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Porous Media

Volume 6, Number 1, 2003

Contents

Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media: A Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N. Rudraiah, P. G. Siddheshwar, and T. Masuoka Mass Transfer Jump Condition at the Boundary between a Porous Medium and a Homogeneous Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ′ J. J. Valencia-Lopez,G. Espinosa-Paredes, and J. A. Ochoa-Tapia Effects of Gross Heterogeneity and Anisotropy in Forced Convection in a Porous Medium: Layered Medium Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. A. Nield and A. V. Kuznetsov The Effect of the Local Inertial Term on the Free-Convection Fluid Flow in Vertical Channels Partially Filled with Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. F. Khadrawi and M. A. Al-Nimr Numerical Study of Boiling in an Inclined Porous Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mustapha Najjari and Sassi Ben Nasrallah 1

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Journal of Porous Media 6(1), 1–32 (2003)

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N. Rudraiah,1 P. G. Siddheshwar,2 and T. Masuoka2

1

National Research Institute for Applied Mathematics (NRIAM), 492/G, 7th Cross 7th Block (West), Jayanagar, Bangalore, 560 082,India, and UGC-CAS in Fluid Mechanics, Department of Mathematics, Central College, Bangalore University, Bangalore, 560 001, India and 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, Kyushu, Japan ABSTRACT The review article deals mainly with nonlinear convection (NLC) in porous media and discusses analytical and numerical techniques to handle them. A section on experimental heat transfer in porous media relates to the state of the art on the subject. Five techniques for studying NLC are presented in a logical order of traversal. The first technique, due to Lyapunov, is useful to obtain energy bounds and in conjunction with a variation technique can be used to investigate for possible subcritical instabilities. The power integral and the spectral methods concern steady finite-amplitude convection. The former method is useful in obtaining information on physically preferred cell patterns, whereas the latter can handle cross-interaction of different modes in addition to estimating heat transfer. The Fourier decomposition for unsteady large-amplitude convection is capable of predicting chaos and quantifying heat transfer. The finite-difference method, or any numerical method, when guided by the results of the existing analytical methods and experiment, can be used effectively to handle a more general problem with realistic boundary conditions. The results of the experimental and theoretical study are meant to mutually ratify the respective findings. The present scenario on heat transfer in porous media is such that not all observed aspects can be covered in a theoretical study and also not all results predicted by the theory are experimentally realizable. It thus calls for concerted effort from various quarters. It is on this ground that the review puts together many aspects of NLC in porous media, taking essential excerpts from previous works, with an unavoidable lean on the authors’ own works. 1

Received May 30, 2001; Accepted February 4, 2002 Copyright 2003 Begell House, Inc.

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Rudraiah et al.

Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review INTRODUCTION Ever since the pioneering work of Darcy (1856) resulting in the Darcy equation, considerable interest has been evinced in the study of different aspects of flow through porous media (see Muskat, 1937; Scheidegger, 1960; Bear, 1972; Rudraiah et al., 1979; Greenkorn, 1983; and Vafai, 2000), flow past a porous medium (see Beavers and Joseph, 1967; Taylor, 1971; Richardson, 1971; Saffman, 1971; Rudraiah, 1985; and Prasad 1991), and heat and mass transfer in porous media (see Rudraiah, 1984, 1989; Kaviany, 1991; Nield and Bejan, 1999; and Vafai, 2000), because of its natural occurrence and of its broad range of scientific, engineering, and technological activities, particularly in petroleum engineering, geographic activities, geohydrology, transpiration cooling, cooled thermal protection of systems, nuclear and thermal waste disposal in geologic media, materials processing, biomechanics, and so on. Our main interest in this article is to review some of the literature on techniques used to study nonlinear convection (NLC) in porous media. Earlier works/reviews (see Wooding and White, 1984; Rudraiah, 1984, 1989, 2000; Rudraiah and Friedrich, 1984; Kaviany, 1991; Nield and Bejan, 1999; Masuoka, 1999; and Vafai 2000) concentrated on explaining the complicated flow paths and phenomena in porous media depending on certain simplifications based on volume-averaging techniques involving spatial and temporal scales specifying the phenomena under consideration. Some of the reviews have also covered flows in porous media that exhibit time-dependent, chaotic, and turbulent flow behaviors in spite of highly dissipative effects of viscosity, thermal conductivity, and resistance offered by the solid particles to the flow. In view of the difference of opinion in the use of suitable nonlinear equations as well as on merits and demerits of using different techniques to solve these nonlinear equations governing convection in porous media, it is our opinion that an article addressing these aspects is warranted, even though other articles have appeared on the same topic but on different aspects; e.g., the most recent book on porous media, edited by Vafai (2000), has some focused articles on thermal and double-diffusive convection and allied topics. To the knowledge of the authors, there is no circumspect article devoted exclusively to NLC and hence this review article on the topic. Before we embark on a survey of the literature and the methods, we include a short discussion on the non-Darcy porous media equations and refer the reader to Vafai (2000)

3 for more details. The most general non-Darcy momentum equation, known as the Darcy–Lapwood–Forchheimer– Brinkman (DLFB) equation, is → 1 → 1 ∂q → → → µq + (q ∇)q = −∇p + ρg − ρ k φ ∂t φ2 →→ → ρcbq q + µef ∇2 q − √k

(1)

The second term on the left-hand side (LHS) of the above equation is the Lapwood term. The third, fourth, and fifth terms on the right-hand side (RHS) are the Darcy, Brinkman, and Forchheimer terms, respectively. The last term, signifying quadratic form drag for laminar flows, also goes by the name of Ergun and Dupuit, and this has the distinct advantage of also taking care of the superlinear drag in the case of one-dimensional flow, unlike the Lapwood term, which fails to take care of this (see Vafai and Tien, 1981; and Georgiadis and Catton, 1988). The constant quadratic drag coefficient is independent of the viscosity and density of the fluid but depends on the geometry of the flow. In the case of turbulent flow the theory and experiments of Masuoka and Takatsu (1996), Takatsu and Masuoka (1998), and Masuoka (2000) bring out very important results on the quadratic drag. They classify the observed vortices into two types: 1. Interstitial vortices of the size of the interstitial gap 2. Pseudo vortices of the size of the particle diameter These authors opine that the interstitial vortices on mixing give rise to the Forchheimer drag and the pseudovortices give rise to thermal dispersion. It thus seems that the Forchheimer term is a drag due to mixing of interstitial vortices at high Reynolds number. Using a Reynolds number Re based on the hydraulic diameter dh and the mean (Darcian) velocity VD, their range of experimentation can be taken to be Re > 40. They examined the experimental Lyapunov exponents for the time series of velocity fluctuations and observed that it becomes positive for Re > ~60, indicating weak chaos. The Lyapunov exponent rapidly increases for Re > ~(300–500), indicating the end of transition or in other words the initiation of turbulence. The advantage of the DLFB Eq. (1) is that as k → ∞, with φ chosen to be unity, one may recover the results of viscous flow, i.e., flow in the absence of porous media. Another advantage of the DLFB equation is that it can be used to study heat transport by turbulent convection in

with an equivalent permeability k = h2φ ⁄ 12. who also showed that the classical result Ra/σ2 > 4π2 is valid for values of σ2 > 103. 1 for a porous medium Xp = . In addition to making the equation properly specified.. and a host of others. in fact. 1986. the outcome of a series of theoretical investigations and experiments performed by Katto and Masuoka (1967) in attempts to bridge the gap between the theoretical and experimental results observed by a number of investigators. Masuoka et al. Masuoka et al.. leading to an underspecified system (see Beck. 1999) when the flow is not small. and Masuoka. the Darcy–Lapwood (DL) equation can be obtained by choosing Xp = 1. Since the analogy is for densely packed porous media characterized by Darcy velocity. 1982. (1951). The books by Nield and Bejan (1999) and Vafai (2000) include good discussions of this equation. 1972). µ K′ = κef κ Note that different models governing the flow in a porous medium can be obtained from Eq. 1985. Katto and Masuoka (1967)..g. If Cb → 0 and Xp = 1 we get the . →= − k [∇p − ρ→ g] q µ (2) Rudraiah et al. and Masuoka et al. From the above observation it is obvious that the Brinkman term serves as a bridge between the viscous and Darcy regimes. 1982. the long-distance Brinkman effect is generally weak. Morrison et al. and Forchheimer terms in Eq. e. (7) by suitably assigning the values of µ′. and µ′ → 0. (1949). In the absence of the Brinkman term the differential equation becomes one order less. Somerton and Catton. (1) and (4). Brinkman. 1988. say k/h2 << 10–3. it follows that the theoretical and experimental results with respect to low-porosity media can be extracted from the Hele–Shaw model. in-vogue single-phase heat transport equation for two-phase fluid-saturated porous media is M ∂T q + (→∇)T = κef∇2T ∂t (4) = κXp(K ′ − 1) + 1 ∇2T Here. (1981). and others have pointed out that for low velocities and when the microscopic dimension √ k becomes small compared to the macroscopic reference length h of the system. Cb.. Nishimura et al. Rogers et al. The most accepted. tion of clear fluids. viz.4 porous media (see Rudraiah et al. the continuity equation and the equation of state are required to study thermal convection: → ∇q = 0 ρ = ρo[1 − α(T − To)] (5) (6) In the study of a composite medium (see Rudraiah and Wilfred.. 0 for a fluid (8) This equation was. and φ. viz. All these and many other works had sought to correlate the experimental and theoretical results using the heat transport equa- µ′ = µef . In that case a most general unified equation that accommodates different forms of momentum and energy equations in both the fluid layer and the fluid-saturated porous layer are On comparing this equation with the Hele–Shaw cell model (see Masuoka et al. Rogers and Morrison (1950). one has to use the usual Navier–Stokes equation for the clear fluid flow and the DLFB equation for flow in a porous layer with suitable boundary conditions between the fluid and porous layers. 1992. the Brinkman term takes care of the boundary effects. Cb → 0. One important observation can be made when we neglect the acceleration. (1).. 1987). This was set right by the work of Katto and Masuoka (1967). 2 →= − h φ [∇p − ρg ] → q 12µ → ∂q 1 → → 1 ρXp − 1 + 1 ∂t + ρXp 2 − 1 + 1 (q ∇)q φ φ → q = −∇p + ρg − µXp(µ − 1) + 1 ∇2→ → µ ρcbq → − Xp − q √k k Xp(M − 1) + 1 ∂T + (→∇)T q ∂t (3) (7) we can infer the analogy between the two... 1994). Together with Eqs. including Horton and Rogers (1945).

However. The parcel of fluid then finds itself denser than its surroundings and so continues to fall. is concerned with natural convection in a horizontal singlecomponent (heat or mass) or two-component (heat and mass. Tien and Vafai. The study shows the expansion and contraction of the plume at the lower and upper interfaces of the horizontally held permeable layer and also serves to check the validity of the Beavers–Joseph (1967) slip condition for the problem. cooling from below) and that of salt is destabilizing (i. will entrain a liquid which wets the particles of the medium. in some type of nuclear reactors. (8) needs to be modified. when a small parcel of fluid is displaced downward it gains heat from its surroundings while gaining only a little salt. The first type. Guo and Kaloni. 1978. The process may be repeated. 1998). We also note that if Xp =1 we get from Eq. This instability is called fingering because the fluid tends to form tall. 1986. 1989. analogous to Oberbeck convection in a fluid in the absence of porous media (see Vafai. 1990. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the study of different types of convection because of their interest in many practical problems discussed earlier. 1999).and double-diffusive convection in porous media. In a double-diffusive convective system where the diffusivity of heat κ is greater than that of salt. viz. and so on (for example. We note that a granular porous medium whose particle size is sufficiently small. It is then less warm than its surrounding and so returns to its original position. has been investigated with the motivation of understanding geothermal energy processes. analogous to the Rayleigh–Benard (RB) convection in a layer of fluid in the absence of porous media. in high-temperature heat exchangers. such as fine sand. D. Thus for these types of flows Eq. 1984. leading to an overstable oscillatory growth of the initial disturbance. 1995.Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review Darcy–Lapwood–Brinkman (DLB) equation. there are works on cross-diffusion (Soret . and Masuoka.and surface tension-driven convection in either a single-component or a two-component liquid-saturated porous medium with or without the external constraints of rotation and/or magnetic field.. In addition to single. Kaloni and Guo. In diffusive instability. and references therein).e.. A physical mechanism in fingering instability is that when a small parcel of fluid is displaced downward. 1984. see the reviews by Cheng. 2000). while the net density gradient is stable. called type 1. Due to the phase lag between the displacement and temperature fields it is warmer and less dense than the surrounding fluid and tends to continue rising. and more recently Vadasz. overshooting its position. Rudraiah and Prasad. or combined buoyancy. the parcel of fluid will lose its heat quickly to the surrounding fluid while remaining saltier. 1989. in thermal energy storage. or in a vertical porous layer called Oberbeck–Darcy convection. (8) the energy equation used by Katto and Masuoka (1967). salting from above). Masuoka. 1978.. analogous to Marangoni convection in clear liquid in the absence of porous media. The external constraint of magnetic field on linear and nonlinear magnetoconvection in fluid-saturated porous media has also been investigated (see Rudraiah. it finds itself in a colder and fresh environment. and references therein) because of their application in geothermal energy and also to study bifurcation and chaotic phenomena.e. called Marangoni–Darcy (MD) convection. slender vertical convective cells. Eq. 1976. Since heat diffuses much faster than salt. (1995). In a fingering instability the gradient of heat is stabilizing (i. The convection due to buoyancy force is either in a horizontal porous layer heated from below and cooled from above called Rayleigh–Benard–Darcy (RBD) convection. Combarnous. 1996. Therefore many have studied either surface tension-driven convection in porous media. 1981. while the net density gradient is stable. The effect of Coriolis force on linear and nonlinear convection in a single-component fluid-saturated porous medium (see Rudraiah and Srimani. 1974. In the case of rapid transient flows the contribution to the heat capacity does not come from the entire body of the solid matrix but only from the surface. Rudraiah. called diffusive instability. particularly in providing effective thermal insulation in the utilization of thermal energy.. The liquid retention and the liquid flow in such media is dominantly affected by the surface tension characteristics of the entrained liquids (see Moore et al.. called double-diffusive convection) in a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid-saturated porous medium with and without the external constraints of rotation and/or magnetic field. two types of instabilities called "fingering" and "diffusive" instabilities are of particular interest. (4). The above convections may also be generated by surface tension force. Friedrich and 5 Rudraiah. in diffusive instability the gradient of heat is destabilizing and that of salt is stabilizing. Another interesting study of a buoyant plume through a permeable porous layer located above a line heat source was carried out both experimentally and numerically by Masuoka et al. 1998) and in a two-component fluid-saturated porous medium (see Rudraiah et al. in packed beds.

so that C flows toward high (or low)-temperature places of T. In the works of Rudraiah and Prabhamani (1974. The influence of both the molecular and cross-diffusion effects on double-diffusive convection in a porous medium has been investigated by Rudraiah and Siddheshwar (1998). Here diffusion of one of the substances influences the other and vice versa. A theory behind it (see De Groot and Mazur. Prabhamani. 1962). in the absence of reaction and cross-diffusion terms). 1980) and of Rudraiah and Siddheshwar (1998). The resulting buoyancy force may tend to increase the displacement of the particle from its original position. and Masuoka (2002) have made a linear and nonlinear stability analyses of double-diffusive convection with/without cross-diffusion in anisotropic porous media. 1980) have used this equation with R = S = D21= 0 to study the Soret effect on linear and nonlinear double-diffusive convection in a porous medium.e. T). these equations reduce to the usual equations to study double-diffusive convection in porous media discussed earlier. say JC. r A substance. →). Accordingly. flows from places where its density is high toward places where its density is low. The energy and diffusion equations with reaction–diffusion terms can be obtained from standard procedure (see De Groot and Mazur. T) and S(C. We note that when R = S = D12 = D21 = 0 (i. 1980). The works on porous media mentioned above are concerned with constant diffusivities and cross-diffusivities. particularly in saline geothermal fields where hot brines remain beneath less saline. Siddheshwar. cooler groundwater.6 and Dufour effects) of substances (such as mass and heat or species. The basic momentum equation will be Eq.) in porous media of type 1 (see Rudraiah and Prabhamani. causing instability either of finger or of diffusive type. it is essential to consider reaction terms such as R(C. etc. and Schechter et al. Similarly the diffusion flux. In the case of liquid-saturated porous media the mass of the species C arises due to thermal cross-diffusion known as Soret effect (see Rudraiah and Rudraiah et al. 1997). the diffusion flux. r the concentration be C(r. Schechter et al. Here the diffusivity of heat is usually more than the diffusivity of the salt and hence a displaced parcel of fluid loses any excess heat more rapidly than any excess solute. say C. (1) or one of its limiting forms. the effects of reaction due to C and T have been neglected. 1984) were the first to investigate the effects of homogeneous first-order chemical reaction on double- . 1972) is based on considering two substances. 1974. For example. in gases Soret effect is negligible and crossdiffusion through Dufour effect is significant (see De Groot and Mazur. 1962. these cross-diffusivities play a significant role depending on whether we are dealing with liquids or gases. of T is JT = −D21∇C − D22∇T where the thermal diffusion coefficient D22 > 0 and the cross-diffusion coefficient D21 ≤ 0 (or ≥ 0) according as C attracts (or repels) T. In the dynamics of fission reactors with temperature feedback (see Leung. 1980. 1972) in the form φ ∂C → + (q ∇)C = S(C. chemicals. that are activating or inhibiting each other according to some law of reaction and diffusion in a spatial domain. 1998. where the Dufour effect is negligible because it is of order less than 10–3 oC. T) + D11∇2C + D12∇2T ∂t ∂T → R(C T) + (q ∇)T = + D21∇2C + D22∇2T (ρcp)f ∂t (9) (10) Rudraiah and Prabhamani (1974. Here the diffusivities D11 and D22 and the cross-diffusivities D12 and D21 may be constants or functions of C or T depending on the situation. Brand and Steinberg (1983a. Rudraiah and Siddheshwar. at a time t and position → let r. Similarly. where R and S are the effect of interaction between C and T on the creation and dissemination of these substances. 1962. At the same time T has an attracting or repelling effect on C. →) and temperature be T(t.. and references therein) because of their applications in chemical engineering and geophysics.. say mass denoted by concentration C and heat denoted by temperature T. of C is a linear combination of the gradients of C and T and is given by JC = −D11∇C − D12∇T M where the concentration diffusion coefficient D11 > 0 and the cross-diffusion coefficient D12 ≤ 0 (or ≥ 0) according as T attracts (or repels) C. Rudraiah. and in addition we need energy and species equations to study the effect of cross-diffusion on double-diffusive convection in porous media. More recently. Further.. 1974. say JT. 1983b) and Steinberg and Brand (1983. Recently. Rudraiah and Siddheshwar (1998) have made a linear and nonlinear analyses of double-diffusive convection with cross-diffusion in porous media.

(1979) have studied forced convection in a layer bounded by a porous medium. differentially heated side walls) is usually called Oberbeck convection (see Rudraiah and Nagaraj. Heat transfer by Oberbeck convection in a vertical porous layer with differentially heated side walls has also received considerable interest because of its relevance to geothermal applications and thermal insulation (see Masuoka. to our knowledge. It also depends 7 on the combined effect of buoyancy. (1973) and Masuoka et al. when difference in thermal expansion between liner walls and pressure boundaries is not negligible and when perforation is needed for liner walls to be adapted to a pressure transient in a sudden charging or discharging process of an internal gas.. the overall heat transfer characteristics were not affected so much. Rudraiah and Siddheshwar (2002) performed linear and nonlinear analyses of double-diffusive convection with fast chemical reaction in anisotropic porous media against the background of the results of isotropic porous media.. It is important to note that the nature of CVTG near the cold boundary changes drastically with aspect ratio compared to the hot wall. 1983. and excellent agreement was achieved. 1992.e. both theoretically and experimentally. and references therein). or heated from below and cooled from above as in RBD convection. Calmidi and Mahajan (2000) have studied forced convection in high-porosity metal foams. Weber. Not-so-tall and tall slender cells were considered and the heat transfer characteristic was presented. much work has not been done.g.. magnetic and electric fields. a rectangular channel of large aspect ratio heated from below.. and viscous dissipation. 1981. namely. etc.e. and aspect ratio. Although natural convection (i. shear produced by motion of the boundaries. Chan et al. In this forced convection the momentum equation is decoupled from the energy equation. 1982.. particularly for inclined geometries (see Rudraiah and Wilfred. they found good agreement between theoretical and experimental results on temperature oscillations. Uncertainties still remain as to the effect of the internal forced flow on thermal convection in porous insulation. The natural convection in a vertical porous layer generated by maintaining the temperature difference normal to gravity (i.Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review diffusive convection in porous media. (1987) have studied the stability of mixed convection in a sloping Hele–Shaw slot. 1975). e. diffusion. (1981) made a significant contribution to this problem. Rudraiah et al. either on forced convection.. Lauriat and Prasad. Forced convection is concerned with basic flow driven by an external force such as pressure gradient. used by most investigators. However. The works cited above are concerned only with type-I convection. and temperature field rises due to thermal convection. Masuoka et al. The numerical results reveal that the flow patterns were considerably distorted in a horizontal direction in contrast to the symmetrical patterns predicted by analytical study when viscosity and thermal conductivity were constant. Rudraiah et al. They have investigated linear stability using the Galerkin method and found that thermal convection superimposed on the basic forced flow can occur in the singular form of transverse rolls with axes oriented across the slope and also found oscillations in fluid temperatures. Type-II is concerned with convection in a vertical porous layer either heated from one side and cooled from the other side where the temperature difference is maintained normal to gravity. Mixed convection is concerned with combined forced and natural convection. a horizontal porous layer heated from below and cooled from above. caused by a local increase in porosity near the wall. 1977. or on mixed convection in porous media. First solving the momentum equation. (1988) are concerned with analytical studies. They extended the boundary-layer analysis to account for the core vertical temperature gradient (CVTG) and the apparent wall-film thermal resistance (WFTR). thermal conductivity. The type-III convection is concerned with forced and mixed convection in a porous layer. 1987). through flow (injection or suction) at the boundaries.. porous permeability. we can then solve the energy equation for temperature and here heat transfer is mainly by conduction. In particular. . and Masuoka et al. In the absence of WFTR. both numerically and experimentally. the heat transfer is overpredicted and hence the mismatch between theory and experiment. RBD convection) in porous media has received considerable attention in recent years because of its natural occurrence and relevance in many practical problems discussed earlier. 1970. In mixed convection some internal forced flow might superimpose on RBD convection in some cases. 1982. whereas the works of Jannot et al. 1994.. Masuoka et al. provided that representative properties were evaluated at a mean temperature. Masuoka et al. Recently. The works of Rudraiah and Nagaraj (1977) and Rudraiah et al. 1987. which may occur in certain types of insulation layers. 1968. (1983) are concerned with numerical study with the motive of understanding the effects of variation of viscosity. and density with temperature on Oberbeck convection in a porous layer.

