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DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ( SVNIT CAMPUS) FOR REVISED DEMAND

2011-2012

Submitted by
ANSHUK GARG RAJWANSH SINGH RAVI TEJA TAMMU TULSIRAM AVINASH KUMAR SACHIN GAUTAM U08CE069 U08CE047 U08CE056 U08CE044 U08CE067 U08CE006

Guided by
Dr. P.L.PATEL Professor

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


SARDAR VALLABHBHAI NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SURAT- 395007

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify the following students of B. Tech -IV sem. 7th have satisfactorily completed their project preliminary report on Design of Water Distribution System (SVNIT CAMPUS) for Revised Demand during academic year 2011 2012.
ANSHUK GARG RAJWANSH SINGH RAVI TEJA TAMMU TULSIRAM AVINASH KUMAR SACHIN GAUTAM U08CE069 U08CE047 U08CE056 U08CE044 U08CE067 U08CE006

Signature of Guide

Signature of Head of Department

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


SARDAR VALLABHBHAI NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SURAT- 395007

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We take great opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to Dr.P.L.Patel in Civil Engineering department, S.V.N.I.T, Surat for his valuable guidance, useful comments and co-operation with kind and encouraging attitude at all stages of the experimental work for the successful completion of this work. We would like to thank Dr. P.V.Timbadiya and Viraj Sir for their help with the softwares and guidance in the Hydrology Lab. We would also like to thank our head of department Dr. J.N. Patel. We are thankful to S.V.N.I.T, Surat and its staff for providing us this opportunity which helped in gaining knowledge and to make this Project report successful endeavour.

Thank You

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction.1

2. Networking parameters...2 3. Darcy-Weisbach equation and Newton-Raphson Method.3

4. Analysis of study area.5

5. Analysis of Capacity and Demand.6

6. Analysis of the network.7

7. Gravity network.7

8. Pressure network8

9. Software support a. LOOP 4.0...8 b. WaterGEMS...9 10. Nodes for Gravity Network...13

11. Gravity Network Layout..15

12. Pressure Network Layout.16

13. Results a. Pipe Results..17 b. Junction Results19 14. Conclusions..22

INTRODUCTION
Water is a vital element in the living system and is an important component and also a key element for the socio-economic development of a country. All living things require water for their sustenance. In fixing the living standards of the population, the availability of water to domestic needs plays an important role. With the increase in population in the sphere, the demand for water and the fight to share this resource during the period of scarcity also increases enormously. This has been true with particular reference to the recent past. In a country like India, the rainfall is seasonal and is highly erratic in nature, leading to spatial and temporal variations in the water availability. Thus, it becomes necessary for the water supply engineers to supply pure and adequate water, equally to all the consumers. For this challenging task, the design, and the analysis, of the pipe network system on optimization and other techniques have been based throughout the world.

A water distribution system is an essential infrastructure in the supply of water for domestic as well as industrial uses. It connects consumers to sources of water, using hydraulic components, such as pipes, valves, pumps and tanks. The design of such systems is a multifarious task involving numerous interrelated factors, requiring careful consideration in the design process. Important design parameters include water demand, minimum pressure requirements, topography; system reliability, economics, piping, pumping and energy use.

The primary goal of all water distribution system engineers is the delivery of water to meet the demands on quantity and pressure. Unfortunately, as a water distribution system ages, its ability to transport water diminishes and the demands placed upon it typically increase. In addition to the unsatisfactory performance of a deteriorated network, there are direct economic impacts of a failing system. Older systems have reduced the carrying capacity due to corrosion and tuberculation and are more susceptible to leaks and breaks, resulting in loss of water, requiring time and money to repair. Moreover population explosion is one of the main reasons for the increase in the demand of water for consumption and most of the networks fail to meet this demand.

Researchers have developed two principal approaches in pipe network design and analysis. One is the linear programming approach and the other one is the non-linear programming approach. The non linear optimization includes MINOs (Murtagh and Saunders 1987), GINO and GAMS. All these packages use a constrained generalized reduced gradient technique to identify a local optimum for the network problem. Constraints can be included explicitly in the model. Examples include, the continuity equations, head losses around loops or between reservoirs, minimum and maximum pressure limitations, and minimum and maximum diameters. Costs can be expressed as any non-linear function of pipe diameter and length. The limitations of the technique are as follows:

1. Since the pipe diameters are continuous variables, the optimal values will not necessarily confirm to the available pipe sizes; thus a rounding off of the final solution is required.

