 5.Training Program 1. Neighbour Allocation 7. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10. Terminology and Concepts © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 42 of 149 . Frequency Plan Analysis 9. LTE Concepts 2.

3. Modelling an LTE Network Frequency bands LTE Frame structure settings Transmitter parameters Cell parameters © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 43 of 149 .

Frequency Bands Frequency bands Atoll can model multi-band networks within the same document TDD (Time Division Duplexing) or FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) One frequency band assigned to each cell © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 44 of 149 .

PBCH.: at 15 kHz.g. 7 SD/slot (normal) or 6 SD/slot (extended) Number of SD for Physical Downlink Control Channel (0.LTE Frame structure settings Transmitter folder global parameters Normal (default) or extended cyclic prefix (No. Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 45 of 149 .2 or 3) carrying DL and UL Resource allocation information System-level constants (Hard-coded) • • Width of a resource block (180 kHz) Frame duration (10 ms) TDD option only : Switch from DL to UL every half frame (default) or every frame Average number of resource blocks for Physical Uplink Control Channel (top and bottom of frame transmitted every 2 slots) Other control channel overheads defined by 3GPP (calculated based on 3GPP specs) • © Forsk 2009 Reference signals.1. of SD per slot)  e. S-SCH. P-SCH. etc.

noise figure MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output systems) reception and transmission settings © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 46 of 149 .Transmitter Parameters Cells: (Tx-carrier) pairs Specifications of carriers in a transmitter Equipment specifications DL and UL total losses.

Cell Parameters
Cell activity Cell order used for carrier selection Channel number in the frequency band (and allocation status) Resource allocation min reuse distance Power and energy offsets from computed reference signal Scheduler used for bearer selection and resource allocation Frame configuration (TDD only) UL and DL MIMO support (Tx/Rx Div, SU-MIMO/SM, AMS and/or MU-MIMO) Threshold to switch from SM to Tx/Rx Div or for using MU-MIMO Max UL and DL traffic loads to be respected during simulations

Cell’s frequency band
Physical Cell ID ( and allocation status) Reference signal quality threshold used as cell coverage limit LTE equipment used for bearer selection/quality indicator studies/MIMO gains Maximum simultaneous users supported by the cell*

Cell capacity gain in case of MU-MIMO
UL/DL traffic loads* UL noise rise due to surrounding mobiles* Effect of external sources of interferences Neighbour list
© Forsk 2009

* User-defined or simulation output
Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Inputs of the neighbour allocation algorithm
Slide 47 of 149

Training Program

1. LTE Concepts 2. LTE Planning Overview 3. Modelling an LTE Network 4. LTE Predictions 5. MIMO Modelling 6. Neighbour Allocation 7. Automatic Resource Planning 8. Frequency Plan Analysis 9. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10. Using Drive Tests 11. Terminology and Concepts

© Forsk 2009

Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Slide 48 of 149

4. LTE Predictions
Introduction

Parameters used in predictions

Prediction settings

Fast link adaptation modelling

Coverage prediction examples

Point analysis studies

© Forsk 2009

Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Slide 49 of 149

and PUSCH CINR and interference plots) Best bearer plots based on PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels Throughput and cell capacity per pixel plots based on PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels • Peak RLC. PDSCH.Introduction Coverage predictions General studies based on downlink reference signal levels • • • • Best server plot based on downlink reference signal levels Multiple server coverage based on downlink reference signal levels Reference signal signal level plots Reference signal CNR plots LTE UL and DL specific studies • • • • • SCH/PBCH. PDSCH. and PUSCH CNR plots Quality studies (reference signal. and PUSCH signal level plots SCH/PBCH. SCH/PBCH. effective RLC. and application cell capacities • Peak RLC. effective RLC. and application aggregate cell throughputs Point predictions © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 50 of 149 . PDSCH. and application throughputs • Peak RLC. effective RLC.

Introduction Principles of the studies based on traffic Study calculated for • Given load conditions • UL noise rise • DL traffic load A non-interfering user with • A service • A mobility • A terminal type with a directive antenna (oriented towards the serving cell) • © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 51 of 149 .

Load Conditions Load conditions are defined in the cells table Values taken into consideration in predictions for each cell © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 52 of 149 .

Service Properties

Parameters used in predictions
Highest bearers in UL and DL Body loss Application throughput parameters

© Forsk 2009

Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Slide 53 of 149

LTE Bearer Properties
Support for multiple modulation and coding schemes (MCS)
User-selectable modulations (QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM) User-definable coding rates (e.g. 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, etc.) User-definable bearer efficiencies (useful bits per resource element)
• Used for channel throughput evaluation

© Forsk 2009

Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Slide 54 of 149

LTE Bearer Properties
Link adaptation in LTE

© Forsk 2009

Confidential – Do not share without prior permission

Slide 55 of 149

© Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 56 of 149 .Mobility Properties Parameters used in predictions Mapping between mobilities and thresholds in bearer and quality indicator determination (as radio conditions depend on user speed).

Terminal Properties Support of MIMO Parameters used in predictions Reception equipment Antenna settings (incl. MIMO support) Maximum terminal power Gain and losses Noise figure Number of Antenna ports in UL and DL in case of MIMO support © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 57 of 149 .

PDSCH. SCH/PBCH. and PUSCH CNR plots • © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 58 of 149 . a service. a terminal (possibly directional antenna oriented towards the serving cell) Reference signal. and PUSCH signal level plots • • • Best server plot Coverage by signal level Multiple server coverage Preamble signal quality based coverage predictions • Selection of a mobility. SCH/PBCH. PDSCH.Prediction Settings Coverage prediction plots Do not require Monte-Carlo simulations or subscriber lists Reference signal.

and application cell capacities • Peak RLC. and PUSCH CINR and interference plots Best bearer plots based on PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels Throughput and cell capacity per pixel plots based on PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels • Peak RLC. PDSCH. a service.Prediction Settings Coverage prediction plots Traffic channel CINR based coverage predictions • • Based on user-defined cell loads or on Monte-Carlo simulation results Selection of a mobility. effective RLC. SCH/PBCH. effective RLC. effective RLC. and application throughputs • Peak RLC. and application aggregate cell throughputs • • • © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 59 of 149 . a terminal (possibly directional antenna oriented towards the serving cell) Reference signal.

effective RLC.Fast Link Adaptation Modelling Atoll determines. BLER)  © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 60 of 149 . the highest bearer that each user can obtain No soft handover Connection to the best server in term of reference signal level (C) Bearer chosen according to the radio conditions (PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels) Process : prediction done via look-up tables Peak RLC. on each pixel. and application throughput calculation Reference signal quality evaluation (C) Highest bearer determination limited by the service settings   Best server and service area determination (C/N)  PDSCH and PUSCH CINR calculation Quality indicator (BER.

Shadowing effect and indoor losses) The interference reduction due to the co and adjacent channel overlap between the studied and the interfering base stations The interference reduction factor due to interfering base station’s traffic load © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 61 of 149 .Interference Estimation Atoll calculates PDSCH and PUSCH CINR according to: The victim traffic (PUSCH or PDSCH) power The interfering signals impacted by: • • • • The interferer powers The path loss from the interferer to the victim Antenna gain Losses from interferer (incl.

the bearer is selected according to: The LTE reception equipment defined at reception (cell for UL. terminal for DL) The CINR threshold to access each bearer Scheduler parameters of the serving cell • • Bearer selection criterion The uplink bandwidth allocation target The highest possible bearer according to the service settings © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 62 of 149 .Bearer Selection When PDSCH and PUSCH CINR are evaluated.

Bearer Selection Scheduler settings for bearer determination Bearer selection criterion: • Bearer index: selection of the highest bearer index • Peak RLC throughput: selection of the highest peak RLC throughput • Effective RLC throughput: selection of the highest effective RLC throughput Uplink bandwidth allocation target: • Full bandwidth: use of all the frequency blocks • Maintain connection: number of frequency blocks reduced one by one to increase the PUSCH CINR so that the mobile is able to get at least the lowest bearer (as defined by the bearer selection criterion) • Best bearer: number of frequency blocks reduced to increase the PUSCH CINR so that the mobile is able to get the best bearer available (as defined by the bearer selection criterion) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 63 of 149 .

the channel throughput is calculated according to: The channel bandwidth and the sampling frequency The frame definition considering hard coded parameters and user-defined ones (global parameters tab or the Transmitter folder property box). The cyclic prefix ratio The bearer efficiency defined in the selected bearer © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 64 of 149 .Throughput Estimation When the bearer is selected.

Quality Indicator Estimation When the bearer is selected. the quality indicator (BER or BLER) is obtained according to: The graphs defined in the quality graph tab of the receiver equipment The selected bearer The calculated PDSCH and PUSCH CINRs The terminal mobility (optionally) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 65 of 149 .

Prediction Examples (General Studies) Number of servers (Based on reference signal power) Coverage by signal level (Based on reference signal power) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 66 of 149 .

Prediction Examples (Dedicated Studies) Coverage by PDSCH CINR (Directional receiver antenna) Coverage by PDSCH CINR (Isotropic receiver antenna) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 67 of 149 .

Prediction Examples (Dedicated Studies) Coverage by PUSCH CINR (Directional receiver antenna) Coverage by PUSCH CINR (Isotropic receiver antenna) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 68 of 149 .

click Define receiver settings Display preamble signal levels Reference signal levels © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 69 of 149 .Point Analysis Tool Radio reception level at a given point : Reception tab Select the reception tab in the point analysis window In the tool bar.