) is not governed by both necessary and sufficient conditions. we explain the use of Lyapunov technique to study nonlinear convection in porous media. Let →= (x. z) be the position vector defined over fixed r and finite domain Σ with a boundary ∂Σ and t be the time. The basic state is unstable if it is not stable. a′) < ε for all t > t0. 1970. a′). (3) spectral method. Our aim is to study the stability of the basic state of an electrically conducting fluid in a porous medium in the → presence of an applied magnetic field H0.). we explain how the techniques listed above can be applied to study NLC in porous media. in the remaining sections of this article. 1974. 1968. To improve the stability criterion obtained from the Lyapunov method one usually applies the variation principle. we start with a trial function which is an appropriate positive definite function. To achieve this objective. and continue with a verification of negative (semi-) definiteness of its total time derivative. say V(. A brief outline of this method is as follows. Among the unstable systems. It is intuitively clear that. a′) < δ at the initial time t0 implies that B(a0.and doublecomponent fluids in porous media are concerned with studying linear theory using normal mode analysis and nonlinear theory using the energy method. y. A theorem discussed by Pritchard (1968) establishes asymptotic stability in the Lyapunov sense. both belong to Σ. In spite of this. then that system is stable at that point. B → ∞ for finite t. Let the basic state a0 and the perturbed state a′. (4) Fourier decomposition and numerical techniques. we do not consider those that have finite escape time. LYAPUNOV TECHNIQUE The problem of analysis and synthesis of nonlinear systems is still of interest even though there are numerous books and articles dedicated to this subject. a′) be given such that the metric between any two states a0 and a′ at time t denote by B(a0. To obtain a suitable Lyapunov functional we consider a small disturbance of the form . Qin and Chadam. 1978. Shir and Joseph. The Lyapunov method is also called the energy method because of the following physical consideration. i. (2) power integral technique. The main object of this review is to study the merits and demerits of the following techniques: (1) Lyapnuov technique. In this section. the Lyapunov method. Most works on convection of single. is based essentially only on the sufficiency of the corresponding condition because the selection of the function V(. 1973. if the total energy of a physical system has a local minimum at a certain point. Further. A formal discussion of this method is given by Pritchard (1968) and by Rudraiah and Vortmeyer (1978). The crucial point in the Lyapunov method is to obtain a suitable Lyapunov functional because there is no unique way of obtaining it. it has been widely and effectively applied to study the stability of various complex quantitative dynamical problems. Rudraiah and Prabhamani. Therefore. In the Lyapunov method. B(a0. 1976. and (5) experimental investigation. These methods are used effectively in the study of stability of flow with and without porous media (see Rudraiah et al. This method. 1996). we suppose that a metric space X(a.. Joseph. Rudraiah and Vortmeyer. This idea was generalized by Lyapunov (1907) into a single but powerful method for studying stability problems in a broader context. it does not provide an algorithm for a Lyapunov function construction to guarantee an exact determination of the universal stability domain. Guo and Kaloni. that is. it is natural to combine these two approaches in order to gain benefits of these two important methods. The basic state is asymptotically stable if it is stable and in addition B → 0 as t → ∞. 1995. called classical Lyapunov method. A main advantage of this technique is that it does not require knowledge of the solutions and therefore it has great power in application to many dynamical systems arising from many disciplines.e. the stability condition obtained from this analysis will be too restrictive on the system under control. The Lyapunov (1892) method and its various modifications have been and still remain one of the most powerful means to solve this problem.8 So far we have given a brief outline of different types of convection in porous media as a background for the study of nonlinear convection in porous media using different techniques. 0) = 0 qb → d2Tb → → H = H0 and = 0 dz2 For this. Carmi and Lalas. Because of the fact that the method of calculus of variations and the method of Lyapunov functions are both extremely useful and effective techniques in the investigation of nonlinear stability problems. to study universal stability of flow of the quiescent state and for synthesis of nonlinear system control. given by → ( r. The basic state is stable in the sense of Lyapunov if for each real number ε > 0 there exists a real number δ(ε) such that for every a′ Σ.

v. y. z. and integrating over the volume V and making the resulting equations dimensionless. I⋅J′ denotes the surface integral over Σ. τ = qJ q 2 → → → → υt . (18)–(20). using the Lyapunov method. ∆T is the temperature difference. T is made dimensionless using k M (∆Th2υ ⁄ αgkκ) √ V0.e. which is (17) → →k + σRaT(q ^) + σ3RaT(T1→) + Rσ2→E → q q q →→ → →→ − Rσ2PmH E H + 2σ2Rm→G H q J (21) . k The basic equations are → 1 → → µh → → 1 1 ∂q (H ∇)H − + 2 (q ∇)q = ∇P ρ0 ρ0 ε ∂t ε γ ^ − [1 − α(T − T0)] gk − → q k ∂u ∂v ∂w + + = 0 ∂y ∂x ∂z → ∂H → → → → → + (q ∇)H = (H ∇)q + υm∇2H ∂t ρ = ρ0[1 − αt(T − T0)] ∂T + → ∇)T = κ∇2T (q ∂t (12) → dK ^q = − Rσ2→E →+ q2 + σRaT(k→) q q dτ I → q − σ2RmH ∇H→ Pm dL = − dτ J + σ2RmA4 (18) → → HEH I−σ2RPm→→→ + σ2∇H : ∇H → →→ + σ2Rmq ∇H H − Rmσ2A4 J (19) (20) Pr (13) dθ = dτ → Iσ3RaTq T1 + σ2∇T : ∇TJ − σ2INuT 2J′ (14) (15) (16) where I⋅J denotes the volume integral over V(τ). temperature 2 2 I 1 T 2J. magnetic energy L = I 1 h2J. called universal stability. kinetic energy K = _ modulus θ = I 1 q2J. For this we use the Lyapunov technique. Ho is the reference magnetic m field. H = H0k + H and 1 z T = T0 − ∆T − + T ′ (x. We use Eq. magnetic field is made dimension less using Ho P1 ⁄ 2 ⁄ A. and T. (11) with the observation that primed quantities are not small and that the basic and perturbed (i. (17). where for simplicity primes are omitted.Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review 9 based on the energy method (see Shir and Joseph. Tl = T ⁄ ∆T. P = P0 + P′. The main concern here is to know whether the altered flow will approach the basic flow as t → ∞. 1968). and ^ denotes the unit vector in the z direction. t) h 2 (11) Here (u. we get → → dI → = −Iσ2∇H :∇H + ∇T :∇T + q 2 dτ The boundary conditions are W = θ = hz = Dζ = DJz = 0 at z = 0 and z = h Universal Stability In this section. altered) quantities satisfy the same basic equations (12)–(16) satisfying the boundary conditions given by Eq. we discuss the stability for arbitrary perturbations. we neglect it. A4 = IH ∇ H →+ H ∇ H → . H. Nu = hσ3 is the Nusselt number. First we subtract the basic flow equations from the altered flow equations and we multiply →→ the resulting difference equations secularly by q .. suffix zero denotes the basic equilibrium state. w = w′. The method is as follows. respectively. primed quantities denote perturbed quantities which are assumed to be small for linear analysis and arbitrary for nonlinear analysis compared to the basic state. v = v′. and σ3 is a piecewise continuous function such that ∂T + σ3T = 0 on Σ ∂n Since the surface integral tends to stabilize the flow as Nu grows larger. we get → ^ → u = u′. w) are the components of velocity. h is the characteristic length. Adding Eqs.

(22) and (23). and the effect of the Prandtl number on the solution. the nature of the amplitude. We can find a δ > 0 (see Shir and Joseph. R = 0 for basic stationary flow. derived from the (23) Equation (21). We note that the stability criterion Eq.01. In this method the linear stability theory is used to predict a condition for the onset of convection and in so doing. Later. (24) with equality sign. 1968) such that → → I∇H : ∇H J → T I∇T : ∇→J ≥ 2δL ≥ 2δθ Kθ q IT1→TJ ≤ 2√ ≤ K + θ Ra2 ≈ 98 1 − n0 (0. 0 For stability we must have _ ~ ~ σ2R + Rm + σ1 + σ2 Ra ≤ δ (26) This establishes a stability region near the origin of 1⁄2 1⁄2 2 1 ⁄ 2 σR . 1970). POWER INTEGRAL TECHNIQUE The concept of power integral was first introduced by Howard (1964) as one of the constraints in finding the maximum upper bound. (26) can be further improved by using the techniques of calculus of variations (see Shir and Joseph. 1958). (1972) examined the dependence of Nusselt number in two-dimensional convection neglecting the inertia term in the momentum equation and using the expansion method of Kuo (1967).01) Rm N 2 Rudraiah et al. The first power integral was obtained from the momentum equation and the second was obtained from the energy equation using the above averages. Busse and Joseph (1972) and Gupta and Joseph (1973) extended Howard’s (1964) variation method and the bifurcation property of Busse’s (1969) multi-α solution of Howard’s (1964) variation problem to find bounds on the strongly nonlinear heat transport across a porous layer. we get →→ →J ≤ 2K Iq E q (22) → →→ IH E H J ≤ 2L →→ → J ≤ 2n √ ≤ n (K + L) Iq G H 0 KL 0 → where n0 = max G . is Ra2 ≈ 990 1 + L √ 2 1 + (0. see Carmi and Lalas. Pm . using the variation method. This shape. Rudraiah and Srimani (1980) investigated these aspects using an iterative technique which combines the best features of Howard’s (1964) power integral technique. and Stuart’s (1974) shape assumption (see Malkus and Veronis. a shape (i. takes the form _ ~ ~ dI ≤ −2N δ − Raσ(1 + σ2) − σ2R − σ2Rm I dτ where _ δ = max (1. we get _ ~ ~ I = I0 exp − 2N δ − Raσ(1 + σ2) − σ2R − σ2Rm (25) where I is the value of I when T = 0. Ra Pm) ~ Rm = n0Rm Integrating Eq. Pr (24) ~ R = max (R. and σ2 = 0. In that case the critical Rayleigh number for nonlinear theory.e. wh ich is a _ sphere of radius δ1 ⁄ 2 and center at the origin for a fixed Pm. but is silent about the prediction of the preferred cell pattern. σ2δ) and 1 1 N = minimum of 1. σm . using Eqs. Most of the available literature on porous media focuses mainly on the onset of convection and the amount of heat transport.01)2 M1 2 (28) Thus Ra2 < Ra2 and hence subcritical instabilities are N L possible.. σ(1 + σ )Ra sp ace.10 where I = K + PmL + Prθ is the total energy and G is → the antisymmetric part of ∇H . 1968). and Howard gave simple physical interpretation for these two integrals. (27) and RaL. a mathematical formula for convection velocity) is also predicted.74π2 (for channel flow. RaN is . The above theoretical models have limited applications in that they predicted heat transfer accurately only for a restricted range of Rayleigh number Ra (<400). To compare with the linear theory we take δ = 3. Galerkin technique. Using Schwarz’s inequality. obtainable from linear theory. Palm et al. Howard (1964) obtained two power integrals as the integral consequences of Boussinesq equations using horizontal averages and average over the layer. for the heat transport by Rayleigh–Benard convection in a clear fluid.

1. z′) →= κ →′ q h q h2 t = t′ κ υκ αgh3 T′ (30) T = In the remainder of this section all unprimed quantities are nondimensional unless otherwise stated. This method is capable of predicting: (1) the nature of the amplitude at a given value of Ra.e. (2) the energetics of the fluid.. using Eq.e. v2. y′..) are nonhomogeneous partial differential equations which will pose a problem because of the pres(31) . we find power integrals by applying an averaging → process in which the nonlinear terms ( →∇)q and q →∇)T are divided into terms that are finite when averaged (q over the horizontal plane. T = T − T. boundary effects).) are integrals of Wi and Ti. we assume that (u. i. To study the local nonlinear stability. and into terms of zero average.. . Ra = Ra0 + εRa1 + ε2Ra2 + . we get the required equations for wi (I = 0. Rudraiah and Srimani (1980) have used this method to study two. the form of one of the field variables is determined.) and Ti (i = 0. following Rudraiah and Srimani (1980). This analysis is useful to study in detail both two. v0 w0) + ε2(u1. in this section. Then one uses Stuart’s (1974) shape assumption. Therefore. where the amplitude varies with time.. y. The overbar denotes the horizontal average and the subscript m denotes the layer average.Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review linear analysis. if we consider the DLB equation (i. v. The investigation of higher-order approximations based on the solution of the linear stability problem is called local nonlinear stability analysis.. which is Stuart’s (1974) shape assumption.. we get ___ ___ κ β + WT = H = κ βm + (W T)m (29) where 11 ___ ___ ___ β ∂ 1 = 1 + − WT + G ( WT) WT) ( κ βm ∂t βm m _ ~ _ ∂T ~ ~ ~ Here β = . In this method. First. where ε is a constant perturbation parameter and Rai (i = 0. z) = (x′. In other words. The equations for wi (i = 1.. v1. T being the actual tempera∂z ture.and three-dimensional convection. Eliminating the pressure in the DLB equation and expressing u and v in terms of w.. We assume that it is solved for w0 (normalized). These equations can easily be obtained and for want of space they are omitted here. of order ε) only.. we apply the power integral method combined with local nonlinear stability analysis to study Rayleigh–Benard–Darcy (RBD) convection in porous media using the DLB equation. We note that the equation for w0 is the Lapwood (1948) equation with linear constant coefficient operator. persists even after the onset of convection.). i. the perturbations on the basic flow are assumed to be finite so that higher-order terms in the stability equation have to be retained.. However. and this amplitude must be infinitesimal.e. 2.. (31) and equating the like powers of ε. R > Rc (nonlinear theory) to determine the remaining variables. This implies that permeability does not influence the cell pattern at onset.. corresponding to the linear theory. for the first-order solutions to be complete. w) = ε(u0. 1. Linear stability is concerned with the solution of the first-order equation (i. From the zero-order system of differential equations. ε must be proportional to the amplitude of the disturbance.. w1) + ε3(u2. i. They have shown that the wave number is independent of the porous parameter σ and replaced it by unity.. 1. . w2) + . .e. ... 2.and three-dimensional nonlinear convection in porous media using the Darcy–Lapwood (DL) equation. 2. It relies on a system of differential equations for each of the field variables. These equations are made dimensionless using the transformations (x. persists into the nonlinear convection regime. at the critical Rayleigh number Rac. These are accomplished by introducing parametric expansions of the motion and then equating the coefficients of each order of the parameter.. the one that transports maximum heat when the viscosity and permeability of the porous media are constants. H is the constant heat flux between the horizontal surfaces due to both conduction (κβ) and convection ___ (WT) and G is the___ of β which vanishes when the part time variations of WT vanish.e. the interested reader can look into the work of Rudraiah and Srimani (1980). then we can show that permeability influences the cell pattern at onset. and that therefore modify the average field. which implies that the plan form that exists at the onset of convection. and (3) the physically preferred cell pattern. Applying the averaging process on the energy equation (4).

. as explained in the work of Rudraiah and Srimani (1980).and three-dimensional equations can be obtained to determine the physically preferred cell pattern. for the second-order approximation. Ra6 approximation. The ratio ___ RaNu H(Ra)Ra Ra + (WT)w ____ _ (36) = = Ra0Nu0 H(Ra0)Ra0 Ra0 + (W0T0)m Figure 1. we develop. Heat transport versus Rayleigh number for different approximations for the case Pr = 8 and σ2 = 10–3. the slope of the Nu–Ra relation at Rac is the same as that given by Masuoka (1968. In other words. From the first-order solutions. but they need not be mutually orthogonal. Further. subcritical solutions are not possible. we can work out Ra4 approximation.12 ence of resonance terms. Also. Busse and Joseph (1972). the results of linear stability analysis are important. As we are interested in local nonlinear stability analysis. The interested reader can refer to the linear theory in Rudraiah and Srimani (1980). Ra2 = = Ra0 1(α2 + 1) (33) (α2 + 1)2 2 2 π (α + 1) + σ2 α2 (32) We note that since Ra2 is always positive. following Malkus and Veronis (1958). The Rai are evaluated in such a way that they eliminate resonant inhomogeneous terms. from Eq. using the method of iteration. the higher-order solutions that give Ra1 = 0. and so on. These can be taken into account. We note that the Rayleigh number from the linear theory for rolls is Ra0 = π2 α2 + 1 2 2 π (α + 1) + σ2 2α2 Rudraiah et al. is ___ 2(Ra − Ra0) (WT)m (34) Nu = 1 + = 1 + Ra Ra The derivative of Nu with respect to Ra at Ra = Ra0 is given by dNu 1 2 = = dRa Ra0 2π2 Ra=Ra0 Rolls Here. we study nonlinear stability using the local nonlinear analysis which is pivoted on the linear theory discussed by Rudraiah and Srimani (1980). the steady solution with finite amplitude is stable and the bifurcation of conduction into convection is supercritical rather than twosided. The Nusselt number Nu. Then from the third-order equation. Similarly. (31) it is evident that all wi (i > 0) must be orthogonal to w0. 1972). and Buretta and Berman (1976). Using this procedure the solutions for these inhomogeneous two. vanishing of all the zero-average advection terms from the first-order solutions leads to w1 = u1 = T1 = 0. we can get (35) Thus.

therefore. Ra2 is computed in a way similar to that for rolls and the influence of Pr is found even in the second-order approximation itself. In the present work it is not so. (1997). where they observed that the Ra6 approximation for heat transport is very close to the Ra2 approximation. One can anticipate that the Ra6 curve. limiting rectangles) for Pr = 0. Squares. (32). In all other cases. we conclude that rolls are preferred cells rather than squares and limiting rectangles. The study of hexagonal forms using the iterative procedure discussed earlier follows a similar procedure. By using the value of Ra2 the ___ heat transport (WT)m ⁄ 2(Ra − Ra0) is computed for different values of Pr. as a function of Pr. To determine the first finite-amplitude results.5Ra and the Ra10 curve. These solutions are such that the 1 porous parameter influences the temperature distribution only through N0 and not the velocity distribution directly. Since the analysis is similar. The linear solution analogous to that obtainable for rolls in the linear theory is π ln1 2 u0 = −2√ 2 sin cos (πmy) cos (n1πz) x α mn1 v0 = −2√ 2 2 cos (πlx) sin (πmy) cos (n1πz) α w0 = 2√2 cos (πlx) cos (πmy) sin (n1πz) 2 T0 = 2√ N0 cos (πlx) cos (πmy) sin (n1πz) 13 infinite set of values.1 and varying σ2 from 102 to 103.e. They adopted the shadowgraph and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to come to the conclusion that the findings of the theory for homogeneous media match partially with the experiments. This ratio [Eq. Hence we conclude that square cells are the physically preferred cell patterns. may be more nearly parallel to that for Ra2. Rectangles. From this figure it is also clear that neglect of zero-average nonlinear (ZANL) terms increases the amplitude of the predicted heat transport. because rolls transport more heat. whereas in the theory it is generally ordered.1. In particular. 1 against Ra ⁄ Ra0 for Pr = 8 and σ2 = 103 for various approximations Ra2.45 and above. As Pr increases to 0. However. If we plot Nu versus Ra/σ2. Ra6. a property exhibited by rolls. We find that the finite-amplitude heat transport for the hexagonal plan form is smaller than that due to squares and greater than that due to limiting rectangles. σ. We note that these conclusions are true only for uniform viscosity and for isotropic porous media. and m is a triply . like the Ra4 curve. By fixing Pr = 0. This Ra2. Ra4. the occurrence of maximum convective heat transport changes from a limiting rectangle to a square. In this section it is appropriate to draw attention to the experimental works of Shattuck et al. if we consider only the three-dimensional motion. a square cell will convert more heat. (36)] is plotted in Fig. Here α2 = l2 + m2 and N0 = (α2 + n2)σ2 ⁄ α2.45. The reason given by them is that the structure of the medium plays a vital role in deciding on the plan forms. only the results are presented and discussed. the occurrence of maximum convective heat transport crosses from l/m = 0 to l/m = 1.. We also find that the limiting rectangle will convert maximum heat only when σ2 ≤ 102 and Pr = 0.e. In general. 1997) and Howle et al. The results for limiting rectangles can be obtained easily from the general rectangle and are compared with those for rolls. (1995. and the curves of Ra2 and Ra6 approximations diverge and the Ra6 (ZANL) curve is very close to the Ra2 curve in the range Ra0 ≤ Ra ≤ 2. will diverge to the right at some R greater than 2.. conduction alone). l. we note that for values of σ2 (≤104) the convective heat transport is almost independent of Pr. It is of interest to compare the results of the present analysis with those of Malkus and Veronis (1958). The question as to which of the infinite number of values of l/m is chosen by the fluid can be answered by considering the relative stability criterion as done by Rudraiah and Srimani (1980).Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review where Nu0 is the value of Nu at Ra = Ra0 (i. square cells are preferred to limiting rectangles. The ratio l/m cannot be chosen arbitrarily and has to be determined by the physics of the system.5Ra0. We find that the value of heat transport for the limiting rectangle differs markedly from that for rolls. and Ra8 (ZANL means Zero-Average NonLinear). we see that Nu increases with increase in l/m. In the case of most experiments the medium is disordered. and Hexagons The power integral technique used in the previous section is now extended to three-dimensional motion with the object of determining the preferred cell pattern. σ. and l/m. The ultimate conclusion seems to be that much needs to be done from both the (37) and Ra0 is given by Eq. We find that heat transport is maximum at l/m = 0 (i. From this figure it is clear that heat transport decreases as the order of approximation increases. like the Ra6 curve.

(39) Eliminating the pressure in the DLB equation and making the resulting equation dimensionless using Eq. some interesting results. and the built-in orthogonal process to take care of the resonance and secular terms considers only the even modes. SPECTRAL METHOD The power integral technique discussed in the power integral technique section studies finite-amplitude convection in a porous layer and is pivoted on the linear theory.14 theoretical and experimental sides to relate them to each other better. assuming the marginal state is valid. we get the steady-state vorticity equation (∇2 − σ2) ∇2ψ + 1 ∂θ 1 B = Pr ∂x (40) where B = ∂(ψ. z) is the vorticity advection Jacobian and σ1 = σ ⁄ π is the modified permeability parameter. and there appears a priori no reason to reject it. we face the difficulty of more boundary conditions than the order of the stability equation and hence an overspecified system. The representations (43) and l. l = n = 1). is mathematically cumbersome. Such difficulties. and the coefficients ψl. however. following Kuo and Platzman (1965). We use the total nondimensional temperature T given by T = T1 − Raz + θ (38) and the stream function ψ such that u = − ∂ψ ∂ψ . which is a local nonlinear analysis. (30) with h replaced by h/π. obtained by considering cross-interactions of modes. Equations (43) and (44) can be written as . When we use the Darcy equation to study convection in porous media. however. are missed. the no-slip condition is as valid as the other two conditions. However. z) is the thermal advection Jacobian. namely. (42) and symmetry conditions. l and n are integers. the Brinkman extended Darcy–Lapwood equation is valid and this leads to a sixth-order differential equation with six boundary conditions for the study of convection in porous media and hence leads to a well-posed problem. A suitable statistical approach is needed to resolve this problem. The nondimensional steady-state energy equation obtainable from Eq. care must be taken in using the no-slip conditions in the case of a porous medium (see Masuoka et al. w = ∂z ∂x Rudraiah et al.n cos (lax) sin (nz) (44) where ψ and θ satisfy Eq. ∇2ψ) ⁄ ∂(x.n sin (lax) sin (nz) l=0 ∞ n=1 ∞ ∞ ∞ (43) θ = ∑ ∑ l=0 n=1 ^ θl. will not arise when a porous medium is bounded by free-free boundaries where slip is allowed.n and ^ θ are functions of R . If a porous medium is sparsely packed. This power integral technique. Rudraiah and Rao (1982) have overcome this deficiency using the method of spectral analysis. where the flow is governed by the Darcy equation. In the process. We consider the same physical model.n a (44) transform the basic equations into the spectral domain of the spectra of the linear case. We assume that the porous layer is bounded by stress-free isothermal boundaries and hence the boundary conditions are ψ = ∇2ψ = θ = 0 (42) Spectral Representation Let ψ = ^ ∑ ∑ ψl. θ) ⁄ ∂(x. however. It is an iterative technique which combines the best features of the Galerkin method and Stuart’s shape assumption. (4) is ∇2θ + Ra ∂ψ = H ∂x (41) where H = ∂(ψ. 1981).. From a physical point of view. as in Malkus and Veronis (1958).e. This is because from physical arguments there will be six boundary conditions based on no-slip condition for the fourth-order differential equation. a is the wave number of the ^ first mode (i.. Rayleigh–Benard convection in a sparsely packed porous layer using the Boussinesq approximation. In this section we briefly explain the salient features of spectral analysis considering nonlinear convection in porous media using the DLB equation.

