Volume I

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Our Sincere thanks to :
Mandayam Sr i K.Kr ishnaswamy Mandayam Sr i K.Kr ishnaswamy Mandayam Sr i K.Kr ishnaswamy
f or pr oviding t he t ext f or t his e-book f r om his websit e:
ht t p: / / home. comcast . net / ~chinnamma/ sahasr a/

vaikuNThanaathan Image - Courtesy of :
Smt . Somalat ha of Somalat ha & Associat es, Bangalor e Smt . Somalat ha of Somalat ha & Associat es, Bangalor e Smt . Somalat ha of Somalat ha & Associat es, Bangalor e
Ar t ist : Sr i V.Gangadhar (Raj u) Ar t ist : Sr i V.Gangadhar (Raj u) Ar t ist : Sr i V.Gangadhar (Raj u)
ht t p: / / www. cksoma. in/
Special Thanks t o Sr i B.Sr inivas f or making t his image available

Line Drawings
in this e-book including cover page provided by :
Sow.R. Chit hr alekha of Sundar asimham Team Sow.R. Chit hr alekha of Sundar asimham Team Sow.R. Chit hr alekha of Sundar asimham Team


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CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS
3 SlOkam 1 29
4 SlOkam 2 42
5 SlOkam 3 51
6 SlOkam 4 61
7 SlOkam 5 67
8 SlOkam 6 76
9 SlOkam 7 83
10 SlOkam 8 90
11 SlOkam 9 97
12 SlOkam 10 104
13 SlOkam 11 109
14 SlOkam 12 115
15 SlOkam 13 122
16 SlOkam 14 128
17 SlOkam 15 133
18 SlOkam 16 138
19 SlOkam 17 144
20 SlOkam 18 151
21 SlOkam 19 159
22 SlOkam 20 168
2 A Compar ison of t he bhAshya-s of Sr I Samkar a
and Sr I BhaTTar
15
1 I nt r oduct ion 1


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CONTENTS (Contd...) CONTENTS (Contd...) CONTENTS (Contd...)
23 SlOkam 21 176
24 SlOkam 22 184
25 SlOkam 23 191
26 SlOkam 24 198
27 SlOkam 25 207
28 SlOkam 26 216
29 SlOkam 27 227
30 SlOkam 28 232
31 SlOkam 29 238
32 SlOkam 30 244
33 SlOkam 31 250
34 SlOkam 32 255
35 SlOkam 33 261
36 SlOkam 34 268
37 SlOkam 35 276
38 SlOkam 36 283
39 SlOkam 37 291
40 SlOkam 38 298
41 SlOkam 39 305
42 SlOkam 40 313
43 SlOkam 41 321
44 SlOkam 42 329
45 SlOkam 43 339


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+ ~l-+ + ~l-+ + ~l-+
+ ~lP6 ¹lPl+ =l4 +P-+ + ~lP6 ¹lPl+ =l4 +P-+ + ~lP6 ¹lPl+ =l4 +P-+
+ ~lP6 |+¬Pl-6Prl7 |HTl4 +P-+ + ~lP6 |+¬Pl-6Prl7 |HTl4 +P-+ + ~lP6 |+¬Pl-6Prl7 |HTl4 +P-+
~lP6 ~l ¹ñ¹lPl+ = Prl7 |HTl4 +P- ~lP6 ~l ¹ñ¹lPl+ = Prl7 |HTl4 +P- ~lP6 ~l ¹ñ¹lPl+ = Prl7 |HTl4 +P-
+ ~l|4!T BrU+lPF6l ×P + + ~l|4!T BrU+lPF6l ×P + + ~l|4!T BrU+lPF6l ×P +
SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam

vaikuNThanaat han


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dasAvat Ar am
1

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+ ~l-+ + ~l-+ + ~l-+
Introduction
I t is int er est ing t o cont emplat e on t he cir cumst ances under which Sr i Vishnu
Sahasr anama St ot r am came int o exist ence. Yudhisht hir a, t he eldest of t he
f ive Pandavas, was ment ally deplet ed because of t he war wit h t he Kaur avas and
t he miser y of deat h and suf f er ing t hat was cr eat ed by t he war in which he had
been a maj or player . Bhishma, his dear gr andf at her , was lying on his deat hbed.
Wit h his passing away, his ir r eplaceable wisdom, based on t he exper iences of
his long lif e of vir t ue, r ight eousness and devot ion, was about t o be lost t o t he
wor ld. Sage Vyasa and Sr i Kr ishna advised Yudhisht hir a, who himself was an
epit ome of r ight eousness and vir t ue, t o seek t he advice of Bhishma on any and
all aspect s of lif e on which he had any doubt s. Yudhisht hir a did as advised, and
a ser ies of dialogs ensued bet ween t he t wo, wit nessed by Lor d Kr ishna
Himself , and by ot her gr eat sages including Vedavyasa.
I n one of t hese sessions, Yudhisht hir a sought Bhishma' s advice on t he easiest
and best means by which mankind can at t ain last ing happiness, peace of mind,
and r elief f r om all bondage and sor r ows. This was t he set t ing in which Sr i
Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am was impar t ed, wit h t he welf ar e of f ut ur e
gener at ions also in mind, by Bhishma t o Yudhisht hir a, as par t of t he advice
given by Bhishma in r esponse t o t he above quest ion.
The Composit ion The Composit ion The Composit ion
The f ollowing sloka in t he pr olog t o Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am ident if ies
some impor t ant aspect s per t aining t o t he composit ion of t he st ot r am:
vishNor -nAma sahasr asya veda-vyAso mahA-muniH |
chandonushTup t hat hA devo bhagavAn devakI -sut aH | |
Sr I vedavyAsa is t he Rshi of Sr I vishNu’s one t housand names, i.e., t he sage
who st r ung t oget her t he t housand names as t hey wer e r evealed by Bhishma t o
Yudhisht hir a. Anusht up (eight syllables per quar t er ) is it s met er . Lor d Kr ishna,
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2
t he son of Devaki, is t he Lor d being wor shiped.
Ther e ar e over f or t y comment ar ies on Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am. Sr i
Adi Sankar a' s comment ar y is t he ear liest of t hem. Sr i Par asar a Bhat t a, a
disciple of a disciple of Sr i Ramanuj a, has wr it t en a det ailed comment ar y. Sr i
Sat yasandha Yat iswar a f r om t he Dvait a school is anot her pr ominent
comment at or . Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am, along wit h t he Bhagavad Git a,
is an int egr al par t of t he epic Mahabhar at a composed by Sage Vedavyasa
(Vyasa is also t he one who or ganized t he vedas int o t he classif icat ions as we
know t hem t oday).
Of all t he comment ar ies wr it t en by Sr i Sankar a f or our r eligious scr ipt ur es
(t he Bhagavad Git a, t he Br ahma Sut r as, et c.), t hat on Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama
St ot r am was t he ver y f ir st one. Sr i Sankar a emphasizes t he impor t ance of
r ecit ing t he Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am in his Bhaj a Govindam (geyam git a
nama sahasr am...). Six r easons ar e gener ally ident if ied f or t he gr eat ness of
t he St ot r am. These ar e:
1. I t is t he essence of t he Mahabhar at a.
2. Sages such as Nar ada, t he Alwar s, and composer s including Saint Tyagar aj a
have made r epeat ed r ef er ences t o t he "Thousand Names of Vishnu" in t heir
devot ional wor ks.
3. The per son who st r ung t oget her t he t housand names as par t of t he
Mahabhar at a and pr eser ved it f or t he wor ld was none ot her t han Sage
Vedavyasa, t he f or emost knower of t he vedas, and consider ed an incar nat ion
of Vishnu (vyasaya vishnu r upaya vyasa r upaya vishnave namo...).
4. I t is t he consider ed opinion of Bhishma t hat it is t he best and easiest of all
dhar mas, or t he means t o at t ain r elief f r om all bondage.
5. I t is widely accept ed t hat t he chant ing of t his St ot r am gives r elief f r om all
sor r ows and leads t o happiness and peace of mind.
6. I t is in conf or mit y wit h t he t eachings of t he Bhagavad Git a, Nar ayaneeya,
et c.
3

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The above r easons given t o illust r at e t he impor t ance of Sr i Vishnu
Sahasr anama St ot r am become all t he mor e obvious when we r ecount t he
per sonalit ies involved in t he event s t hat r esult ed in t he st ot r am. I t was no
or dinar y per son' s advice t hat was sought . No or dinar y per son was seeking t he
advice, and at no or dinar y per son' s ur ging was t he advice being sought .
Bhishma was t he son of t he Mot her Ganga and a per son sanct if ied by his
unswer ving devot ion t o Lor d Kr ishna, and one who had cont r olled and conquer ed
all his senses. Yudhisht hir a was t he son of Dhar ma, and himself a pr act it ioner
of j ust ice, r ight eousness, t r ut h, honest y and int egr it y. Vyasa was t he knower
of all vedas. Lor d Kr ishna was a wit ness t o t he whole event involving t he advice
and r evelat ion of t he easiest and best means t o achieve happiness and peace of
mind, given by Bhishma t o Yudhisht hir a. As we know, t he advice is in t he f or m
of Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am. No ot her j ust if icat ion is needed t o
r ecognize t he gr eat ness of t he educat ion t hat is impar t ed t o t he human r ace
t hr ough t he medium of Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am by Vyasa and
Bhishma.
The Or ganizat ion The Or ganizat ion The Or ganizat ion
Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am as pr int ed f or chant ing pur poses consist s of
t hr ee sect ions:
 A pr olog, which gives t he backgr ound on why t he St ot r am was impar t ed t o
t he gr eat and j ust Yudhisht hir a by Bhishma.
 The t housand names of Vishnu, or ganized in a poet ic f or mat in 107 st anzas,
in t he anusht up chandas, (a met er wit h eight syllables in a quar t er ), wit h
t wo quar t er s per line, and t wo lines per st anza.
 The phala sr ut i, or a r ecount ing of t he benef it s t hat can accr ue by chant ing
t he St ot r am.
The above is t he t ypical or ganizat ion of many st ot r ams, f or example, t he
Lakshmi Asht ot t ar a Sat anama St ot r am wit h which many of us ar e f amiliar .