PDSCH and PUSCH © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 70 of 149 .Point Analysis Tool Radio reception diagnosis at a given point : Signal Analysis tab Choice of UL&DL load conditions : if (cells table) is selected  Analysis based on DL load and UL noise rise from cells table Definition of a userdefinable “probe" receiver. reference signals. indoor or not SCH/PBCH. PDSCH and PUSCH availability (or not) Received reference signals (best server on the top) Analysis detail on reference signals.

Frequency Plan Analysis 9. Using Drive Tests 11. Terminology and Concepts © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 71 of 149 . Modelling an LTE Network 4.Training Program 1. LTE Concepts 2. Neighbour Allocation 7. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10. MIMO Modelling 6. LTE Planning Overview 3. LTE Predictions 5. Automatic Resource Planning 8.

MIMO Modelling Overview MIMO settings in Atoll MIMO Modelling in computations Predictions examples © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 72 of 149 .5.

MIMO Modelling Overview Base stations and user equipment support MIMO systems Gains graphs available in reception equipment Numbers of transmission and reception antenna ports at base station and terminal Antenna diversity modes in Atoll LTE Multiple Input Multiple Outputs (MIMO) systems • Transmit/Receive Diversity (also called Space-Time Coding (STC) or Matrix A MIMO in other standards) • More than one transmission antenna to send the same data • Improvement of CINR  Higher bearer  Higher throughput • Usually used in coverage areas with bad CINR conditions Single-User MIMO (SU-MIMO) or Spatial Multiplexing (SM) (also called Matrix B MIMO in other standards) • More than one transmission antenna to send different data streams on each antenna • Improvement of throughput for a given CINR • Usually used in coverage areas with good CINR conditions Adaptive MIMO Switch (AMS) • Technique to switch from SM to Tx/Rx Diversity as CINR conditions get worse than a given threshold • • © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 73 of 149 .

MIMO Modelling Overview Antenna diversity modes in Atoll LTE (Cont’d) Multiple Input Multiple Outputs (MIMO) systems • Multi-User MIMO or collaborative MIMO • Multiplexing of several users with good enough radio conditions • More than one cell reception antenna to receive transmissions from several users over the same frequency-time allocation (UL only) • Can be used with single-antenna user equipment • Improvement of UL capacity in terms of number of connected users © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 74 of 149 .

MIMO Settings in Transmitters MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output systems) reception and transmission settings © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 75 of 149 .

The cell capacity is multiplied by this gain at pixels where MU-MIMO is used © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 76 of 149 . AMS or MU-MIMO – UL Only) Minimum reference signal C/N used as : .threshold to switch from SUMIMO to Tx/Rx Diversity .MIMO Settings in Cells Definition of the MIMO support type (STTD/MRC (Transmit or Receive Diversity). SU-MIMO (SM).Minimum required for using MU-MIMO Uplink capacity gain due to MU-MIMO.

MIMO Settings in Terminals Reception equipment defining SU-MIMO and diversity gains Support of MIMO Number of Antenna ports in UL and DL in case of MIMO support © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 77 of 149 .

Transmit and Receive Diversity Settings Diversity gain depending on the MIMO configuration Additional Diversity gain per clutter class (DL and UL) Sum of the gains applied on PDSCH/PUSCH CINR © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 78 of 149 .

SU-MIMO Settings Maximum possible gain in channel capacity SU-MIMO gain factor per clutter class MIMO throughput = SISO throughput (1 + SU-MIMO gain factor (max MIMO gain – 1)) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 79 of 149 .

SM.MIMO Modelling in Computations Predictions and simulations On each pixel. AMS. a receiver is connected to its best server (in term of reference signal C/N) MIMO is possible if : • MIMO settings are defined in the LTE equipment selected at the cell – for UL – (or terminal – for DL –) level The support of any MIMO mode (Tx/Rx diversity. SU-MIMO) is defined for to the serving cell MIMO is supported by the user’s terminal The calculated reference signal C/N exceeds the reference signal C/N threshold • • • © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 80 of 149 .

Prediction Examples (MIMO Effect) Coverage prediction examples (MIMO system) Coverage by DL CINR (MIMO with 2*2 antenna) Coverage by DL CINR (Without MIMO) CINR improved for low values (due to Tx/Rx diversity) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 81 of 149 .

Terminology and Concepts © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 82 of 149 . LTE Predictions 5. LTE Planning Overview 3. LTE Concepts 2. Automatic Resource Planning 8. Using Drive Tests 11. MIMO Modelling 6. Modelling an LTE Network 4. Neighbour Allocation 7. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10. Frequency Plan Analysis 9.Training Program 1.