This means lγ = lβ + lα and nγ = nβ + nα where ∑ γ represents summation over all integral lattice To find the solutions of Eqs.α given by Lγ. n). (48) and (49) can be written as _ _ _ Hγ (55) θγ = 2 for l = 0 n for l ≠ 0 a α2(α2 + σ2) ψγ = alθγ − Bγ γ γ 1 Pr α2 θγ − alRaψγ = − aHγ γ a B Pγ γ (48) (49) (56) These expressions are used to find the modal Rayleigh number and to study the interaction of different modes. become α2(α2 + σ2)ψγ − laθγ = − γ γ 1 α2 θγ − laRaψγ = −aHγ γ where α2 = l2a2 + n2 γ Bγ = − ∑ γ1 is the horizontal average over a full wavelength. π ≤ z ≤ π.α (47) where Sβ and Cβ are the complex conjugates of Sβ and Cβ. Cα) 1 ∫ C∗ ∂(x.Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review ψ = 15 where δγ. In the linear theory Bγ = Hγ = 0 and hence a nontrivial solution of Eq. and ds is the elementary area divided by the total area 4π2 ⁄ a of the region.β. We note that as σ1 → 0. we get (Ra − Rγ) ψγ = where Rγ = α2 γ 1 Hγ + 2 B γ l al Pr (57) ∑ γ2 (l1n2 − l2n1) α2 ψγ1 ψγ2 γ Hγ = − ∑ γ1 ∑ γ2 (l1n2 − l2n1) ψγ1 θγ2 (51) the pairs γ1 and γ2 satisfy the selection rule γ = γ1 + γ2. Equations (40) and (41).α = ∂(Cβ.β+α is called the modal Rayleigh number.β+α is the Kronecker delta. using Eqs. nα − lα. z) = θ (z) + Θ (x. . (48) and (49). We note that Lγ. (45) and (46). z) dz 1π ∫ 0 points in the ln-plane and γ is a vector with components (l. (56). Rγ tends to that given by Kuo and Platzman (1967) for a clear fluid. we write _ θ(x. z) (54) where 2π ⁄ a _ a θ (z) = θ (x. R( tends to that given by Rudraiah and Rao (1982) for Darcy flow in the limit σ1 → ∞.β. The orthogonal of Sγ and Cγ may be expressed in the form β ∫ S∗ Sα ds s ∗ = β ∫ C∗ Cα ds s ∗ = δβ.. (57) requires Ra = Rγ.e. l = l1 + l2 and n = n1 + n2. z) dσ γ α (52) α4 (α2 + σ2) γ γ 1 a2l2 (58) = (lβ. S is the surface 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π ⁄ a. i. (50) Modal Rayleigh Number Eliminating θγ in Eq. nβ) δγ.β. In the spectral method the nonlinear contributions are expressed in terms of coupling coefficients Lγ.α vanishes unless the selection rule γ = β + α (53) ∑ ψγ S γ γ Sγ = −Exp i (lax + nz) (45) θ = ∑ θγ Cγ γ Cγ = −Exp i(lax + nz) (46) holds. Then Eqs.

Rγc and the corresponding critical wave number ac are given by Rrc = 1 2 3n − σ2 + √1 a 1 32n2 (59) (60) Rudraiah et al. corroborates with the results of Rudraiah and Masuoka (1982). we get the minimal Rγc = 6. (57) as powers in ∆. and Bγ in Eq. the order of the spectral element. the Lapwood Rayleigh number R11/σ2 is more suitable.e. 1) may not be a self-excited mode in some regions. We note that their Rγc differs from our Rγc by a factor π4 because of our choice of length scale. Such a study reveals that the fundamental mode (1.. The reader is referred to Rudraiah and Rao (1983) for an interesting discussion of such results.r = ψγ. Further. is either odd or even. thus ruling out the existence of a steady solution... ψln).. This method opens up a plethora Some of the important coefficients of the flow spectrum are: ψ111 = 1 √ (1 + a2) 2 a2(83 + 22a2 + 3a4) 16√2 (a2 + 1)3 A ψ113 = . (57). can be computed and plotted on a graph in order to understand the interaction of different modes for different σ2. Solution of the Spectral Equations The effect of nonlinear advection Bγ and Hγ on the onset of convection is delineated here using the solution of Eq. the value Rγc = 4σ2 and ac = 1. Expressing ψγ.5 by putting l = 1 and n = 1 in Eqs. The variation of Rγ with a2. emerging from the 1 spectral method. (59) and (60) by unity. We expand ψγ in the form ψγ = ψγ. according as r.r+1 ∆r+1 + . For values of σ2 up to 103 we should use the usual Rayleigh number R11 whereas for values of σ2 > 103. of interesting possibilities. In certain regions there might be a double-mode steady solution corresponding to two self-excited modes.. c (59) and (60).75 and 1 minimal a2 = 0. we get (Rγ − R11) ψγ. using Ra − Rγ = − (Ra − R11) − ∆2 and equating the coefficients of ∆r. This aspect. which are the known values for viscous flow in the absence of porous media given by Kuo and Platzman (1967). where ψlnp is the coefficient of ∆p in the expansion of ψγ (i. We note that when σ2 → 0. We note that the exclusion of odd parity elements implies that the series expansion of a spectral element is in terms either of odd powers of ∆ only or even powers only.r + 2 Br l al Pr (62) These are true for any mode consistent with the selection rule explained in the spectral representation section of this article. which are the known values given by 1 Lapwood (1948). 1) by replacing l and n in Eqs. where r is the order of magnitude of an element ψγ being the lowest power of ∆ in the expansion. We also note that this method needs to be pursued further.r−2 + α2 γ 1 Hγ.r ∆r + ψγ. say σ2 = 105. for different modes γ. Hγ. the first-order element (ψ11 can be expanded as ψ11 = ψ111 ∆ + ψ113 ∆3 + . From these limiting values we may conclude that a transition zone from the Brinkman model to the Darcy model exists for values of σ2 in the range 102 < σ2 < 103.16 The critical modal Rayleigh number. For this we define Ra − (R11 ∆ + √)c (61) a × 3n2 + σ2 + √ 1 1 a2 = c where a1 = (σ2 + n2) (σ2 + 9n2) 1 1 and a2 = (σ2 + n2) (σ2 − 9n2) 1 1 1 − (σ2 + n2) + √ 2 a 1 2 4l which is a deviation from the critical Rayleigh number (R11)c and measures the amplitude of the disturbance. We can easily obtain the minimal Rγc and ac for the fundamental mode (1. for large σ1. For example. (59) and (60) with l = n = 1. In ψγ the coefficients of type ψlnp are all constants. we get from 1 Eqs.

nγ) and nγ covers both positive and negative integers.. We see that in all these coefficients. being the coefficient of ∆p in _ _ the power series expansion θon. A. (63) in powers of the parameter ∆. appear in 1 the denominator and hence the increase in σ2 is to decrease the spectral elements. (Ra − R11) ∆2 = R11 R11 (64) Figure 2. the effect of σ is to dampen the convection. Since θγ contain even powers of ∆.. Figure 2 provides a comparison of heat transport. as explained in the next section. The Nu is the ratio of the actual heat transport rate (i. following Rudraiah and Rao (1983) we use ε = that is. These observations are useful in studying the amount of heat transport. _ where θonp is a constant. we expand θγ in Eq. ψ113. is usually expressed as a functional relation be- _ 1 ∑ nγ θγ Ra γ (63) where γ = (0.. In other words.. as we did for ψγ. Thus _ ∂T − _ ∂z z=0 1 ∂T = − Nu = Ra ∂z ∆T z=0 h = 1 − ψ133 = ψ224 = ψ244 = −a3a2 + 5 + P−1 (a2 + 4) r A(a2+1)1023+765a2+189a4+15a6+3σ2(a4+10a2+21) 1 A = 91 + 10σ2 + 2 (15 + σ2) a2 + 3a4 1 1 The solutions obtained by the spectral method are useful to know the effect of each coefficient on different modes and the effect of Prandtl number on the coefficients. Therefore. ψ133 are independent of Pr whereas ψ224 and ψ244 decrease with an increase in Pr because Pr appears in the denominator.e. _ To determine Nu. .Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review a2 8√2 (a2 + 1)3A 2a3 [P−1 (a2 + 1) + a2 + 5] r 3(a2 + 1)4 (5a2 + 5 + σ2) A 1 17 tween the Nusselt number Nu and the Rayleigh number Ra.. Heat Transport The heat transport. combined conduction and convection) to the rate at which heat would be transported by conduction alone. _ _ _ θ04 = θ044 ∆4 + θ046 ∆6 + . ψ111. involving σ2. which is the realm of nonlinear theory. It is also clear that the effect of Pr appears only in the fourth-order spectral coefficients. in the form _ _ _ _ θ02 = θ022 ∆2 + θ024 ∆4 + θ026∆6 + . Comparison of heat transport curve with experimental results.

These methods cover limited aspects of the convective flow phenomena in porous media. (35)]. Here we limit our attention to some basic aspects of the solid–fluid mixture making up the porous medium. using glass balls and water. This is possibly due to their taking insufficient number of terms in the series expansion. Masuoka (1972) also experimentally ratified the above theoretical findings. and good agreement is found for σ2 = 104. Kvernk- 3a6 + a4 − 135a2 − 645 + 3σ2 (a2 + 1)2 1 4A Then Nu. 1968. (65) is valid only for ε < 1. or experimental or of simulation. (61) by replacing Ra using Eq.. in a rotating frame. For values of RL near RLc(4π2). unable to cover flows in porous media that exhibit time-dependent. in terms of different orders. 2... and some of the spectral coefficients are _ 1 θ022 = − 2 _ a2 θ024 = − 16A _ a2(a4 + 10a2 + 41) θ044 = − 16(a2 + 1)2 A Substituting these in Eq. we get N0 = 1 N4 = N2 = 2 Thus the Nu–RL curve must be a concave-downward curve [see also Eq. 1964. 1974. (55) and (56). and spectral techniques. _ The spectrum θγ is determined using Eqs. A Fourier decomposition together with numerical techniques is best suited to take care of such flows which are essentially nonlinear and time-dependent (see Friedrich and Rudraiah. The results are compared with the experimental results of Combarnous and Lefur (1969). They are. 1972). The variation of Nu with respect to the Rayleigh number is shown in Fig. It is appropriate to mention in this section the important analytical and experimental results of Masuoka (1968. be it analytical or numerical. chaotic. however. Straus. is Nu(0) = N0 = 1 Nu(2) = N0 + N2ε (68) Nu(4) = N0 + N2ε + N4ε2 . (66). This is in keeping with experimental observations for the range RLc < RL < 2RLc ~ 3RLc (see Masuoka. Combarnous. where _ N0 = 1 N2 = −4θ022 _ _ N4 = −N2 − 4R11 (θ024 + 2θ044) (66) (65) d (Nu) = 2 d(RL ⁄ RLc) and Rudraiah et al. 1972. This implies that Eq.18 Ra = (1 + ε) R11 We expand Nu as a power series in ε and write Nu = N0 + N2ε + N4ε2 + . The time-dependent convective motions in horizontal porous layers in the absence of rotation have been studied by many authors (see Howard. who used the Platzman (1965) method. FOURIER DECOMPOSITION AND NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES In the previous sections we have discussed the nonlinear convection in porous media using Lyapunov. This experience of knowing the overall nature of heat transfer goes a long way in qualitatively validating the results of any study on heat transfer. We also focus our attention on determining the flow patterns and the associated characteristic scales and how these are reflected by the flow and heat transfer characteristics. 1993). d2 (Nu) < 0 at R = RLc d(RL ⁄ RLc)2 (67) Equation (65) is obtained from Eq. and turbulent behaviors. It may thus be inferred that for the linear relationship between Nu and RL to be true. 1970). and examine the chaotic behavior of time-dependent convection. power integral. RL must take values in excess of 2RLc ~ 3RLc. the relation between the Nusselt number Nu and RL was found analytically by him to be RLc Nu = 1 + 2 1 − RL which means . The results of Rudraiah and Rao (1983) indicate a concave-upward curve for the Nu–RL plot. (63) and expanding (1 + ε)–1 as a power series in ε. In this section we explain the salient features of this method by using it to study nonlinear double-diffusive convection in a sparsely packed porous medium..

temperature. respectively. Kimura. Masuoka. time. (12) and using the scales υ ⁄ h. 1988. ∆C) h + (θ. Graham and Steen. (12) but with (µh ⁄ ρv) → → ^ q (H ∇) H replaced by Coriolis force −2Ωk × → and also 2→ adding υ∇ g to its right-hand side. αt (> 0) is the thermal expansion coefficient and αs is the solute analog of αt. we deal with two-dimensional motion so that all the physical quantities are independent of y and we introduce stream function ψ such that u = ∂ψ ∂z w = − ∂ψ ∂x (72) Eliminating the pressure from the momentum Eq. Σ) − Pr τ ∂x ∂t (75) (76) where η = ∇2ψ and V is the zonal velocity (also called thermal wind component) induced by rotation. 1984. and the critical horizontal wave number is . 1992. where the inertia force and zonal velocity can act so as to maintain the flow direction by even opposing the buoyant forces and bringing about the instability of flow directions. Rudraiah. the required momentum equation is the same as Eq. respectively. y. We now move on to explain the analysis involving Fourier decomposition. in dimensionless form as ∂V 1 ∂ − (∇2 − σ2) η − T1 ⁄ 2 a Pr ∂z ∂t = J(ψ. For simplicity of analysis. 1 ∂z (77) From the linear stability analysis we can find the critical Rayleigh number. ∆T. η) + ∂θ 1 ∂Σ τ − Pr ∂x ∂x (73) (74) 1 ∂ 2 2 1 ⁄ 2 ∂ψ Pr ∂t − (∇ − σ ) V = J(ψ. t) (69) 19 where κs is the solute analogue of κ. We write the total temperature and salinity as z (T. In the Boussinesq approximation the density is taken to be (70) ρ = ρ0 1 − αt (T − T0) + αs (C − C0) where ρ0 is the density at T = T0 and C = C0. we have to consider the diffusion equation φ ∂C → + (q ∇)C = κs∇2C ∂t (71) = θ = Σ = ∂V = 0 at z = 0. 1987. Masuoka (1999) has studied this aspect in the absence of Coriolis force and Friedrich and Rudraiah (1981) have studied chaos in the presence of Coriolis force. and ∆C for velocity.Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review old. Σ) (x. The layer rotates uniformly about the z-axis with a uniform angular velocity Ω. 1994. However. Rac. (16).. distance.. Using unsteady Darcy law. and concentration. ∆C > 0. We denote salinity by C and it is held at C0 and C0 – ∆C at the lower and upper boundaries. 1998. Mathematical Formulation We consider a sparsely packed Boussinesq fluid — saturated porous layer of infinite horizontal extent confined between parallel stress-free boundaries at z = 0 and z = h at which the temperatures are T0 and T0 – ∆T. In this case. 2000) using Darcy’s law and related to the instability of the thermal boundary layers. from which chaos arises. 1979. Rudraiah and Friedrich. θ) − PrRa ∂x ∂t Rs ∂ψ ∂ 2 − τ∇ Σ = PrJ(ψ. In addition to the energy equation given by Eq. to be 2 1⁄2 Ta 2 2 π σ 1 + 1 + 2 σ 2 Rac = (78) which represents a sufficient condition for the onset of convection. C) = (T0. Graham et al. h2/φυ. h. Steen and Aidun. C0) − (∆T. z. 1999. the basic equations may be written in terms of stream function ψ and vorticity η. 1986. it is of interest to know to what extent the effect of Pr and Coriolis force can contribute to chaotic convection in porous media at high Ra. Kimura et al. respectively. V) − Ta ∂z ∂ψ ∂ 2 − ∇ θ = PrJ(ψ. The boundary conditions are ψ = ∂2ψ ∂z 2 where ∆T.

.n−q bm−p.q−nbmn 4 m=0 n=1 M N Ta αc = 1 + 2 σ (79) p−1 q−1 For a large large-amplitude analysis.. Ta .n θ = m=0 n=1 ∑ ∑ bmn cos (mπαcx) sin (nπz) m=p n=q+1 which satisfy the stress-free and perfectly conducting boundary conditions: ∂V ∂2ψ ψ = 0. n ⁄ α . 1 ≤ q ≤ N) (87) .n−q V = ∑ ∑ m=1 n=0 M N + cmn sin (mπαcx) cos (nπz) (81) m=p+1 n=q+1 M N ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ M N M N [p(q − n) − mq] am−p. . The set of ordinary differential equations for the amplitudes amn. apq = − apq + Ra Ta 2 αc p bpq − 2 q cpq σ σ 2 2 2 2 σ Pr π (p αc + q ) ∑ ∑ m=0 M q−1 [q(m − p) + np] am.5δpo) 2 − π αc ∑ ∑ (np − mq)ap−m.. and calculate systems with a maximum number of modes K = M + N not larger than 12. bpq = −π2 (p2 α2 + q2)bpq − παcpapq c (1 − 0. we now consider the Fourier decomposition in the form ψ = m=1 n=1 M N ∑ ∑ M N amn sin (mπαcx) sin (nπz) (80) + ∑ ∑ (np m=p n=q+1 − mq)amn bm−p.n−q m=0 n=q+1 p−1 + (mq − np) ap−m.) + We truncate the sums.q−n bmn (86) m=p+1 n=1 (0 ≤ p ≤ M. cmn of the harmonic components is derived and we obtain .n bm.n−q bmn m=0 n=q+1 on x = 0.n n=1 q−1 + ∑ ∑ (mq − np) am−p..n−q bm−p. 1 ≤ q ≤ N) (85) (0 ≤ p ≤ M.n−q bmn + [p(n − q) + mq] ap−m.20 2 1⁄4 Rudraiah et al..05δoq) 4 ∑ p−1 q−1 p−1 q−1 + (mq − np) (p − m)2 α2 c 2 2 2 4(p αc + q ) m=1 n=1 π2 α2 c ∑ ∑ (qm − pn) ap−m.n−q + (82) + [p(q − n) − mq] am.. cpq = − cpq + 2 π q apq Pr σ2 σ π2αc −(1..q−n cmn + . bmn.. 1 ≤ q ≤ N) . for convenience of computations. 2.n bm. (n = 1. =0 = 0 θ = 0 on z = 0 1 ∂z ∂z2 and the following symmetry conditions: ∂2ψ ∂θ = 0 = 0 V = 0 2 ∂x ∂x (84) (83) m=p+1 n=q+1 p−1 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ M N N (np − mq) am−p. m=1 n=0 ∑ (1 ≤ p ≤ M.

whereas they behaved well for K = 10 and for Ra ⁄ Rac . bpq. 3 and 4 we conclude that if the parameter Ra (= 6Rac) is fixed. From Figs. regardless of the initial conditions. N > 2. a maximum number of modes needs to be varied. Similarly. Ta = 0 . random behavior). . σ2 = 104 . (85)– (87) for M = N = 2 can be obtained following the procedure of Rudraiah et al. and if we increase the number of modes K (= 10 and 12). Solutions can be obtained using Runge–Kutta and predictor–corrector combinations of Adam (for details. Nu = 1 − π ∑ nb∆n n=1 N 21 (88) To know how well different K represent reality. following the work of Friedrich and Rudraiah (1981). Figure 4 illustrates this effect for a system of order 120 (K = 12) at Ra = 10Rac. In the next section. see Friedrich and Rudraiah.Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review The nonlinear terms in Eqs. We see that for K = 6 and 8 the solutions exhibit chaotic behavior (i. A steady state of the solution can be defined through the criterion Nu(t + ∆t) − Nu(t) < 10−6 The total vertical heat flux is given by . Moreover these terms are the same as those in the case of pure viscous flow in the absence of porous media discussed by Veronis (1968). and Cpq on the left-hand side of Eqs. 3. (85)–(87) in a form most suitable for rapid integration. which is used in solving systems M > 2. chaos disappears. To predict chaotic solutions there are two approaches. we explain the numerical procedure. then for lower modes of K (= 6 or 8). 1981) with proper specification of relative and absolute error tolerances. This provides a set of initial values for five amplitudes (the remaining amplitudes are zero) for the Fourier coefficients. (1986). The second approach is to choose Rayleigh numbers larger than 6Rac. and the results are depicted in Fig. special codes have to be used to generate the right-hand sides of Eqs. (85)–(87) for K = M + N > 3. for a certain range of parameters.. Certain modes produce chaotic solution. chaos appears. The dots on apq.e. Numerical Procedure Based on Different Integration Codes Because of the excessive length of Eqs. if we fix the number of modes K (= 12) and increase the parameter Ra Figure 3. (85)–(87) represent the time derivative. unpredictable over a large time interval. One is through specifying a suitable number of modes. Solutions are obtained for maximum number of modes. The analytical solution of Eqs. Note that Lorenz (1963) was the first to point out that the solution of a nonlinear third-order system of ordinary differential equations is. (85) and (87) have not been written completely because their contribution to the momentum flux is negligible for large Pr σ2.

Chaotic solutions as a result of too high Rayleigh numbers. 5.76 200 11. then chaos appears. Table Ra ⁄ σ2 (Ta ⁄ σ ) 2 2 100 3.36 400 27. As pointed out by Rudraiah et al. Figure 4. From this figure it is clear that . say of order 1 like as for water (here we take Pr = 6.79 500 36.2 × 10–5 ≤ σ2 ≤ 10–2. the values of porous parameter σ2 in the range 0. The Nu is computed for various values of (Ta ⁄ σ2)2 and Ra ⁄ σ2 and the results are depicted in Fig. which enables one to discuss the effects of rotation and heating in term of modified Taylor number (Ta ⁄ σ2)2 and Rayleigh numbers Ra ⁄ σ2.8 for water). Nu versus various Rayleigh (Ta ⁄ σ2)2 numbers. do not affect the heat flux and flow quantities. (1981).26 300 19. a finite Prandtl number. Figure 5.22 Rudraiah et al. We also note that further extensive studies are necessary to find the stable and unstable critical points of such large systems.42 (= 10Rac).

Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review 23 Figure 6. for different rotation rates ranging from 0 to 100. Thus while Nu varies uniformly the temperature field shows oscillations and proves to be a more sensitive indicator of proximity to chaos. (77). The corresponding Taylor numbers at which pure conduction occurs. From this study we conclude that further extensive studies are necessary to find the stable and unstable critical points of large systems. Figure 7. 6. The horizontally averaged temperature approaches more and more the heat conduction profile as (Ta ⁄ σ2)2 increases at constant Ra ⁄ σ2 (see Fig. Having a fondness for "analytical solutions. we note that the computer execution time to compute Nu increases with increasing Taylor number. 7). follow from Eq. Influence of Taylor number on horizontally averaged temperature. Finally. rotation is able to dampen convection considerably. We found that our calculations for (Ta ⁄ σ2)2 = 0 do not deviate much from numerical results of Combarnous (1970) and available experimental data as (Ta ⁄ σ2)2 increases at constant Ra ⁄ σ2. Thus. 7 indicates starting instability." we note that a steady-state solution does exist for M = 2 and N = 2 in the system of equations (85) and (87) (see Rudraiah et . but it seems to be independent of variation in the Rayleigh number. The constraining effect of rotation is compared with the available experimental results in Fig. Nu decreases with increasing (Ta ⁄ σ2)2 if Ra ⁄ σ2 is kept constant. Nu versus Ra ⁄ σ2 for different rotation rates. The dotted line in Fig.