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The Pr olog The Pr olog The Pr olog
I n t he int r oduct or y par t of t he Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am, Yudhisht hir a
asks Bhishma six quest ions, r elat ed t o how mankind can at t ain happiness. These
ar e cont ained in t wo st anzas st ar t ing wit h "kim ekam daivat am loke" in t he
St ot r am. These quest ions ar e:
 Who is t he One (Supr eme) Deit y?
 What is t he highest goal of lif e?
 By pr aising which Deit y' s auspicious qualit ies will human beings at t ain
pr osper it y in t his wor ld as well as bliss in t he next ?
 By medit at ing on which Deit y will human beings at t ain pr osper it y in t his
wor ld as well as bliss in t he next ?
 By r ecit ing which mant r a will man be r eleased f r om t he bondage of t he
cycle of bir t h and deat h?
 Of t he t hr ee means r ef er r ed t o above (i.e., r ecit at ion, pr aise or ar chana,
and medit at ion), which is t he best means f or at t aining t he gr ace of t he
Supr eme Deit y based on your vast exper ience and knowledge?
Bhishma' s r esponse t o t he above quest ions f ollows in t he next t en st anzas. I n
his consider ed opinion, a per son t ides over all t he sor r ows in t his wor ld by
r ecit ing wit h undilut ed devot ion t he Thousand Names of t he Et er nal Per son,
wor shiping Him always wit h devot ion, medit at ing upon Him, glor if ying Him,
salut ing Him by pr ost r at ing bef or e Him, and ador ing Him (dhyayan, st uvan,
namasyamsca, yaj amanas t ameva ca).
Bhishma adds t hat of all t he dhar mas, t he dhar ma or pr act ice involving ser vice
done t o t he Lot us-eyed Lor d Kr ishna, wit hout any desir e f or benef it , t hr ough
wor ship (ar chana) and hymnal pr aise (st ava), is t he best dhar ma.
Not e t hat pr aising is easy, involving only speech, and does not involve any
mat er ial sacr if ice or bodily exer t ion. I t is open t o all, and does not need help
f r om, or dependence on, ot her s. Ot her kinds of wor ship might r equir e money
5

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or ot her r esour ces t o per f or m t he wor ship, or t he need t o impose on ot her
people f or t heir involvement (e.g., a pr iest t o give inst r uct ions on t he met hod
of wor ship et c.). For t he pur pose of chant ing t he name of God, t her e is also no
const r aint on t he asr ama (i.e., br ahmachar ya, gr ihast a, et c.) t o which a per son
belongs, unlike, f or example, t he const r aint s t hat t he vedas place in
per f or ming t he cer emonial r it es wit h sacr if icial f ir e. Ther e is also no
r equir ement r egar ding t ime, place, st at us of pur it y, et c., f or t he chant ing of
t he st ot r am. The key element of t he act of chant ing as a means t o at t ain t he
Lor d' s gr ace is t he sincer it y and pur it y of mind, and t her e is no ot her
const r aint or consider at ion.
I n summar y, Yudhisht hir a asks Bhishma: "Given my despair and sor r owf ul st at e
of mind, I want t o expend t he least ef f or t and get t he most benef it out of it ,
viz. r elief f r om my despair . Please t ell me t he means f or t his." And Bhishma' s
r esponse is "Chant t he t housand names of Lor d Kr ishna WI TH DEVOTI ON.
This does not r equir e any ef f or t ot her t han t he willingness t o chant . This is
t he best way t o get r elief f r om all miser ies, sor r ows, and sins".
The Thousand Names The Thousand Names The Thousand Names
The wor d sahasr a in t he t it le of t he St ot r am means "one t housand". The main
body of Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am consist s of 107 st anzas which
cont ain t he t housand names of Sr i Maha Vishnu. Ever y one of t he Thousand
Names in Vishnu Sahasr anamam is f ull of signif icance in t hat it r ef er s t o one
par t icular qualit y, guna, char act er ist ic or at t r ibut e of Par amat ma. (yani namani
gaunani, wher e t he emphasis is t hat each name is indicat ive of a guna of
Vishnu).
One could legit imat ely ask t he quest ion: Why wer e t hese 1000 names chosen?
Does t he Par ama Pur usha get absolut ely def ined by t hese t housand names?
The obvious answer is t hat God is I nf init e and I ndescr ibable, and can only be
exper ienced, but cannot be t r anslat ed int o wor ds and communicat ed f r om one
t o anot her . The vedas conclude t hat God is neit her accessible t o wor ds nor t o
mind (yat o vacho nivar t ant e apr apya manasa saha - Tait t ir iya Upanishad). I n

6
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I savasya Upanishad, it is said t hat you cannot r each (under st and) t he
Par amat ma wit h t he human mind (r easoning) alone even if you spend all your
lif e. This holds t r ue even t hough mind can t r avel (t hink) f ast er t han anyt hing
known t o us, including t he speed of light (anej adekam manaso j aviyo.... ). Given
t his I nf init e nat ur e of t he Par amat ma who is not gover ned or const r ained by
any of t he physical laws as we know t hem, t he choice of a t housand names of
Vishnu by Bhishma should be r ecognized as a r epr esent at ion of some of t he
bet t er -known qualit ies of Sr iman Nar ayana t hat ar e r epeat edly descr ibed in
our gr eat epics, vedas, pur anas, et c., and sung by t he devout sages r epeat edly.
As was indicat ed ear lier , t he t housand names ar e st r ung t oget her in a poet ic
f or m by Sr i Vedavyasa. While ident if ying t he t housand names of Nar ayana
f r om t his poet ic composit ion descr ibing t he qualit ies of t he I nf init e
Par amat ma, t he dif f er ent r ever ed achar yas have come up wit h slight ly
dif f er ing set s of t housand names. This is par t ly because of t he abilit y of t hese
gr eat achar yas t o be able t o enj oy t he indescr ibable Par ama Pur usha in t heir
own ways, based on t he unique philosophies which t hey have pr opounded.
Of t he t housand names, some ar e r epeat ed: For example, in Sr i Par asar a
Bhat t ar ' s choice of t he t housand names, t wo names occur f our t imes, 12 names
occur t hr ee t imes, and 82 names occur t wice. When a name occur s mor e t han
once, t he r ever ed comment at or s have int er pr et ed t he meaning of t he name
dif f er ent ly in each inst ance depending on t he cont ext in which t he name
occur s. They have also quot ed ext ensive evidence f r om ancient scr ipt ur es in
suppor t of t heir int er pr et at ion. The comment at or s have emphasized t hat t he
r ecur r ence is not t he r esult of a dosha (def iciency of being r epet it ive) in t he
composit ion
The Benef it s The Benef it s The Benef it s
As was point ed out ear lier , t r adit ionally our pr ayer s end wit h a phala sr ut i - a
sect ion on t he benef it s of r ecit ing t he pr ayer . The Vishnu Sahasr anama
St ot r am is no except ion.
The necessit y of cleansing our body r egular ly t o maint ain our physical hygiene
7

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and good healt h is r ecognized by ever y one. But per haps because we do not
"see" our mind t he same way as we see our body (i.e., as an ext er nally visible
ent it y), t he necessit y of keeping our minds clean is not as clear ly r ecognized.
However , t hose who do not "cleanse" t heir mind on a r egular basis become
"ment ally" sick over a per iod of t ime, j ust as t hey become physically sick if
t hey do not cleanse t heir body on a r egular basis. Pr ayer s ar e a means t o
ment al cleansing when t hey ar e chant ed wit h sincer it y and devot ion. This
aspect of t he usef ulness of pr ayer s in ever yone' s lif e is common t o all pr ayer s.
The impor t ance of Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am is t hat t he deit y being
wor shipped is none ot her t han Vasudeva (sr i maha vishnuh par amat ma sr iman
nar ayano devat a; sakt ir devaki nandanah; it idam kir t aniyasya kesavasya
mahat manah namnam sahasr am divyanam aseshena pr akir t it am; sahasr am
vasudevasya namnam et at pr akir t ayet , et c.). Sr i Vyasa point s out t hat it is by
t he power and command of Vasudeva t hat t he sun, t he moon, t he st ar s, t he
wor ld, and t he oceans ar e cont r olled (sa chandr ar ka nakshat r a kham diso bhur
mahodadhih vasudevasya vir yena vidhr t ani mahat manah). The whole univer se of
t he Gods, Asur as, Gandhar vas, et c., is under t he sway of Lor d Kr ishna
(sasur asur a gandhar vam ....). I n Bhishma' s exper t j udgment , chant ing
Vasudeva' s name wit h devot ion and sincer it y will ensur e r elief f r om sor r ows
and bondage. This in a nut shell is t he phala sr ut i or t he benef it of chant ing Sr i
Vishnu Sahasr anamam.
Some have held t he view t hat t he phala sr ut i need not be, or even should not
be chant ed, because t hey somehow f eel t hat it smacks of self ish desir es. This
is not consist ent wit h t he age-old pr act ices of our ancest or s. I t is t r ue t hat
t he phala sr ut i says t hat anyt hing t hat is desir ed can be obt ained if t he pr ayer
is sincer e and of f er ed wit h devot ion. However , it is up t o t hose who seek
benef it s t hr ough pr ayer s t hat t hey should seek t hings t hat elevat e t hem in
lif e r at her t han lower t hem. An example of t he lat t er t ype is t he case of t he
evil king Ravana, who had pr ayed and obt ained enor mous power s t hr ough his
pr ayer s t o Lor d Siva. I n t he end, he lost all he had including himself by t he
misuse of his power s.

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The phala sr ut i in Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am was not j ust an add-on by
someone t r ying t o popular ize t he St ot r am, but is an int egr al par t of t he
Mahabhar at a t ext . Bot h Sr i Sankar a and Sr i Par asar a Bhat t a have wr it t en
comment ar ies t o t he phala sr ut i slokas. Thus, what is st at ed in t he phala sr ut i
has it s aut hor it y f r om t hose who ar e wor t hy of gr eat r espect f r om us, and who
have f ound it f it t o comment and elabor at e on t he advice and inf or mat ion given
t o us t hr ough t he phala sr ut i.
Per haps t he most impor t ant of t he benef it s at t ained by one who chant s t he
St ot r am wit h devot ion and sincer it y is t he cleansing of one' s mind f r om all evil
t hought s, and t his is a ver y impor t ant and desir able benef it since t his is t he
f ir st st ep t owar ds achieving pur e happiness and absolut e bliss. Fir mness of
mind, good memor y, happiness of t he self (inner happiness), and f r eedom f r om
anger , j ealousy, and gr eed, ar e some of t he benef it s t hat accr ue t o one who
r ecit es t he st ot r am wit h devot ion and eager ness. The key is t he sincer it y of
pur pose and devot ion.
The per son who chant s or r ecit es is not t he only one who benef it s. Those who
f or what ever r eason ar e unable t o chant , benef it by j ust hear ing t he chant ing
(ya idam sr unuyan nit yam ....).
I mpor t ance of Chant ing I mpor t ance of Chant ing I mpor t ance of Chant ing
Some might say t hat t hey do not under st and t he meaning of t he Sanskr it
wor ds in t he st ot r am and t her ef or e do not f eel comf or t able chant ing it . Sr i
Chandr asekhar a Sar aswat hi Swami has given us his guidance on t his issue in
one of his discour ses. He advises us t hat lear ning t he chant ing of pr ayer s even
wit hout knowing t he meaning is a wor t hwhile act , and can be compar ed t o
f inding a box of t r easur e wit hout t he key. As long as we have t he box, we can
open it whenever we get t he key of knowledge lat er , but t he t r easur e will be
alr eady t her e.
Some could f eel t hat t hey do not know t he cor r ect pr onunciat ion, and so do not
want t o chant incor r ect ly. H. J . Achar , in his book "Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama - A
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St udy", H.J . Achar , Shar ada Pr ess, Mangalor e, 1972, has given t he analogy of a
mot her t o whom a child goes and asks f or an or ange. The child does not know
how t o pr onounce t he wor d "or ange", and so asks f or "ange". The mot her does
not t ur n away t he child and does not r ef use t o give t he child t he or ange j ust
because t he child does not know how t o pr onounce t he wor d. I t is t he spir it or
bhava t hat mat t er s, and so as long as one chant s t he name of God wit h
sincer it y, consider at ions such as not knowing t he meaning, not knowing t he
pr onunciat ion, et c., do not mat t er , and God who is t he Mot her of all of us will
conf er His blessings on us.
The Final Wor d Sage Vedavyasa concludes t he St ot r am wit h t he asser t ion -
t wice st at ed - t hat t her e is no way a devot ee of Vishnu can meet wit h any
dishonor or disgr ace of any kind (na t e yant i par abhavam - ne t e yant i
par abhavam om nama it i). I f t his is not wor t h st r iving f or , wit h as lit t le
invest ment as t he mer e chant ing of t he t housand names of Vishnu wit h
sincer it y, t hen not hing else is wor t h st r iving f or .
Those int er est ed in mor e inf or mat ion may r ef er t o t he f ollowing wor ks.
"Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama wit h t he Bhashya of Sr i Par asar a Bhat t ar , wit h
Tr anslat ion in English", A. Sr inivasa Raghavan, Sr i Visisht advait a Pr achar ini
Sabha, Madr as, 1983.
"Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am", Keelat hur Sr inivasachar iar , The Lit t le
Flower Co., Madr as, Repr int ed 1981.
"Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anama St ot r am", C. V. Radhakr ishna Sast r i, C. Venkat ar ama
Sast r i Tr ust , 1986.
I n t he pr evious wr it e-up, I had pr esent ed t he view t hat it is benef icial t o
chant Sr i Vishnu Sahasr a NAma St ot r am even if we do not know t he meaning,
even if we do not know t he cor r ect pr onunciat ion, et c. I n t he cur r ent and
subsequent ar t icles, I am going t o at t empt t o pr esent t he meanings of t he
Names occur r ing in Sr i Vishnu Sahasr a NAmam. One can legit imat ely ask t he
quest ion: Why spend our t ime t o lear n t he meanings, when t he benef it of
chant ing is obt ained anyway even wit hout knowing t he meanings? I n f act , one

