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Normal appearance of urine is yellow or amber and clear. Turbidity or cloudiness may be caused by excessive cellular material (such as the presence of RBC's and pus cells) or protein in the urine or may develop from crystallization or precipitation of salts upon standing at room temperature or in the refrigerator. Clearing of the specimen after addition of a small amount of acid indicates that precipitation of salts is the probable cause of turbidity. In this case, in rough terms, trace protein positive results (which represent a slightly hazy appearance in urine) There might be proteins even though albumin is neg. Protein in the urine can be a symptom of kidney stones, inflammation of the kidneys, degenerative kidney disease, or multiple tumors. If there are proteins, further work-up is indicated. Addressed if there is presence of proteins. Urine may be cloudy (turbid) because it contains red or white blood cells, bacteria, fat, mucus, digestive fluid (chyle), or pus from a bladder or kidney infection. Foods, medications, metabolic products, and infection can cause abnormal urine colors.3 Cloudy urine often is a result of precipitated phosphate crystals in alkaline urine,( your urine is within normal limits- i.e. acidic) but pyuria (pus cells ) also can be the cause.- as yours was. RBC's RBC's may appear normally shaped, swollen by dilute urine (in fact, only cell ghosts and free hemoglobin may remain), or crenated by concentrated urine. Both swollen, partly hemolyzed RBC's and crenated RBC's are sometimes difficult to distinguish from WBC's in the urine. In addition, red cell ghosts may simulate yeast. The presence of dysmorphic RBC's in urine suggests a glomerular disease such as a glomerulonephritis. Dysmorphic RBC's have odd shapes as a consequence of being distorted via passage through the abnormal glomerular structure Hematuria is the presence of abnormal numbers of red cells in urine due to: glomerular damage, tumors which erode the urinary tract anywhere along its length, kidney trauma, urinary tract stones, renal infarcts, acute tubular necrosis, upper and lower urinary tract infections, nephrotoxins, and physical stress. Red cells may also contaminate the urine from the vagina in menstruating women or from trauma produced by bladder catherization. Theoretically, no red cells should be found, but some find their way into the urine even in very healthy individuals. However, if one or more red cells can be found in every high power field, and if contamination can be ruled out, the specimen is probably abnormal. White Blood Cells Pyuria ( presence of pus cells) refers to the presence of abnormal numbers of leukocytes that may appear with infection in either the upper or lower urinary tract or with acute glomerulonephritis. Usually, the WBC's are granulocytes. White cells from the vagina, especially in the presence of vaginal and cervical infections, or the external urethral meatus in men and women may contaminate the urine. If two or more leukocytes per each high power field ( microscopic) appear in non-contaminated urine, the specimen is probably abnormal. Leukocytes have lobed nuclei and granular cytoplasm.
midstream urine after cleansing of the urethral meatus is adequate for complete urinalysis. A large number of cells from tissue lining (epithelial cells) can indicate damage to the small tubes that carry material into and out of the kidneys. large dietary intake of vitamin C. (Other bacteria can split urea but are not as commonly responsible for urinary tract infection. the presence of any organism in catheterized or suprapubic tap specimens should be considered significant Bacterial infection with urea-splitting organisms may produce an elevated urinary pH. Generally. A period of dehydration may precede urine collection if testing of renal concentration is desired. 3) loss of ketone bodies.) A urine culture might not hurt to rule out UTI Factors to consider for accurate urinalysis results findings: A properly collected clean-catch. get the urine to the laboratory as quickly as possible The presence of bacteria. Therefore. these specimens generally suffice even for urine culture. bacteria. frequent urination. Another important factor is the interval of time which elapses from collection to examination in the laboratory. . Other factors that may affect urinalysis results include failure to collect a specimen during the day's first voiding. Changes which occur with time after collection include: 1) decreased clarity due to crystallization of solutes. parasites. However. Diagnosis of bacteriuria in a case of suspected urinary tract infection requires culture. more than 100. 5) dissolution of cells and casts. so if fresh urine has leukocytes. Therefore. and urine with a pH value lower than 6. and 6) overgrowth of contaminating microorganisms. but any specific gravity > 1. High number of white blood cells in the urine is usually a symptom of urinary tract infection.000/ml of one organism reflects significant bacteriuria. and an elevated pH.022 measured in a randomly collected specimen denotes adequate renal concentration so long as there are no abnormal solutes in the urine.For males. 4) loss of bilirubin. Proteus species would be suspected as the offending organism.it's up to 4. Bacteria Bacteria are common in urine specimens because of the abundant normal microbial flora of the vagina or external urethral meatus and because of their ability to rapidly multiply in urine standing at room temperature. Their significance is that possible contamination of the specimen with the skin flora. A colony count may also be done to see if significant numbers of bacteria are present. Multiple organisms reflect contamination. for females. Generally. or yeast cells in the urine may be a symptom of urinary tract infection or contamination of the external genitalia. microbial organisms found in all but the most scrupulously collected urines should be interpreted in view of clinical symptoms. urinalysis may not reflect the findings of absolutely fresh urine if the sample is > 1 hour old. the presence of 1-2 WBC is normal. 2) rising pH. Squamous epithelial cells from the skin surface or the outer urethra may appear in the urine. In fact.