Masuoka (1999) has depicted his numerical results graphically. (89) where the value of the constant changes with the wave number or the aspect ratio of the convective cell. although the flow becomes chaotic at Pr = 100. (89). Masuoka (1999) observed that such truncated models cannot induce small-scale convection. Then it seems that the interference between the neighboring circulations due to the chaotic motion induces a relative decrease of the dominant frequency or its deviation from Eq. the behavior of which is different from those of Pr → ∞. It is also possible to make a qualitative study of such truncated Lorenz systems to obtaining information on limit cycles. periodic at Pr = 10. using a square grid system with 101 meshes in the vertical direction. hc = √ .24 al. as observed in the previous sections. Masuoka (1999) has also observed that a porous layer of infinite horizontal extent yields the interference of convection between the neighboring cells.e. We see the qualitative tendency of the effect of Pr on the time variations of the stream function at the midpoint of the cell for σ2 = 104 and Ra = 3000. He has also observed that the dominant frequency normalized by the modified Ra remains almost constant for the moderately high Pr range as f = constant Ra Rudraiah et al. σc = 1. Masuoka (1999) has also observed that when the flow paths of the large-scale circulation are time-dependent and oscillatory. chaotic at Pr = 0. the inertia term. In the abstract we remarked that not all observed aspects can be covered in a theoretical study and also not all results predicted by the theory are experimentally real- . Also. which causes the time-delay in the velocity field. spirals. the chaotic behavior should be connected to the limitation of the macroscopic momentum equation where the microscopic acceleration or deceleration becomes significant. will bring about the interaction across the boundary between the large-scale and secondary circulations of smaller scales. i.7. A good survey of this is given in by Vafai (2000). and other possible solutions of the autonomous system (see Rudraiah. they also resorted to a numerical solution to take the action of the smaller scales into consideration and to confirm chaos to a certain degree for the low-Pr range. i. 1986). 1998) which may be used to take care of surface imperfections in the case of porous media. Also. and 4000.01 become relatively high due to the transition of convection to the stable mode with higher wave number. At the present juncture we also note that there are other numerical methods like such as the finite-element method (see Rathish Kumar et al.01.. when the basic effect of the characteristic length of k k chaos hc becomes of the same order of as √ . where the nature of chaos at low Prandtl numbers differs from that at high Prandtl numbers due to the inertia effect.e. and also for large-scale scale convection to form it requires a long waiting time after the sweep of the heating and cooling surface of entrained plumes. Masuoka (1999) has observed that the heat transfer characteristics do not change substantially for Pr > ~ 100 but it decreases at Pr < ~ 10 due to the change in the dominant frequency as well as flow patterns. (89).. Masuoka (1999) has depicted the time variations of the stream function and its power spectra for the low-Pr range graphically. He has observed local flow reversals against the action of gravity which are not observed in the limit of Pr → ∞.. and in a fluid in the absence of porous media. In view of this. which is the realm of NLC. and steady at Pr = 0. 1981. This suggests that the flow in the low-Pr regime can be affected by the unsteady inertia term and that flow retardation in the flow-reversal process can yield a relative decrease in the dominant frequency or its deviation from Eq. we have presented theoretical aspects of heat transfer in porous media. though the Lorenz model cannot allow small-scale motion or small-scale mixing. 1000. The alternate direct implicit (ADI) method together with the upwind scheme was adopted with a fine time step of ∆t = 10–5.. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS In the earlier sections. while the heat transfer characteristics at Pr = 0. Masuoka (1999) also found that the flow pattern evolution can include chaos with intermittency for convection in porous media at Ra ~ 3000. they observed that the actual heat transfer rate and the actual scale of flow will be significantly affected by truncation. particularly at high Ra. or the long-distance coherence. Finite-Difference and Other Methods Masuoka (1999) solved the unsteady Darcy equation and the energy equation (4) by the finite-difference method. 1999). Masuoka. From the above discussion we conclude that these effects still need further study. It is also seen that the apparently different oscillatory behavior can be discerned for Pr < 10 and that the dominant frequency remains almost constant for Pr > ~100.

the light which enters the medium is rapidly diffused. The large-scale inhomogeneity of permeability or thermal conductivity also may bring about the a change of convective patterns with a jump of wave number from small-scale local convection to large-scale convection. we first appreciate the practical difficulties in performing experiments in porous media with theory as the background. This may probably bridge the gap between the experimental and the theoretical results on heat transfer in porous media. 1968). 1981). Complicated flow in each microscopic passage. further. 2000). The experiments also did not predict the concave-downward Nu–R curve for the RaL range of 4π2 to 8π2. (1997). The methods require careful experimentation to take care of near-wall inhomogeneities. then Eq. to whatever extent possible. thus making visualization by optical techniques ineffective. 1997. in contrast to what is reported in the power integral technique section of this article. (1) does not give a proper description of turbulence.. Also. if the turbulent scale is smaller than the particle diameter. In addition. which are obtained by averaging techniques. i. i.. mixing and turbulence can be observed. the choice has to 25 be done with discretion. A common drawback of both the above methods is the difficulty involved in handling the dp << h situation. Howle et al. (1997) reached a conclusion that the pattern selection criterion in the case of clear fluids does not fully apply for porous media. the features seem to be essentially those seen in clear fluids for laminar flow. In what follows we pay particular attention to characteristic scales in relation to boundary-layer flow.. However. which changes the mode of heat transfer characteristics (see Masuoka et al. This may be the reason for mismatch between most theoretical and experimental results on heat transfer in porous media.. 1998).Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review izable. Using the MRI technique it is possible to provide accurate imaging of the flow or patterns selected (see Shattuck et al. The Brinkman length scale is relevant to the concept of the slip-flow approximation. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and shadowgraph techniques. flow visualization experiments suggest that the laminar flow streaks in porous media are steady. For a turbulent flow. With the object of connecting theory and experiment. As in Shattuck et al. the degree of which is closely connected to the relative thickness of the thermal boundary layer (Masuoka. In a typical porous medium constructed from spherical particles. Contrary to the general perception of mixing being prevalent in porous media. Such a novel shadowgraph experiment has been reported by Howle et al. 1981). and equivalent heat capacities. 1995. The averaging has to be done keeping in mind the nature of the phenomena to be analyzed. It is also possible to construct media with fluid–sold interfaces (even if both do not share the same refractive index) which are perpendicular or parallel to some direction of light travel. In addition.. the heat transfer characteristics by chaotic behavior in the transition region from laminar to turbulent flow are not well understood. Complicated flow passages at the microscopic level. at the level of the pores and 2. wall-film thermal resistance. Before embarking on a review of the techniques to study heat transfer in porous media. it seems that unsteady and turbulent flows are difficult to be handled by the MRI technique. a proper choice of characteristic scale is crucial. where the coarse grid system of numerical calculation may cause the underestimation of the heat transfer characteristics (see Masuoka et al.e. without any tearing or merging or mixing (see Takatsu and Masuoka. The structure of a porous medium affecting the flow pattern in turn affects the heat transport.. In the case of homogeneous porous media. in the case of high Re. An interesting analysis of the invariance of the flow solution with the order of time and volume averaging is given by Pedras and de Lemos (2001). With this background we now discuss quite briefly some recent experimental techniques. e. for a wrong choice may lead to failure in the description of the essential features. Phenomena in porous media seem to be complicated for two reasons: 1. However.. In theoretical studies the porous media are generally ordered and the models for fluids saturating them are essentially "equivalent continuums" or "representative continuums" of the actual porous media. with the emphasis placed on the choice of characteristic scales. also the classical Nu–R slope of 2 was not realized by their experiments.e. .g. Ogawa et al. especially that in Rayleigh–Benard convection in a porous medium. we first put in place some aspects on porous media. the wall-film thermal resistance can affect the deterioration of the heat transfer characteristics. Except for the meandering of the flow. In the case of laminar flows there are less fewer problems involved in the choice of scales. (1997) and seems to be the first non-intrusive determination of the horizontal flow patterns for porous media convection. turbulence.

which is expressed as δ = dp 4. For natural convection along a flat plate in a porous medium.58 O Ra √ k2 O O dp The value of δ ⁄ dp is 4. κ √ t O . the existence of a boundary-layer regime is possible for the range of the boundary-layer thickness of the order of δ ≤ ~40 mm. the boundary-layer thickness is to be thin enough compared to the characteristic dimension of the heated length and to be thick enough compared to the characteristic dimension of the porous structure. s.6 at RaO (k ⁄ O) = 1000 for the above experimental configuration of O ⁄ dp = 33. Thus. the velocity boundary layer and the thermal boundary layer are considered to have the same thickness because the action of the viscous shearing force is obstructed by the presence of the solid matrix so that its effect to induce flow at far distance is impeded. at the midheight (x = O/2) of the plate of length O (= 100 mm).26 The Boundary Layer Concept for Porous Media—The Effect of Finite Dimension of Heated Length The boundary-layer thickness relative to the pore diameter or the characteristic system dimension becomes the crucial factor in describing the heat transfer characteristic. between the heated and cooled surfaces does not affect the convective heat . the flow is induced outside the thermal boundary layer due to the action of the viscous shear. The distance. Thus. Thus. based on the concept of the boundary layer. Here the viscous force acts only as a local damping force proportional to velocity. for a clear-fluid system. Thus.887 Ra O 2 K O (93) which characterizes the time scale. The applicability of the boundary-layer concept to natural-convection heat transfer from a vertical flat plate in a porous medium was examined by Masuoka (1968). In these. and so on. the sweep time determines the thickness of the boundary layer as δ O . 1968) u = k gρ0β (T − T∞) µ (90) Rudraiah et al. the developments of the boundary layers control heat transfer from both the heating and cooling surfaces. this imposes an intrinsic difficulty from the viewpoint of the continuum concept of a porous medium. a too-high RaO (k ⁄ O2) is incompatible with the assumption of the macroscopic homogeneity or macroscopic continuity. This result is reiterated by the numerical work of Chan et al. and the existence of the boundary-layer regime for porous media was confirmed. thicker than the mean diameter of the packed beads. at least. concentric spheres. the boundary-layer regime was experimentally confirmed to exist for RaO (k ⁄ O2) ≈ 150–1000 on a vertical layer in a porous medium. (1970) and Cheng and Minkowycz (1977). Then. the introduction of the similarity variable η = (y ⁄ x √κ yields a solution of the form (gβ(Tw − T∞)kx) ⁄ υ (Masuoka. the velocity induced in the thermal boundary layer is expressed as (Masuoka. for the boundary-layer thickness cannot become smaller than the characteristic dimension of the microscopic porous structure from the viewpoint of the homogeneity of a porous medium. The boundary-layer thickness at the mid-height is required to be. the heat transfer characteristics of the vertical plate are given by 1⁄2 hm O k = 0. The boundary-layer concept generally assumes the boundary-layer thickness to be thin enough. However. The effect of the finite dimension of various configurations is related to the development of the boundary layer along the heated length. First. R k aO O 2 −1 ⁄ 2 (91) and this is fundamentally valid for RaO (k ⁄ O2) ≈ 150– 1000 (Masuoka. This confirms experimentally the boundary-layer regime for Rax (k ⁄ O2) > ~150. However. 1968). essentially.4 R k a O O 2 1⁄2 (92) For a porous medium consisting of glass beads of diameter dp = 3 mm and of water. although. the applicability of the boundarylayer concept for convection in porous media becomes the problem. 1968): δ O = 6. The boundary-layer concept can be applied not only to the heat transfer characteristics of a vertical porous layer but also to horizontal concentric cylinders. Thus.

as done by Masuoka et al. O. i. 1991).. we introduce another concept called the "wall–film thermal resistance. which is dependent on the ratio of the outer and inner cylinder diameters. different from that in regions away from the wall. the gap width s. (95) If we now apply the aforementioned boundary-layer concept to Caltagirone’s problem. as the characteristic length. Vafai and Tien (1981) incorporated and studied the nonDarcy effects of Brinkman shear and Forchheimer inertia in the momentum equation for a forced-flow heat transfer. (96) in the form 1⁄ 2 hms k = 0. Wall –Film Thermal Resistance Darcy’s law allows velocity slip at the solid boundary for flow in porous media. 1976) completely disappears on the introduction of the characteristic dimension O.Nonlinear Convection in Porous Media—A Review transfer if the boundary layers do not interfere with each other. who studied numerically the three-dimensional structure of oscillatory natural convection in an annular porous layer between concentric cylinders and described the heat transfer correlation in terms of a modified Rayleigh number based on the gap width. We note here that the relative thickness of the boundary layer compared to the gap width s is a problem in this case. This fundamental natural-convection heat transfer characteristics for an annular porous layer has also been experimentally confirmed by Masuoka et al. In the next sub-section. if we rewrite Eq. we may apply the boundary-layer concept to the problem of natural convection due to a constant heat-flux from the vertical plate in a porous medium. which develops along the cylindrical surface of diameter D. We now discuss the work of Caltagirone (1976). O = π(r0 + ri) ⁄ 2 as the characteristic length. This innovative idea guided by the physics reflects the developing boundary layer. who also extended Weber’s analysis to include the effect of wall–film thermal resistance (to be discussed later in the section). (96) we see that the dependence of the heat transfer correlation on the radius ratio for the annular . 1980): 1⁄ 2 hms k = 0. 1978. reflecting the independent developments of the boundary layers along the both surfaces. This concept can also be extended by default to Rayleigh–Benard problem in porous enclosures.363 Ras K sD (98) Similarly. Kaviany. This was experimentally confirmed by Masuoka et al. viz. then we obtain: 1⁄2 hms k = 0. where the thermal boundary layer develops as in slug flow with a uniform velocity profile for the case of Pr → 0 (Cheng. the characteristic heated or cooled length. (1980) in terms of the mean length of the inner and outer peripheral lengths.312 Ras K sD (97) (94) where C1 = 0.313. (1980). in Caltagirone’s problem is given by (see Masuoka and Katsuhara. should be incorporated into the heat transfer correlations for the configurations discussed above. The exact solution for the heat transfer characteristics for the boundary layer. In this case.391 Ras s O K (96) From Eq.. then the nondependence of the heat transfer characteristic on the radius ratio becomes more explicit." which is important when the boundary-layer thickness is greater than the characteristic dimension of a small scale. The heat transfer in a vertical porous medium can be defined in terms of the height O of the vertical layer and the conduction thickness. In this case. 1974): hmD 4 = K 5 √ π k R aD 2 D 1⁄ 2 where D (= r0 + ri) is the mean diameter. Following the above approach for the region between concentric spheres the heat transfer characteristics can be obtained in the form (see Masuoka et al. So far we have considered three problems on heat transfer to highlight the importance of (1) the boundarylayer concept and (2) the need for proper choice of scales. as (see Masuoka. the rather restrictive packing of solid materials near the bounding wall produces a variation of the porosity near the wall. Weber (1975) incorporated the effect of the vertical temperature stratification in the core region with C1 = √3 ⁄ 3. Equation (94) essentially means that the heat transfer characteristics are fundamentally independent of the gap width s. 1968): 1⁄2 hm s R k = C1 as sO K 27 porous medium (seen in Caltagirone. (1981). Further..e.

due to the inertia. the difficulty related to the concept of macroscopic continuum is largely reduced because the boundary layer becomes thicker than the scale of pore structures. Nakayama et al. J. 1961. on the heat transfer characteristics. Vafai (1985) further made experimental examination of the effect of variation of porosity on the heat transfer characteristics. using an extended Forchheimer–Brinkman model. American Elsevier. is defined with the wall heat flux Q as Q = hw(Tw − Twa) (99) Rudraiah et al. the sharp increase of the porosity in the vicinity of the bounding wall will locally decrease the effective thermal conductivity. and an increase in the flow resistance. This support is gratefully acknowledged. In the case of rapid unsteady thermal flows there is also a need for fundamental studies because the small-scale response in the solid phase contributes to the heat transfer characteristics and this calls for further modeling exercise.. REFERENCES Bear. where Twa is the apparent wall temperature extrapolated from the temperature profile in the interior region of a porous medium. When the thermal conductivity of the solid matrix differs from that of the fluid phase.28 The Brinkman shear allowed the formation of a velocity boundary layer with thickness of the order of the characteristic dimension of the pore structure.. it is important to know how the WFTR is affected by chaos and turbulence. examined the effects of the porous Prandtl number and the geometric parameters reflecting the inertia term on heat transfer at high Rayleigh number. due to the variation of the porosity in the vicinity of the boundary wall. (1988) expressed the scale of the boundary-layer thickness in terms of both the Darcy resistance and the inertia resistance and analyzed the heat transfer. Masuoka et al. Vafai (1984) examined the effects of decrease in the viscous shear. while it was not naturally severe for a porous medium consisting of glass beads and water (hw O ⁄ λ) → ∞.6. The wall–film heat-transfer coefficient hw. however. We now introduce the concept. This sharp decrease in the effective thermal conductivity in the vicinity of a wall can be modeled through the introduction of the concept of WFTR (see Kunii and Smith. Using an approximation that the apparent wall temperature is maintained at a uniform temperature. In the case of natural convection in porous media. Hunt and Tien (1988) made an analysis of the effects of change in thermal conductivity and inertia term due to the variation in porosity near the boundary.. The majority of the reported works on the Rayleigh–Benard convection in porous media also do not address the WFTR effect and hence there is immense scope for work in this direction. SP/12-PC-03/2003 and he (NR) gratefully acknowledges it. which is the reciprocal of the WFTR. New York. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The work was started when one of us (NR) was visiting TM at Kyusha University under an INSA — JSPS Senior fellowship exchange program. One of the authors (PGS) is grateful to the Indian National Science Academy and the Japanese Society for Promotion of Science for an Inter-Academy Exchange Fellowship to visit Japan for 3 months. This. Let Tw – Twa be the apparent temperature drop due to the excess boundary thermal resistance. does not mean that we can neglect the WFTR effect in the experimental verification of the theoretical characteristics of heat transfer. the mean heat transfer coefficient hm for a vertical wall in a porous medium affected by the excess thermal resistance . Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. 1968. Tien and Hunt (1987) discussed the effects of thermal dispersion in addition to non-Darcy and channeling effects near the boundary wall. The work of NR is also supported by DST under a research project No. we may infer that the difference in thermal conductivities between the constituent solid and fluid phases and the restrictive packing near the wall warrant the incorporation of the WFTR. 1972. It is to be mentioned here that in chaotic motions or turbulent flows in porous media which are dominated by small-scale convective motions. Thus. can be obtained as (Masuoka.887 RaO 2 1 − (hwO ⁄ λ) λ O 3⁄2 (100) Masuoka (1968) experimentally examined the WFTR and found that the WFTR effect was substantial for natural convection in a porous medium consisting of steel beads and water (hw O ⁄ λ) = 10. 1961). Georgiadis and Catton (1988). This is still an open problem. Yagi et al. 1980): 1⁄2 hm O (hmO ⁄ λ) k = 0.

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respectively. Ochoa-Tapia1* División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería.2 G. The jump condition takes the form of a surface transport equation that contains terms representing the excess surface accumulation. Espinosa-Paredes. Metropolitana-Iztapalapa. Inc. 33−49 (2003) 0DVV 7UDQVIHU -XPS &RQGLWLRQ DW WKH %RXQGDU\ EHWZHHQ D 3RURXV 0HGLXP DQG D +RPRJHQHRXV )OXLG ′ J. J. Apartado Postal 55-534. in addition to a term representing the exchange with the surrounding regions. convection.. México D.F. diffusion.uam. 2002 Copyright 2003 Begell House. Accepted January 7.1 and J. and a nonequilibrium source term.F. 2001. Universidad Autónoma. 07730 México * E-mail: jaot@xanum. the jump condition can be expressed as follows: −nωη ⋅ (εβωD∗ ⋅ ∇sCAβtβ − Dβ∇sCAβtβ) = γavKeq ω η ω where γ is the only adjustable parameter. ∂sCAβtβ ω 1 ∂t 33 Received July 10. Eje Central Lazaro Cárdenas 152. México and 2 Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo. Outside the boundary region this nonlocal form reduces to the classic volume-averaged transport equation in the ω region and to the point equation in the η region.1. Valencia-Lopez.Journal of Porous Media 6(1). 09340 México D. . When the excess surface terms are represented using dimensionless adjustable parameters. adsorption.mx ABSTRACT The mass transfer condition that applies at the boundary between a porous medium (the ω region) and a homogeneous fluid (the η region) is developed as a jump condition based on the nonlocal form of the volume-averaged mass transport equation that is valid within the boundary region. A.

.34 Valencia-López et al.

1986). 1997) were utilized by Kuznetsov (1996.2 CAβ = F(r. boundary. the differences have a more pronounced effect on the velocity field and a substantially smaller effect on the temperature field and even a smaller effect on the Nusselt number distribution. The main objective of their study was to assess the differences between different models and to examine the effect of using them on heat transfer and fluid flow in the interface region. These authors showed that. As examples. 1984). The β phase is flowing in both the ω and the η regions. These boundary conditions have recently been applied to obtain an exact boundary-layer solution for velocity and temperature distributions by Kuznetsov (1999). and this leads to a volume-averaged velocity field that is continuous. 1995b). These are used in a great variety of industrial applications such as methanol synthesis. This jump condition contains terms representing the accumulation. Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (1998b) developed the jump condition when local thermal equilibrium is imposed and found that the nonlocal form simplifies to the classic oneequation model for thermal energy transport. catalyst regeneration. In a previous study of systems with a boundary between a porous medium and a homogeneous fluid. and the phenomena of convective dispersion that result as a consequence of the interface mass transfer in a cylindrical cavity (Lenhoff and Lightfoot. Moreover. and initial conditions that describe the mass transfer of species A in this system are given by ∂CAβ ∂t + ∇⋅(CAβvβ) = ∇⋅(Dβ∇CAβ) in the β phase ∂CAs at the β−σ interface ∂t at Aβe (1) (2) (3) (4) B. Point Equations The system under consideration is illustrated in Fig. we note adsorption columns (Aris. 1.1 −nβσ⋅Dβ∇CAβ = B. 1990.. t) I.C. These authors constructed the jump condition to join Darcy’s law with the Brinkman correction to Stokes’s equation. These studies are the starting point to obtain the mass transfer condition that applies at the boundary between a porous medium and a homogeneous fluid. Alazmi and Vafai (2001) analyzed different types of interfacial conditions between a porous medium and a fluid layer. and convection of excess surface thermal energy. CAβ = G(r) t = 0 where nβσ is the unit normal vector directed from the β phase toward the σ phase. conduction. 1998b). 1998a) and for heat transfer (Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker. Also shown in Fig.C. An extension of chromatographic separations can be found in bed reactors packed with radial flow. 1988). 1995b. which is the purpose of the present work. The η region consists of the β phase.Mass Transfer Jump Condition at the Boundary INTRODUCTION The process of mass transport at the boundary between a porous medium and a homogeneous fluid occurs in a wide variety of technological applications and has therefore been the object of a great deal of study. different separation schemes are still being evaluated (Lee et al. which can include first-order reactions (Lenhoff and Lightfoot. (2) is a special form of the general . flux jump conditions were developed based on the nonlocal form of the volume-averaged transport equations for momentum transfer (Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker. 1998). In this situation the mass boundary condition may also be crucial. in addition to an excess nonequilibrium thermal source that results from the failure of local thermal equilibrium in the boundary region. 1995b. 1981). The governing point equation. where we have identified the porous medium as the ω region and the homogeneous fluid as the η region. Huang et al. 1997. 1 is a sample of the ω region that is made up of the solid phase (σ phase) and the fluid phase (β phase). in general. 1959). where solutions were obtained for different channels partly filled with a porous material.. 1997. The boundary conditions developed by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (1995a. 1995a. The boundary conditions at the fluid–solid interface given by Eq. The mass transfer boundary condition is also important in the modeling of chromatographic separation. The momentum transfer condition that applies at the boundary between a porous medium and a homogeneous 35 fluid was developed by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (1995a). and their theoretical results were compared with experimental data (Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker. desulfurization in the steam phase (Balakotaiah and Luss.C. Aβσ represents the area of entrances and exits of the β phase associated with the region. among others.

1995b) and Whitaker (1996). In this work. t*.1 −nβσ⋅Dβ∇CAβ = Keq ∂t at the β−σ interface (7) . The boundary-value problem given by Eqs. 1992). (9) and (10) is given by OchoaTapia and Whitaker (1995a. 1984. (2) and (5) can be combined to yield ∂CAβ B. The solution of Eqs.1. we will also draw upon results associated with the continuity equation. 1986b. Flow in a system composed of a porous medium (ω region) and a homogeneous fluid (η region). 1999) k−1t∗ >> 1 (6) The physical statement of the process under consideration is relatively simple.C. and σ phase indicates the impermeable solid phase. Whitaker. ∂vβ + vβ⋅∇vβ = −∇pβ + ρβg + µβ∇2vβ ρβ ∂t in the β phase (10) The analysis of Eqs. and this means that the mole fraction of species A should be less than 0. is constrained by (Whitaker. When the characteristic process time. 1986a.36 Valencia-López et al. In addition to these equations for the mass transport. The fluid phase is indicated by β phase. Figure 1. we have restricted the analysis to dilute solutions of species A. (1) and (4) is similar in form to previous diffusion problems that have been studied using the method of volume averaging (Carbonell and Whitaker. the equilibrium coefficient is defined by Keq = k1 k−1 (8) at the β−σ interface and this can only be valid when the surface concentration is small enough so that it has no influence on the forward rate of adsorption represented by k1CAβ. however. 1986b. 1999). Under these circumstances. CAβ. Eqs. to the bulk concentration. (9) then the condition of local adsorption equilibrium is valid. CAs. jump condition (Whitaker. ∇⋅vβ = 0 and the Navier–Stokes equations. (1) and (2) requires additional information to relate the surface concentration. The simplest interfacial flux model is given by Flux model −nβσ⋅Dβ∇CAβ = k1CAβ − k−1CAs (5) in which Keq. the analysis becomes difficult because of the complexity associated with the position of the fluid–solid interface in the ω region.

Given a single transport equation that is valid in both regions. ψβ. In order to simplify the notation. and the nomenclature in Eq. . Volume Averaging 37 We define the superficial volume average of some function. 1.. associated with the β phase according to s ψβtx = 1 ψ (x + yβ)dVy V ∫Vβ(x) β (11) where Vβ(x) is the volume of the β phase contained within the averaging volume illustrated in Fig. yβ. In this figure we have indicated that x represents the position vector locating the centroid of the averaging volume. and in particular. When the volume-averaged equations in the homogeneous η region are equivalent to the point equations we can use standard techniques to develop the jump condition (Whitaker. In order to describe the process of mass transfer illustrated in Fig. 2. Carbonell and Whitaker. we will avoid the precise nomenclature used in Eq. we can follow the methods given by Slattery (1990) and Whitaker (1992) to develop a jump condition for the flux at the boundary between the two regions. and r associated with the averaging volume.e. 1984). Position vectors x. (11) we used dVy to indicate that the integration is carried out with respect to the components of yβ. while yβ represents the position vector locating points in the β phase relative to the centroid. The development of this mathematical model for this system is relatively straightforward when classic length-scale constraints are satisfied (Zanotti and Carbonell. the ω region is characterized by a volume-averaged mass transfer. while the η region is characterized by a point mass transfer. a framework for the fluid mechanics problem is available to support the analysis of the mass transfer processes. 1984. At the boundary between the ω and the η regions we are also confronted with the mismatch of scales. however. we need the volume-averaged form of Eq. difficulties arise in the neighborhood of the ω−η boundary. 1992). where there are rapid changes in the porosity and the length-scale constraints fail. (11) and represent the superficial average of ψβ as s ψβt = 1 ψ dV V ∫Vβ β (12) while the intrinsic average is expressed in the form s ψβtβ = 1 ψ dV Vβ ∫V β β (13) Figure 2. (1) in the region ω. in the boundary region. (11) clearly indicates that volumeaveraged quantities are associated with the centroid.Mass Transfer Jump Condition at the Boundary thus. We address both of these problems by deriving a generalized mass transport equation that is devoid of length-scale constraints and that is valid in both regions. i. In Eq.

and three of these averaging volumes are shown in In order to interchange integration and differentiation in the second term on left-hand side of Eq. and because εβ is independent of time. . Fig. Averaging volume located in the homogeneous fluid bulk. (17). 1). (12). and they are related by s Valencia-López et al. Following the nomenclature given by Eq. we express the superficial average of Eq. (14). and the porous medium bulk. leads to the final form for the local volume average of the accumulation term: ∂sCAβt ∂t = εβ ∂sCAβtβ ∂t (19) Generalized Mass Transfer Equation In this study we need a volume-averaged mass transfer equation for species A that is valid everywhere in this system and. 3. 1985) that can be expressed as s I ∂sC t ∂CAβ J = ∂tAβ ∂t (18) ∇ψβt = ∇sψβtβ + 1 n ψ dA V ∫Aβσ βσ β (16) Use of the relationship between the superficial and intrinsic averages given by Eq. (1) as ψβt = εβsψβtβ (14) I ∂CAβ ∂t J + s∇⋅(vβCAβ)t = s∇⋅(Dβ∇CAβ)t (17) The porosity εβ is defined explicitly as Vβ(x) εβ(x) = V (15) The volume Vβ is independent of time. in the ω−η boundary (Fig. we will make use of the averaging theorem (Howes and Whitaker. We begin this process by locating an averaging volume at every point in space. In addition to the definitions given by Eqs. This allows us to interchange integration and differentiation to express the first term on the left-hand side in this result as follows: and we note that in the ω−η boundary εβ undergoes significant changes over a distance equal to the radius of the averaging volume. (16) to express the superficial average of the convective flux in the following form: Figure 3.38 Both of these averages will be used in the theoretical development of this article. r0. the interregion. we make use of the volume-averaging theorem given by Eq. (12) and (15).

Use of the averaging theorem leads directly to 1 s∇⋅(Dβ∇CAβ)t = ∇⋅sDβ∇CAβt + n ⋅ D ∇C dA V ∫Aβσ βσ β Aβ (22) and the substitution of Eqs. 1998b): s s ∇⋅(CAβvβ)t = ∇⋅svβCAβt + Since the β−σ interface is impermeable. 1998a. (17).Mass Transfer Jump Condition at the Boundary 1 n ⋅(v C ) dA V ∫AA βσ β Aβ (20) βσ 39 gions. To avoid imposing length-scale constrains. (26) will not be equal to zero in the ω−η boundary. Then. the convective term in Eq. where the length-scale constraints developed by Carbonell and Whitaker (1984) are not valid. this result reduces to s ∇⋅(CAβvβ)t = ∇⋅sCAβvβt (21) ~ v vβCAβtex = svβCAβt − εβsvβtβsCAβtβ − s~βCAβt (26) with the idea that and we move on to the diffusive term on the right-hand side of Eq. which is given by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (1997. (19). (21). and (22) into (17) provides the following form of the superficial-averaged mass transport equation: s vβCAβtex = 0 in the homogeneous regions (27) The excess dispersive flux defined by Eq. we define the excess dispersive flux. (23) can be expressed as ∇⋅〈 vβCAβ 〉 = ∇⋅ (εβ 〈vβ 〉β 〈CAβ 〉β ) + ∇⋅〈 vβCAβ 〉 + .

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∇⋅〈vβCAβ 〉ex .

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convection

εβ

∂t

∂〈C Aβ 〉 β + ∇ ⋅ 〈 v β C Aβ 〉 = ∇ ⋅ 〈 Dβ ∇C Aβ 〉 + convection

dispersion nonlocal dispersion

accumulation .

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⋅ D ∇C dA .

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V ∫ n .

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since it involves. (23) leads to a form that contains the traditional convective and dispersive transport terms in addiction to the excess dispersion: interfacial flux (23) It is important to note at this point that we have not imposed any length-scale constraints on the volume-average transport equation. (23) is also valid in the boundary between the ω and η regions. 2. 1983) εβ ∂〈CAβ 〉β ∂t + ∇⋅ (εβ 〈 vβ 〉β 〈CAβ 〉β ) +∇⋅〈 vβCAβ 〉 + . 3. The traditional representation of the convective flux is given by (Carbonell and Whitaker. we have identified ∇⋅svβCAβtex as a nonlocal term. Substituting Eq. values of sCAβtβ that are not associated with the centroid of the averaging volume illustrated in Fig. (28) into Eq. The absence of any length-scale constraint means that Eq. indirectly. diffusion 1 Aβσ βσ β Aβ (28) Here. illustrated in Fig.

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and are defined by the following decompositions (Gray. ∇⋅〈 vβCAβ 〉ex vβCAβt = εβsvβtβsCAβtβ (24) ~ v in which ~β and CAβ represent the spatial deviations around averaged values of the local variables. 1975): s ~ + s~βCAβt v .

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accumulation convection 1 V dispersive nonlocal dispersion = ∇ ⋅〈 Dβ ∇CAβ 〉 + .

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diffusion .

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(14) to express this result in . we employ Eq. (30) we have ignored variations of the diffusion coefficient Dβ within the averaging volume. we obtain: s Use of Eq. Quintard and Whitaker 1994). and we need to avoid this if we are to develop a transport equation that is valid within the boundary region between the ω and η re- 1 Dβ∇CAβt = Dβ∇sCAβt + ∫ nβσCAβ dA V Aβσ (30) In writing Eq. Now. ∫ Aβσ n βσ ⋅ Dβ ∇CAβ dA (29) interfacial flux ~ CAβ = sCAβtβ + CAβ vβ = svβtβ + ~β v (25a) (25b) Turning our attention to the diffusion transport term and making use of the averaging theorem. (24) would require the imposition of lengthscale constraints (Carbonell and Whitaker 1984.

given by: β avKeq ∂sCAβt εβ1 + + ∇⋅(εβsvβtβsCAβtβ) εβ ∂t The second integral on the right-hand side of this equation is identified as a nonlocal term. (16) we can obtain the result ~ 1 + ∇ ⋅ svβCAβtex = ∇ ⋅ Dβεβ∇sCAβtβ + ∫ nβσCAβdA V Aβσ + 1 n (sCAβtβ − sCAβtβx) dA V ∫Aβσ βσ 1 n ⋅ D ∇C dA V ∫Aβσ βσ β Aβ 1 n dA = −∇εβ V ∫Aβσ βσ which can be used to write + (36) (32) 1 n sC tβ dA = −sCAβtβx ∇εβ V ∫Aβσ βσ Aβ x = −sCAβt ∇εβ β Use of the boundary condition given by Eq. (7) in the interfacial flux term in Eq. (36). which is given by av(x) = Aβσ(x) V (39) and the area-averaged concentration is defined by sCAβtβσ = 1 C dA Aβσ ∫A Aβ βσ (40) (35) Substituting Eq. From the volume-averaging theorem given by Eq. (31) leads to the following expression for the diffusive transport: = −Keq ∂ 1 CAβ dA ∂t V ∫Aβσ (37) This equation can be rewritten as ∂sCAβtβσ 1 n ⋅ D ∇C dA = −avKeq V ∫Aβσ βσ β Aβ ∂t (38) 1 sDβ∇CAβt = Dβ εβ∇sCAβtβ + ∫ nβσ (CAβ V Aβσ (34) − sCAβtβx)dA Use of the decomposition given by Eq. (25a) into Eq. (29) leads to the following result: εβ Dβ∇CAβt = Dβ εβ∇sCAβtβ + sCAβtβ∇εβ 1 ∫A nβσ CAβdA V βσ + (31) ∂sCAβtβ ~ + ∇ ⋅ εβsvβtβsCAβtβ + ∇ ⋅ s~βCAβt v ∂t In order to obtain a volume-average transport equation that contains only average quantities and spatial deviations. The substitution of Eq. Use of this result together with Eq. (36) yields a general form of mass transport equation. (38) into Eq.40 terms of the intrinsic average concentration according to s Valencia-López et al. (34) yields the following representation for the diffusion transport term: ~ 1 sDβ∇CAβt = Dβ εβ∇sCAβtβ + ∫ nβσ CAβdA V Aβσ + 1 ∫A nβσ (sCAβtβ − sCAβtβx)dA V βσ where av represents the interfacial area per unit volume of the porous medium. the interfacial area integral in this equation is developed with the same idea given by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (1998b). and the fact that is independent of time. which is valid in ω and η regions. (35) into Eq. allow us to interchange integration and differentiation to obtain the following expression: (33) ∂CAβ 1 1 ∫A nβσ ⋅ Dβ∇CAβ dA = − V ∫A Keq ∂t dA V βσ βσ It can be observed that the convention used here is that averaged quantities located outside an integral are always evaluated at the centroid unless there is some specific indication to the contrary. since it involves . values of sCAβtβ that are evaluated at points within the averaging volume not located at the centroid.

respectively. the nonequilibrium concentration source. in the bulk of the porous medium (ω region). and it is used to replace Deff + DD in Eq. i.e.Mass Transfer Jump Condition at the Boundary ~ + ∇⋅s~βCAβt + ∇⋅svβCAβtex v = ∇⋅(D∗⋅∇sCAβt) − Φ 41 (45) ~ 1 = ∇ ⋅ Dβ εβ ∇ sCAβtβ + n C dA V ∫Aβσ βσ Aβ + where Φ represents the nonequilibrium concentration source and is defined as follows: Φ = avKeq ∂ (sCAβtβσ − sCAβtβ) ∂t (46) 1 n (sC tβ − sCAβtβx) dA V ∫Aβσ βσ Aβ (41) ∂ − av Keq (sCAβtβσ − sCAβtβ) ∂t This equation can be rewritten as follows: β avKeq ∂sCAβt εβ 1 + + ∇⋅(εβsvβtβsCAβtβ) εβ ∂t This source term is negligible in both homogeneous regions: the bulk of the porous medium and the bulk of the clear fluid region. and LC is the characteristic length associated with changes in CAβ. the area-averaged concentration. Thus. Φ.e. the spatial deviation concentration is small compared to the volumeaveraged concentration. According to the previous line of thought.. (43) represents the nonlocal contribution to the diffusive transport. given by Eq. sCAβtβσ is essentially equal to the volume-average concentration. (42). The decomposition. r0 is the characteristic length associated with the radius of an averaging volume. sCAβtβ. ω Region It is important to note that. The starting point to justify this result is the area-average concentration given by Eq. we define D* as the total dispersion tensor. the generalized mass transport equation is given by β avKeq ∂sCAβt εβ 1 + + ∇⋅(εβsvβtβ sCAβtβ) εβ ∂t CAβtβσ = ~ 1 ∫A sCAβtβx+yβ + CAβx+yβ dA (47) Aβσ βσ Whitaker (1999) showed. allows expressing sCAβtβσ as s = ∇⋅ εβ(Deff + DD) ⋅ ∇sCAβt ∂ − av Keq (sCAβtβσ − sCAβtβ) ∂t (42) In this equation we have introduced the following definitions: ~ 1 εβDeff⋅∇sCAβt = εβDβ ∇sCAβtβ + n C dA Vβ ∫A βσ Aβ βσ 1 β β (43) + n (sCAβt − sCAβt x) dA Vβ ∫A βσ βσ ~ εβDD⋅∇sCAβt = −εβ(∇⋅s~βCAβt + ∇⋅svβCAβtex) (44) v These representations have been adopted because. . (40). ~ CAβ << sCAβtβ (48) This inequality is valid whenever the following lengthscale constrains are satisfied: Oβ << LC << r0 (49a) (49b) Oβ Here Oβ is the characteristic length associated with the β phase within the ω region. and it is negligible when the tensor Deff reduces to the classical representation for the effective diffusivity tensor (Whitaker. The equations that are valid in the homogeneous ω region and homogeneous η region are given in the following sections. is essentially null in the region. that for most practical problems of diffusion and reaction in porous media. 1999). Then. (25a). i. Deff and DD reduce to the effective diffusivity tensor and to the dispersion tensor.. in the homogeneous ω region. This idea is better emphasized if one observes that the last integral term in Eq. where according with Whitaker (1999) r0 << LC.

. r0 << LC r2 << LC1LC 0 are valid. s This result and the fact that in the homogeneous ω region the nonlocal term is null allow us to simplify Eq. therefore Φ ≠ 0. along with our estimate of ∇∇sCAβtβ given by Eq. (58) LC1LC This indicates that when the following two length-scale constraints. (45) reduces r2 o β yβyβtβσ : ∇∇sCAβtβ = O ∆sCAβt LC1LC (57) . Eq. (47) simplifies to s Valencia-López et al. An order-of-magnitude estimate of the second derivative of the average concentration is given by ∆sCAβtβ ∇∇sCAβt = O LC1LC β which is a mass transport equation that is valid only in the homogeneous ω region. In Eq.e. leads to s The result given by Eq.42 ∆sCAβtβ ∇sCAβtβ = O LC Then. We can draw on the work of Whitaker (1999) to obtain the order-ofmagnitude estimate s yβyβtβσ = Or2 o (56) and this result. Most probably this will not occur in the neighborhood of the boundary ω−η. Now. (59) are fulfilled. one can assume that it is small compared to the characteristic length of the averaging volume. Eq. i. The total dispersion tensor. On the basis of this estimate. (52) as s (50) CAβtβσ = 1 β sCAβt x+y dA β Aβσ ∫A βσ (51) r2 o β CAβtβσ = sCAβtβ + O ∆sCAβt + . when the length-scale constrains given by Eq. however. (61) the subscript ω is used to identify variables and parameters in the β phase associated with the homogeneous ω region. η Region In the homogeneous η region the volume fraction of the β phase (εβη) is equal to 1. we can express Eq.. around the centroid of the averaging volume. (50) this result leads to s r0 yβtβσ ⋅ ∇sCAβtβ << ∆CAβ <<< sCAβtβ L C (54) = ∇⋅(εβωD∗ ⋅∇sCAβtβ ) ω ω (61) where it is expected that r0 << LC will be satisfied in locations away from the η−ω interregion. (60) implies that. (51) as s CAβtβσ = sCAβt x + syβtβσ ⋅ ∇ sCAβt x 1 sy y t : ∇ ∇sCAβtβx + ⋅⋅⋅ 2 β β βσ (52) β β + s CAβtβσ = sCAβtβ (60) No precise estimates of syβtβσ are available. to express Eq. we can use Taylor series expansion of s CAβtβ. (55).. This implies that avη = 0 and that the nonlocal term is null. and the restriction given by Eq. (58) can be expressed as (59a) (59b) At this point. we move on to the term involving ∇∇sCAβtβ. in the homogeneous ω reω gion is given by εβωD∗ ⋅∇sCAβtω = εβωDβ∇sCAβtβ ω ~ ~ 1 v n C dA − εβω∇⋅s~βCAβtω + Vβ ∫A βσ Aβ βσ ω (55) (62) where LC1 represents a characteristic length associated with the sCAβtβ gradients [∆(∇sCAβtβ)]. Φ is negligible. D∗ . (45) to obtain β avKeq ∂sCAβtω εβω 1 + + ∇⋅(εβωsvβtβ sCAβtβ ) ω ω εβω ∂t yβtβσ << r0 (53) On the basis of Eq. Eq. (54). Therefore.

For a spherical averaging volume syβyβyβt is zero. Therefore. They showed that average and point values in the homogeneous η region are related by a Taylor series expansion about the centroid. (45).e. we will CAβtβ = sCAβt = CAβ (68a) (68b) s vβtβ = svβt = vβ Here it is understood that the average and the point quantities are evaluated at the same position. respectively. To avoid the difficulty associated with these rapid variations. and that no length-scale constraints have been imposed on the generalized mass transport equation [Eq. the analysis of the jump condition is greatly simplified (Whitaker. . This is based on the approximation that the local volume-averaged values in the homogeneous η region are equal to the corresponding point values. 1992). (71). Equation (45) is the starting point to develop the jump condition at the ω−η boundary. we can conclude that the condition indicated by Eq. For a spherical averaging volume 2 syβyβt = O(r0) and this means that the constraint given by Eq. With Eq. which allows expressing Eq. and this is the objective of the following section. (67) takes the following form: r2∇∇ψβ << ψβ o Thus we can express Eq. JUMP CONDITION The coefficients and the nonequilibrium source in the generalized transport equation given by Eq. (65) reduces to s ψβtx = ψβx + 1 sy y t : ∇∇ψβx 2 β β (66) When this length-scale constraint is satisfied. Thus.Mass Transfer Jump Condition at the Boundary ∂sCAβtβ η ∂t 43 In the process of deriving Eq. (66) as s (70) ψβt x = sψβtx = ψβx (64) β in the homogeneous η region ∆ψβ ψβtx = ψβx + Or2 0 Lψ1Lψ (71) The justification of this result is reported by OchoaTapia and Whitaker (1995a). (45) undergo extremely rapid variations in the boundary region. (64) is valid whenever s yβyβt : ∇∇ψβx << ψβx (67) Under such conditions the velocity and concentration are given by s η region. syβt = 0 at points located in the homogeneous η region. it is important to be aware that length-scale constraints associated with ψβ are applied only in the homogeneous This means that Eq.. (1). (45)] in the boundary region. (11) as s where Lψ and Lψ1 are characteristic lengths associated with changes in ψβ (∆ψβ) and changes in the ψβ gradients [∆(∇ψβ)]. (63) from Eq. we have made use of the following relation: s + ∇⋅(svβtβ sCAβtβ ) = ∇⋅(Dβ∇⋅sCAβtβ ) (63) η η η This is the mass trahsport equation valid in the homogeneous η region. It is important to note that the mass transport equation in the homogeneous η region has exactly the same form as the original point equation given by Eq. In Eq. (63) the subscript η is used to identify variables and parameters in the β phase associated with the homogeneous η region. Before moving on to the derivation of the jump condition. for most transport processes in the homogeneous fluid region. (64) is valid whenever the following length-scale constraint is satisfied: r2 ∆ψβ 0 << 1 Lψ1Lψ ψβ in the homogeneous η region ψβtx = sψβtx + syβt ⋅ ∇ψβx + + 1 sy y y t e ∇∇∇ψβx + ⋅⋅⋅ 6 β β β 1 sy y t : ∇∇ψβx 2 β β (65) (72) where yβ is the position vector relative to the centroid V. i. s vβCAβtβ = vβCAβ (69) in the homogeneous η region in order to conclude that there is no dispersion in the homogeneous region. Eq.

ω η but are solutions to the transport equations that are valid in the homogeneous ω and η regions and applied everywhere. where concentration profiles are illustrated for two cases. to develop the jump condition for the mass transport process. but applied everywhere in those regions. They present the result s vβtω⋅nωη = svβtη⋅nηω (75) at the ω−η boundary Now. A∞. provides a solution for which the generalized mass transport equation is satisfied on the average. respectively. Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (1995a) have carried out this procedure for the continuity equations. (61) and (63) over volumes Vω and Vη. and then add them to obtain: ∂sCAβtη avKeq ∂sCAβtω ∫V εβω 1 + εβω ∂t dV + ∫V ∂t dA ω η β β The area of the surface. 5. It should be clear that the fluid volume fraction εβ is a continuos function of position. (45). It is important to understand that the profiles for sCAβtβ and sCAβtβ are not extrapolations. Therefore. including the interregion neighborhood. . bounding surfaces located in the ω and η regions according to Aω + Aη = A∞ (74) The procedure to develop a jump condition associate with the ω−η boundary is given by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (1995a). In this analysis we will make use of the idea that the generalized mass transport must be satisfied within the large-scale averaging volume V∞ shown in Fig. which takes the value εβω in the homogeneous porous medium region and εβη in the homogeneous fluid region. we first integrate Eqs. For example. We have indicated this situation in Fig. as illustrated in Fig. nωη⋅D*⋅nωη > Dβ and nωη⋅D*⋅nωη < Dβ. thus we have Vω(t) + Vη(t) = V∞ (73) Valencia-López et al. 4. Concentration profiles in the boundary region: (a) nωη ⋅ D∗ ⋅ nωη > Dβ and (b) nωη ⋅ D∗ ⋅ nωη > Dβ. The use of this jump condition in conjunction with the equations that are valid in the homogeneous ω and η regions.44 apply the transport equations that are valid in the homogeneous parts of the ω and η regions to the entire space occupied by the ω and η regions. while sCAβtβ is continuous in the boundary region. the superficial concentration sCAβt is also continuous everywhere in the two-phase system. 4. One first integrates the equations that are valid in the homogeneous ω and η regions over Vω and Vη. The volume of the ω and η regions contained in V∞ are designated by Vω and Vη. that defines the large-scale averaging volume can also be represented in terms of the a b Figure 4. this means that the computed values of sCAβtβ and sCAβtβ in the ω η boundary region will not be equal to the value of sCAβtβ that would be determined by Eq. Next. one integrates the generalized mass transport equations over V∞ and the former integrals are subtracted from the latter to eventually obtain a jump condition. respectively.