10
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of our devot ees had sent me mail pr ivat ely ear lier , r ef er r ing t o t he sloka t hat
occur s in t he phala sr ut i por t ion:
sr i r Ama r Ama r Amet i r ame r Ame manor ame
sahasr a nAma t at t ulyam r Ama nAma var Anane
(As st at ed by Lor d Siva t o PAr vat i - if you j ust chant t he name "r Ama",
it is equivalent t o chant ing t he 1000 names of Sr i MahA Vishnu").
Sr i Bhat t ar ver y nicely gives t he explanat ion on why it is desir able t o delve
int o an analysis of t he meanings behind t he Names: "Names pr onounced mer ely
and wit hout knowledge of t heir meanings is benef icial (upakAr iNAmapi), but
r evelat ion t hr ough et ymological int er pr et at ion quickly af f or ds DELI GHT TO
MI ND AND PURI TY TO HEART (mana: pr Asanat vam pAvanat vam ca).
Sr i Bhat t ar also r ef er s t o t he chapt er s in MahAbhAr at a r elat ing t o t he
signif icance in knowing t he meanings of t he Names in addit ion t o j ust chant ing
wit hout knowing t he meanings:
nAma kar mAr t avit pr ApnuyAm pur ushot t amam (Udyoga Par va 59)
While I am not pr of icient in Sanskr it , I cer t ainly der ive gr eat ment al delight in
t r ying t o under st and t he meanings behind t he Names; and in t r ying t o
under st and t he gr ammat ical int er pr et at ion behind t hese Names. The r eason
f or t he lat t er is t hat it helps one t o delve deeper ment ally int o t he guNas of
Sr i Vishnu and enj oy His qualit ies even mor e.
I n his Bhagavad guNa dar pana, Sr i Bhat t ar pr oceeds t o explain t he names of
MahA Vishnu in accor dance wit h r ules of gr ammar , et ymology, and
int er pr et at ion by t he gr eat Sages, wit h special r ef er ence t o t heir signif icance,
cont ext , and pr opr iet y. Et ymology accor ding t o t he English dict ionar ies is t he
analysis of a wor d, based on it s or igin and development , including how t he
wor ds ar e f or med f r om t heir simple r oot s. Sr i Bhat t ar also indicat es in his
int r oduct ion t hat even t hough t he same name may occur mor e t han once, it s
int er pr et at ion is dif f er ent depending on t he cont ext in which it occur s, and
t her e is no r edundance or r epet it ion in Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anAmam based on t he
int er pr et at ion.
11

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I n his comment ar y on Sr i Vishnu Sahasr a Namam, Sr i Bhat t ar has beaut if ully
t r aced a t hr ead of connect ivit y in t he sequence of t he 1000 names as t hey
occur in t he st ot r am. He has ident if ied an or ganizat ion and st r uct ur e in t he
composit ion t hat r ef er s t o t he guNas of t he Lor d in t he f ive manif est at ions in
which He has r evealed Himself t o us, as descr ibed in t he Panchar At r a Agamas.
These manif est at ions ar e: par a, vyuha, vibhava, ar cha, and ant ar yAmi. Thus,
f or inst ance, Sr i Bhat t ar has not ed t hat t he f ir st 122 names in t he st ot r am
descr ibe t he qualit ies of t he Lor d in his par a vAsudeva f or m. The next set of
names descr ibe t he vyuha f or ms et c. Thus t he names as t hey occur in t he
st ot r am ar e not j ust a r andom collect ion of names, but have a beaut if ul t hr ead
of or ganizat ion and st r uct ur e t o t hem. Sr i Bhat t ar has ident if ied 44 such
manif est at ions of Bhagavan in his exposit ion. Sr i Sr inivasachar iar , in his
edit or ial int r oduct ion t o Sr i Vishnu Sahasr a Namam published by LI FCO,
(1967), descr ibes t his beaut if ully as an ar r angement of t he pet als of a r ose 44
layer s deep, or a st ep of st air s wit h 44 st eps leading t o t he enj oyment of t he
Supr eme. I will not go int o t he enumer at ion of t hese 44 f or ms at t his st age.
but will ident if y t hese as we go along. The enumer at ion and t he cor r esponding
slokas can be f ound in t he LI FCO publicat ion.
A br ief int r oduct ion t o t he f ive t ypes of manif est at ions of t he Lor d, t o which
Sr i Bhat t ar r ef er s in his exposit ion of t he signif icance of t he 1000 names of
t he Lor d, is given below.
The par a can be viewed as t he f ull and undif f er ent iat ed manif est at ion of t he
Lor d in His complet e and r esplendent glor y in which He has chosen t o be
unlimit ed by anyt hing. He does not assume t his f or m as a r esult of anot her
obj ect , and in t his f or m He is endowed wit h t he f ullness of t he six qualit ies -
j nAna, bala, aisvar ya, vI r ya, sakt i, t ej a). I n t his f or m, He is t he shAdguNya
par ipUr Na, mahAr Nava, ni:sima - complet e in all r espect s in t he Six qualit ies,
t he Gr eat Ocean of all t hat is per f ect , unlimit ed by anyt hing. Sr i Bhat t ar
r ef er s t o t he sAt vat a samhit a in explaining t he par a-vyuha, and vibhava f or ms.
"shAdguNya vigr aham devam bhAsvaj j valana t ej asam
sar vat ah pANi pAdam t at it i upakr amya

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par am et at samAkhyAt am ekam sar vAsr ayam vibhum".
"I n t he par a f or m, t he Lor d has t he body endowed wit h all six qualit ies;
He shines wit h int ense br illiance and luminosit y, and has hands and f eet all
ar ound. This f or m is unique, is t he suppor t of all, and is all-per vasive".
I n t he vyuha manif est at ion, t he Lor d assumes dif f er ent f or ms which ar e r ich
in some of t he Six qualit ies, wit h dif f er ent f unct ions which emphasize t hese
qualit ies. The vyuha f or ms can be viewed as t he dif f er ent iat ed f or ms which
ar ise f r om t he par a f or m. The vyuha f or ms ar e also r ef er r ed t o as Emanat ions
by t he t r anslat or of t he Bhagavad GuNa dar pana, Sr i A. Sr inivasa Raghavan. I n
par t icular , t he f ollowing vyuha f or ms ar e ident if ied:
pr adyumna - aisvar ya and vI r ya - f unct ion of sr sht i or cr eat ion
anir uddha - sakt i and t ej as - f unct ion of st hit i or pr ot ect ion and pr eser vat ion
samkar shaNa - j nAna and bala - f unct ion of samhAr a or dest r uct ion
The sAt vat a samhit a descr ibes t he vyuha f or ms as f ollows:
et at pUr vam t r ayam ca anyat j nAnAdyaih bhedit am guNai: |
viddhi et at vyuha samgj nam vai nissr eyasa phala pr adam | |
"Fr om t his par a f or m emer ge t hr ee ot her f or ms (Samkar shaNa, pr adyumna,
anir uddha), which ar e dist inguished by t he possession of knowledge and ot her
qualit ies allot t ed t o each one of t hem, and which best ow t hese benef it s t o t he
devot ees".
The vibhava is t hat gr oup of manif est at ions which ar e t aken by BhagavAn in
t he f or m of god, man, animal, et c. (sur a, nar a, t ir yagAdi). Vibhava is of t wo
kinds: mukhya and anuvr t t i, also r ef er r ed t o as vibhava and vibhava ant ar a.
Vibhava occur s in one of f our f or ms:
1. Some like mat sya and kur ma ar e dir ect manif est at ions
2. I n some incar nat ions, t he Lor d ent er s int o t he bodies of dist inguished sages
such as Sr i VyAsa.
3. I n ot her s, He invest s His sakt i f or some per iod of t ime in ot her s.
13

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The example of Pur anj aya is given her e, and we will dwell int o t he det ails when
we look at t he explanat ion behind t he nAma pur anj aya lat er on.
4. Ther e ar e ot her s in which He manif est s Himself in idols as f or inst ance in
t he ar cAvat Ar a.
I t seems t o me t hat Sr i Bhat t ar , in his vyAkhyAna, has gr ouped t he ar cA f or m
as a subgr oup of t he vibhava f or m. I r equest t he bhAgavat as in t his gr oup t o
shed mor e light on whet her I have misunder st ood t his explanat ion.
Sr i Bhat t ar dist inguishes t he vibhava f or m f r om t he Lor d' s cr eat ions such as
t he f our -f aced Br ahma, who ar e not manif est at ions of Bhagavan, but ar e t he
cr eat ions of Bhagavan. Sr i Bhat t ar r ef er s t o t he f ollowing f r om t he Paushkar a
samhit a t o give us an under st anding of t he dif f er ence:
j nAnopadeshTA bhagavAn kapilAkshast u adhokshaj a: |
vidyAmur t i: cat ur vakt r o br ahmA vai loka pUj it a: | |
t adamsa bhUt o vai yasya visva vyanj ana lakshaNa: | |
"The r ed-eyed BhagavAn, Adhokshaj a, is t he t eacher of all knowledge. The
f our -f aced Br ahmA who is t he embodiment of lear ning and who is wor shiped by
all wor lds, is but a t iny amsa (par t ) of Bhagavan. He is t he subor dinat e of
BhagavAn, and he only pr opounds t he knowledge he got f r om Bhagavan t o all in
t he wor ld".
These ar e dist inguished as t he pr Adur bhAva and pr Adur bhAvAnt ar a f or ms.
Her e t he pr Adur bhAva is t he adhokshaj a f or m, and t he pr Adur bhAvAnt ar a is
Br ahma. I t is point ed out t hat t he cr eat ions of t he Lor d such as Br ahma, agni,
et c., ar e t o be under st ood at a dif f er ent level t han t he manif est at ions of t he
Lor d in His par a, vyuha, and vibhava f or ms. This is t he basis f or why t hose who
have been init iat ed in t he wor ship of acyut a ar e t o wor ship only Acyut a and not
t he ot her gods (pr Adur bhAvAnAm Ar Adhyat vam .pr Adur bhAvAnt ar ANAm
Ar Adhana nishedhasca).
Wit h t he above br ief int r oduct ion, I will at t empt t o summar ize t he meanings
behind t he Names in Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anAmam. The main sour ce I will be using
is t he Bhagavad guNa dar paNa by Sr i Bhat t ar . I will be using Sr i Sankar a' s

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comment ar y as a secondar y r ef er ence.
As I am st ar t ing t his at t empt at lear ning, I am f inding out t hat j ust by r eading
books, and wit hout t he aid of an AcAr ya, it is impossible t o gain knowledge.
However , t his is all what I can do at t his st age. My r equest t o all of you is t o
f r eely comment on and cor r ect what I am saying because I know t hat it is f ull
of er r or s and misint er pr et at ions. Wit h t hat r equest which goes wit hout my
r epeat ing it f or f ut ur e wr it e-ups as well, I pr esent what I under st and f or t he
f ir st of t he 1000 names.
Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he f ir st 122 nAmas in t he st ot r am as descr ibing t he
par a f or m of t he Lor d. Recall t hat t he par a f or m is t he all-per f ect ,
undiminut ed, absolut e, manif est at ion of t he Lor d. The descr ipt ion of t his f or m
includes all t he nAmas st ar t ing f r om visvam and including var Ar ohah in slokam
13. Sr i Bhat t ar views t his segment of t he st ot r am as Bhishma' s r esponse t o
YudhisThir a' s f ir st t wo quest ions:
kim ekam daivat am loke and kim vApyekam par AyaNam -
who is t he one deit y t o be wor shipped, and what is t he supr eme goal of
at t ainment .
The web-sit e of SV Temple, Pit t sbur g, USA cont ains bot h Audio and Complet e
t ext of Sr i Vishnu Sahasr anamam and Sr i Venkat esa Supr bhat am.
The URL of t heir St ot r as sit e is:
ht t p:/ / www.svt emple.or g/ st ot r a/ st ot r as.ht m
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15


A Comparison of the bhAshya-s of
SrI Samkara and SrI BhaTTar
I n t his wr it e-up, we will look at a compar ison of t he bhAshya-s of Sr I Samkar a
and Sr I BhaTTar f or Sr I vishNu sahasr anAmam, using a f ew select nAma-s
(about 10) as examples. The examples ar e dr awn most ly f r om Sr I P. B.
aNNa' ngar AcAr ya svAmi' s I nt r oduct ion t o his vyAkhyAnam on Sr I vishNu
sahasr anAmam, even t hough I have added some examples f r om ot her
r ef er ences. Admit t edly, an analysis based on less t han 1% of t he t ot al nAma-s
can be viewed as incomplet e. A pr oj ect wher ein a syst emat ic analysis of all t he
nAma-s is under t aken, is a maj or under t aking, which has t o be def er r ed f or
t he f ut ur e.
For t hose who do not wish t o go t hr ough t he whole wr it e-up, her e is a br ief
summar y of t he t r end of t hought of t his wr it e-up:
1. As Sr I PBA has clear ly point ed out , Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam emphasizes
t he guNa-s of saulabhyam and sauSI lyam of bhagavAn t hat ar e so much in
f avor of His devot ee, wher eas Sr I Samkar a t ends t o emphasize t he par at t vam
of Br ahman in his bhAshyam.
2. I also echo sent iment s of Sr I N. Raghunat han in his For ewor d t o "Sr I
vishNu sahasr anAmam" by Sr I P. Samkar anar ayanan, namely, t hat when we get
t he benef it of dif f er ent int er pr et at ions f r om dif f er ent vyAkhyAna-s, we
should view t hese as complement ing each ot her t o enhance t he r ichness of t he
whole. (I n my r egular wr it e-ups, I dr aw inf or mat ion f r om about 10 vyAkhyAna-
s which all have some unique aspect s as explained lat er ). Thus, when we get t he
anubhavam of dif f er ent wr it er s, what we der ive is a "mult iple bonus" by being
exposed t o t he dif f er ent anubhavam-s based on t he dif f er ent vyAkhyAna-s.
Now we will go int o some specif ics.
I n looking at t he vyAkhyAna' s of Sr I Samkar a and Sr I BhaTTar , one has t o
keep in mind t hat Sr I Samkar a is t he r enowned advait in, and Sr I BhaTTar is
t he adopt ed child of Lor d r a' nganAt ha and pir ATTi r a' nganAyaki, t he son of
kUr at t AzhvAn who was a pr imar y disciple of bhagavad r AmAnuj a, and is a

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gr eat exponent of viSishTAdvait a school. To an advait in t he only t r ut h is
nir guNa Br ahman - One wit hout any at t r ibut es. The saguNa br ahman is only an
int er im means t o r ealize t he r eal t r ut h f or t he advait in - namely t he
r ealizat ion of t he nir guNa Br ahman. Thus, it can be expect ed t hat t he
vyAkyAnam of Sr I Samkar a deals at t he level of signif icance and t he
int er pr et at ion of t he nAma-s at t he et ymological level, wit h suppor t f r om t he
Sr ut i-s and t he smRt i-s, but does not get int o t he deep anubhavam of t hese
guNa-s at t he level of saguNa Br ahman. He most ly gives his int er pr et at ions
emphasizing t he supr emacy of Br ahman, t he all-power f ul nat ur e of Br ahman,
t he dif f icult y in r ealizing I t , et c.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam deals wit h t he int er pr et at ion of t he nAma-s at
t he et ymological level, and t hen pr oceeds f ur t her int o t he guNAnubhavam
based on t he exper iences of t he AzhvAr -s, namely t he emot ion of int ense love
and bhakt i t owar ds emper umAn, associat ed wit h t he sauSI lyam and
saulabhyam of saguNa br ahman which is an int egr al par t of t he viSishTAdvait a
philosophy. This seems t o be t he main dif f er ence bet ween t he vyAkhyAna-s of
t he t wo gr eat st alwar t s.
I n t he case of most nAma-s, t he lit er al meaning t hat Sr I Samkar a and Sr I
BhaTTar assign will be t he same, and when t he lit er al meaning is dif f er ent ,
bot h alt er nat ives ar e equally accept able meanings f or t he nAma-s pur ely f r om
t he point of view of samskRt . The dif f er ence ar ises in t he f ur t her elabor at ion
of t his meaning. Sr I Samkar a suppor t s his int er pr et at ions wit h quot es f r om
t he Sr ut i-s and smr t i-s at t he philosophical level. Sr I BhaTTar quot es
evidences f r om t hese same sour ces, but t he message he conveys emphasizes
t he saguNa br ahman so ver y much enj oyed by t he AzhvAr s in t heir divine
out pour ings. He does not dir ect ly quot e f r om t he AzhvAr s, j ust as Sr I
r AmAnuj a did not quot e dir ect ly f r om t he AzhvAr s in any of his wor ks. We
have alr eady dealt wit h t he r easons f or t his in pr evious discussion in t his
list . But t he anubhavam of t he AzhvAr s is loud and clear in Sr I BhaTTar ' s
vyAkhyAnam. He r epeat edly r eminds us of bhagavAn' s sauSI lyam and
saulabhyam - His ease of mixing wit h His devot ees and His easy accessibilit y t o
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a t r ue devot ee, His I nf init e Mer cy, His wait ing t o help and f or give a devot ee
f r om t he enor mous sins t hat have been commit t ed, et c.
Sr I PBA obser ves t hat bot h par at t vam and saulabhyam ar e equally impor t ant
aspect s of t he gr eat ness of emper umAn. We ar e given t his bir t h t o r ealize and
enj oy bot h t hese aspect s equally. But of t hese t wo guNa-s, t he one t hat
t ouches t he devot ee int ensely and dr aws him t o emper umAn' s f eet is
sauSI lyam. He gives t he example of nammAzhvAr , who st ar t s of f descr ibing
t he par at t vam of per umAL ver y nicely -
uyar vaRa uyar nalam uDaiyavan yavan avan.
nammAzhvAr does not become subj ect t o visible ext er nal emot ion dur ing t he
descr ipt ion of bhagavAn' s par at t vam. But lat er on, when he st ar t s descr ibing
t he sauSI lyam of per umAL - "et t iRam ur alinODu iNaindir undu E' ngiay eLivE" -
he is complet ely over whelmed by emot ion, and passes out (loses his conscience)
f or a long dur at ion of six mont hs at t his ver y t hought of per umAL' s guNam of
sauSI lyam.
Thus, it is impor t ant t o keep in mind t hat t he discussion her e is not meant t o
suggest t hat t he guNam of par at vam is not impor t ant , nor is it t r ue t hat
AzhvAr s do not sing about His par at t vam equally along wit h His sauSI lyam and
saulabhyam. How ever , bet ween t he t wo pat hs, our viSishTAdvait a AcAr ya-s do
not miss t he oppor t unit y t o emphasize t he anubhavam of His sauSI lyam and
saulabhyam, and Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is an out st anding example of t his.
I f we wer e t o summar ize in one sent ence t he dif f er ence bet ween Sr I
Samkar a' s and Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAna-s, it is t hat t he f or mer emphasizes
t he par at t vam and aiSvar yam (I sit vam or I Svar at t vam) of Br ahman, and Sr I
BhaTTar emphasizes t he sauSI lyam and saulabhyam of per umAL.
We will go t hr ough j ust a f ew of t he nAma-s, most ly used by Sr I PBA in his
I nt r oduct ion, j ust t o illust r at e t he above point s.
sat sat sat -- -kRt ih (in Slokam 75) kRt ih (in Slokam 75) kRt ih (in Slokam 75) -- - sad sad sad-- -gat ih saT gat ih saT gat ih saT-- -kRt ih sat t A…. kRt ih sat t A…. kRt ih sat t A….
The simple meaning of t he wor d sat -kRt ih is "He of good act s". The
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dif f er ences in t he vyAkhyAnam ar ise when t he vyAkhyAna kar t A-s go t he next
st ep, and give an explanat ion of what t hese "good act s" ar e. Sr I Samkar a gives
t he example of His pr ot ect ing all t he cr eat ur es of t his Univer se as t he
example of His "good act s".
Sr I BhaTTar t akes t his meaning, and links his anubhavam of t his nAma t o t he
pr evious Slokam, wher ein t he nAma vAsudevah occur s (vasupr ado vAsudevo
vasur vasumanA havih). He int er pr et s t he nAma sat -kRt ih in r elat ion t o t he
childhood pr anks of Lor d kRshNa, such as His st ealing but t er f r om t he gopi' s
houses, being t ied t o t he mor t ar by yaSodA, et c. One may ask t he quest ion:
Why ar e t hese "good act s"? Sr I BhaTTar ' s posit ion is: Because, t hose who
medit at e on t hese act s of bhagavAn ar e r elieved f r om t he bondage of samsAr a
f or ever !
The examples given in bot h cases ar e r elevant and appr opr iat e. However , t he
cur r ent example gives an indicat ion t o what we will not ice as we see ot her
examples, namely, t hat Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam will echo t he
guNAnubhavam of bhagavAn as echoed in t he AzhvAr ' s out pour ings.
vij it At mA (Slokam 66): vij it At mA (Slokam 66): vij it At mA (Slokam 66):
The simple meaning of t he wor ds in t he nAma is: He who has a mind t hat has
been conquer ed. I t does not say "conquer ed by whom?". This is t he place wher e
we see t he dif f er ent anubhavam-s of t he t wo vyAkhyAna-s.
Sr I Samkar a has int er pr et ed t he nAma as One who has cont r olled His indr iya-
s and mind - vij it a At mA mano yena sah vij it At mA. I n ot her wor ds, bhagavAn is
r ef er r ed t o by t his nAma her e because He has conquer ed His own mind.
Sr I BhaTTar sees her e an example of how bhagavAn' s mind is easily conquer ed
by His devot ees. So he gives an int er pr et at ion which is in a sense t he exact
opposit e of t hat Sr I Samkar a - namely, He is one whose mind is easily
conquer ed by ot her s, namely His devot ees. So He is t he One who is def eat ed in
His mind cont r ol, since He gives in easily t o His devot ees' wishes. This is
anot her example of how Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is or ient ed t owar ds t he
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enj oyment of His saulabhyam and sauSI lyam as maj or aspect s of His guNa.
vidheyAt mA or a vidheyAt mA or a vidheyAt mA or a-- -vidheyAt mA (Slokam 66): vidheyAt mA (Slokam 66): vidheyAt mA (Slokam 66):
This nAma is t he ver y next nAma af t er vij it At mA which we discussed above.
Her e t he dif f er ence in int er pr et at ion is based on t he pATha-bhedam - or t he
dif f er ence in t he wor ds t hat const it ut e t he Slokam. Sr I Samkar a has used t he
pATham "vij it At mA avidheyAt mA…", and Sr I BhaTTar has chosen t he pATham
"vij it At mA vidheyAt mA".
Lit er ally, vidheya means "submissive". vidheya At mA is "One who is of a
submissive nat ur e", and a-vidheya-At mA is "One who is of a non-submissive
nat ur e". Sr I Samkar a has given t he int er pr et at ion in samskRt as "na kenApi
vidheya At mA svar Upam asya it i a-vidheya-At mA" - His nat ur e is not under t he
sway of anyone else. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i has t r anslat ed it as "One who is
not under anyone else' s cont r ol". This of cour se is t r ue of His nat ur e, I F t hat
is what He want s.
Sr I BhaTTar uses t he pATham "vidheyAt mA", and has t he guNAnubhavam t hat
bhagavAn is complet ely subser vient t o His devot ee. He descr ibes t hat it is
bhagavAn' s essent ial nat ur e t o be at t he disposal of His devot ees t o such an
ext ent t hat He can be easily commanded by t hem t o do what ever t hey want .
They can command Him ' Come her e, st and her e, sit her e, eat t his' , et c., and
He will j ust obey if it is a command f r om His devot ee. Sr I PBA gives t he
example of t ir umazhiSai AzhvAr commanding t o Sonna vaNNam Seida per umAL
- "kaNi kaNNan pOginRAn kAmar upU' nkacci maNi vaNNA! NI kiDakka vENDA",
and per umAL packs up His snake bed and leaves as commanded by AzhvAr .
Lat er , when AzhvAr t ells per umAL - "painnAgap pAi vir it t uk koL", He get s back
and spr eads out His snake bed and r esumes His or iginal sevai again. Ther e is
also t he example of ar j una commanding Lor d kRshNa t o t ake t he char iot t o t he
middle of t he t wo ar mies dur ing t he st ar t of t he mahAbhAr at a war , and
bhagavAn obeys ar j una' s command.
So t he dif f er ence in t he vyAkhyAnam her e is associat ed wit h t he pATha

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bhedam. But t he example is anot her illust r at ion wher e Sr I BhaTTar ' s
vyAkhyAnam emphasizes His subser vience, soulabhyam, and sauSI lyam t o His
devot ees, wher eas Sr I Samkar a seems t o dir ect His explanat ions in t er ms of
t he absolut e supr emacy of br ahman (par at vam, aiSvar yam, et c.).
Sat Sat Sat -- -kI r t ih: (Slokam 66) kI r t ih: (Slokam 66) kI r t ih: (Slokam 66)
Sr I Samkar a' s vyAkhyAnam f or t his nAma is: sat I (a-vit at hA) kI r t ih asya it i
sat -kI r t ih - He of t r ue f ame, One whose f ame is t r ue and well-est ablished.
This is t he cor r ect meaning of t he wor d sat -kI r t ih.
Sr I BhaTTar st ar s wit h t his meaning, and pr oceeds t o at t r ibut e t he sour ce of
His t r ue f ame t o His sauSI lyam - sausI lya, sat t vena at i-mahat I kI r t ih asya it i
sat -kI r t ih - His kI r t i is well est ablished and t r ue because of His being so
amiable and af f able by nat ur e. Sr I BhaTTar cont inues and point s out t hat His
kI r t i is so gr eat , t hat no mat t er what one says about His kI r t i, it is t r ue, but
it is only a small par t of His kI r t i; it is indescr ibable in wor ds.
Thus, in t his inst ance, Sr I Samkar a and Sr I BhaTTar use t he same meaning
f or t he nAma, but Sr I BhaTTar emphasizes bhagavAn' s sauSI lyam at ever y
oppor t unit y in his vyAkhyAnam.
Chinna Chinna Chinna-- -samSayah: (Slokam 66) samSayah: (Slokam 66) samSayah: (Slokam 66)
Sr I Samkar a vyAkhyAnam f or t he nAma is: He who sees ever yt hing wit h
clar it y like a f r uit in t he palm, and so He who is f r ee f r om any doubt . I n ot her
wor ds, it is bhagavAn who has no doubt of any kind, and so He is called chinna-
samSayah. Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma is t hat He has t he
nAma chinna-samSayah because He dest r oys t he doubt s in His devot ees' mind.
Bot h ar e equally valid int er pr et at ions of t he samskRt t er m "chinna samSayah".
Sr I BhaTTar t akes his int er pr et at ion and links it t o His sauSI lyam. I f anyone
has any doubt s such as: "Can He can be easily known or is ver y dif f icult t o be
known, Can He be easily pleased or dif f icult t o please, I s He easily accessible
or dif f icult t o access" - t hese doubt s st and dispelled r ight away because His
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sauSI lyam and saulabhyam ar e well-known. I n ot her wor ds, bhagavAn conduct s
Himself in such a way t hat He r emoves any doubt s anyone has about Him.
Once mor e, we see t hat Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam heavily emphasizes
bhagavAn' s kalyANa guNa-s such as His sauSI lyam and saulabhyam, and uses
t hese in his int er pr et at ion t o t he ut most ext ent , and Sr I Samkar a keeps his
vyAkhyAnam in pr aise of t he Supr emacy of Br ahman in all aspect s.
anI Sah (Slokam 67): anI Sah (Slokam 67): anI Sah (Slokam 67):
The lit er al meaning of t he nAma is "Not -Mast er ". This could mean t hat "Ther e
is no Mast er above Him", or "He is not t he Mast er when He chooses not t o be
t he Mast er ".
Sr I Samkar a has chosen t he f or mer int er pr et at ion, and Sr I BhaTTar has
chosen t he lat t er . The f ir st int er pr et at ion is obviously t r ue of t he Supr eme
Br ahman. Sr I BhaTTar t akes t he side of t he devot ee. When it comes t o t he
devot ee commanding Him t o do anyt hing, He j ust obeys, and loses His
Mast er ship ver y r eadily and willingly, and enj oys t his loss of Mast er ship. One
is r eminded of a f at her or mot her losing willingly in a mock game wit h t heir
young child and delight ing in losing. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he examples of our
giving Him a bat h, t ying Him up f or dr essing Him while decor at ing Him, et c.
When yaSodA t ied Him up wit h a r ope, or t hr eat ened t o beat Him up f or
st ealing but t er , et c., He was not t he Mast er of t he scene, but accept ed all
t hat ver y willingly. Sr I PBA point s t o per iAzhvAr ' s pASur am -
nAr aNA neer ADa vAr Ai, inRu nI nI r ADa vENDum empir An ODAdE vAr Ai,
SeNbagap pUc cUTTa vAr Ai, ir uvATcippUc cUTTa vAr Ai, et c.,
and He obeys all t hese dict at es f r om His devot ee.
sammit ah (Slokam 12 sammit ah (Slokam 12 sammit ah (Slokam 12 -- - vasur vasumanAh….): vasur vasumanAh….): vasur vasumanAh….):
The dif f er ence bet ween Sr I Samkar a' s and Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAna-s her e
ar ises because of pATha bhedam. Sr I Samkar a has used t he pATham "a-
sammit ah", and Sr I BhaTTar has used t he pATham "sammit ah". Thus, t hey end
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up wit h opposit e meanings.
sammit ah lit er ally means "t hat which can be well-def ined, easily under st ood",
or "t hat which is unlimit ed by anyt hing". Sr I Samkar a bhAshyam is "sar vaih a-
par icchinnah amit a it i a-sammit ah" - unbounded by anyt hing, undef ined
pr ecisely by anyt hing, et c. This is how t he Sr ut i-s descr ibe Br ahman - The
Unknown and The Unknowable.
But t he bhakt i school of AzhvAr s is t hat He is Unknown and Unknowable only
t o t hose who do not seek Him wit h sincer e devot ion. To a t r ue devot ee, He is
as easily known as a "f r uit in t he palm". Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is
"hast ast hah it i samyak par icchinnah" - His devot ees under st and Him well as
someone in t heir hands - well wit hin t heir cont r ol. Such was t he exper ience of
daSar at ha, yaSodA, et c. daSar at ha declar es "Una shoDaSa var sho me r Amo
r Aj I va locanah" - Not e "me r Amo" - My r Ama. Vasudeva declar es "mama ayam
t anayo nij ah" - Not e again "mam t anayah". Sr I PBA gives t he quot es f r om per ia
t ir umozhi -
"azhugaiyum a' nj i nOkkum an-nOkkum aNi-koL Sem Sir u vAi neLippaduvum,
t ozhugaiyum ivai kaNDa aSOdai t ollai inbat t u ir udi kaNDALE" -
She is exper iencing t he ult imat e in t ollai in her int er act ion wit h Him.
mahA mahA mahA-- -koSah (Slokam 46 koSah (Slokam 46 koSah (Slokam 46 -- - vist Ar ah st hAvar ah ..): vist Ar ah st hAvar ah ..): vist Ar ah st hAvar ah ..):
KoSa means shield as well as t r easur e. Sr I Samkar a uses t he f or mer meaning,
and Sr I BhaTTar uses t he lat er meaning. Sr I Samkar a vyAkhyAnam f or t his
nAma is:
mahAnt ah koSA annamayAdayah AcchAdakA asya it i mahA-koSah - One who
has got as His cover ing t he gr eat sheat hs like annamaya et c. I have copied par t
of our pr evious wr it e-up f or t his nAma in t he list . The f ollowing descr ipt ion
shows how dif f icult it is t o r ealize bhagavAn:
Sr I Samkar a' s int er pr et at ion is based on t he meaning "shield" f or koSa. His
int er pr et at ion is t hat t he r eal nat ur e of t he soul is shielded by t he f ive koSas,
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anna maya koSa, pr ANa maya koSa, mano maya koSa, vij ~nAna maya koSa, and
Ananda maya koSa, and bhagavAn is t he mahAkoSa who is shielded f r om all
except t he yogi-s. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat by cont r ol of our
indr iya-s we can cr oss t he anna maya koSa, by cont r ol of br eat h we can cr oss
t he pr ANa maya koSa, by cont r ol of t he mind t he manomaya koSa is cr ossed,
by channeling one' s int ellect and t hr ough cont r ol of wor ldly desir es and
passions we can cr oss t he vij ~nAnamaya koSa, and t hr ough medit at ion on t he
Self we cr oss t he Anandamaya koSa, and ult imat ely r ealize Br ahman.
Sr I BhaTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is based on t he meaning "t r easur e" f or t he t er m
koSa. I n his vyAkhyAnam, mahA-koSa r ef er s t o bhagavAn being a vast ,
inexhaust ible t r easur e. Even t hough BhagavAn is giving away Himself and His
belongings always t o His devot ees in all ways, st ill it does not diminish. Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o "Unam il Selvam enko?", point ing t o t he
undiminishing Af f luence called BhagavAn.
Again we see t he dif f er ence bet ween t he appr oaches of Sr I Samkar a and Sr I
BhaTTar . While t he f or mer pr esent s Br ahman as t he dif f icult One t o r ealize
and not easily accessible, Sr I BhaTTar emphasizes t he easy accessibilit y of
bhagavAn, His inf init e Mer cy, His inexhaust ible love t o His devot ee, et c.
Needless t o say, bot h aspect s ar e t r ue of bhagavAn, But t he f or mer pr obably
will appeal t o t hose who can pr act ice t he int ense discipline t o r ealize Him
t hr ough t he dif f icult and unsur e pat h of yogic discipline, and t he lat t er will
appeal t o t he or dinar y people who ar e eit her unable or not qualif ied t o pr act ice
t he f or mer .
Anot her maj or aspect of Sr I BhaTTar ' s bhAshyam is t hat in addit ion t o giving
t he et ymological int er pr et at ion f or each nAma, Sr I BhaTTar sees a t hr ead of
connect ivit y bet ween t he 1000 nAma-s, and gr oups t he 1000 nAma-s int o 44
gr oups. He associat es each gr oup wit h one of t he incar nat ions or vibhUt i-s of
bhagavAn. Thus, in his vyAkhyAnam, invar iably one will see t he explanat ion of
each nAma being linked t o t he vyAkhyAnam f or t he pr evious nAma wit hin a
given gr oup.
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For example, nAma-s 1 t o 122 ar e explained by Sr I BhaTTar as descr ibing t he
par a vAsudeva f or m, nAma-s 123 and 124 descr ibe samkar shaNa, et c. Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives one example of how somet imes int er pr et ing a nAma
in t he cont ext of t he nAma-s t hat immediat ely pr ecede or succeed t he given
nAma can be much mor e enj oyable t han when j ust t he individual meaning of t he
nAma is looked at .
I n t he sequence: anukUlah, Sat Avar t ah, padmI , and padmanibhekshaNah, Sr I
SAst r i explains "anukUlah" as He who helps in r eaching t he goal (kUlam means
t he shor e, and anukUlah is One who t akes us t o t he shor e). Sat Avar t ah means
One who r epeat edly appear s. Sr I SAst r i point s out t hat it is much mor e
enj oyable t o see t his nAma in t he cont ext of t he pr evious nAma, and int er pr et
"Sat Avar t ah" as suggest ing t hat He appear s r epeat edly and keeps of f er ing
help r epeat edly, t o ensur e t hat His devot ee r eaches t he shor e f or sur e. He
t hen pr oceeds t o int er pr et padmI as r ef er r ing t o Him who has a lot us in His
hand t o signif y His easy accessibilit y when He of f er s t his help t o His devot ee.
padma-nibhekshaNah is int er pr et ed as indicat ing t hat He has eyes which
r esemble t he pleasant lot us f lower s, r e-assur ing t he devot ee t hat He is t her e
t o help t hem. Thus t he int er pr et at ions of t he f our nAma-s ar e int er -r elat ed t o
each ot her , and t hey all r einf or ce t he idea t hat bhagavAn is int ensely
int er est ed in helping His devot ee, and manif est s t his int er est in var ious ways.
Even t hough t his example is Sr I SAst r i' s own and is not dr awn f r om Sr I
BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam, nonet heless it is an excellent illust r at ion of t he
addit ional bhagavad guNAnubhavam t hat one der ives when t he nAma-s ar e
int er pr et ed in t he cont ext of each ot her in some cases, r at her t han as
st andalone nAma-s.
The Benef it t o Us: The Benef it t o Us: The Benef it t o Us:
Reader s ar e awar e t hat I have used sever al vyAkhyAna-s in my wr it e-up (t hose
by Sr I BhaTTar , Sr I Samkar a, Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an, Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i,
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha, t he dhar ma cakr am wr it er , Sr I P. B.
aNNa' ngar AcAr ya, and Sr I cinmayAnanda, Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj , and a
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f ew ot her s). Each one of t hese vyAkhyAna-s has some special aspect about it
t hat is not f ound in t he ot her s. For inst ance, Sr I Samkar a' s bhAshyam is t he
oldest among t hose list ed above, and is also t he one which is pr obably t he lead
t ext which all t he lat er advait in vyAkhyAnakar t A-s have used. Similar ly, Sr I
BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is t he f ir st f r om one who is f r om t he viSishTAdvait a
school, and has ser ved as t he basis f r om which ot her viSishTADvait a f ollower s
have dr awn. Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an' s wor k is unique in t hat it gives pr of use
examples f r om divya pr abandham f or each nAma, most ly f r om nammAzhvAr ' s
t ir uvAimozhi. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha is among t he most t hor ough in looking
at t he et ymology of each nAma, and goes int o gr eat det ail on t he gr ammat ical
der ivat ion of each nAma f r om it s r oot , wit hout except ion. I n addit ion, he also
is unique among t he vyAkhyAna kar t A-s in t hat he has composed 1000 Sloka-s
f or t he t housand nAma-s, each Slokam summar izing his vyAkhyAnam f or t hat
nAma. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er t akes elabor at e ef f or t t o r elat e each mant r a
(nAma) t o t he r eal wor ld, and explains t o t he common man what lesson needs t o
be t aken f r om each Nama.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i summar izes bot h t he bhAshya of Sr I Samkar a and
Sr I BhaTTar in his t ext , but in addit ion has added his own quot es f r om t he
Sr ut i-s and smr it i-s in dif f er ent places. Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj is a
samskRt scholar in his own r ight , and has given addit ional suppor t f or each
nAma f r om t he Sr ut i-s and smRt i-s as well. Sr I cinmayAnanda' s wr it e-up is in
simple English t hat many of us can easily under st and. Sr I P. B.
aNNa' ngar AcAr ya' s vyAkhyAnam is in t amizh and f ollows Sr I BhaTTar ' s
bhAshyam, and is mainly meant f or t hose who may not under st and Sr I
BhaTTar ' s det ailed vyAkhyAnam in samskRt , but Sr I PBA' s int r oduct ion wher e
he compar es t he vyAkhyAna-s of Sr I BhaTTar wit h some of t he ot her s, is a
cont r ibut ion in it self t hat is not mat ched by any ot her wr it er .
I have dr awn f r om all t he above sour ces, and t r ied t o br ing t he unique aspect s
of t he dif f er ent vyAkhyAna-s t oget her . The appr oach t hat has been t aken is
t o view t he dif f er ences in t he vyAkhyAna-s as a "mult iple bonus" f or us - t hat
when we look at t he vyAkhyAna-s, we get mult iple anubhavam-s of t he I nf init e

26
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dimensions of t he guNa-s of Sr I mahA vishNu.
I hope t hat t he above summar y places t he r eader s in a bet t er posit ion t o enj oy
t he guNAnubhavam of vishNu as r ef lect ed in t he summar y of t he meanings of
t he nAma-s t hat is being pr esent ed in t he ser ies.
-dAsan kRshNamAcAr yan
champakam@yahoo.com





27

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SlOkams
&
Comment ar ies
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28




viSva r Upa dar Sanam t o ar j ua
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SlOkam 1
|4H |4!T 4 9³ Tl¹l ¬ 6¬-4¬4t9¬ -· |4H |4!T 4 9³ Tl¹l ¬ 6¬-4¬4t9¬ -· |4H |4!T 4 9³ Tl¹l ¬ 6¬-4¬4t9¬ -·
¬ 6T T 6¬ Tl4l ¬ 6ltPl ¬ 6¬l4+-+ ¬ 6T T 6¬ Tl4l ¬ 6ltPl ¬ 6¬l4+-+ ¬ 6T T 6¬ Tl4l ¬ 6ltPl ¬ 6¬l4+-+
visvam vishNur vashaTkAr O bhUt abhavya bhavat pr abhuh |
bhUt a-kRd bhUt a-bhRd bhAvo bhUt At mA bhUut a bhAvanah | |
[ PLEASE ADD PRANAVAM BEFORE EACH NAAMA ]
nAma 1. nAma 1. nAma 1. |4H |4H |4H -- - visvam visvam visvam
a) Univer se or Cause of Univer se
b) One who is f ull in all r espect s.
viSvAya namah.
The nAma is der ived f r om t he r oot viS - t o ent er . ViSvam means "Univer se".
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he r ef er ence t o t he f ollowing ver se f r om moksha dhar ma:
veSanAt viSvamit yAhu: lokAnAm kASisat t ama |
lokAnSca viSvameva it i pr avadant i nar Adhipa | |
They say BhagavAn is viSvam because He ent er s all t he wor lds. (The wor lds
t h e ms e l v e s ar e c al l e d v i S v am b e c aus e of t h i s ) .
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he t er m "Wor lds" or "Univer se" her e t o denot e
ent ir et y. He point s out t hat it is quit e f it t ing t hat t he f ir st name of vishNu in
Sr I vishNu sahasr anAmam suggest s His immense glor y, t he f ullness t o t he
br im of His essent ial nat ur e, f or m, qualit ies, et c., which ar e all nat ur al,
unexcelled, auspicious and super ior . Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an adds t hat t his
complet eness is in r espect of His r Upam, svar Upam, guNam, and ever yt hing
else. He quot es nammAzhvAr - uvar yaRa uyar nalam uDaiyavan (t ir uvAimozhi
1.1.1). I t is t o explain t his aspect of t he f ullness of bhagavAn in ever y aspect
t hat t he r emaining 999 nAma-s f ollow t he nAmA viSvam, t hus emphasizing t he
deep meaning embedded int o t his f ir st nAma as denot ing bhagavAn' s f ullness
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30
in all r espect s.
Sr I Samkar a views t hat bhgavAn who is Br ahman or t he Supr eme Per son
cr eat ed viSvam and is t her ef or e, called viSvam. Br ahman is t he kar t A or t he
Cr eat or her e (t he Cause), and viSvam is t he cr eat ion or t he ef f ect . Because
t he Cause who is Br ahman is being called by t he nAma viSvam which is t he
ef f ect , t his is used by advait ins as an ar gument t o say t hat ef f ect s ar e
not hing dif f er ent f r om t he Cause, and ever yt hing is Br ahman. I n ot her wor ds,
t he ar gument is advanced t hat Br ahma who is t he cr eat ion of vishNu, can be
pr aised as an appr opr iat e f or m of vishNu. Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat t he t wo
t er ms, br ahman and viSvam, should not be t aken as r ef er r ing t o t heir being
ident ical. viSvam or Univer se is j ust a mode or ext ension of bhagavAn, as ar e
t he ot her 999 nAma-s.
Sr I v.n. vedAnt a deSikan in his comment ar y on t ir uvAimozhi, obser ves: "To
r egar d Br ahman and Wor ld ident ical is samAnAdhikar aNya t o which AzhvAr
does not subscr ibe. The wor ld is t he pr akAr a or vibhUt i of t he Lor d. He is t he
cause, sust ainer , cont r oller , and t he soul of all t hings and beings".
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t he nAma "viSvam" by r ef er r ing t o t he viSva
r Upam or vir AT pur usha. He r ef er s us t o Sr I vishNu pur ANam - sa eva sar va
bhUt At mA viSva r Upo yat o avayayah - (vishNu pur A. 1.2.69). He is t he soul of
all t hat exist s, and ever yt hing is His body.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha int er pr et s t he nAma viSvam or "Univer se" as
indicat ing t hat ever yt hing in t his Univer se came f r om Him, and also ever yt hing
in t his Univer se goes back int o Him. So in bot h senses, He is "viSvam".
I t should be not ed t hat t he wor ds viSvam is in t he neut er gender . Sr I
BhaTTar point s out t hat it st ill is a nAma of vishNu, r epr esent ing His guNa of
absolut e f ullness and power . Consist ent wit h t his, t he nAma t o wor ship is
"viSvAya namah" as adopt ed by t he viSishTAdvait a school. The Samkar a school
uses t he f or m as "viSvasmai namah".
The dif f er ent anubhava-s of t he nAma viSvam can be summar ized as:
The nAma indicat es His Fullness in all r espect s; t he succeeding 999 nAma-s all
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elabor at e on t his f ir st nAma - t he Fullness of Him in all r esepct s. Not hing in
t he Univer se exist s wit hout Him, and ever yt hing in t his Univer se ult imat ely
f inds r ef uge in Him, and in t his sense also He is viSvam or "Univer se".
nAma 2. nAma 2. nAma 2. |4!T- |4!T- |4!T- -- - vishNuh vishNuh vishNuh
a) One who per meat es ever yt hing, is inside ever y sent ient and non-sent ient
being.
b) One who sur r ounds ever yt hing.
vishNave namah.
This nAma occur s again as nAma-s 259 and 663.
This nAma can be der ived f r om t he r oot vish - vyApt au - t o per vade, or vis -
pr aveSane - t o ent er . Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is - sva vibhUt i bhUt am cit
acit At makam sar vam viSat i it i vishNuh. The idea is t hat keSava exist s
ever ywher e and per meat es ever yt hing t hat is His Wealt h; He is unlimit ed by
space, t ime, and subst ance (Sr I Samkar a); He per vades t he whole univer se
int er nally and ext er nally. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he f ollowing r ef er ences in
suppor t .
viveSa bhUt Ani car Acar ANi
- He ent er ed all beings, movable and immovable
t at sr sht vA | t adevAnupr Avisat
- Having cr eat ed it , He ent er ed int o t he same.
"vyApya sar vAn imAn lokAn st hit ah sar vat r a kesava: |
t at asca vishNu nAmAsi viser dhAt o: pr avesanAt | |
"KeSava exi st s ever ywher e havi ng per vaded all t hese wor lds.
Ther ef or e His name is VishNu since t he r oot viS denot es ent r y i.e., per vasion".
Under nAma 259, Sr I BhaTTar explains vyApt i (per vasion) f ur t her , and
explains t he r elat ion bet ween bhagavAn and t he j I va-s as of t he nat ur e of t he
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r elat ion bet ween f ir e and smoke. When t her e is smoke, t her e is f ir e, but t he
r ever se is not always t r ue (as in t he case of a r ed hot ir on r od). Thus,
bhagavan and t he j I va-s ar e r elat ed in t he sense t hat wit hout bhagavAn t he
j I va-s do not exist . The supr eme Per son and t he j I va-s ar e never ident ical, but
t her e is insepar able connect ion bet ween bhagavAn and t he r est . He is gr eat er
by vir t ue of t he diver se kinds of help He r ender s t o all who ar e of a lower
or der . Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s us t o t he gI t A -
na t adast i vinA yat syAt mayA bhUt am car Acar am (10.39)
- "Ther e is no obj ect , moving or non-moving, which can exist wit hout Me".
Anot her anubhavam of t his guNa of vyApt i is t hat it is not j ust t he f act t hat
He is in ever yt hing and in insepar ably bound t o ever yt hing, but it is one of His
shower ing ever yt hing wit h His inf init e Mer cy (Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an). His
sauSI lyam is t o be enj oyed her e. Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj der ives t he
meaning f r om t he r oot vishu - secane - t o spr inkle, t o pour out ;
veshat i (si' ncat i) bhakt a t ar Un ASI r vAr I bhih it i vishNuh.
nammAzhvAr declar es:
"t iDaviSumber ivaLi nI r nilamivaimiSai paDar por uL muzhuvadumAi avai avai
t or um uDan miSai uyir enak kar andu e' ngum par anduLan"
- (t ir uvAimozhi 1.1.7)
The Lor d cr eat ed t he f ive element s, and f r om t hem He cr eat ed all ot her s.
I ndeed He became all ot her s. He per vades ever yt hing in and out . He is t he
Soul f or t he body of ever yt hing and ever y being. The t er m "He ent er s all t he
wor lds" should be under st ood as "He ent er s ever yt hing in all t he wor lds".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives anot her view of t he r eason why bhagavAn has
per vaded ever yt hing. I t is f or t he pur pose of ensur ing t hat ever yt hing is in it s
designat ed and assigned place, and t hings don' t come int o collision wit h each
ot her , f or example, t he dif f er ent planet s and const ellat ions et c. He quot es
f r om t he t ait t ir I ya Ar aNyaka, wher ein f ir st t he quest ion is asked -
keneme vidhRt e ubhe -
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"Who is keeping t he t wo t hings f r om colliding wit h each ot her ?", and r esponds:
vishNunA vidhRt e bhumI ; it i vat sasya vet anA
- "vishNu is t he One who is suppor t ing t hem wit h His Sakt i; t his is t he f inding
of sage vat sa".
Sr I Samkar a gives t he f ollowing suppor t s f or t his nAma:
ant ar bahiSca t at sar vam vyApya nAr AyaNah st hit ah
- (mahA nAr AyaNa upa. 1.13)
nAr AyaNa per vades t he whole univer se ext er nally and int er nally.
"yasmAd vishTam idam sar vam t asya Sakt yA mahAt manah |
t asmAd vishNur it i khyAt o veSer dhAt oh pr aveSanAt | |
- (vishNu pur ANam 3.1.45)
"Because t he whole wor ld has been per vaded by t he ener gy of t he gr eat Self ,
He is named vishNu, f r om t he r oot viS - t o ent er or per vade."
vyApt e me r odasI pAr t ha kAnt iscApadhikA st hit A |
kr amaNaccApyaham pAr t ha! VishNur it i abhisamgj ~nit a: | |
- (mahAbhA. 350.43)
"As I have per vaded t he hor izons, my glor y st ands f or emost , and as I have
measur ed by my st eps t he t hr ee wor lds, O Ar j una! I am named vishNu".
Sr I anat akRshNa SAst r i int er pr et s t he t er m kAnt i her e as r ef er r ing t o His
Ef f ulgence - His r adiance per vades t he f ir mament and t r anscends it .
Sr I BhaTTar has given t he explanat ion of t he nAma vishNu in t er ms of His
power of per vasion (Sakt i) under nAma 663. He r ef er s t o t he mant r a about
bhagavAn: sar va Sakt yAt mane - He, Who is t he embodiment of all power s. He
also gives r ef er ence t o t he Slokam: "yasmAd vishTamidam sar vam t asya
Sakt yA mahAt manah." given ear lier . As an inst ance of t his Sakt i, t he
t r ivikr ama incar nat ion is also cit ed - t he smRt i declar es "vishNuh vikr amaNAt
devah" - mahA bhA. udyoga. 5.68.13), a r ef er ence t o His name being vishNu
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34
because He measur ed t he t hr ee wor lds wit h His st eps.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o nammAzhvAr ' s pr aise of His Sakt i:
"ennaik koNDu en pAvam t annaiyum pARak kait t u emar Ezh ezhu piRappum
mEvum t an maiyamAkkinAn vallan empir An en viTTuvE"
- (t ir uvAi. 2.7.4)
"He changed me f r om a nit ya samsAr i t o a nit ya sUr i; He ext er minat ed all my
sins, t hose of my pr edecessor s and my successor s f or sever al gener at ions, so
t hat all of us have r ef or med t o become His. Who did t his? VishNu! He will do
t his because His name implies all-per vasiveness".
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma-s kRt Agamah, anir deSya vapuh, vishNuh,
and vI r ah (nAma-s 661 t o 664) as indicat ive of His being t he Lor d of Sakt i.
Sr I cinmayAnanda r ef er s us t o I SAvAsya upanishad:
I SAvAsyam idam sar vam yat ki' nca j agat yAm j agat -
Ever yt hing t hat exist s in t he univer se is not hing but of t he nat ur e of t he Lor d,
and wit hout Him not hing exist s.
He per vades ever yt hing, unlimit ed by space, t ime, or subst ance.
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives an addit ional int er pr et at ion not f ound in
ot her vyAkhyAna-s:
vi + shNuh = vishNuh - viSesheNa snAvayat i pr asr Avayat i bhakt a abhilAshAn
it i vishNuh
- He who best ows t he wishes of t he devot ees like a f ount ain. Not e t hat t he
r oot f r om which t he second nAma is der ived is t he same as t he r oot f r om
which t he f ir st nAma - viSvam - was der ived. However , t he int er pr et at ion is
dif f er ent . The int er pr et at ion her e is t hat BhagavAn has ent er ed all beings -
sent ient and non-sent ient , t hat He has cr eat ed. The meaning f or t he f ir st
nAma was t hat bhagavAn is ever yt hing, t he Absolut e, f ull in all r espect s.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an nicely par aphr ases t he t wo nAma-s:
"a' ngu pUr t iyil nOkku, I ' ngu vyApt iyil nOkku".
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- t he f ir st nAma emphasizes His Fullness and Per f ect ion, and t he second nAma
indicat es t hat He per meat es ever yt hing.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i obser ves t hat medit at ion on t he signif icance of t he
f ir st t wo nAma-s - namely t hat Lor d vishNu is in ever yt hing ar ound us and in
ever y one of us, and t hat wit hout Him not hing exist s, will lead us closer t o a
lif e of peace, t r anquilit y, ahimsA, and self less ser vice t o Him.
Sr i Sur in, in his comment ar y on amar a KoSa, has given t he f ollowing der ivat ion
f or t he wor d VishNu - vevesht i it i vishNu: - One who sur r ounds and envelops.
This is der ived f r om t he r oot wor d vesht - t o sur r ound (r ecall t he wor d vesht i
in Tamil f or dhot i, which sur r ounds!).
One int er est ing quest ion t hat can be r aised is: Given t hat t he st ot r am is called
vishNu sahasr anAmam, why did Sr i VyAsa not st ar t t he st ot r am as vishNur
viSvam vashat kAr o, and inst ead chose t o st ar t it as viSvam vishNur
vashat kAr o...?
Based on t he Sr I BhaTTar ' s anubhavam, viSvam is t he name t hat symbolizes
t he pr imar y at t r ibut e of t he par a f or m as one of shAdguNya par ipUr Nat va,
and vishnu and t he f ollowing names t hen elabor at e on t he name or t he guNa
r epr esent ed by t he name viSvam.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha r het or ically asks t he quest ion: I f Lor d vishNu is
ever ywher e, in ever yt hing, why is it t hat most of us don' t see Him? The key is
t he Sr addhA.
Sr addhayA vindat e vasuh - Rg veda. 10.151.4
Sr addhayAgnih samidhyat e Sr addhayA hUyat e havih |
Sr addhAm bhagasya mUr dhani vacasA vedayAmasi (Rg. 10.151.1)
Sr addhAm pr At ar havAmahe Sr addhAm madhyam dinam par i |
Sr addhAm sUr yasya nimr uci Sr addhe Sr addhApayeha nah | (Rg. 10.151.5)
He who is endowed wit h t he sAt t avic di sposit ion, or has developed it , keeps
seeing vishNu in ever yt hing ar ound him all t he t ime.
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To summar ize,
- t he nAma vishNu r ef er s t o t he guNa of bhagavAn in per vading ever yt hing He
has cr eat ed, including all sent ient and non-sent ient obj ect s f r om a blade of
gr ass t o br ahma; - His per vasion is because of His Sakt i; in ot her wor ds, He is
t he power behind ever yt hing t hat exist s; an inst ance of His Sakt i is illust r at ed
by His measur ing t he t hr ee wor lds wit h His Foot ; - His vyApat i is indicat ive of
t he insepar able r elat ion bet ween Him and ever yt hing else out side Him, in t he
sense t hat not hing exist s wit hout Him. - His per vasion of ever yt hing is of t he
f or m of His enveloping and shower ing ever yt hing ar ound Him wit h His Mer cy.
I t is not j ust His sausI lya t hat is indicat ed by t his nAma; all His power s
including t hat of cr eat ion, sust enance, His Lor dship, et c., ar e t o be under st ood
by t his nAma. - I t is because of His per vasion of ever yt hing in t his univer se
t hat t hings (f or example t he const ellat ions, t he planet s, et c.)., ar e in t heir
r espect ive posit ions wit hout colliding wit h each ot her . - He is also called
vishNu because He best ows t he wishes of His devot ees pr of usely like a
f ount ain.
nAma 3. nAma 3. nAma 3. 49³œ Tl¹- 49³œ Tl¹- 49³œ Tl¹- -- - vashaTkAr ah vashaTkAr ah vashaTkAr ah
One who cont r ols and dir ect s (not mer ely per vades).
Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he names VishNu, vashat kAr a, and bhut a-bhavya-
bhavat -pr abhu, as addit ional elabor at ions of t he name visvam. The r oot of t he
wor d is vas - t o cont r ol as He wills.
I t should be not ed t hat Sr i Bhat t ar has point ed out in his comment ar y f or
visvam t hat BhagavAn is ever ywher e wit h His shAdguNya par ipUr Nat va
WHI CH I S NATURAL TO HI M, in t he comment ar y f or vishNu t hat He
per meat es ever yt hing t hat HE CREATES AND POSSESSES, and in t he cur r ent
one f or vashat kAr a t hat He cont r ols AS HE WI LLS. Thus, all t hese guNas ar e
not somet hing t hat have been acquir ed or impar t ed by somet hing ext er nal, but
t his is His will and schema.
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The f ollowing passages f r om t he sr ut i ar e given in suppor t of t he
int er pr et at ion of t his nAma:
* sar vasya vaso sar vasya I sAna: - He is t he Cont r oller of all and t he Ruler of
all.
* j agadvase var t at edam - The Univer se is under His cont r ol.
The summar izat ion f r om Nir ukt i is svecchayA yo sar vam vase kar ot i sa:
vashat kAr a: - One Who cont r ols and dir ect s ever yt hing and ever yone as He
wills.
Sr i Sankar a pr ovides a ver y dif f er ent int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma. He point s
out t hat BhagavAn is Himself t he vashat kAr a mant r a, wher e vashat is a sacr ed
sound (similar t o Pr aNavam, svAhA, et c). used on sacr if icial of f er ings. I t is
also used in t he anganyAsa and kar anYasa pr act ice bef or e chant ing t he sacr ed
slokas (e.g., sahasr Ar chis sapt aj ihva it i sakt yai sikhAyai vashat ). Not e t he
similar it y of vashat kAr a t o Pr aNavAkAr a, a wor d wit h which we ar e f amiliar .
Vashat kAr a is t hus a mant r a, and BhagavAn is t he mant r a svar Upi.
The explanat ion in t er ms of BhagavAn having cont r ol over all His cr eat ions is
appealing because of t he cont inuit y it pr ovides t o t he int er pr et at ions of t he
pr evious nAmas.
nAma 4. nAma 4. nAma 4. ¬6¬-4¬4t9¬- ¬6¬-4¬4t9¬- ¬6¬-4¬4t9¬- -- - bhUt a bhUt a bhUt a-- -bhavya bhavya bhavya-- -bhavat bhavat bhavat -- -pr abhuh pr abhuh pr abhuh
The Mast er of all t hings past , f ut ur e, and pr esent .
Nir ukt i - t r ikAla var t inAm seshi
- The Lor d of all t hings t hat exist in t he past , pr esent , and f ut ur e.
Fr om t he sr ut is, we have
"bhUt a-bhavya-bhavan-nAt ha: kesava: kesi sUdhana: "
- Kesava, t he slayer of Kesi, t he asur a, is t he Lor d of past , f ut ur e, and
pr esent .
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The idea t hat BhagavAn is beyond t he physical laws as we know t hem, such as
t he laws and const r aint s of t ime, can be inf er r ed f r om t his nAma. I n or der f or
Him t o be t he Lor d of all t hings past , f ut ur e, and pr esent , He exist ed bef or e
anyt hing exist ed, exist s now, and will exist f or ever int o t he f ut ur e. Thus t he
well-known and est ablished physical law t hat all living t hings come t o an end
does not apply t o Him. He is beginningless and endless.
Sr i Bhat t ar has explained t hat t he nAmas 2, 3, and 4 elabor at e t he f ir st nAma
by indicat ing how t he All-per vading vAsudeva is in ever yt hing living and non-
living, cont r ols ever yt hing, and is t he Mast er of ever yt hing past , f ut ur e, and
pr esent . He now pr oceeds t o explain t he next 5 nAmas as f ur t her expanding on
t his last aspect - how He is t he Mast er of all t hings past , f ut ur e, and pr esent .
We will see t hat t his is so because he is t he cr eat or of all beings (nama 5), t he
suppor t er of all beings (t his nAma 6 seems t o be f ur t her elabor at ed by nAmas
8 and 9), has exist ence independent of any ot her being and as t he Lor d or
Dir ect or of all t hat exist (7), suppor t s all t hat He has cr eat ed by being t heir
ant ar yAmi or inner soul (8), and suppor t s by nour ishing t hem and gr owing t hem
(9).
nAma 5. nAma 5. nAma 5. ¬6T6 ¬6T6 ¬6T6 -- - bhUt akr ut bhUt akr ut bhUt akr ut
The cr eat or of all beings.
Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t hat t his act of cr eat ion of is done by Him wit hout
dependence on anyt hing ext er nal.
"sar vANi bhUt Ani svat ant r a: sr j at i"
- not e t he wor d svat ant r at a:
"bhut Ani kar ot i it i bhUt akr t "
- One who cr eat es all t he beings.
I n Br hadAr aNya upanishad -
"sa visvakr t sa hi sar vasya kar t A"
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- He is t he cr eat or of t he Univer se and all t he beings in t he Univer se.
"t vam kar t A sar va bhUt AnAm"
- You ar e t he Cr eat or of ever yt hing t hat exist s - VishNu Pur ANa 1-4-15.
nAma 6. nAma 6. nAma 6. ¬6¬6 ¬6¬6 ¬6¬6 -- - bhUt abr ut bhUt abr ut bhUt abr ut
The suppor t er of all t hings.
BhUt Ani Bibhar t i it i bhUt a-bhr t
- One who suppor t s all. (seems t o be f ur t her elabor at ed by nAmas 8 and 9)
Sr i Bhat t ar explains t hat t his suppor t is like t hat of t he suppor t at t he cent er
f or a wheel and it s spokes. I f t his cent r al suppor t does not exist , t he r est of
t he spokes and t he wheel collapse. Thus, one can t hink of t his suppor t as t he
r esponsibilit y f or t he exist ence of all t he t hings t hat He cr eat es. This suppor t
is in t he f or m of being t he inner soul or at man of all beings (nAma 8 below),
and as t he One who nour ishes and pr ot ect s all beings (nAma 9 below).
Sr i Radhakr ishna Sast r i in his wor k on Sr i VishNu sahasr anAma explains t his
suppor t as t hat pr ovided by Adi Kur ma t o suppor t t his univer se, or by Sr i
VishNu as var Aha mUr t i when he r et r ieved and bor e t he wor ld.
Sr i Sankar a int er pr et s nAma 6 above as r ef er r ing t o t he act s of cr eat ion or
dest r uct ion ("bhUt ani kr t ant i kr Not i hinst i it i bhUt a kr t "), and nAma 7 as
r ef er r ing t o t he act of sust enance, in t he cont ext of t he t hr ee f unct ions of
cr eat ion, sust enance, and dest r uct ion.
nAma 7. nAma 7. nAma 7. ¬l4- ¬l4- ¬l4- -- - bhAvah bhAvah bhAvah
He who exist s wit h all t he splendor
He who exist s always, independent of anyt hing else.
This nAma is der ived f r om t he r oot bhU (bhavat i - exist s). Sr i ChinmayAnanda
gives t he der ivat ion: "bhavat i it i bhAva:"
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nAma 8. nAma 8. nAma 8. ¬ 6ltPl ¬ 6ltPl ¬ 6ltPl -- - bhUt At mA bhUt At mA bhUt At mA
The At mA or soul of all beings - sar veshAm bhUt AnAm At mA
All t hings ar e His body, and He is t he soul of all t hings.
The soul ent er s t he bodies, and dir ect ly cont r ols and dir ect s all t heir
act ivit ies.
Sr i Sankar a gives t he f ollowing r ef er ence f r om Br hadAr aNya Upanishad:
esha t a At mA ant ar yamyamr t ah (3.7.3)
- The Lor d is t he soul, t he ant ar yAmi or inner r uler of all beings, and amr t a or
never ceasing t o exist .
Sr i Chinmayananda gives t he f ollowing r ef er ence f r om Kat hopanishad:
"eko vasI sar va bhUt Ant ar Ar mA r Upam r Upam pr at ir Upo bahisca"
- The One Lor d manif est ing Himself as t he souls of all beings who have
dif f er ent ext er nal f or ms.
nAma 9. nAma 9. nAma 9. ¬6¬l4+- ¬6¬l4+- ¬6¬l4+- -- - bhUt abhAvanah bhUt abhAvanah bhUt abhAvanah
One who nour ishes and nur t ur es all beings t hat He cr eat ed.
The key wor d t hat bot h Sr i Bhat t ar and Sr i Sankar a use in t heir vyAkhyAnas
f or t his nAma
is var dhayat i - makes t hem gr ow - t he act of nour ishing is emphasized.
Sr i Bhat t ar ' s wor ds ar e:
t Ani dhAr aka poshaka bhogyapr adAnena var dhayat i it i bhUt a-bhAvanah -
He is bhUt a-bhAvana because He makes all t hings gr ow by best owing on t hem
t hings t hat sust ain t hem, nour ish t hem, and cont r ibut e t o t heir enj oyment .
Sr i Sankar a bhAshya says: bhUt Ani bhAvayat i j anayat i var dhayat i it i vA
bhUt a-bhAvanah - He makes t hem shine (bhA - t o shine), gener at es or
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invigor at es, and makes t hem gr ow.
Wit h t his, we have concluded t he f ir st sloka out of t he 107 slokas. We not ice
t hat Sr i Bhat t ar has beaut if ully br ought out t he cont inuit y in t he descr ipt ion
bet ween t he 9 nAmas cover ed in t his f ir st sloka.


Sr i Lakshmikant han at Hedat hale, Mysor e
(Samaashr ayaNa Thir ukkOlam wit h Rever se Ayudhams and
Padhmam and Gadai in upper hands)

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SlOkam 2
9 6ltPl 9¹PltPl ¬ P 16l+l 9¹Pl ¬|6-· 9 6ltPl 9¹PltPl ¬ P 16l+l 9¹Pl ¬|6-· 9 6ltPl 9¹PltPl ¬ P 16l+l 9¹Pl ¬|6-·
H-44- 9 69FBl¬l ¬ ׬l 5¬¹ 94 ¬+ -+ H-44- 9 69FBl¬l ¬ ׬l 5¬¹ 94 ¬+ -+ H-44- 9 69FBl¬l ¬ ׬l 5¬¹ 94 ¬+ -+
pUt At mA par amAt mA ca mukt AnAm par amA gat ih |
avyayah pur ushas sAkshI kshet r aj n~O5kshar a eva ca | |
nAma 10. nAma 10. nAma 10. 96ltPl 96ltPl 96ltPl -- - pUt At mA pUt At mA pUt At mA
The Pur e Self - One who is unt aint ed by t he ef f ect s of kar ma - good or bad.
PUt a At mA yasya sa pUt At mA
- One who has t he pur e At ma is pUt At mA.
Our At mas r eap t he f r uit s of t he act ions t hat we ar e involved in because of
t heir associat ion wit h our body. BhagavAn is also associat ed wit h t he same
bodies since we ar e all ext ensions of His body. However , He is Pur e At man
because He is not af f ect ed by t he f r uit s of t he associat ion wit h t he bodies.
Sr i Bhat t ar gives a ver y simple example t o make t his point . A t eacher uses a
st ick t o st r ike a st udent . Bot h t he t eacher and t he st udent come in cont act
wit h t he same st ick, but t he pain of associat ion wit h t he st ick is f elt by t he
st udent , but not by t he t eacher . So also, even t hough bot h t he Lor d and t he
j I vAt mans ar e associat ed wit h t he bodies of t he j I vAt mans, t he Lor d is not
af f ect ed by t he f r uit s of t he act ions of t he j I vAt mans.
I n t he Git a, