This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Telephoto, wide-angle, zoom and prime. Prime lens (Fixed lens)- used by portrait photographers- have wider maximum apertures, making them “faster”
Digital zoom: crops into the center area of the captured frame, effectively enlarging the pixels. Focal length: Distance between lens and image sensor- or the amount of magnification. When you
set a fire with a magnifying glass, the distance between the magnifying glass and paper is the magnifying glass' focal length. Camera lenses are more complicated, but it's the same measurement. E.g.: In Canon 50mm f1.8 lens, 50 mm is the focal length.
Aperture: The aperture is the opening in the lens (created by an adjustable iris or diaphragm) that
allows light to pass through. The aperture is measured in f-stops. An f-stop is a ratio of the focal length of the lens to the diameter of the opening of the aperture. The larger the numerical value of the f-stop, the smaller the opening of the aperture. The larger the aperture, the faster the lens. The larger the aperture, the more light is allowed to pass through the lens. f/4 means that the diameter of our magnifying glass is 1/4 of its focal length. f/2 means a lens is half as big around as its focal length, or twice as big around as an f/4 lens of the same focal length. E.g.: In Canon 50mm f1.8 lens, f1.8 is the aperture (lens diameter can be calculated to be 28mm). On the lenses, it’s marked as 1:1.8.
Shutter speed: Shutter speed refers to the amount of time the shutter is open or the digital image
sensor is activated. The Shutter speeds are displayed as fractions of a second, such as 1/8 or 1/250. A fast-moving object, such as a car, tends to blur when shot with a slow shutter speed like 1/8. On the other hand, a fast shutter speed, such as 1/1000, appears to freeze the blades of a helicopter while it’s flying. The relationship between the aperture and shutter is known as reciprocity. Reciprocity gives the photographer control over the depth of field of the image, which controls the area of the image that remains in focus.
Depth of field: The area of an image that is in focus. The aperture setting (f-stop), combined with
the focal length of the lens, determines the depth of field of an image. The larger aperture settings, combined with the long focal lengths of telephoto lenses, can limit the depth of field to a small area. Small aperture settings, combined with long focal lengths, make objects in the foreground and background seem closer together.
Exposure of the image: Determined by the combination of shutter speed and the opening of the
Unfortunately. This measurement is based on the number of millions of pixels of image information that can be captured by the light-sensitive elements on the digital image sensor.RGB) in a pixel is capable of displaying. indicating the image sensor’s sensitivity to light. Bit Depth: Bit depth describes the number of tonal values or shades of a color each channel (there are 3 color channels. When a lens is capable of transmitting more light than other lenses of the same focal length. Types: o Charge-coupled device (CCD) o Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) (higher rate of data transfer to the storage device. Most DSLRs have ISO settings from 100 to 3200 ISO. such as 1920 x 1280 pixels. Higher ISO films require less light to record an image. some cameras have difficulty maintaining consistent exposure for every single pixel in the image. You can reduce digital noise by taking your photographs at ISO settings between 100 and 400.8 are considered fast. A display’s resolution is expressed in pixels per inch (ppi) or as a maximum dimension. For example. The voltage values are then converted to digital data by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) chip.Lens’s Speed: Determined by the maximum amount of light the lens is capable of transmitting—the largest f-stop value (smallest number) (larger the aperture. a 15 megapixel camera is capable of capturing 15 million pixels of information. Fast lenses allow photographers to shoot at higher shutter speeds in low-light conditions. The ISO rating has been redefined for digital cameras. The light-sensitive elements transform light energy to voltage values based on the intensity of the light. A camera’s resolution is calculated by the number of megapixels (millions of pixels) its digital image sensor is capable of capturing. ISO: Light-sensitivity of the camera (image sensor). Thus. Traditionally. A printer’s maximum resolution is expressed in dots per inch (dpi)—the number of dots it can place within a square inch of paper . used in professional DSLRs) Resolution: An image’s resolution is determined by the image’s pixel count and the bit depth of each pixel. that lens is referred to as fast. at higher ISO settings (400 ISO and above).0 and 2. the more light sensitive a particular film is. Digital Image Sensor: consists of millions of individual elements capable of capturing light. Megapixels: A camera’s resolution capability is measured in megapixels. The higher the ISO rating. resulting in digital noise. DSLR cameras usually have two settings. Increasing the bit depth of color channels in an image’s pixels exponentially increases the number of colors each pixel can express. the faster the lens). lenses with maximum f-stop values between 1. the International Standards Organization (ISO) has provided a benchmark rating of the relative sensitivity of film. allowing the photographer to shoot an 8-bit JPEG file (with 8 bits per color channel) or a 16-bit RAW image file (with 12 to 14 bits per color channel).
as well as greater control over depth of field (wider aperturesshallow depth of field). RAW images store 16 bits per channel.” Red-eye: Phenomenon where people have glowing red eyes in photographs. This results in magnification of real focal length of a camera. this results in some of the light refracted by the lens to be missed by the sensor at its borders. Telephoto lenses (with long focal lengths) tend to have shallow focus when the aperture is opened all the way. People with blue eyes are particularly susceptible to the red-eye phenomenon because they have less pigment to absorb the light. Shooting wide-angle images becomes increasingly difficult when using cameras with smaller digital image sensors. Wider apertures allow for brighter images in low-light situations. Wide-angle lenses (with short focal lengths) tend to create images with great depth of field regardless of the aperture setting. . This information is also known as metadata (EXIF). you require a lens with a focal length less than 24 mm to achieve a wide-angle view. which causes light from the subject to be reflected directly back at the camera. When the flash fires. This is caused by the close proximity of the flash (especially built-in flash) to the camera lens. The JPEG format is limited to 8 bits per color channel. limiting the depth of field of an image. So if the size of an image sensor is smaller than 35mm. the light reflects off the blood in the capillaries in the back of the subject’s eyes and back into the camera lens. Notables: Most interchangeable lenses were originally created and rated for the 35 mm film plane of traditional SLRs. For example. and the camera and lens type. the exposure settings. such as the time of day. Increased bit depth allows for more color-correction “head room.RAW: A camera’s RAW file is an un-interpreted. the RAW file also contains data about how the image was shot. if your digital image sensor is 24 mm. bit-for-bit digital image recorded by the camera when the image is captured. Along with the pixels in the image.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.