2. Only a local optimum is obtained.

3. There is a limitation on the number of constraints and hence the size of the network that can be handled.

The main objective of this project is to design a water distribution network for the increasing requirement in Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute Of Technology, Surat.

NETWORKING PARAMETERS For the design of network there is a need for calibration of various parameters like discharge at nodes, height requirement to acquire the desired head etc. In addition to that it also requires the capacity of various structures, the daily demand of various buildings. The following are various sequential networking parameters that are to be calibrated.

Configuration-It involves the location of sites for various elements such as elevated service reservoirs, pumps, pipes, valves, and accessories. The configuration is decided by taking into consideration the existing pattern of streets and highways, existing and planned subdivisions,

property right-of-ways, possible sites for elevated and ground service reservoirs, location and density of demand centres, and general topography.

Pipe Lengths-The pipe lengths are obtained from the known geometrical layout of the network. When nodes are connected by links consisting of pipes in series, in parallel, and in series-parallel combination, such pipes are usually replaced by equivalent pipes in network analysis.

Pipe Diameters-The pipe diameters are either known or calculated for equivalent pipes.

Pipe Roughness coefficients-The pipe roughness coefficients such as Hazen-William coefficient CHW and Mannings coefficient N are considered known and remains constant during the analysis. But Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f is a function of Reynolds number and therefore of pipe discharge, and thus must be re-evaluated when the pipe discharge changes.

Minor Appurtenances-The effect of minor appurtenances can be individually considered. However in network analysis, it is common practice to consider equivalent pipes and correspondingly increase the pipe length by 5-10% to account for the effect of minor appurtenances.

Demand Pattern-The demand fluctuate with time, days and seasons. But it is common practice to assume that demands remain constant in the analysis.

Hydraulic Gradient Levels-The hydraulic gradient levels or simply the heads are mostly unknown and obtained from the analysis.

DARCY-WEISHBACH EQUATION
In fluid dynamics, the DarcyWeisbach equation is a phenomenological equation, which relates the head loss or pressure loss due to friction along a given length of pipe to the average velocity of the fluid flow. The equation is named after Henry Darcy and Julius Weisbach. It is of two types

Pressure loss form:

Head loss form:

hf head loss due to friction L - length of pipe D- hydraulic diameter of the pipe V- average velocity of flow g- acceleration due to gravity f- dimensionless constant, darcys friction coefficient

The calibrations in many software is done by using three main hydraulic equations named DarcyWeisbach equation, Newton-Raphson method and Mannings equation.

NEWTON-RAPHSONS METHOD
In numerical analysis, Newton's method (also known as the NewtonRaphson method), named after Issac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real -valued function. The algorithm is first in the class of Householders method succeeded by Halleys method. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. Given a function defined over the real x, and its derivative f, we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is

Geometrically, (x1, 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0, f (x0)).The process is repeated as

until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root, then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus), and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess, and the method can be iterated.

ANALYSIS OF PRESENT STUDY AREA BY ZONES


Academic zone: This zone comprises of Administrative building and drawing hall, Civil engineering department, Applied mechanics department, Applied sciences and humanities department, Electronics engineering department, Electrical engineering department, Chemical engineering department, Mechanical engineering department and Production engineering department. Hostels : This includes the all places other than academic area which include Bhabha bhavan, Nehru bhavan, PG boys hostel, Raman bhavan, Gajjar bhavan, Sardar bhavan, Gandhi bhavan, New girls hostel, Kasthuriba bhavan, Sarojini bhavan, Staff quarters. Staff Quarters: Include the A ,B ,C and D type quarters. Directors Bungalow and proposed staff quarters. Other Institutional Buildings: This area includes some places like Staff club, Post office, Canteen, Student activity centre and Dispensary