Neighbour Allocation Importing existing neighbour relationships Neighbour automatic allocation Neighbour graphical display Modifying neighbour relationships manually Exporting neighbour relationships © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 83 of 149 .6.

Importing Existing Neighbour Relationships Possibility to copy/paste or to import a list of neighbours Intra-carrier and inter-carrier neighbours are mixed in the same table Prerequisites A text file with at least 2 columns • • Source cells and neighbour cells Relationships must be defined between atoll format cell names © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 84 of 149 .

Importing Existing Neighbour Relationships © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 85 of 149 .

Neighbour Automatic Allocation (1/4) Possibility to define neighbourhood constraints to be considered during the automatic neighbour allocation List of neighbourhood relationships you may force or forbid Allocation parameters Maximum number of neighbours • Global value for all the transmitters or value specified for each transmitter Maximum inter-site distance Allocation strategy based on the overlapping of cell coverage © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 86 of 149 .

Neighbour Automatic Allocation (2/4) Coverage conditions Calculation options Overlapping criterion Start allocation Do not select the option if you want to keep existing neighbours © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 87 of 149 .

Neighbour Automatic Allocation (3/4) Overlapping criterion % min covered area is defined by the formula : (SA ∩ SB) / SA where : .SB is the best server area of cell B Best reference signal level cell B (candidate) Best reference signal level cell A (reference) Cell B Best server area Cell A Best server area Handover end Reference signal threshold (from reference signal quality threshold) Handover start © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 88 of 149 .SA is the coverage area of a restricted by ho start and ho end .

Neighbour Automatic Allocation (4/4) Allocation result Sorted list of neighbours with allocation reasons and importance value (0-1) Allocation results Sort and filtering tools Commit selected neighbours only © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 89 of 149 .

Neighbour Graphical Display Display of neighbourhood links on the map Calculate a “coverage by transmitter” and display it on the map Select the icon in the toolbar and click a transmitter on the map Symmetric link: site17_1(0) is neighbour of site23_1(0) and vice-versa Outwards link: site27_0(0) is neighbour of site23_1(0) Inwards link: site23_1(0) is neighbour of site22_0(0) Neighbourhood relationships of site23_1(0) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 90 of 149 .

Neighbour Graphical Display Possibility to display neighbour characteristics on the map Calculate a “coverage by transmitter” and display it on the map Display neighbour relationships of the desired transmitter Click the icon from the toolbar © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 91 of 149 .

Modifying Neighbour Relationships Manually Possibility to add/remove neighbour relationships on the map using the ctrl and shift shortcuts For intra-carrier neighbourhood links only Possibility to add/remove neighbours in the cell property dialogue Neighbour list of site5_2(0) List of transmitters within a 30 km radius from the selected one (sorted in a ascending inter-site distance order) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 92 of 149 .

Exporting Neighbour Relationships Possibility to copy/paste or to export the list of neighbours © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 93 of 149 .

Training Program 1. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10. Neighbour Allocation 7. LTE Planning Overview 3. Automatic Resource Planning 8. Frequency Plan Analysis 9. LTE Concepts 2. Modelling an LTE Network 4. MIMO Modelling 6. Terminology and Concepts © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 94 of 149 . Using Drive Tests 11. LTE Predictions 5.

7. Automatic Resource Planning Automatic resource planning overview Automatic physical cell ID allocation process Automatic frequency allocation process Frequency allocation examples © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 95 of 149 .

Automatic Resource Planning Overview Automatic Physical Cell ID Planning Based on neighbour and distance relations Allocation of S-SCH IDs and P-SCH IDs Automatic Resource Planning (Optional) Based on interference matrices. distance relations Possibility to lock frequencies for cells Can work with more than one frequency band in the same document Can also allocate physical cell IDs taking interference matrices into account © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 96 of 149 . neighbour.

Each cell’s reference signals transmit a pseudo-random sequence corresponding to the physical cell ID of the cell.Automatic Physical Cell ID Allocation Process Physical Cell ID definition : (physical cell ID of the cell) Physical cell IDs defined in the 3GPP specifications. Physical Cell ID allocation to cells Goals • • • Avoid using the same pseudo-random sequence in nearby cells • Can cause problems in cell search and selection Avoid using the same P-SCH ID to nearby cells • Can cause a lot of interference Use preferably the same S-SCH ID to cells of the same site • Can help in measurements and handover procedures © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 97 of 149 . Integer value from 0 to 503 • • • • 504 unique physical-layer cell identities. Grouped in 168 unique cell ID groups (called S-SCH IDs in Atoll). 1 or 2.167] and P-SCH ID is either 0. each group containing 3 unique identities (called P-SCH IDs in Atoll) S-SCH ID belongs to [0.