(45) over the volume identified by V∞. To obtain Eq. an explanation that is applicable to the particular problem under investigation is given elsewhere (Ochoa-Tapia and Whi- . we have also used Aωη = Aηω to represent the area of dividing surface contained within the volume V∞. In this result. The next step requires that we integrate Eq. 5. we obtain the lengthy result that is given below: Figure 5. thus the following result is obtained: ∫A = + nωη⋅(εβωsvβtβ sCAβtβ − svβtβ sCAβtβ )dA ω ω η η ωη ∫A nω⋅(D∗⋅∇ ω s CAβt − εβωD∗ ⋅∇sCAβtβ )dA ω ω ∫A nη⋅(D∗⋅∇ η s CAβt − Dβ∇sCAβtβ )dA η − ∫A − nωη⋅(εβωD∗ ⋅ ∇sCAβtβ ) − Dβ∇sCAβtβ )dA ω ω η − ωη ∫V εβ 1 ω + avKeq ∂sCAβt dV εβ ∂t β ∫A ΦdV ω ∫V ΦdV η (78) β avKeq ∂sCAβt + ∫ εβ 1 + dV εβ ∂t Vη The type of terms containing integrals in the surfaces Aω and Aη is the characteristic that first led Gibbs (1928) to define excess functions at phase interfaces. β avKeq ∂sCAβt εβ 1 + ∫V ∂t εβ ω ) + + + = + ∫A nω⋅(εβω ω s vβtβ sCAβtβ )dA ω ω ∫A nη⋅( η ωη s vβtβ sCAβtβ )dA η η β avKeq ∂sCAβtω − εβω 1 + dV εβω ∂t ∫A ω nωη⋅(εβωsvβtβ sCAβtβ ) − svβtβ sCAβtβ )dA ω ω η η + − + + + ∫V β ∂sCAβtβ avKeq ∂sCAβt η − εβ 1 + dV ∂t εβ ∂t η s ∫A nω⋅(εβωD∗ ⋅∇sCAβtβ )dA ω ω nωη⋅(εβωD∗ ⋅∇sCAβtβ ) ω ω ∫A nη⋅(Dβ∇sCAβtβ )dA η η ∫A nω⋅(εβ ω vβtβ sCAβtβ − εβωsvβtβ sCAβtβ )dA ω ω ∫A Dβ∇sCAβtβ )dA η (76) − ∫A nη⋅(εβ η s vβtβ sCAβtβ − svβtβ sCAβtβ )dA η η ωη The various unit vectors used in this result are identified in Fig. and the convention associated with the unit normal vectors at the dividing surface is that nωη = −nηω. (77). (76) we have used the divergence theorem to change several of the volume integrals to area integrals. (76) from Eq.Mass Transfer Jump Condition at the Boundary +∫ nω⋅(εβsvβtβsCAβtβ)dA nη⋅(εβsvβtβsCAβtβ)dA CAβt)dA + 45 Aω +∫ = − Aη ∫A nω⋅(D∗⋅∇ ω s ∫A nη⋅(D∗⋅∇ η s CAβt)dA (77) ∫A ΦdV ω − ∫V ΦdV η When we subtract Eq. Large-scale averaging volume V∞ and unit vectors.

or a jump condition: ∫C ns ⋅ εβs D∗ ⋅ ∇s s s CAβtβ dσ s εβs * ω β Aβ ω = ∫ Aω n ω ⋅ (D ⋅∇〈C Aβ 〉 − εβωD ⋅∇〈C 〉 ) dA * . and then requiring that the integratal be zero. C represents a closed curve lying on the dividing surface.46 taker. The excess surface accumulation associated with Eq. (85)–(87) into Eq. 5. (78) leads to the following result: ∫ Aω * β nω ⋅ (D* ⋅ ∇〈C Aβ 〉 − ε βω Dω ⋅ ∇〈C Aβ 〉 ω )dA − ∫ Aωη β β β β nωη ⋅ (ε βω 〈 v β 〉ω 〈C Aβ 〉 ω − 〈 v β 〉η 〈C Aβ 〉η )dA + ∫ Aη n η ⋅ (εβ 〈 vβ 〉 β 〈C Aβ 〉 β − 〈 vβ 〉 β 〈C Aβ 〉 β ) dA η η (80) =− ∫ Aωη * β β nωη ⋅ (ε βω Dω ⋅∇〈C Aβ 〉ω − Dβ ∇〈C Aβ 〉η )dA In this equation. (46). suggests that the nonequilibrium surface excess can be represented as Φs = δΦ (83) where εβs represents the excess surface porosity. and σ represents the arc length along this curve. while ns represents the unit vector that is tangent to the ω−η boundary and normal to the curve C. 1993). we obtain a surface transport equation. (84). 1993) to write all of the terms under the same area integral. and sCAβts is the surface concentration. (78) is defined next. 1995a). in accord with previous works (Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker. 1998b). Excess Surface Accumulation Valencia-López et al. + ∫ Aη β nη ⋅ (D* ⋅∇〈C Aβ 〉 − Dβ ∇〈C Aβ 〉η )dA (81) ∫A = εβs ωη ∂sCAβts ∂t β dA Here we use ∇s to represent the surface gradient operator and it is related to the nabla operator by ∇s = (I − nωηnηω)⋅∇ (Ochoa-Tapia et al. This definition. Nonequilibrium Excess Surface β avKeq ∂sCAβt εβ 1 + ∫V ∂t εβ ω β avKeq ∂sCAβtω − εβω 1 + dV εβω ∂t ∫A Φs dA = ωη ∫V Φ dV + ∫V Φ dV ω η (82) +∫ β ∂sCAβtβ avKeq ∂sCAβt η − εβ 1 + dV εβ ∂t ∂t Vη (79) in which Φ is defined by Eq. Substituting Eqs. Aωη. 1995a).. Excess Surface Diffusive Transport À ∫A εβs ωη ∂sCAβtβ s ∂t dA + À ∫C ns ⋅ εβs s vβtβ sCAβtβ dσ s s Φs dA (84) À ns ⋅ εβs D∗ ⋅ ∇s sCAβtβ dσ − s s ∫ C ∫A ωη Using the surface divergence theorem (Ochoa-Tapia et al. as can be observed in Fig. The surface velocity is represented by εβssvβtβ (Ochoa-Tapia and s Whitaker.. Excess Surface Convective Transport À ∫Cns ⋅ εβs = s vβtβ sCAβtβ dσ s s where δ represents the thickness associated with the boundary region and can be estimated as the root of the norm of the permeability tensor in Darcy’s law.

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∂t excess surface transport β ∂〈C Aβ 〉 s β β β + ∇ s ⋅ ε β s 〈 v β 〉 s 〈C Aβ 〉 s − ε β sD* ⋅∇ s 〈C Aβ 〉 s s .

the boundary condition takes the form −nωη⋅(εβωD∗ ∇sCAβtβ − Dβ∇sCAβtβ ) = 0 ω ω η (90) . if the excess surface transport and the nonequilibrium terms are neglected.Mass Transfer Jump Condition at the Boundary β β β β −nωη ⋅ (ε βω 〈 v β 〉ω 〈C Aβ 〉ω − 〈 v β 〉η 〈C Aβ 〉η ) 47 Then.

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convective transport s * β β = −nωη ⋅ (ε βωDω ⋅ ∇〈C Aβ 〉 ω − Dβ ∇〈C Aβ 〉η ) − .

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(85) is reduced to − β β svβtηsCAβtη) = 0 (88) (93) εβs . we should remember that it has to be used together with the velocity and concentration conditions given by Eqs. we choose to impose the continuity of the intrinsic average concentrations at the ω−η boundary: s β CAβtβ = sCAβtβ ω η (86) at the ω−η boundary This also implies that the surface concentration must satisfy s Excess Surface Diffusive Transport: ∇s⋅(εβs D∗⋅∇ssCAβtβ) = γd nωη⋅(εβω D∗ ⋅∇sCAβtβ ω ω s s CAβtβ = sCAβtβ = sCAβtβ ω η s (87) at the ω−η boundary − Dβ ∇ sCAβtβ) η Nonequilibrium Excess Surface: Φs = γs av Keq ∂sCAβtβ ω ∂t (92) Equation (87) together with the continuity of the superficial velocity lead to the result nωη⋅(εβωsvβtβ sCAβtβ ω ω at the ω−η boundary With this result. Therefore. General Form of the Boundary Condition Here we follow the ideas proposed by Ochoa-Tapia and Whitaker (1995b) for their study on momentum transport. the following representations are proposed. On the basis of the definitions of the excess surface terms given by Eqs. Eq. Excess Surface Accumulation: εβs ∂sCAβtβ s ∂t = γa εβ ∂sCAβtβ ω ∂t (91) We must remember that at this point we have not imposed any condition on the average concentration at the dividing surface of the porous and fluid regions. 4. (75) and (86). (79)–(82). based on the continuity of the fields sCAβt and sCAβt shown in Fig. nonequilibrium diffusive transport surface excess (85) Although this is a simplified expression.

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(88). and γs are dimensionless parameters of order one. it was not necessary to introduce an equation for the excess surface convective transport. In Eqs. ∂t excess surface transport β ∂〈C Aβ 〉 s β β β + ∇ s ⋅ ε β s 〈 v β 〉 s 〈C Aβ 〉 s − ε β sD* ⋅∇ s 〈C Aβ 〉 s s Note that. due to Eq. (91)–(93) in Eq. γa. (91)–(93). γd. (89) yields γ a εβ * β β = −nωη ⋅ (ε βωDω ⋅ ∇〈C Aβ 〉 ω − Dβ ∇〈C Aβ 〉η ) − . Using the Eqs.

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excess surface transport ∂t β ∂ 〈C Aβ 〉 ω β β * + γ d nωη ⋅ (ε βω Dω ⋅∇〈C Aβ 〉ω − Dβ ∇〈C Aβ 〉η ) diffusive transport surface excess * β β = − nωη ⋅ (ε βω Dω ⋅∇〈C Aβ 〉ω − Dβ ∇〈C Aβ 〉η ) − γ s av K eq (89) .

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Stephen Whitaker of the University of California at Davis. Y.. on the average.. New Haven. Experimental studies are needed to determine the adjustable parameter.. The longitudinal diffusion coefficient in flow through a tube with stagnant pockets. S. To measure these heterogeneous reaction rates and adsorption isotherms. we are faced with the problem of designing experiments that will allow for the direct measurement of that quantity. Bear and M. G. This generalized mass transport equation was used to construct a jump condition at the boundary between the porous medium and the homogene- . vol. R. pp. Sahraoui and Kaviany. J. 1987b.. (95) can be neglected. Int.. this is not easily done for the unknown terms that appear in Eq. 1993. 1984. one attempts to carry out experiments where these effects dominate the observed phenomena. W. In this equation the parameter γ involves the dimensionless parameters γa. and Vafai.. Eng.48 which can be written in terms of only one adjustable parameter as nωη⋅(εβωD∗ ⋅∇sCAβtβ − Dβ∇sCAβtβ ) ω ω η = γ av Keq ∂sCAβtβ ω ∂t (95) Valencia-López et al. where the importance of the surface curvature should be enhanced. 1994).. K. 442–450. pp. such as those described in previous works (Larson and Higdon. J. Heat and mass transport in porous media. G. (90). 2001. Balakotaiah. The Collected Works of J. Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineering. New York. Corapcioglu (eds. and Whitaker. 1992) needs measuring. 44. Effect of flow direction on conversion in isothermal radial flow fixed-bed reactors. R. 1928. it seems plausible that the excess surface accumulation term in Eq. vol. 38. Fogler. (90). allows expressing the flux jump condition in terms of only one adjustable coefficient. 1981. McGraw-Hill. we will develop a jump condition for the boundary between a porous medium and a homogeneous fluid. The introduction of representations for the excess terms. pp. 30. CONCLUSION In this study we have derived a jump condition for the boundary between a porous medium and a homogeneous fluid with adsorption effects that ensures that the generalized transport equation will be satisfied. 1735–1749. Gray. Willard Gibbs. Dordrecht. Heat Mass Transfer. It is clear that for steady-state conditions the boundary condition reduces to the one under the assumption of excess surface neglegible effects given by Eq. Chem. The development is based on a generalized. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) and the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP). This coefficient indicates the significance of the accumulation rate at the interregion between the porous medium and the homogeneous fluid. J. R.. A derivation of the equations for multi-phase transport. From a practical point of view. pp. B. At this point we must recognize that if the excess surface accumulation term in Eq. The authors also appreciate the comments and suggestions from Prof. 229–233. γd. Dispersion in pulsed system: II Theoretical developments for passive dispersion in porous medium. (95). Sci. vol.. J. Aris. NJ. In further contributions.. D. REFERENCES Alazmi. 1987a. PrenticeHall. Carbonell. S. Englewood Clifts. in Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media. as functions of bulk average concentrations. The Netherlands. vol. and γs.In this development. we have also imposed the condition that the superficial average velocity and the intrinsic average concentration are continuous at the boundary. W.. 11.. 1. Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer interfacial conditions between a porous medium and a fluid layer. ous fluid that contains excess surface mass transport and nonequilibrium surface excess terms. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering. 1959. Gibbs. however. G. Sci. AIChE J. J. 27. 1795–1802. vol. Eng. Carberry. Yale University Press. (95) is important. 123–198. Carbonell. V. Prat. 1976) or adsorption isotherm (Fogler. Martinus-Nijhoff. CT. This means that the flux jump condition takes the form indicated in Eq. 1992. and Luss.). nonlocal form of the volume-average mass transport equation that is valid everywhere in a system composed of a porous medium and a homogeneous fluid. pp. and Whitaker. S. 194–198.. 1983. provide a means of examining the details of the boundary region. 1992. pp. This situation occurs routinely when a heterogeneous reaction rate (Carberry. Chem. vol. Sci. Numerical experiments. Chem. 1992. 1976. Eng. 1975.

Int. 39. E. Whitaker. Eng. 166. S. and Whitaker.. Quintard.. Scaling-up of affinity chomatography by radial-flow cartridges. Eng. 309– 321. 1387–1392. P. R. Some refinements concerning the boundary conditions at the macroscopic level. vol. V. F. pp. Convective dispersion and interphase mass transfer.. Heat transfer at the boundary between a porous medium and a homogeneous fluid.. J. A.. S. Interfacial Transport Phenomena. Momentum transfer at the boundary between a porous medium and a homogeneous Fluid—I. S. vol. 1992. Chem. Prat. Tsai. 1996. Kuznetsov. J. Sahraoui. Int. Lenhoff. V. J.. II Solution in time domain. J. Larson. New York. 178. Kluwer Academic. Chem. J. pp. M. L. quasi-steady catalytic surface. Chem. vol. pp. Heat transfer at the boundary between a porous medium and a homogeneous fluid: The one-equation model. S.. and Whitaker. J. Kuznetsov.. 173–192. 1990. S. Momentum jump condition at the boundary between a porous medium a homogeneous fluid: Inertial effects. Roy. Transport Porous Media. 31–46.. vol. Larson. Microscopic flow near the surface of two-dimensional porous media. 1987a. 201–217. J. The Method of Volume Averaging. in Concepts and Design of Chemical Reactors. and Whitaker. Heat Mass Transfer. 1987b. pp. C. and Lightfoot. pp. and Whitaker. vol. 1985. A. 1677–1685. Dordrecht.. pp. 1994. 147–161. and Tsao. A. Lenhoff. vol.-J. pp. 24. Biotechnol. A.. 119–136. Theor. Part 1. 38. J. G.. Whitaker and A. Sci. 1990. Appl. Res. 1995b. 27–61. 53–67. pp. 40. L. 2. 106. vol. E. A.. 2795– 2810. Transport Porous Media. S. J. J. Whitaker. A. Radial-flow affinity chromatography for trypsin purification. M. 1995a. 1984. W. Flow.. vol.. Momentum transfer at the boundary between a porous medium and a homogeneous fluid—II.. and Lightfoot. Sci. Huang.. J. K. pp. Ochoa-Tapia. pp. pp. pp. 1997. Transport in ordered and disordered porous media I: The cellular average and the use of weighting functions. pp. Fluid mechanics and heat transfer in the interface region between a porous medium and a fluid layer: A boundary-layer solution. Comparison with experiment. Transverse flow. J. J. Heat Mass Transfer. and Whitaker. vol. Transient diffusion. M. Whitaker.. 1986a. 2061–2082. The effects of axial diffusion and permeability barriers on the transient response of tissue cylinders. 4.. vol. Part 2. V. The species mass jump condition at a singular surface. Heat Mass Transfer. J. plain media: Convection.. Porous Media. pp. S. Development of transport equations for multiphase systems I: General development for twophase systems. 1–94. vol. Kuznetsov. J.. vol. E. Eng. Fluid Mech. J.. Chem. Whitaker. S.. Ochoa-Tapia. 1996. 1988.. . pp.. Slattery. Hou. vol. Lee. J. 1986b. 56. C. J. 1999.. pp. Turbulence and Combustion. S. pp. M. Springer-Verlag. 159–165. 449–472. R. Chem. A. J. Ochoa-Tapia. vol. vol. 1998b.. Prog. A. pp. Sci. 1994. A. Commun. and Whitaker. Eng. Biol. E. Zanotti. Analytical study of fluid flow and heat transfer during forced convection in a composite channel partly filled with a Brinkman-Forchheimer porous medium. S. 41. 1.. 1029– 1044. Bulk and surface diffusion in porous media: An application of the surface averaging theorem.-C.. Chem.. Cassano (eds. Int. S. 41.. 1999. G. M. pp. Sci. E. Heat Mass Transfer.. N. G. 37. A.. The Forchheimer equation: A theoretical development. vol. A. Sci. T. Del Rio. and Higdon. absorption and reaction in porous catalysts: The reaction controlled.. vol. vol. and Whitaker. vol 48. 49 Ochoa-Tapia. 1993.. N. pp. 14. Ser. Microscopic flow near the surface of two-dimensional porous media.. 401–410. Transport Porous Media. S. 38. The spatial averaging theorem revisited. A. J. 207–238. Theoretical development.. H. S. A. J. 3015–3022. 47. 2635–2646. Porous Media. S. 1998. vol.. vol. vol. Whitaker. T. 40. Analytical investigation of the fluid flow in the interface region between a porous medium and a clear fluid in channels partially filled with a porous medium. and Tsao. V. and Higdon.. S. vol. 163–177. ACS Symp. pp. pp. Kuznetsov. 263–278. M. Ochoa-Tapia. Axial flow. Eng.Mass Transfer Jump Condition at the Boundary Howes. Ochoa-Tapia. vol. Influence of the stress jump boundary condition at the porous-medium/clear-fluid interface on a flow at a porous wall. Eng. 1992. J. 60.. Gordon & Breach. 7. 25.. 2647–2655. Sci. F. pp. New York. and Kaviany.. Transport processes with heterogeneous reaction. R. A. Int. 427. and Carbonell. and Whitaker. 1997. Slip and no slip temperature boundary conditions at the interface of porous. 104–117. Int. The Netherlands. Heat Mass Transfer.). Porous Media.. pp. pp. 1998a. 1986. Fluid Mech.. 1. Sci. G.. S. 1984. 2691–2707.

2001. Kuznetsov2* 1 Department of Engineering Science. New Zealand 2 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Nield1 and A.Journal of Porous Media 6(1).edu ABSTRACT The effects of gross heterogeneity and anisotropy. NC 27695-7910. Private Bag 92019. North Carolina State University. USA E-mail: avkuznet@eos. The analysis leads to estimates of the Nusselt number. Raleigh. 51−57 (2003) (IIHFWV RI *URVV +HWHURJHQHLW\ DQG $QLVRWURS\ LQ )RUFHG &RQYHFWLRQ LQ D 3RURXV 0HGLXP /D\HUHG 0HGLXP $QDO\VLV D. i. associated with horizontal fissures in a porous medium filling a parallel-plate channel. f. 51 Received October 11. for a given driving pressure gradient the heat transfer is increased. based on a piecewise-constant (layered) distribution of permeability across the channel. Inc. V. Campus Box 7910. 2002 Copyright 2003 Begell House. Auckland. An approximate analysis. Nu. Drilling out the tubes leads to a reduction in the value of Nu but an even greater reduction in the friction factor.e. (1999) on foam material with drilled-out tubes. is used to model the experiments performed by Paek et al. so that the net result is an increase in the value of Nu/f.. A. on forced convection are studied. University of Auckland. . Accepted February 26.ncsu.

Clearly. The study by Paek et al. (7) ξ. η porosity of a porous medium φ INTRODUCTION Because it possesses the properties of high surface areato-volume ratio together with relatively high permeability. and that is the purpose of the present article. They report the results of experiments in aluminum foam metal material that has been made anisotropic by the drilling of holes in the material. A typical aluminum foam material can be modeled as a porous medium of large porosity. The motivation for this fabrication is that. (1999) was entirely experimental. The required pressure drop can be reduced if holes in the form of axial tubes are drilled out. (4) ζ viscosity µ density ρ dimensionless parameters defined by Eq. Nevertheless. (1999). we note the relationship between flow through an array of parallel straight capillary tubes of diameter d and . the foam material has an increased resistance to flow because of friction. and this is why the Paek et al. it appears that the topic of forced convection in an anisotropic porous medium has received little study. However. Thus. some simple analysis can provide some qualitative information which can be expected to have wide applicability. A number of recent articles have been concerned with forced convection in such media. the drilled holes were distributed across the channel in a relatively uniform manner. For one type of material investigated. The situations studied by those authors involved complicated geometries. in the latter case. The situation dealt with in this article has another feature of interest. A look at the book by Nield and Bejan (1999) reveals that a large number of articles have dealt with natural convection in an anisotropic porous medium. the material was heterogeneous as well as anisotropic. (1999) article is highly significant. but in another type they were concentrated at mid-channel. metallic foam material has recently become widely employed in industrial applications that require compact and highly efficient thermal systems. and usually this is undesirable. and so one should not expect to model these situations quantitatively by simple analysis. ANALYSIS: DARCY MODEL First. A particularly interesting article is that by Paek et al. and in the context of enhanced heat transfer a very useful survey has been made by Lage and Narasimhan (2000). compared with a fluid that is clear of solid material.52 Nield and Kuznetsov NOMENCLATURE d f G H k _ k K _ _ K Nu q′′ S T* Tm Tw T u u* ^ tube diameter friction factor applied pressure gradient channel height thermal conductivity mean value of k permeability mean value of K Nusselt number heat flux fissure spacing temperature bulk mean temperature wall temperature = (T* – Tw)/(Tm – Tw) _ = µu∗ ⁄ GH2 velocity u U W x∗ x y∗ y ^ = u∗ ⁄ U mean velocity channel width longitudinal coordinate = x∗ ⁄ H transverse coordinate = y∗ ⁄ H Greek symbols void fraction of a channel ε interface parameter defined before Eq. this introduces gross anisotropy into the porous medium.

the upper boundary was maintained at constant temperature and the lower boundary was adiabatic. This circumstance. So far we have not taken account of the fact that the medium is not homogeneous and that the tubes are concentrated at mid-channel. (1999).Effects of Gross Heterogeneity and Anisotropy in Forced Convection flow through an equivalent porous medium. and the remainder is occupied by a porous medium of permeability K. Finally. and the cross-sectional area of the array of tubes is (W/S)(πd2/4). and suppose that sandwiched between two layers of thickness (1 – ζ)H/2 we have a layer of thickness ζH of effective permeability K eff = εd 2 32 (1) K eff = εd 2 ε + 1− K 32ζ ζ (4) We now extend this result to the case where a fraction ε of the cross-sectional area of the channel is occupied by fissures in the form of capillary tubes. together with the fact that we are using the Darcy model and hence we do not have to satisfy a no-slip boundary condition. namely. using the same argument as in Kaviany (1995). with constant temperature at both walls. and a permeability and thermal conductivity distribution given by K = K1 and k = k1 for 0 < |y| < ξH K = K2 and k = k2 for ξH < |y| < ηH (6a) (6b) Figure 1. (1999). we apply this result to the medium denoted as Type 1 by Paek et al. (3). The equivalent permeability of the composite structure is found. If the void fraction is ε. we confirm below that the Nusselt number depends only weakly on ζ and so the inaccuracy is not too important. to be It is clear that we have to take ζ > d/H. It follows that the number of tubes is W/S. In the cross section of Fig.1 of Kuznetsov and Nield (2001). . then the equivalent permeability is [see. for example. the medium has height H and width W. allows us to use symmetry and model the situation by a layer between walls at y = H and y = –H. (1999). Definition sketch. The fissures have diameter d and are spaced along the midline of the channel with spacing S between the centers of adjacent tubes. In the problem considered by Paek et al. but this condition cannot be met in the case of the experiments of Paek et al. and kf be that of the fluid. we further refine This equation is obtained on the assumption that the heat transfer through the tubes and that through the porous medium in the middle layer are in parallel.3. However. Then in the middle layer the thermal conductivity can be taken to be K eff = εd 2 + (1 − ε) K 32 (2) keff = It is assumed that the flow through the tubes and that through the porous medium are in parallel and are driven by the same pressure gradient.11) of Kaviany (1995)] 53 our model. a triple layer with isothermal boundaries. 1. (2. (1999). and thus the void fraction is ε = πd2 4SH (3) ε ε k + 1 − k ζ f ζ m (5) and hence the equivalent permeability is given by Eq. For more accuracy. Channel cross section for the anisotropic foam metallic material of Type 1 investigated by Paek et al. Eq. for an accurate model. We recognize that we have a special case of the situation treated in Section 2. (2) with ε given by Eq. Ideally. we would like to have 1 > ζ >> d/H. Let km be the thermal conductivity of the porous foam material.

2. (13a)–(13c) satisfying the boundary conditions Here the asterisks denote dimensional quantities. 3 (10) The mean velocity U and the bulk mean temperature Tm are defined by [The reader should note that once equivalent permeabilities and thermal conductivities are introduced. 3 (14) We write Ki = Ki K and ki = ki k for i = 1.] The Nusselt number Nu is defined as U= 1 u * dy * H 0 ∫ H Tm = 1 u * T * dy * HU 0 ∫ H Nu = (11) 2 Hq′′ (Tw − Tm ) k (15) The solutions of Eqs. 2. k3 = km The mean values are given by (8) ˆ d 2T3 2 ˆ = −λ3 T3 dy 2 where (13c) K = ξK1 + (η − ξ) K 2 + (1 − η) K 3 k = ξk1 + (η − ξ)k2 + (1 − η)k3 (9a) (9b) Nu Ki λi = 2ki 1/ 2 for i = 1. Dimensionless variables are defined by ˆ u= u* U ˆ T * −Tw T= Tm − Tw ˆ dT (0) = 0 dy are ˆ T (1) = 0 (16) For the Darcy model. one has a standard problem for each of the layers. k2 = keff. K2 = Keff. The situation is closely analogous to that treated by Kuznetsov and Nield (2001).54 K = K3 and k = k3 for ηH < |y| < H In the present case we have (6c) Nield and Kuznetsov longitudinal conduction assumed to be negligible and with the assumption of local thermal equilibrium) 1− ζ ξ= 2 and 1+ ζ η= 2 (7) ˆ d 2T1 2 ˆ = −λ1 T1 dy 2 ˆ d 2T2 2 ˆ = −λ 2 T2 2 dy for 0 < y < ξ for ξ < y < η for η < y < 1 (13a) (13b) K1 = K. K3 = K. the velocity distribution is given by ˆ T1 = A1 cos λ1 y ˆ T2 = A2 cos λ2 y + B2 sin λ 2 y ˆ T3 = A3 sin λ3 (1 − y) (17a) (17b) (17c) ˆ u1 ˆ u2 =K =K 1 for 0 < y < ξ for ξ < y < η for η < y < 1 (12a) (12b) (12c) 2 ˆ u3 =K 3 The continuity of temperature and heat flux at the interfaces y = ξ and y = η then implies the matching conditions The temperature distribution is given by the solution of the equations (derived from the usual energy equation with A1 cos λ1ξ = A2 cos λ 2ξ + B2 sin λ 2ξ (18a) . k1 = km.

3 we have varied the hole spacing ratio S/H. the prime quantity of interest is the increase in heat transfer rate with the applied pressure gradient kept constant.7.Effects of Gross Heterogeneity and Anisotropy in Forced Convection 55 (22) k1λ1 A1 sin λ1ξ = k2λ 2 A2 sin λ 2ξ − k2λ 2 B2 cos λ2 ξ (18b) εd 2 K = 1− 32 K Kh A2 cos λ 2 η + B2 sin λ 2 η = A3 sin λ 3 (1 − η) (18c) k2λ 2 A2 sin λ 2η − k2λ 2 B2 cos λ 2η = k3λ3 A3 cos λ 3 (1 − η) The drilling of the holes causes the resistance to fluid flow to be reduced in this ratio. the pressure gradient is proportional to the reciprocal of the permeability.93. and kf = 0. In Fig. (15). In the problem considered by Paek et al. for various values of hole diameter ratios d/H with ζ = d/H. so that the mean velocity is increased by the reciprocal of this ratio. Our predictions agree well with the experimental results for small values of d/H (of the order 0.026 W/m⋅K. in Fig. (1999) work in terms of a friction factor f defined by f = H ∆P / L 2 ρU ∞ (23) (18d) The condition that Eqs. this equation may be regarded as an eigenvalue equation for Nu. A2.) (19) In view of Eq. (1999). When Darcy’s law holds. involving aluminum foam with drilled-out tubes. (1999). We believe that the discrepancy can be explained by the fact that our analysis is based on the assumption of thermally developed flow. km = 6. In general. (1999). 2 we have plotted values of Nu versus ζ for parameters corresponding to the Type 1 material of Paek et al. whereas in the experiments the flow was still developing. (18a)–(18d) have a nontrivial solution is that cos λ1ξ k λ sin λ ξ 1 det 1 1 0 0 − cos λ2ξ −k2λ2 sin λ2ξ cos λ2η −k2λ2 sin λ2η − sin λ2ξ k2λ2 cos λ2ξ sin λ2η k2λ2 cos λ2η =0 − sin λ3 (1 −η) k3λ3 cos λ3 (1−η) 0 0 where ∆P is the pressure drop over the length L and U∞ is the uniform inlet velocity. (19) must be solved for Nu numerically. Nu is only weakly dependent on ζ.2 W/m⋅K. (7) and (8). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION All figures are computed utilizing K = 7⋅10−8 m2. and so the choice of ζ (provided that it is not less than d/H) is not critical. so the drilling of holes results in this factor being decreased by the square of the factor given in Eq. but our predictions markedly overestimate the values for larger values of d/H. (14). we have in our Fig.600) and a Prandtl number estimated as 0. Accordingly. As soon as the value of Nu has been found. and using the fact that ε and εd2/32K are each small compared with unity. Paek et al. (1999). shows the estimated development length-to-channel width ratio was of the order of 10 times the experimental channel lengthto-channel width ratio. Here ξ η − ξ 1− η 1 = + + K h K1 K2 K3 (21) Inserting the parameter values given in Eqs. and the smaller the spacing and the larger the holes. 12 of Paek et al. 4 plotted 2Nu/π2 versus d/H for the appropriate value of S/H. Again as one would expect. or the increase in the ratio of heat transfer rate to applied pressure gradient. For comparison with experimental results presented in Fig. for large spacing the holes have negligible effect and Nu is close to π2/2 = 4. and in the case of a layered medium it is the harmonic mean of the permeability Kh that is pertinent. we find that approximately . a compatibility condition gives A3 = Nu 2λ3 (20) and then (18a)–(18c) give A1. based on the experimental Reynolds number value (1. and B2. (22). in order to model the situation in Paek et al. the greater is the reduction in the value of Nu as defined in Eq.1 or smaller). to complete the solution. (A quick calculation. As one might expect. Eq.

2.56 Nield and Kuznetsov Figure 2. The methodology employed in this note can be employed to treat the case of more general horizontal fissures in a porous medium. 13 of Paek et al. Plot of Nusselt number for various hole spacing ratios and hole diameter ratios. Even though Nu is reduced by the drilling. For a medium of Type I with d/H = 0. private communication). Plot of Nusselt number versus interface parameter ζ for the material of Type 1 used by Paek et al. the ratio Nu/f can be increased by the drilling. (1999). (1999). Kim. Y. our theory predicts that drilling will produce an increase in 1/f of about 10%. The value of K in their experiments was 7⋅10−8 m2 (S. CONCLUSION We have shown that a simple layered model is able to provide qualitative information applicable to the complicated heterogeneous and anisotropic porous medium used in forced-convection experiments reported by Paek et al. which is more than enough to offset the reduction in Nu. (1999). Figure 3. as illustrated by Fig. provided that it is reasonable to .

H. and Nield.Effects of Gross Heterogeneity and Anisotropy in Forced Convection 57 Figure 4. (1999). and Hyun.. Vafai. and Narasimhan. Kang.). pp.. Nield. 363–385. New York. Kuznetsov would like to acknowledge support provided by the North Carolina Supercomputing Center (NCSC) under an Advanced Computing Resources Grant. New York. Y.. Principles of Heat Transfer in Porous Media.. NM. Paper NHTC99-158. A. M. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A. . (1999). A. Marcel Dekker. A. 1999.. B. J. Kuznetsov. in Handbook of Porous Media (K. 2000. A. 1999. 2nd ed. L. and Bejan. New York. 2nd ed.. Kim. J. S. W... pp. Convection in Porous Media. Albuquerque. V. Plot of Nusselt number for various hole diameter ratios. assume that both the fluid flow and the heat transfer in the fissures and the porous medium are in parallel. August 15–17. 1995. 357–394. 2001. REFERENCES Kaviany. Springer-Verlag. V. J.. Forced convective heat transfer from anisotropic aluminum foam in a channel flow. Effects of heterogeneity in forced convection in a porous medium: Triple layer or conjugate problem. Y.. Kim for supplying us with additional data for the experiments reported in Paek et al. Numer. pp. We thank Dr. ed. Paek. D. Lage. Heat Transfer A. M. 1–8. Porous media enhanced forced convection fundamentals and applications. Proceedings of the 33rd National Heat Transfer Conference. S. A. D. vol. 40. Springer-Verlag. for comparison with the experimental values obtained by Paek et al.

edu. F.jo ABSTRACT The transient hydrodynamics and thermal behaviors of the free-convection fluid flow in open-ended vertical parallel-plate channels partially filled with porous material are investigated. The role of the local macroscopic inertial term in the porous domain momentum equation is studied. The ranges of different dimensionless parameters within which the local inertial term is of significant effect are presented. Jordan University of Science and Technology Irbid. Jordan E-mail: malnimr@just. Al-Balqa’ Applied University Al-Salt. Jordan and Mechanical Engineering. Accepted March 21. 2001. Khadrawi1 and M.QHUWLDO 7HUP RQ WKH )UHH&RQYHFWLRQ )OXLG )ORZ LQ 9HUWLFDO &KDQQHOV 3DUWLDOO\ )LOOHG ZLWK 3RURXV 0HGLD A. Al-Nimr2* 2 Mechanical Engineering. . 2002 Copyright 2003 Begell House. A. 1 59 Received October 26.Journal of Porous Media 6(1). 59−70 (2003) 7KH (IIHFW RI WKH /RFDO . Inc.

1987. Poulikakos. and solid matrix parameters on the natural convection in domains partially filled with porous materials.. 1987. Beckermann et al. 1986. fluid. 1990. Taslim and Narusawa. Nishimura et al. Beckermann et al... 1988. Taslim and Narusawa. is heated by the intruding magma. Poulikakos. An example of an environmental application is the thermal circulation in lakes. heat transfer from hair-covered skin. Tong et al. . Also. Other studies deal with natural convection in cavities or enclosures (Nishimura et al. 1989) or experimental (Tong and Subramanian. Chen and Chen. Tong and Subramanian. 1989. Chang and Chang. 1988. percolating down through the permeable formation. chemical and nuclear reactors.. Vafai and Sarkar. 1982. Most of the above-reported works are either numerical (Somerton and Catton. 1998. 2000). many geothermal areas that consist of volcanic debris confined by the walls on nonfragmented ignimbrite can be modeled as a fluid layer bounded by vertical porous walls subject to heat flux. Prasad and Tian. Chen and Chen. extensive research has been performed in recent years to examine the effects of different geometric. Kuznetsov. 1986. property 2/property 1 w ∞ 1 2 wall condition ambient condition refers to clear domain refers to porous domain = uν1 ⁄ [L2⋅g⋅β1(Tw − T∞)] 2 y Y z transverse coordinate dimensionless transverse coordinate (= y/L2) axial coordinate INTRODUCTION The use of porous substrates to improve convection heat transfer in channels has many practical geophysical.. in which the meteoric water. 1986. solidification of concentrated alloys. 1982.60 Khadrawi and Al-Nimr NOMENCLATURE Ca Da g k k1 k2 K KR L1 L2 Pr r t T T∞ Tw u U acceleration coefficient tensor Darcy number (= K2/L2) 2 acceleration of gravity thermal conductivity thermal conductivity of clear domain thermal conductivity of porous domain permeability of the porous medium thermal conductivity ratio (= k2/k1) porous domain width channel width Prandtl number dimensionless ratio (= L2/L1) time temperature ambient temperature wall temperature axial velocity dimensionless axial velocity Greek symbols α thermal diffusivity thermal diffusivity of clear domain α1 thermal diffusivity of porous domain α2 thermal diffusivity ratio (= α2/α1) αR β volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion ε porosity of the medium dimensionless temperature [= (T – T∞)/(Tw – T∞)] θ µ dynamic viscosity dynamic viscosity of clear domain µ1 dynamic viscosity of porous domain µ2 dynamic viscosity ratio (= µ2/µ1) µR kinematics viscosity ν τ dimensionless time (= tν1 ⁄ L2) 2 Subscripts R ratio. Examples of geophysical applications are found in geothermal reservoirs. 1987. packed-bed thermal storage. In the literature. 1986. 1987. and technological applications. grain and food storage and drying. porous flat-plate collectors. 1987. in which the shallow coastal water is influenced significantly by the interaction between the overlying layer of water and the water-saturated substrate. Examples include electronic cooling. and fibrous and granular insulation where the insulation occupies only part of the space separating the heated and cooled walls. Vafai and Sarkar. environmental. Many of these applications investigate the thermal stability of a composite fluid and porous layers for different configurations (Somerton and Catton. 1996) partially filled with porous materials. 1987.

under the above-mentioned assumptions and using the dimensionless parameters given in the Nomenclature.e. 0 ) = 2 (τ. the velocity responds to an imposed temperature change within a second or less.. It is also believed that this approach gives good predictions. It is assumed that the unsteadiness in the channel thermal and hydrodynamic behavior is due to a sudden change in the temperature of the channel wall. The main goal of the present study is to investigate the role of the macroscopic local inertial term in the porous domain momentum equation and its effect on the hydrodynamics and thermal behavior of channels partly filled with porous material. Y ) = U 2 (0. The local inertial term may be important if an oscillatory temperature change is imposed at the channel boundary or if the porous domain is of large void fraction.6 (Lundgren.6 (Kakac et al. In most practical situations.0 ∂Y ∂Y θ1(τ. 1. 1972). subject to the following initial and boundary conditions. Prasad and Tian. 1995. the equations of motion and energy in both the clear and porous domains are given as. 0 ) = 0. and they consider closed cavities and enclosures. it has been realized that the local macroscopic inertial term is usually small compared to the microscopic Darcy drag term.0 θ1 (0. 1991). when ε > 0. 1991). and hence can be neglected (Nield. it is obvious that the local inertial term may retain its importance in applications involving very thin porous substrates or at large Darcy numbers. 1998). Abu-Hijleh and Al-Nimr (2001) have investigated the importance of the local inertial term in forced-convection fluid flow problems in channels partially filled with porous material. Also. Al-Nimr and Massoud. 1999.0 (5) . Y ) = 0. fully developed freeconvection flow inside an open-ended vertical parallelplate channel partly filled with porous material. the effect of these geometric and operating conditions on the importance of the local inertial term in free-convection problems needs to be investigated. respectively. ∂U 1 ∂ 2U 1 = + θ1 ∂τ ∂Y 2 (1) (2) ∂θ 1 1 ∂ 2θ 1 = ∂τ Pr ∂ Y 2 Ca ∂U 2 ∂ 2U 2 1 U2 +θ2 = µR − 2 Da ∂τ ∂Y (3) ∂θ 2 α ∂ 2θ 2 = R Pr ∂ Y 2 ∂τ U1(τ. i. 1) = 1.The Effect of the Local Inertial Term on the Free-Convection Fluid Flow 1986. The unsteadiness in the channel thermal behavior is due to a sudden change in the channel wall temperature. especially in light porous domains.. Also. Referring to Fig. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION Consider an unsteady. A quantitative mapping of the operating and geometric parameters within which the local inertial term may be significant in free-convection problems in domains partially filled with porous materials is not available in the literature yet. In the literature about fluid flow in domains totally filled with porous material. Al-Nimr. The inclusion of the Brinkman term is justified when the porous domain is light. 1990). Few of these studies investigate the free-convection transient thermal behavior in open-ended vertical channels partially filled with porous domain (AlNimr and Darabseh. ε > 0. and the porous medium is isotropic and homogeneous. Y ) = 0. The unsteadiness in the flow is due to sudden change in the temperature of the channel wall.0 ∂U 2 ∂θ (τ. 1) = 0. However. In this study. 1997. The fluid is assumed to be Newtonian with uniform properties. The tangential velocities and stresses are assumed to be matched at the clear fluid/porous domain interface. laminar. it is assumed that both viscous dissipation and internal heat generation are absent. the Darcy–Brinkman model is adopted to describe the fluid flow hydrodynamic behavior.0 (4) U1 (0. Y ) = θ2 (0. The present work considers the transient free-convection fluid flow problem in open-ended vertical channels partially filled with porous media. The following section demonstrates the effect of the macroscopic local 61 inertial term on unsteady fully developed flow in openended vertical channel partly filled with porous material. Al-Nimr and Haddad. The continuity of the tangential velocities and shear stresses at the interface is widely used in the literature.

Y). r ) ∂Y ∂Y where subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the clear and porous domains.V2 = 0.62 Khadrawi and Al-Nimr Figure 1. with the notation that L[U(τ. ( Pr−1) S C3 eM1Y − ( Pr−1) S C4 e− M1Y (10) V1 ( S . The term describing the quadratic drag is neglected. Schematic diagram of the problem under consideration. r) = θ2(τ. The value of this coefficient is far from being settled. r ) ∂Y ∂Y ∂θ1 ∂θ ( τ. Y)] = V(S. which is justified in natural-convection problems especially at small Rayleigh numbers. 1991). (1)–(4) yields d 2W1 − SW1 = −V1 dY 2 d 2V1 − Pr SV1 = 0.0 − dY 2 α R These equations assume the following solutions: W1 ( S . Y) and L[θ(τ. respectively. Now. Laplace transformation of Eqs. r) ∂U1 ∂U (τ. (2)–(5) are defined as µ2 µR = µ1 k2 KR = k1 K Da = 2 L2 ν1 Pr = α1 L2 r= L1 Equations (1)–(5) are solved using Laplace transformation technique. U1(τ. Y ) = C1e SY (9) + C2e− SY − It is worth mentioning here that the Darcy–Brinkman model is adopted to describe the fluid flow hydrodynamic behavior. r ) = µ R 2 (τ. The other parameters appearing in Eqs. (3). t) = U2(τ. but it may assumed to be or 1 in light domains having void fraction close to 1. Y ) = C3e M1Y + C4 e − M1Y (11) . In Eq. Ca is an acceleration coefficient tensor that depends on the geometry of the porous medium (Nield. r ) = K R 2 ( τ.0 dY 2 d 2W2 −V − AW2 = 2 2 dY µR (6) (7) (8) d 2V2 Pr . r) θ1(τ.S . Y)] = W(S.

As one approaches the clear domain part of the channel. (15) and (16). where γ is a floating parameter used to get faster convergence. the frictional drag resistance against free convection is very large due to the small permeability of the porous domain. θk ( τ. r) = V2(S. the local inertial term has insignificant effect on the channel hydrodynamics behavior for µR > 1. Although KR has significant effect on both velocity and temperature distribution. Figure 2 shows the effect of Da and Ca on the velocity within the porous domain. the porous domain has much lower velocity than that of the clear domain. r) = W2(S. r ) = µ R 2 ( S . Y ) ≅ eγ τ 1 V (Y.0 Y ∂ ∂Y W1 ( S . Figures 7 and 8 show the effect of Ca on the velocity and temperature spatial distribution at different values of the thermal conductivity ratio KR. Also. The quantity −1 γτ = 4. Equations (10)–(13) are inverted using a computer program based on Riemann sum approximation as Figures 2–4 show the effect of Darcy number on the velocity at different locations within the channel and at different values of the acceleration coefficient tensor Ca. Y ) = C7 e M 2Y + C8 e − M 2Y where Pr M1 = √S M2 = (13) where k = 1 for the clear domain and k = 2 for the porous domain. the velocity is very small. It is clear that µR has insignificant effect on the hydrodynamic behavior when the local inertial term is neglected.0 ∂Y ∂Y The constants C1–C8 are found after inserting Eqs. Y) = C5e√A Y + c6e−√A Y − 63 C7 eM2Y µR[(Pr S ⁄ αR) − A] (12) − C8 e−M2Y µR[(Pr S ⁄ αR) − A] V2 ( S . In Eqs. The effect of Da number on the channel hydrodynamic behavior becomes more significant as Da increases. and as a result. γ ) + Re τ 2 k ∑ V Y.0 ∂Y ∂Y ∂V1 ∂V ( S . Re represents the real part of the summation and i = √ . Figure 5 shows the effect of Ca on the velocity spatial distribution. the effect of Ca becomes more significant. the fluid velocity increases and the effect of the local inertial term becomes significant. r) V1(S. Also. 1997).1) = 0. (10)–(13) into the boundary conditions (14).1) = 1 S (14) ∂W1 ∂W ( S . The effect of µR on the clear domain velocity at different Ca values is shown in Fig. less than 10–4. yields ∂W2 ∂V ( S . 3 and 4.Y ) ≅ eγ τ 1 inπ n Wk Y . and due to its higher microscopic frictional drag resistance. (5). As Da increases. changing KR does not cause any change in the effect of Ca on both velocity and temperature distributions. 0 ) = 0. r ) = 0.0 W1(S. From Fig.7 gives the most satisfactory results (Tzou. γ + τπ (−1) in k n=1 (16) . r) V1 ( S . as is clear from Figs. r ) = 0. it is clear that Ca has more significant effect on the clear domain hydrodynamic behavior than on that of the porous domain. the Laplace transformation of Eq. r ) = K R 2 ( S . The effect of µR on the channel hydrodynamic behavior is insignificant in channels having µR > 1. 0 ) = 2 ( S . Figures 2–4 show that small Da numbers.The Effect of the Local Inertial Term on the Free-Convection Fluid Flow W2(S. Again. γ + ( −1) Wk (Y . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION √ S Pr α R Ca 1 A = S + (µR Da) µR Also. 6. have insignificant effect on the velocity in all locations of the channel. For Da < 10–4. γ) + Re τ 2 τ n=1 ∑ N N (15) n Uk ( τ. Equations (15) and (16) yield the exact temperature and velocity distributions in both domains.

. Effect of Da on interfacial velocity at different Ca.64 Khadrawi and Al-Nimr Figure 2. Figure 3. Effect of Da on the velocity within porous domain at different Ca.

Effect of Ca on the spatial velocity distribution.The Effect of the Local Inertial Term on the Free-Convection Fluid Flow 65 Figure 4. Effect of Da on the velocity within clear domain at different Ca. Figure 5. .

.66 Khadrawi and Al-Nimr Figure 6. Figure 7. Effect of µR on the velocity within the clear domain at different Ca. Effect of Ca on the velocity spatial distribution at different KR.

Effect of Ca on the temperature spatial distribution at different KR. Effect of Ca on the temperature spatial distribution at different αR.The Effect of the Local Inertial Term on the Free-Convection Fluid Flow 67 Figure 8. Figure 9. .

68 Khadrawi and Al-Nimr Figure 10. Effect of Ca on the velocity spatial distribution at different αR. . Figure 11. Effect of Ca on the velocity spatial distribution at different Pr.

Bringing more heat from the boundary to the clear and porous domains causes an increase in their temperatures as shown in Fig. Figures 9 and 10 show the effect of Ca on the temperature and velocity spatial distributions at different thermal diffusivity ratios αR. The effect of Da. In general. KR. and Pr on the role of the macroscopic inertial term has been studied. It has been found that the local inertial term has insignificant effect on the channel hydrodynamic and thermal behavior for Da < 10–4. This causes an increase in the buoyancy-driving forces. Heat Mass Transfer. Figure 12 shows the effect of the local inertial term on the hydrodynamic transient behavior within the clear domain. Also. where µR > 1. J. and Pr.. changing αR does not cause any change in the effect of Ca on both the velocity and temperature distributions. Changing KR. and Al-Nimr. The effect of the local inertial term on the fluid flow in channels partially filled with porous material. M. REFERENCES Abu-Hijleh. Int. CONCLUSION The importance of the macroscopic inertial term in transient free-convection problems in vertical channels partly filled with porous materials has been investigated. αR. It is clear from this figure that the effect of Pr number on the channel hydrodynamic behavior is insignificant at all values of Ca. and in this case more heat is carried from the heated wall to the channel. 2001.The Effect of the Local Inertial Term on the Free-Convection Fluid Flow 69 Figure 12. pp. vol. A. 4. The conductivity ratio KR decreases as the clear domain conductivity k1 increases. αR. αR. the effect of the macroscopic inertial term is insignificant at large values of µR. which enhances the free convection. . Although αR has significant effect on the channel hydrodynamic and thermal behavior. µR. especially in the porous part of the channel. the local inertial term has significant effect on the hydrodynamic transient behavior over the entire time domain. µR has insignificant effect on the channel behavior when µR > 1. 7 it is clear that the velocity increases as KR decreases and Ca increases. and Pr may change the channel behavior. As is clear from this figure. A. Effect of Ca on the velocity distribution within the clear domain. 1565– 1572. Figure 11 shows the effect of Ca on the velocity spatial distribution at different values of Pr. B. 8. but the effect of Ca on the channel behavior remains insignificant over the entire range of KR.

1987. R. pp. M.... Kawamura. Vafai (ed. 23.. Experimental results for natural convection in vertical enclosures partly filled with a porous media.. 9–32. 1999. 12. no. E. pp.. 179–189. pp. J. W.. A. Res. The Lagging Behavior. S. vol. and Arinc. pp.. S.. Tel Aviv. On the thermal instability of superposed porous and fluid layers. 1331– 1342. 1986. T. 1995. Int.. 1989. 3. and Sathe. T.. 173–192.. Heat Fluid Flow. and Darabseh. pp. 1987. Philadelphia. New York.. A. F. Q. 38. Heat and mass transfer in partial enclosures. T. 1986. Beckermann. 1996. 1982. U. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in Porous Media. J. Thermal stability of horizontally superposed porous and fluid layers. 2000. and Narusawa. Kuznetsov. T. A. M. B. Kulacki. pp. S. Int. Mech. 29. Heat Transfer.. M. J. J. 1988. Kuznetsov. 269–272. Chen. Heat Transfer. H. Israel. W. Analytical studies of forced convection in partly porous configurations. Orangi. Natural convection in rectangular enclosures partially filled with a porous medium.70 Al-Nimr. F.. J. Int. M. 253–259. O. 1. The Netherlands. and Sarkar.. Proc. Heat Mass Transfer. A. Macro to Microscale Heat Transfer. and Haddad. 60. C. Nishimaura. S. Heat Transfer. Heat Fluid Flow. 363–370. 1997. vol. Fluid Mech. 403–409. pp. K. 104. 269–312. no. Heat Transfer Conf. A. 9th Int. J. vol. Kluwer. 1987. Al-Nimr. ASME HTD-Vol.. Tong. Tong. W. and Tian. 1998. vol. and Viskanta. pp. T. 1972.. J. J. and Ozoe. Onset of finger convection in horizontal porous layer underlying a fluid layer. F. D. Int. Dordrecht. Prasad. Heat Transfer. and Subramanian. M. in Handbook of Porous Media. The limitations of the Brinkman–Forchheimer equation in modeling flow in a saturated porous medium and at an interface. vol. vol. 39. Y. Thermal instability in a horizontal fluid layer superposed on a heat generating porous bed. and Masoud. F. V. Natural convection flow and heat transfer between a fluid layer and a porous layer inside a rectangular enclosure. and Catton. 7. D. D. A. 83–99..). 111... M. T. Porous Media. Taylor & Francis. S. Int. Fluid Dynam. Appl... 3–10. 1997. 110.. 153–160. C. vol. pp. 1990. V. J. and Chen. Kilkis. Marcel Dekker. 1991.. pp. 357–362. Heat Mass Transfer. vol. Tzou. Takumi. Taslim. Unsteady free convection flow over a vertical flat plate immersed in a porous medium. Chang. Slow flow through stationary random beds and suspension of spheres. S. vol. An experimental study of thermal convection in fluid-superposed porous layers heated from below... Ramadhyani. 56. Y.. B. no. 2. Nield.. Vafai. pp. vol. M. Flow. 2. V. Al-Nimr. vol. J.. S. J. 1–12. vol. Kakac. Mixed convection in a vertical parallel-plate channel partially filled with porous media of high permeability. vol. Fully developed free convection in open-ended vertical channels partially filled with porous material. 2. Numerical analysis of natural convection in a rectangular enclosure horizontally divided into fluid and porous region.. Turbulence and Combustion. K. vol. 109. 1991. pp. pp. and Chang. M. Fully developed free convection in open-ended vertical concentric porous annuli.. I. C. Numer. pp. Heat Mass Transfer. Faruque. 1. . 273–299.. Somerton. 1998. Analytical study of fluid flow and heat transfer during forced convection in a composite channel partly filled with a Brinkman–Forchheimer porous medium. Al-Nimr. pp. 1986. E. J. Shiraishi. 85–93. Poulikakos.. 12.. 889–898. 160–165. Thermophys. 51. Eng.. Heat Transfer. vol. Khadrawi and Al-Nimr Lundgren. W. pp. pp. pp... pp. vol. Analytical solution to transient laminar fully developed free convection in open-ended vertical channel embedded in porous media.

In the case of opposing vertical flow.rnu.QFOLQHG 3RURXV /D\HU Mustapha Najjari and Sassi Ben Nasrallah* ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ Laboratoire d’Etudes des Systèmes Thermiques et Energetiques. 71−81 (2003) 1XPHULFDO 6WXG\ RI %RLOLQJ LQ DQ . Inc. employing an enthalpic method. 71 Received November 28. Monastir 5019 Tunisia E-mail: sassi.Journal of Porous Media 6(1).bennasrallah@enim. mixed convection regime can be detected when evaporated volume reaches it’s maximum value. For weak inlet velocity and high permeability.tn ABSTRACT A numerical study. of boiling in porous layer with a discrete heating and crossed by a through flow is presented. 2002 Copyright 2002 Begell House. Profile of generated volume vapor and flow structure are obtained for 0o ≤ θ ≤ 180o. Accepted April 1. Ecole Nationale d’Ingenieurs de Monastir. . It was found that boiling depends strongly on inclination angle. The effects of porous medium permeability. 2001. a critical value of θ arises corresponding to a maximum value of evaporated volume. inlet flow velocity and inclination angle are presented.

Boiling in a horizontal porous layer heated on the bottom and cooled by a forced liquid flow was studied by Wang (1997) and by Peterson and Chang (1997). 1994a. where the authors presented linear stability diagrams for boiling in a square cavity with free convection. the enthalpic method is not convenient. (1976. Wang and co-workers (Wang and Beckermann. The .and two-phase zones. 1993. in rectangular or cylindrical geometries. Torrance et al. have been published during the last decades. Udell (1985) obtained theoretical and experimental results for boiling in a rectangular cavity filled with porous medium and heated on one of the wall sides.72 Najjari and Ben Nasrallah NOMENCLATURE c D ex ev g h hfg H j J(s) k kr keff l L p pc qw s t T u x.. 1990a. 1990a. 1994b.. N/m σ Subscripts eff in irr k l s sat v 0 effective inlet irreducible kinetic liquid phase solid phase saturated state vapor phase initial Superscripts 0 reference INTRODUCTION Analysis of boiling in porous media is motivated by applications related to drying process. If the gaseous phase is composed of the vapor of the liquid and another gas. 1990b).. to high quality insulation of bildings. Numerical and experimental studies dealing with this problem. to heat transfer from buried nuclear wastes in geologic repositories. to post-accident boiling of fluids in nuclear reactor debris. The experimental apparatus allows variable orientation with respect to gravity. This study was extended to the case of boiling (Ramesh and Torrance. 1999) when studying drying with superheated steam. etc. Such a problem was resolved by Topin and co-workers (Rahli et al. 1990b) examined the case of a saturated porous bed heated from below and cooled from above. y specific heat capacity (J/kg K–1) capillary diffusion coefficient (m2/s) unit vector for the x coordinate evaporated volume fraction gravitational acceleration (m/s–2) enthalpy (J/kg) latent heat of liquid-vapor phase change (J/kg) volumetric enthalpy (J/m–3) diffusive mass flux (kg/m2⋅s) capillary pressure function absolute permeability (m2) relative permeability effective thermal conductivity (W/m⋅K) porous layer width (m) porous layer length (m) pressure (Pa) capillary pressure (Pa) heat flux density (W/m2) liquid saturation time (s) temperature (K) Darcian velocity vector (m/s) longitudinal and transversal coordinates Greek symbols thermal expansion coefficient (K–1) β convection correction factor γ diffusion coefficient (kg/m⋅s) Γ porosity of the porous medium ε dynamic viscosity (kg/m⋅s) µ kinematic viscosity (m2/s) ν density (kg/m3) ρ surface tension. Wang. Topin et al. Wang et al. 1996. Critical values of heat flux for which free convection appears were calculated for different boundary conditions and permeability values. 1997) proposed an enthalpic method (two-phase mixture model) to remove difficulties in numerical analysis of boiling in porous media related to the presence of moving and irregular interfaces between the single. Two-dimensional numerical calculations were reported by Ribando and Torrance (1976).

1994a. Wang et al. uv ρ u = ρl u l + ρv u v ρ = ρl s + ρv (1 − s) → → → (2) (3) liquid and vapor phases. Peterson and Chang (1997) found that with a high-conductivity porous-channel. s is the liquid saturation denoting the ratio of liquid volume and the void-space volume in a representative elementary volume. derived from the two-phase mixture model (Wang and Beckermann. * Heat transfer by radiation is neglected. Results concerning the effect of inclination on flow and heat and mass transfer are presented and analyzed. where the void space in the porous medium is filled by a mixture of liquid and vapor phases. are * Local thermal equilibrium: Tl = Tv = Ts = T. * Individual phase velocity is given by Darcy’s law. With these assumptions. 1997. forced-convection. The layer walls are impervious and inclined to the gravity direction at an angle θ. A porous layer with a discrete heating source on one side is initially saturated by liquid injected with inlet velocity uin and at inlet temperature T0. basic assumptions employed. given by ρl. we consider in this note the influence of porous layer inclination. Najjari and Ben Nasrallah. → and → are the densities and the velocities of ul. the porous medium consists of two regions: (1) a saturated liquid region where T < Tsat. Comparatively few works deal with boiling in porous media with mixed convection. 73 * The Boussinesq approximations are available. Saturated and nonsaturated zones are separated by a vaporization front. buoyancy. Wang. * The liquid-gas-solid zone is isothermal and is at 100oC. The evaporated volume fraction of liquid is then obtained as: ev = 1 L . The mathematical formulation is based on the twophase mixture model and takes into account. 1.Numerical Study of Boiling in Inclined Porous Layer imposed heat flux chosen by Wang (1997) is high enough that a dry zone occurs. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION The geometric configuration and the coordinate system are illustrated in Fig. In this study.. The density of heat flux qw is constant and high enough that the temperature of the liquid can reach the boiling temperature Tsat and thus a two-phase zone (nonsaturated zone) can occur. and capillary effects. the macroscopic governing equations. heat exchange is enhanced. are Continuity Equation for the Two-Phase Mixture where ρ and → are the density and velocity of the mixu ε → ∂ρ + div ρ u = 0 ∂t (1) ture. and (2) a nonsaturated zone (T = Tsat). simultaneously. 2002) and valid in all regions.l 0< y < l 0< x < L ∫∫ (1 − s) dx dy Momentum Equation for the Two-Phase Mixture → → k → u = − (grad p − ρk g ) µ (4) where ρk = ρl [1 − βl (T − T0 )]λl + ρv [1 − βv (T − Tsat )]λ v µ= [ρl s + ρv (1 − s)] krl / νl + krv / νv . 1993. 2002) for a wide range of intrinsic porous medium permeabilities and inlet liquid velocities. The set of equations is solved numerically by the finite-volume method. As a continuing effort toward a complete understanding of boiling in porous media with mixed-convection effects. After vaporization starts in the heated zone. Good agreement was found between numerical results predicted by mathematical formulation based on a two-phase mixture model and experimental observations. Numerical investigations using the enthalpic method to examine boiling effects on descending mixed-convection flow through a porous layer with a finite wall heat source have been conducted by the present authors (Najjari and Ben Nasrallah. ρv.

cs. µ is the viscosity of the mixture. krl and krv are the relative permeabilities of the liquid and vapor. liquid. γh. and cv are the s l specific heats of the solid. Γh/ρ.74 Najjari and Ben Nasrallah x=0 y=0 impervious adiabatic qw u=uin T=To x1 x2 y=l g θ impervious isotherm T=T0 y x x u= uin impervious adiabatic x= L Figure 1. and f(s) are given by Energy Equation A unified form of the energy conservation equations for solid. ν= µ ρ νl = µl ρl λl = ν krl νl (5) where H = ρ(h − 2hvsat) and ρh = ρlshl + ρv(1 − s)hv Here hl and hv are the enthalpies of the liquid and vapor phases. h0 and h0 are reference enthalpies. and vapor phases. cl. liquid.grad + div ρ k g = 0 ∂t ν ν ν ε (6) where Tsat is the temperature of phase change. By replacing → with its expression in (1). and vapor phases is given by the volumetric enthalpy H equation: Ω ∂H + div (γh → u H) ∂t (7) Ω = ε + ρ s cs (1 − ε) dT dH γh = [ sρl + ρv (1 − s )][hvsat (1 + λl ) − hlsat λl ] (2 hvsat − hlsat ) sρl + ρv (1 − s)hvsat Γh → k∆ρhfg → = div grad H + div f(s) g νv ρ ρl h fg Γh dT D + keff = dH ρ ρl h fg + (ρl − ρv ) hvsat . they are related to temperature by the relations hs = csT + h0 s hl = clT + h0 l hv = cvT + [(cl − cv)Tsat + hfg] + h0 l (8) (9) (10) → → → grad p = λl grad pl + (1 − λl) grad pv Here βl and βv are the thermal coefficients of expansion. Schematic diagram of physical problem. and hvsat = (hv)T=Tsat. The coefficients Ω. we obtain the u pressure equation: → → ∂ρ k 2 k → k + ∇ p − grad p. and p is the mixture pressure. pl and pv are the values of pressure in the liquid and vapor. µl and µv are the viscosities of the liquid and vapor. hfg is the latent heat of vaporization.

(4).120(l − s)2 + 1. can be evaluated as a function of porosity and particle diameter d by the Kozeney–Carman equation (Monicard. (6). = dH ρv cv In the two-phase zone (−ρl(2hvsat − hlsat) < H ≤ −ρv hvsat) < k= d2 ε3 180 (1 − ε)2 The relative permeabilities of the liquid and vapor phases are chosen as a linear function of saturation: krl = s krv = (l − s) These expressions are simplified forms of relative permeabilities. dH ρlcl * In the vapor zone 1 dT (−ρv hvsat < H). In fact. the pressure. 1997) (11) ε pc = k 1/ 2 σJ ( s ) J(s) = 1. the liquid phase (gaseous phase) will be discontinuous for values of saturation under (over) the irreducible saturation of the liquid phase (gaseous phase). and (7) gives the values of volumetric enthalpy H. the relative permeabilities become null: * dT = 0 dH The velocities of individual phases can be also calculated as follows: → → → ρl u l = λl ρ u + j and (13) krl = 0 krv = 0 s < slirr s > svirr ρv u v = (1 − λ l )ρ u − j → → → (14) Numerical resolution of Eqs. k. 1975): 1 H + ρv hvsat s = − ρl h fg + (ρl − ρv ) hvsat 0 H ≤ −ρl (2 hvsat − hlsat ) − ρl (2 hvsat − hlsat ) < H ≤ −ρv hvsat − ρv hvsat < H (12) Then the expression of dT/dH is different in each zone: * In the liquid zone dT 1 = (H ≤ −ρl (2hvsat − hlsat)). and the velocity for the mixture. In these conditions.263(1 − s)3 The intrinsic permeability of the porous medium.417(l − s) − 2.Numerical Study of Boiling in Inclined Porous Layer 75 H + 2 ρl hvsat ρl cl T = Tsat H + ρv hvsat Tsat + ρ c v v D= krl krv εk σ − J ' ( s) µl ( νv / νl ) krl + krv H ≤ −ρl (2 hvsat − hlsat ) − ρl (2 hvsat − hlsat ) < H ≤ −ρv hvsat − ρv hvsat < H f (s) = krl krv / νl krl / νl + krv / νv ∆ρ = ρl − ρv Capillary pressure pc(s) is represented by the Leverett function (Wang. The temperature and liquid saturation can be deduced from the volumetric enthalpy H by (11) and (12): → where j is a mass diffusion flux: → j = −ρl D grad s + f ( s ) → k ∆ρ → g νv (15) Initial and boundary conditions are expressed as follows: .

we can observe in Fig.1 m × 1 m) are listed in Table 1. and kept at a constant temperature T0: H = H0 = ρl(clT0 − 2hvsat) Najjari and Ben Nasrallah ∂p = −ρlg sin θ ∂y H = H0 = ρl(clT0 − 2hvsat). flow induced by buoyancy forces opposes forced flow. K–1 5. unicellular flow is observed (Fig.55⋅103 βv. The cells are located near the heat source.1 m.598 4. However. kg/m3 µl. kg/m⋅s 0. As shown in Figs. kg/m3 2.257⋅106 ρl. N/m 0.645⋅103 ρv. for θ = 180o. 2002). To validate our code. µ ∂p = − l uin + ρl g cos θ k ∂x →= u ⋅e → u m x At the outlet (x = L). In vertical positions (θ = 0o and θ = 180o). 1994a) σ. characteristics of flow and heat and mass transfer are affected by inclination angle of porous layer. However. The density heat flux qw is constant. If θ exceeds a certain value. Initial temperature T0 and inlet temperature for the liquid are equal to 293 K. cells are deflected toward the cold wall. saturated with liquid. in the zone adjacent to the heated surface. the porous medium is saturated with liquid at constant and uniform velocity uin. comparisons with existing results have showed good agreement (Najjari and Ben Nasrallah. 2002). the buoyancy force in the transverse direction (y direction) increases and reaches its maximum value at θ = 90o. kg/m⋅s µv.9 ρs. in thermally developed conditions and at constant and uniform velocity uin (in all cases studied. The set of equations (4). and kept at constant temperature T0: Table 1 Thermophysical property data for a water–steam–glass bead system (Wang et al. the buoyancy force in the longitudinal direction (x direction) decreases and recirculating flow is reduced. J/kg⋅K 8. ascending forced flow assists buoyancy-induced flow near the heated wall.178⋅103 cs. 2 and 3.79⋅102 cv. except for the heated segment between x1 and x2 : ∂p = −ρl g sin θ ∂y − k ∆ρ h fg Γ h ∂H g sin θ = qw + f ( s) ρ ∂y νv for x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 − k ∆ρ h fg Γ h ∂H g sin θ = 0 + f (s ) ρ ∂y νv for x < x1 and x > x2 The face (y = l) is impervious. the porous medium is saturated with liquid.059 keff. W/m⋅K 0. kg/m3 957. At t = 0. e x → The face (y = 0) is impervious and adiabatic.85 cl. If θ increases from 0o. The heat source length is 0. K–1 3⋅10–3 βl. J/kg⋅K 4. In this case.473⋅10–4 1. For θ = 0o. the volume expansion with time due to vapor generation in the transient regime is negligible compared to the inlet mass flow rate): ∂H =0 ∂x µ ∂p = − l uin + ρl g cos θ k ∂x → u = uin .. (6). and (7) is numerically solved by the finite-volume method (Najjari and Ben Nasrallah. 2). the porous medium is at constant temperature T0 and the liquid velocity is uniform: u ex H = H0 = ρl(clT0 − 2hvsat) →= uin→ RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Thermophysical properties of the porous medium (0.23⋅10–4 ε hfg J/kg 2.35 0.2⋅10–5 . The sizes of recirculating cells are smaller than those in unicellular flow. 2 bicellular flow where two recirculating cells are located at the edges of heated surface.76 At the inlet (x = 0). J/kg⋅K 1.

When θ approaches 90o. the heated zone becomes nearly symmetric and trapped near the heat source. The effects of inclination angle on temperature field are illustrated in Fig. the flow due to the pair of counter recirculating cells is aided by forced flow at the center of the heated segment and then the boiling interface is moved considerably toward the cooled wall (Fig. 3. uin = 4. with k = 7⋅10–11 m2.Numerical Study of Boiling in Inclined Porous Layer 77 θ=0° θ=30° θ=60° θ=90° θ=120° θ=150° θ=180° Figure 2. θ = 90o). For inclined and vertical layers.24⋅10–6 m/s and qw = 3000 W/m2. the heated zone is more extended and is stretched toward the inlet for opposing flow and toward the outlet for assisting flow. for horizontal layers. 3. The contours are closely related to the flow structure represented by streamlines. at various inclination angles. . Then. Streamlines for the liquid phase.

Consequently. By increasing θ from this value the volume of vapor will decrease. recirculating flow is reduced. We can notice in Fig. the buoyancy force magnitude becomes smaller. the volume of vapor is first increased with θ (Fig.78 Najjari and Ben Nasrallah θ=0° θ=30° θ=60° θ=90° θ=120° θ=150° θ=180° Figure 3.24⋅10–6 m/s and qw = 3000 W/m2. 4). 4 the existence of a critical inclination angle θm depending on the values of inlet ve- locity and permeability which correspond to a maximum value of the vapor volume. When the porous layer is inclined from θ = 0o. If θ is greater than θm (θm = 26o). In Fig. Temperature fields for various inclination angles with k = 7⋅10–11 m2. uin = 4. 5) and exerts a cooling effect . 5 we can see that inlet velocity vectors near the heated wall advance more and more toward the two-phase zone when θ is increased. forced flow contacts the two-phase zone directly (Fig. and evacuated heat from the heat source is diminished. for high permeability or low inlet velocity.

. Liquid velocity vectors for various inclination angles with k = 7⋅10–11 m2. Volume vapor fraction for various inclination angles at different values of inlet velocity uin and absolute permeability k.Numerical Study of Boiling in Inclined Porous Layer 79 Figure 4. Figure 5. qw = 3000 W/m2. uin = 4.24⋅ 10–6 m/s and qw = 3000 W/m2.

Int. evacuated heat from the two-phase zone by forced flow is enhanced and then evaporated volume is reduced. 1988. 913–925. Heat Transfer A. Forced flow overrides recirculating flow and contacts the heat source directly. pp. Numer. Heat Mass Transfer. and Ben Nasrallah. pp. Longitudinal component of liquid velocity at the first attachment point (point A) of vaporization interface. the longitudinal component of liquid velocity at the attachment point A is positive for all values of θ. Peterson. Thermal Sci. S. no.24 e-6 m. Heat transfer analysis and evaluation for two-phase flow in porous-channel heat sinks.12⋅10–6 m/s because forced flow still opposes recirculating flow at small values of θ (Fig. Ramesh. and Torrance. Societe des Editions Techniques. 1049–1061. pp. 41. its maximum value is reached for θ = 0o.. K. and becomes positive for θ ≥ θm.. point A). Int. Heat Mass Transfer. REFERENCES Lai. 1975. Tadrist. 1997. 39. S. 6. Paris. and Torrance. P. L.s-1 -2E-5 0 40 θ (°) 80 120 160 Figure 6.s-1 k=10 e-11 m². J.. pp.40 e-6 m. 5...24 e-6 m. 6). M. Aiding and opposing mixed convection in a vertical porous layer with a finite wall heat source. K. . and Kulacki. V. 31. pp. F. If θ continues to increase. E. and Chang. uin= 4. S.24 e-6 m. Numerical algorithm for problems involving boiling and natural convection in porous materials. C. uin= 4. and Pantaloni. no. 1895–1908. Heat Mass Transfer. Rahli.. J. vol. 17. Analysis of heat transfer with liquid-vapor phase change in a forced-flow fluid moving through porous media. the peak becomes much smaller and is displaced toward low values of θ. 1996. on the heated zone. Stability of boiling in porous media. Topin.. uin= 10. E. S. 1990b.vol. vol. G. for various inclination angles and different values of inlet. 1990a. J. 3959–3975. Thus evaporated volume decays with inclination (Fig. and no peak is observed. 9. For small values of k or large values of uin... O. P. Etude de l’ebullition en convection mixte dans une couche poreuse verticale. F. Heat Transfer B.. vol. Ramesh. Int. 18. Numer. vol. meaning that the two components of buoyancy forces are negligible. uin= 4. At intermediate values of uin. A.s-1 k=7 e-11 m². J. increases with θ. Int. Caracteristiques des roches reservoirs — Analyse ′ ′ ′ des carottes. 33. 113–130. vol. similar behavior is demonstrated by the curve of evaporated volume as compared to the case of uin = 2. F. uin= 42.s-1 k=7 e-11 m².. J. P. 4).. Monicard. ′ ′ Najjari. no.s-1 k= 3 e-11 m². 2002. 31. This inversion in the evaporated volume curve can be best demonstrated by studying the variation with θ of the longitudinal velocity component at the first attachment point between the vaporization interface and the heated wall (Fig.-C. 1–24. Prasad. However..80 Najjari and Ben Nasrallah Longitudinal 4E-5 component of liquid at point A 2E-5 A 0E+0 k= 1 e-11 m². This component is negative for small values of θ. R. pp. The influence of inclination angle disappears gradually for high values of θ. This means that buoyancy effects are not important.60 e-6 m.

36. S. Numerical study of boiling and natural convection in capillary porous media using the two-phase mixture model. Heat Transfer. and Beckermann. Heat transfer in porous media considering phase change and capillarity-the heat pipe effect. C. Brighton. Numer. 1999. Y. and Fan. 3. and Torrance. 375–398. 2... 31. K. and Fan. Beckermann. variable permeability... Wang. pp. pp. Numer. C. 85–105. vol. J. C. 1976. 42–48. Heat Mass Transfer.. pp. vol. C. vol. Beckermann. O. 1994a. 205–229. Y. pp. Y.. Transient natural convection and boiling in porous layer heated from below. UK. 11. Wang. pp. Int. Wang. 28. 1985.. vol. Porous Media. 2. 1994b. C. A fixed-grid numerical algorithm for two-phase flow and heat transfer in porous media. ASME J.. Natural convection in a porous medium: Effects of confinement. Experimental and numerical analysis of drying of particles in superheated steam. 2747–2758.. Heat Transfer A. Heat Transfer Conf. .. J. 1997.. J. 1993. 26. E.. 10th Int. Topin.. 98. Heat Mass Transfer. L. no. C. Y. no. R. vol. pp. 81 Wang.Numerical Study of Boiling in Inclined Porous Layer Ribando. vol. and thermal boundary conditions. Heat Transfer B. J. K. A two-phase mixture model of liquid-gas flow and heat transfer in capillary porous mediaI: Formulation. 485–495. no. C.. F. and Tadrist. C. C. Udell. Rahli. Int.

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