ANALYSIS OF CAPACITY AND DEMAND

HOSTEL AREA

NO. OF PEOPLE 960 192 200 960 170 950 143 143 800 246 126

DEMAND

TANK CAPACITY 75000 15000 15000 75000 12000 60000 9000 9000 60000 15000 9000 80 354000

BHABHA BHAVAN TAGORE BHAVAN NEHRU BHAVAN PG BOYS HOSTEL RAMAN BHAVAN GAJJAR BHAVAN SARDAR BHAVAN GANDHI BHAVAN NEW GIRLS HOSTEL KASTURBA BHAVAN SAROJINI BHAVAN TOTAL STAFF QUARTERS A1-6 B1-16 C1-12 C13-48 D1-48 D49-72 TOTAL ACADEMIC AREA CRC CIVIL ENGG DEPT TRANSPORTATION LAB WATER RESOURCE LAB WATER RESOURCE NEW LAB WORKSHOP AMD CONCRETE LAB

52800 10560 11000 52800 9350 52250 7865 7865 44000 13530 6930 268950

30 80 60 180 240 120

4050 10800 8100 24300 32400 16200 95850

18000 21000 12000 39000 24000 12000 126000

600 300 100 100 100 200 200 100

3000 1500 500 1000 10000 1000 1000 2000

6000 9000 3000 6000 15000 3000 6000 6000

PRODUCTION DEPT SEMINAR HALL APPLIED SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES CCC COMPUTER DEPT ADMINISTRTIVE BUILDING ELECTRICAL DEPT ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS LAB ELECTRONICS DEPT CHEMICAL DEPT ESTATE BUILDING GENERATOR ROOM LIBRARY MECHANICAL DEPT FLUID MECHANICS LAB IC ENGINES LAB BOILER LAB CAD LAB TOTAL AREA OTHER AREA STAFF CLUB BANK POST OFFICE CANTEEN SAC DISPENSARY TOTAL TOTAL CAPACITY

100 150 300 200 200 200 200 100 300 200 50 100 200 400 100 100 100 100

500 750 1500 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 1500 1000 400 2000 1000 2000 2000 500 5000 500 43150

3000 3000 6000 3000 6000 15000 9000 3000 3000 6000 9000 6000 6000 6000 6000 3000 3000 6000 156000

100 200 200 500 2000 100

1500 1000 1000 4000 1000 500 9000 416950

3000 6000 6000 6000 6000 3000 30000 666000

ANALYSIS OF NETWORK
After calculating the demand we need to design a pipe network. The pipe network can be divided in two ways 1. Gravity network 2. Pumping network There is a need to know which type of network has to adopted for our requirement, the network methods are clearly explained in the next section. In order to prepare the design the co-ordinates for all nodes have to be analysed, the table under shows the co-ordinates of various nodes. GRAVITY NETWORK In this network, the pressure required for the water to serve our needs is provided by the gravity head(acquired during storage in over head tank). There is no requirement of any pumping system to be arranged at the target regions to pump the water to the over head tanks of buildings. It is simple to design this kind of network where the additional requirement of power to pump the water into overhead tank is not required. In the present study area there is no need of providing any pumps provided the target building is less than 2 storey. The water head available at consumer door is just a minimum quantity, the remaining head is consumed in frictional and other losses. PUMPING NETWORK The distribution system here includes distribution of water by using pumps. There is a power required to pump the water , here there is a additional charge for maitainance of these pumping systems. This system is adopted when the gravity head provided by the main tank is not sufficient for the water to get stored in the over head tanks of the targets. In the present study area, if the building is more than 2 storey this system is adopted. This system supports the given network by providing the required head by mechanical means. SOFTWARE SUPPORT The software used in designing the water distribution system is LOOP 4.0 and WaterGEMS. There are many other software for these purposes. LOOP 4.0:

It is developed and distributed under the joint efforts of UNDP/World Bank. It is user friendly software. Loop has been programmed in Microsoft quick basic 1.5. It could be used for the design of new, partially and fully existing gravity as well as pumped water distribution system. It allows for reservoirs(both with fixed head and variable head), valves(pressure reducing as well as check valves) and online booster pump. General Information sheet-wise: Sheet-1: Number of nodes Number of pipes Number of common diameter having pipes Peak design factor Type of formula Units of various pipe parameters

Sheet-2: Pipe to and fro length Diameter Hazens pipe Node number Material.