Automatic Physical Cell ID Allocation Process Automatic Physical Cell ID allocation in Atoll Based on an iterative cost-based algorithm Different physical Cell ID allocation plans are tried and a cost calculated for each The best physical Cell ID allocation plan is the one with the lowest cost The cost is calculated for cells with the following relations • • • Neighbours (optional) Distance between cells < min reuse distance (optional) Frequency plan Relations between cells can have different importance in the final cost • • The importance of neighbour relation is calculated during the automatic neighbour allocation The importance of the relation based on the distance between cells (weighted by the antenna azimuths) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 98 of 149 .

Automatic Physical Cell ID Allocation Process Automatic physical Cell ID allocation prerequisites Frequency plan • A channel manually assigned to each cell Neighbour plan • • Manually or automatically obtained Importance values © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 99 of 149 .

P-SCH IDs and SSCH IDs Commit Physical Cell Ids to cells © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 100 of 149 .Automatic Physical Cell ID Allocation Process Automatic physical Cell ID allocation process Allocation cost constraints S-SCH ID allocation strategy Allocated Physical Cell Ids.

Automatic Frequency Allocation Process Optimization of the frequency allocation in a network The optimum frequency plan minimizes the interference in the network Compliance with given constraints Excluded channels Interferences Reuse distance Neighbour relations … The algorithm starts with the current frequency plan as the initial state Frequencies can be locked for cells The AFP can work with more than one frequency band in the same document Channels can be excluded © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 101 of 149 .

and adjacent channel cases A probability calculated for each case for each interfered-interfering cell pair Distance relation • • For distance between cells < min reuse distance Takes into account distance. co-site) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 102 of 149 . orientation of cells Neighbours • Takes into account importance of neighbour relation (adjacent.Automatic Frequency Allocation Process Based on an iterative cost-based algorithm Different frequency allocation plans are tried and a cost calculated for each The best frequency allocation plan is the one with the lowest global cost The cost is calculated for cells thanks to Interference matrices • • Probabilities of interference in co.

Automatic Frequency Allocation Process Automatic resource allocation process Possibility to allocate Physical Cell IDs or frequencies Interference matrices calculation (to run before frequency allocation) Allocation constraints Allocated channels © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Commit channels to cells Slide 103 of 149 .

Automatic Frequency Allocation Process Interference matrix calculation For each cell pair. interference probability for co and adjacent channel cases Interference probability is the ratio between • • Interfered surface area within the best server coverage area of the studied cell Best server coverage area of the studied cell © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 104 of 149 .

084 1.0048 0.1228 5.244 77.0816 Slide 105 of 149 .4132 40.0816 161.Frequency Allocation Examples Automatic frequency allocation in Atoll (example) Same channel all over Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=30 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=25 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=20 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=15 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=10 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=5 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=0 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-5 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-10 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-15 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-20 © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission 0.9424 160.7116 134.8348 17.302 161.

2608 161.0816 161.308 5.9396 17.3372 37.9688 157.472 65.0736 161.5252 132.0816 Slide 106 of 149 .Frequency Allocation Examples Automatic frequency allocation in Atoll (example) Manual allocation with 3 channels Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=30 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=25 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=20 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=15 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=10 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=5 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=0 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-5 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-10 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-15 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-20 © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission 1.39 99.

772 161.0344 48.Frequency Allocation Examples Automatic frequency allocation in Atoll (example) Automatic allocation with 3 channels Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=30 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=25 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=20 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=15 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=10 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=5 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=0 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-5 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-10 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-15 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-20 © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission 0.7224 9.0816 Slide 107 of 149 .532 81.5268 119.074 161.4784 2.1992 155.452 24.0816 161.

9552 147.0816 Slide 108 of 149 .Frequency Allocation Examples Automatic frequency allocation in Atoll (example) Manual allocation with 6 channels Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=30 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=25 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=20 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=15 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=10 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=5 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=0 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-5 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-10 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-15 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-20 © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission 4.0816 161.5192 160.2844 55.6912 30.1648 161.658 87.6172 13.18 120.0808 161.

9896 48.0816 Slide 109 of 149 .5768 159.7292 24.Frequency Allocation Examples Automatic frequency allocation in Atoll (example) Automatic allocation with 6 channels Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=30 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=25 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=20 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=15 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=10 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=5 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=0 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-5 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-10 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-15 Reference Signal C/(I+N) Level (DL) (dB) >=-20 © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission 3.694 161.002 80.4068 10.0816 161.042 114.0812 161.3036 142.

Training Program 1. Automatic Resource Planning 8. Neighbour Allocation 7. LTE Predictions 5. LTE Concepts 2. MIMO Modelling 6. Using Drive Tests 11. LTE Planning Overview 3. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10. Terminology and Concepts © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 110 of 149 . Frequency Plan Analysis 9. Modelling an LTE Network 4.

8. Frequency Plan Analysis Channel and Physical Cell ID search tools Physical Cell ID allocation audit Physical Cell ID histograms © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 111 of 149 .

Search Tool Overview Tool to visualise channel and P-SCH ID reuse on the map Possibility to find cells which are assigned a given : • • • • Frequency band + channel Physical Cell ID P-SCH ID S-SCH ID Way to use this tool Create and calculate a coverage by transmitter with a colour display by transmitter Open the search tool available in the view menu © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 112 of 149 .

Channel Search Tool Channel reuse on the map Frequency band and Channel number Colours given to transmitters • Red : co-channel transmitters • Yellow : multi-adjacent channel (-1 and +1) transmitters • Green : adjacent channel (-1) transmitters • Blue : adjacent channel (+1) transmitters • Grey : other transmitters © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 113 of 149 .

P-SCH ID and S-SCH ID reuse on the map Resource type Resource value Colours given to transmitters • Red or grey: if the transmitters carries or not the specified resource value (Physical Cell ID.Physical Cell ID Search Tool Physical Cell ID. P-SCH ID or S-SCH ID) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 114 of 149 .

Physical Cell ID Allocation Audit Verification of the allocation inconsistencies Respect of the reuse distance Respect of neighbourhood constraints If the Physical Cell ID allocation strategy is respected Inconsistencies are displayed in the default text editor © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 115 of 149 .

Physical Cell ID Histograms View of the Physical Cell ID distribution Dynamic pointer © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 116 of 149 .

LTE Concepts 2. Modelling an LTE Network 4. Neighbour Allocation 7. Automatic Resource Planning 8. Terminology and Concepts © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 117 of 149 . Frequency Plan Analysis 9.Training Program 1. LTE Predictions 5. LTE Planning Overview 3. MIMO Modelling 6. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10. Using Drive Tests 11.

9. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations Simulation process Simulation creation Scheduling in simulations Simulation results Analysis of simulations © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 118 of 149 .

Simulation Process What’s a simulation in Atoll? Distribution of users at a given moment (= snapshot) Based on subscriber lists Suitable for a fixed wireless access application Based on traffic maps Similar to UMTS/CDMA/WiMAX simulation process Can be used for a fixed application (statistical user-list modelling) Can be used for a mobile application (Monte-Carlo distribution of mobile users) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 119 of 149 .

Simulation Process Requirement: subscriber list and/or traffic map(s) The user distribution is generated using a Monte-Carlo algorithm Based on traffic database and subscriber list/traffic map(s) Weighted by a Poisson distribution Each user is assigned A service. a terminal and an activity status by random trial • According to a probability law using traffic database A geographic position in the traffic zone by random trial • According to the clutter weighting and indoor ratio (user location is the same as subscriber location if the simulation is based on a subscriber list) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 120 of 149 . a mobility type.

Simulation Creation Optional growing factor on the selected traffic map(s) Number of simulations to run for the current session Selection of traffic map(s) as traffic input Load constraints to respect during simulations (global value or value per cell) Selection of subscriber list(s) as traffic input (dedicated to fixed wireless access application) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 121 of 149 .

Scheduling in Simulations Scheduling and radio resource management Filtering of mobiles up to cell capacity limits (max UL and DL loads) Different schedulers available: • • • Max C/I Proportional Demand Proportional Fair First pass • Resource allocation for the minimum throughput demands depending on the service priorities of the users (priority field in services) Second pass • Distribution of the remaining resources between users according to the schedulers defined in each cell in order to reach the max throughput demand © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 122 of 149 .

and user throughputs PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels Connection status and rejection cause … © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 123 of 149 . PDSCH. SCH/PBCH. and PUSCH signal levels Reference signal. and PUSCH CINR and interference levels Best bearers based on PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels Cell throughputs. PDSCH.Simulation Results (1) Analysis provided over the focus zone Main simulation results include Per cell • • • • • UL and DL traffic loads UL noise rise UL and DL aggregate cell throughputs Traffic input and connection statistics … Per mobile • • • • • • • • Serving transmitter and cell Azimuth and tilt (towards the serving cell) Reference signal. SCH/PBCH. cell capacities.

mobiles. initial conditions © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 124 of 149 .Simulation Results (2) Analysis provided over the focus zone 5 tabs : statistics. sites. cells.

Simulation Results (3) Writes the UL/DL traffic loads and the UL noise rise into the cells table © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 125 of 149 .

Simulation Results (4) Display the users (terminals) on the map depending on the connection status © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 126 of 149 .

UL noise rise.Analysis of Simulations Calculation of LTE prediction studies based on simulations Analysis of a single simulation  Prediction based on the results of the simulation (DL load. etc) Average analysis of all the simulations in a group  Prediction based on the average of simulations in the group (average DL load. and average UL noise rise) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 127 of 149 .

LTE Planning Overview 3. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10. Automatic Resource Planning 8. Using Drive Tests 11.Training Program 1. Modelling an LTE Network 4. LTE Predictions 5. Frequency Plan Analysis 9. Neighbour Allocation 7. LTE Concepts 2. Terminology and Concepts © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 128 of 149 . MIMO Modelling 6.

Using Drive Tests Import of test mobile data path Drive test management Drive test graphic analysis © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 129 of 149 .10.

Pln) TEMS text export (*. semi-colon or blank character as separator) TEMS FICS-planet export (*.Import of Test Mobile Data Paths Overview Measurement path related to a serving cell and its neighbours Check and improve the network quality Import Supported files • • • • • Any ASCII text file (with tab.Fmt) Standard import as in excel Mandatory information • Position of measurement points • Physical Cell ID You can import any additional information related to measurement points Definition and storage of import configurations Multiple import Procedure • • • © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 130 of 149 .

.. copy-paste.Drive Tests Managements Table List of all the measurement points with their attributes and additional information Standard content management and tools (filters. etc.) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 131 of 149 .

Drive Tests Managements Management of measurement path points Option of extracting a field related to a specific transmitter along a path Creation of any prediction on the transmitters measured along the path Option of creating as many CW measurement paths as the number of involved transmitters along the path. These data can be used to calibrate any propagation model © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 132 of 149 .

Drive Tests Managements Management of measurement path points Filter per type(s) of clutter Advanced filter on additional survey data Permanent deletion of outof-filter points Slide 133 of 149 © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission .

propagation models. etc…) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 134 of 149 .Drive Tests Managements Management of measurement path points List of defined studies in the measurement table Option of preparing additional prediction studies along the path using the existing transmitter parameters (antennas.

you can display the points according to any data contained in the measurement table © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 135 of 149 .Drive Tests Managements Management of measurement path points Using the Atoll display dialog.

Drive Tests Graphic Analysis Test mobile data analysis window Display on the map Transmitters measured and indexed for the current point. © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 136 of 149 .

Drive Tests Graphic Analysis Test mobile data analysis window Option of displaying variation of any selected numeric field along the selected path Synchronisation table – map – measurement window © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 137 of 149 .

LTE Planning Overview 3. Neighbour Allocation 7. LTE Concepts 2.Training Program 1. Frequency Plan Analysis 9. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations 10. Modelling an LTE Network 4. Using Drive Tests 11. LTE Predictions 5. Terminology and Concepts © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 138 of 149 . MIMO Modelling 6. Automatic Resource Planning 8.

Each frame comprises 10 1 ms-long subframes. the minimum unit of resource allocation in the time domain. when the average is performed over a considerably long duration) of the total number of resource units in a superframe of 1 sec. expressed in % (as traffic loads.. The duration of a frame is a system-level constant.5 kHz subcarrier width. Half-frame periodicity provides the same half-frame structure as a TD-SCDMA subframe.5 ms-long slots. For TDD systems. LTE includes specific frame structures for FDD and TDD systems. which means that these 2 subframes are always used in downlink. A slot can have 3 symbol durations for extended cyclic prefix used with a 7. Frame An LTE frame is 10 ms long.e. A subframe is synonymous with TTI (transmission time interval). half-frame or full frame. respectively. i. two switching point periodicities can be used. and for a 15 kHz subcarrier width. the term "resource" is used to refer to the average number of resource units. The PBCH and the two SCH are carried by subframes 0 and 5. Each slot can have 7 or 6 symbol durations for normal or extended cyclic prefix. with each subframe containing 2 0. © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 139 of 149 .Terminologies and Concepts in Atoll Resources In Atoll.

Terminologies and Concepts in Atoll LTE frame structures (DL: blue. DL or UL: green) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 140 of 149 . UL: orange.

5 kHz each.Terminologies and Concepts in Atoll Resource Element. OFDM subcarriers are orthogonal frequency-domain waveforms generated using Fast Fourier Transforms. Subcarrier An OFDM channel comprises many narrowband carriers called subcarriers. A frequency block can either contain 12 subcarriers of 15 kHz each or 24 subcarriers of 7. 180 kHz. which is 1 symbol duration long and 1 subcarrier width wide. It is a system-level constant. or Modulation Symbol In Atoll a symbol refers to one resource element or one modulation symbol. Symbol. which is the duration of one modulation symbol over all the subcarriers/frequency blocks being used. i.e.. © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 141 of 149 . Frequency Block It is the minimum unit of resource allocation in the frequency domain. the width of a resource block. Symbol Duration In Atoll a symbol duration refers to one OFDM symbol.

1 frequency block by 1 slot. transmission time interval).e. the granularity of resource allocation 1 slot in time..Terminologies and Concepts in Atoll Resource Block It is the minimum unit of resource allocation. however.. i. and 1 frequency block in frequency.e. i. Schedulers are able perform resource allocation every subframe (TTI. LTE resource blocks © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 142 of 149 . the duration of a resource block.

Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH) (UL): Carries common and dedicated control information and user traffic data. LTE Transport Channels: LTE transport channels include: Broadcast Channel (BCH) (DL): Carries broadcast information. © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 143 of 149 . Paging Control Channel (PCCH) (DL): Carries paging control information. Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) (DL): Carries multicast control information. Multicast Channel (MCH) (DL): Carries multicast information. Random Access Channel (RACH) (UL): Carries random access requests from users. Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) (DL and UL): Carries user traffic data. Common Control Channel (CCCH) (DL and UL): Carries common control information.Terminologies and Concepts in Atoll LTE Logical Channels: LTE logical channels include: Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) (DL): Carries broadcast control information. It can also be used to carry broadcast and multicast control information and traffic in addition to the BCH and MCH. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) (DL and UL): Carries control information dedicated to users. Paging Channel (PCH) (DL): Carries paging information. Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) (DL): Carries common and dedicated control information and user traffic data. Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) (DL): Carries multicast traffic data.

Parts of this channel carry the primary and secondary synchronisation channels (P-SCH and S-SCH). Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) (UL): Carries control information. the physical downlink control channel (PDCCH). Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) (DL): Carries multicast information. Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) (UL): Carries common and dedicated control information and user traffic data. and the physical control format indicator channel (PCFICH). It can also be used to carry broadcast and multicast control information and traffic in addition to the PBCH and PMCH. Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) (UL): Carries random access requests from users. Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) (DL): Carries paging information. common and dedicated control information. the physical HARQ indicator channel (PHICH).Terminologies and Concepts in Atoll LTE Physical Layer Channels: LTE physical layer channels include: Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) (DL): Carries broadcast information. and user traffic data. the downlink reference signals. © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 144 of 149 .

Terminologies and Concepts in Atoll LTE logical. and physical layer channels (DL: blue. DL or UL: green) © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 145 of 149 . UL: orange. transport.

defined services. Receiver A probe mobile. Mobile Users generated and distributed during simulations. among other parameters. and mobility types assigned for the duration of the simulations.Terminologies and Concepts in Atoll User A general term that can also designate a subscriber. These users have. Bearer A Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) used to carry data over the channel. © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 146 of 149 . Subscriber Users with fixed geographical coordinates. terminal types. used for propagation loss and raster coverage predictions. mobile. and receiver. with the minimum required parameters needed for the calculation of path loss.

effective RLC or application throughputs achieved at a given location using the highest LTE bearer available with the entire cell resources (downlink or uplink). Channel Throughputs Peak RLC. encryption. Effective RLC Throughput The net RLC layer throughput (user or channel) that can be achieved at a given location using the highest LTE bearer available computed taking into account the reduction of throughput due to retransmission due to errors. © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 147 of 149 .Terminologies and Concepts in Atoll Peak RLC Throughput The maximum RLC layer throughput (user or channel) that can be achieved at a given location using the highest LTE bearer available. and other types of overhead. Application Throughput The application layer throughput (user or channel) that can be achieved at a given location using the highest LTE bearer available computed taking into account the reduction of throughput due to PDU/SDU header information. coding. padding. This throughput is the raw data rate without considering the effects of retransmission due to errors and higher layer coding and encryption.

© Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 148 of 149 . respectively. Traffic Loads The uplink and downlink traffic loads are the percentages of the uplink and the downlink frames in use (allocated) to the traffic (mobiles) in the uplink and in the downlink. This parameter is one of the two methods in which uplink interference can be expressed with respect to the noise. The two parameters express exactly the same information. Uplink Noise Rise Uplink noise rise is a measure of uplink interference with respect to the uplink noise. the uplink load factor is kept as a linear value (in %) while the uplink noise rise is expressed in dB. effective RLC or application throughputs achieved at a given location using the highest LTE bearer available with the amount of resources allocated to a user by the scheduler.Terminologies and Concepts in Atoll User Throughputs Peak RLC. The other parameter often used instead of the uplink noise rise is the uplink load factor. Usually. and can be inter-converted.

THANK YOU! © Forsk 2009 Confidential – Do not share without prior permission Slide 149 of 149 .

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