Sheet-3: Sheet-4: Node number Peak flow factor Elevation Minimum pressure Maximum pressure.

Number of fixtures: Number of nodes with fixed HGL Number of nodes with variable HGL Number of booster pumps Number of pressure reducing valves Number of check valves

Sheet-5: Internal diameter of pipe Hazens constant Cost per metre Allowable pressure

Sheet-6: Design Information: Newton-Raphson stopping criterion Minimum Pressure Maximum Pressure Design hydraulic gradient in km Simulate or Design

WaterGEMS: It can simulate Fires, pipe breaks, energy costs, power outrages, tank out of service, shutdown for rehab or connection, unusual demands, use your imagination. It u8ses the water use patterns, demand patterns, time scales, system-wide temporal water use to calibrate the results.

Simulation process:

Data entry

Initial conditions

First time step

Solve network

yes results

Last step ? no

Check controls

Controls: Operational controls: Property of a controlled element Limited to a single condition/action

Logical(rule based) controls: Kept with logical alternatives Complex conditions/action

Operational rules: Must tell mode how pumps and valves operate Status(digital): o Pipe: open or closed o Pumps: on or off o Valves: active, inactive, closed

Setting(analog): o Pumps: relative speed factor o Valves: pressure, flow or head loss coefficient

Logical controls: Controls made up of conditions and actions If(condition is true) Then(action) Else(action) If(flow at p-17 >200) then (pmp-1=on) else(pmp-1=off)

Conditions: Element ( hgl at j11>145 ) Time from start ( t>= 7 ) Clock time ( clock time < 7:00 am ) System demand(demand > 500)

Composite conditions and actions: Setting


Define conditions and actions

Flow>200 and clock time>3: 00 pm Pmp-1=off and p-11=open Each action and condition has label If(cc01 and cc02) then(aa02 and aa05) Can find references foe each action or condition logical
Create controls Create control sets Specify control set

controls:

Reporting time step(calc option) Saves results for all steps(default) Can save only at constant increment

Can save at variable increments o Can skip range of time steps o Can save at constant or all time steps in some range

Results file path: Results saved with .mdb by default May want to save results files elsewhere Can specify alternative path Some result files o .out main results file o .nrg energy cost results

GRAVITY NETWORK DESIGNED USING WaterGEMS:

Fig 1

Fig 2

NODES FOR GRAVITY NETWORK


NODE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 X 1594 1575 1640 1618 1627 1612 1606 1693 1676 1682 1668 1668 1748 1738 1732 1740 1729 1723 1705 1696 1697 1686 1700 1683 1666 1692 1670 1685 1660 1675 1521 1581 1564 1592 1581 1596 1636 1650 1637 1652 1626 1437 1477 1538 1525 1462 1435 Y 813 819 862 881 884 877 906 889 906 911 905 924 924 940 938 943 963 961 1030 1033 1056 1052 1060 1097 1091 1100 1119 1126 1172 1178 935 965 994 942 940 943 997 972 966 974 1014 1127 1136 805 823 777 831 Z 7.773 7.819 7.609 8.059 8.059 8.059 7.508 7.616 7.981 7.981 7.981 7.568 7.615 7.752 7.752 7.752 7.759 7.759 7.557 7.557 7.349 7.349 7.561 7.349 7.351 7.176 7.13 6.937 6.742 6.742 8.095 7.653 7.612 7.867 7.867 7.867 7.605 7.463 7.463 7.463 7.288 6.896 6.75 7.877 7.895 7.892 7.72

48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97

1395 1391 1393 1457 1374 1363 1338 1373 1320 1359 1314 1298 1333 1336 1285 1274 1252 1245 1244 1217 1268 1255 1249 1207 1220 1225 1168 1173 1144 1109 1100 1131 1077 1113 1409 1356 1336 1314 1280 1236 1243 1349 1321 1283 1298 1325 1389 1422 1301 1318

808 900 875 894 934 954 954 971 989 1011 1063 1052 1065 886 959 953 1025 1015 1019 1006 855 873 845 854 834 815 800 788 786 776 855 871 702 915 741 818 806 795 777 755 744 794 780 767 804 821 725 666 678 622

7.446 7.689 7.682 8.13 7.819 7.561 7.737 7.676 7.825 7.205 7.687 7.505 7.687 7.38 7.77 7.77 7.786 7.484 7.484 7.342 7.207 7.554 7.743 7.927 7.337 7.406 7.327 7.484 7.849 8.11 7.802 7.105 7.812 7.14 7.183 7.673 7.491 7.647 7.563 7.357 7.273 7.704 7.718 7.563 7.689 8.168 6.944 6.946 7.529 7.341

PRESSURE NETWORK USING WaterGEMS :

Fig3

PIPE RESULTS:
Label P-1 P-2 P-3 P-4 P-5 P-6 P-7 P-8 P-9 P-10 P-11 P-12 P-13 P-14 P-15 P-16 P-17 P-18 P-19 P-20 P-21 P-22 P-23 P-24 P-25 P-26 P-27 P-28 P-29 P-30 P-31 P-32 P-33 P-34 P-35 P-36 P-37 P-38 P-39 Length (m) 19.92 77.94 29.07 27.73 9.49 7.21 59.48 24.04 7.81 8.06 19.7 65.19 18.87 6.32 3.61 24.7 6.32 71.17 9.49 27.2 11.7 5 43.32 18.03 9.49 25.55 16.55 53.94 16.16 127.95 67.08 33.62 25.5 11.18 4.12 63.63 28.65 14.32 2.83 Start Node J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 J-4 J-4 J-3 J-8 J-9 J-9 J-9 J-8 J-13 J-14 J-14 J-14 J-17 J-17 J-19 J-19 J-21 J-21 J-21 J-24 J-24 J-24 J-27 J-27 J-29 J-2 J-31 J-32 J-32 J-34 J-34 J-32 J-37 J-38 J-38 Stop Node J-2 J-3 J-4 J-7 J-5 J-6 J-8 J-9 J-10 J-11 J-12 J-13 J-14 J-15 J-16 J-17 J-18 J-19 J-20 J-21 J-22 J-23 J-24 J-25 J-26 J-27 J-28 J-29 J-30 J-31 J-32 J-33 J-34 J-35 J-36 J-37 J-38 J-39 J-40 Diameter (mm) 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 Flow (L/day) 144549 73118 16400 5600 5400 5400 56718 16800 5600 5600 5600 39918 39918 4628 4628 30662 4628 26034 1350 24684 1350 4628 18706 1350 4628 12728 8100 4628 4628 14800 13800 1500 5400 2700 2700 6900 5400 2700 2700 Velocity (m/s) 0.0917 0.0464 0.0104 0.0036 0.0034 0.0034 0.036 0.0107 0.0036 0.0036 0.0036 0.0253 0.0253 0.0029 0.0029 0.0195 0.0029 0.0165 0.0009 0.0157 0.0009 0.0029 0.0119 0.0009 0.0029 0.0081 0.0051 0.0029 0.0029 0.0094 0.0088 0.001 0.0034 0.0017 0.0017 0.0044 0.0034 0.0017 0.0017

P-40 P-42 P-43 P-44 P-45 P-46 P-48 P-49 P-50 P-51 P-52 P-53 P-54 P-55 P-56 P-57 P-58 P-59 P-61 P-62 P-63 P-64 P-65 P-66 P-67 P-68 P-69 P-70 P-71 P-72 P-73 P-74 P-75 P-76 P-77 P-78 P-79 P-80 P-81 P-82 P-83 P-84 P-85

19.72 209.57 41 39.56 11.8 80.99 60.37 46.14 51.88 14.56 49.04 43.08 42.44 22.56 15.56 58.52 20.17 67.12 19.1 66.65 89.05 12.53 73.79 16.73 6.28 23.1 74.73 21.08 26.93 26.08 25.5 19.65 62.13 13 27.78 36.4 81.84 34.89 53.16 29.41 64.07 93.48 23.32

J-37 J-31 J-42 J-2 J-44 J-44 J-46 J-47 J-47 J-49 J-49 J-49 J-52 J-53 J-53 J-53 J-56 J-56 J-58 J-52 J-61 J-62 J-62 J-64 J-65 J-65 J-61 J-68 J-68 J-70 J-70 J-72 J-72 J-74 J-74 J-76 J-76 J-78 J-78 J-80 J-46 J-82 J-83

J-41 J-42 J-43 J-44 J-45 J-46 J-47 J-48 J-49 J-50 J-51 J-52 J-53 J-54 J-55 J-56 J-57 J-58 J-60 J-61 J-62 J-63 J-64 J-65 J-66 J-67 J-68 J-69 J-70 J-71 J-72 J-73 J-74 J-75 J-76 J-77 J-78 J-79 J-80 J-81 J-82 J-83 J-84

152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4

1500 1000 1000 56631 4000 52631 22703 2000 20703 1000 0 19703 5500 1500 0 4000 1000 3000 3000 14203 12500 2000 10500 10500 500 10000 1703 1000 703 1000 -297 1000 -1297 1000 -2297 400 1000 0 1000 0 29927 10300 10300

0.001 0.0006 0.0006 0.0359 0.0025 0.0334 0.0144 0.0013 0.0131 0.0006 0 0.0125 0.0035 0.001 0 0.0025 0.0006 0.0019 0.0019 0.009 0.0079 0.0013 0.0067 0.0067 0.0003 0.0063 0.0011 0.0006 0.0004 0.0006 0.0002 0.0006 0.0008 0.0006 0.0015 0.0003 0.0006 0 0.0006 0 0.019 0.0065 0.0065

P-86 P-87 P-88 P-89 P-90 P-91 P-92 P-93 P-94 P-95 P-96 P-97 P-98 P-99 P-100 P-101 P-102 P-103 P-104

24.6 38.47 49.19 13.04 13.46 16.55 11.51 13.1 13.98 25.61 67.6 99.76 58.52 81.39 81.27 29.15 26 18.19 85.87

J-84 J-85 J-86 J-87 J-84 J-85 J-86 J-85 J-84 J-82 J-94 J-94 J-96 J-96 J-98 J-99 J-99 J-1 J-99

J-85 J-86 J-87 J-88 J-89 J-90 J-91 J-92 J-93 J-94 J-95 J-96 J-97 J-98 J-99 J-100 J-101 T-1 J-76

152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4 152.4

7800 5300 300 300 2000 500 5000 2000 500 19627 7865 11762 7865 3897 3897 200 0 -144549 3697

0.0049 0.0034 0.0002 0.0002 0.0013 0.0003 0.0032 0.0013 0.0003 0.0125 0.005 0.0075 0.005 0.0025 0.0025 0.0001 0 0.0917 0.0023

JUNCTION RESULTS :
Label J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 J-5 J-6 J-7 J-8 J-9 J-10 J-11 J-12 J-13 J-14 J-15 J-16 J-17 J-18 J-19 Elevation (m) 7.7 7.82 7.6 8.05 8.05 8.05 7.5 7.61 7.99 7.98 7.98 7.56 7.61 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.55 Zone <None> <None> <None> <None> c type c type c type <None> <None> c type c type c type <None> <None> D-Type Staff Quarters D-Type Staff Quarters <None> D-Type Staff Quarters <None> Demand (L/day) 0 0 0 0 5400 5400 5600 0 0 5600 5600 5600 0 0 4628 4628 0 4628 0
HYDRAULIC GRADE (M)

22.2 22.2 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19

Pressure (kPa) 141.9 140.7 142.8 138.4 138.4 138.4 143.8 142.7 139 139.1 139.1 143.2 142.7 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.3 141.3 143.3

J-20 J-21 J-22 J-23 J-24 J-25 J-26 J-27 J-28 J-29 J-30 J-31 J-32 J-33 J-34 J-35 J-36 J-37 J-38 J-39 J-40 J-41 J-42 J-43 J-44 J-45 J-46 J-47 J-48 J-49 J-50 J-51 J-52 J-53 J-54 J-55 J-56 J-57 J-58 J-60 J-61 J-62 J-63

7.55 7.34 7.34 7.56 7.34 7.35 7.17 7.13 6.93 6.74 6.74 8.09 7.65 7.61 7.86 7.86 7.86 7.6 7.46 7.46 7.46 7.29 6.89 6.75 7.87 7.89 7.89 7.72 7.44 7.68 7.68 8.13 7.81 7.56 7.74 9.67 7.82 7.2 7.68 7.68 7.38 7.77 7.77

A-Type <None> A-Type D-Type Staff Quarters <None> A-Type D-Type Staff Quarters <None> D-Type Staff Quarters <None> D-Type Staff Quarters <None> <None> staff club <None> b type b type <None> <None> b type b type director bunglow <None> bank <None> canteen <None> <None> institutional buildings <None> institutional buildings <None> <None> <None> institutional buildings <None> <None> institutional buildings <None> institutional buildings <None> <None> Labs

1350 0 1350 4628 0 1350 4628 0 8100 0 4628 0 0 1500 0 2700 2700 0 0 2700 2700 1500 0 1000 0 4000 0 0 2000 0 1000 0 0 0 1500 0 0 1000 0 3000 0 0 2000

22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19

143.3 145.4 145.4 143.2 145.4 145.3 147 147.4 149.4 151.2 151.2 138.1 142.4 142.8 140.3 140.3 140.3 142.9 144.2 144.2 144.2 145.9 149.8 151.2 140.2 140 140 141.7 144.4 142.1 142.1 137.6 140.8 143.2 141.5 122.6 140.7 146.7 142 142 145 141.2 141.2

J-64 J-65 J-66 J-67 J-68 J-69 J-70 J-71 J-72 J-73 J-74 J-75 J-76 J-77 J-78 J-79 J-80 J-81 J-82 J-83 J-84 J-85 J-86 J-87 J-88 J-89 J-90 J-91 J-92 J-93 J-94 J-95 J-96 J-97 J-98 J-99 J-100 J-101

7.78 7.48 7.48 7.34 7.2 7.55 7.74 7.59 7.34 7.4 7.32 7.48 7.84 8.11 7.8 7.1 7.81 7.14 7.18 7.67 7.49 7.64 7.56 7.35 7.27 7.7 7.72 7.56 7.69 8.17 6.94 6.95 7.53 7.34 7.67 7.53 7.04 7.1

<None> <None> Labs Labs <None> institutional buildings <None> institutional buildings <None> institutional buildings <None> institutional buildings <None> institutional buildings <None> <None> institutional buildings <None> <None> <None> <None> <None> <None> <None> <None> Labs Labs Labs Labs Labs <None> hostel area <None> hostel area <None> <None> institutional buildings <None>

0 0 500 10000 0 1000 0 1000 0 1000 0 1000 0 400 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300 2000 500 5000 2000 500 0 7865 0 7865 0 0 200 0

22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19 22.19

141.1 144 144 145.4 146.7 143.3 141.5 142.9 145.4 144.8 145.6 144 140.5 137.8 140.9 147.7 140.8 147.3 146.9 142.1 143.9 142.4 143.2 145.3 146.1 141.9 141.7 143.2 142 137.3 149.3 149.2 143.5 145.4 142.2 143.6 148.3 147.7

CONCLUSION
The project done using watergems and loop concludes that the network designed by the team is sufficient enough to meet the needs like demand, capacity and also the pressure heads. A pressure network is designed where the head is not enough to carry the water to the overhead tanks of all individual buildings i.e. where the gravity network is not adoptable The drawings and respective tables showing capacity, demand, co-ordinates are calibrated in the project. The pipe diameter is taken as a constant 152.6 mm, there is a flexibility to change the diameter where there is less demand so that the overall cost of the project can be reduced. The total demand for the study area (S.V.N.I.T Campus)is 0.416 MLD.

REFERENCES
Jyothi Prakash and V Natarajan (June,2011), Pipe Network analysis in an educational campus, Journal of IWWA.

Richard Ainsworth(2004) , Managing Water Distribution Network , IWA Publishing, London, UK.

Shie-Yui Liong(2006), Optimal Water Distribution Network, Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Singapore.

Glenn O.Brown(1999) , The History of Darcy-Weishbach Equation, Paper published by Okalahoma State University.

Adi Ben-Israel(1990), Newton-Raphsons method for the solution of system of equations, research supported by the Swope Foundation.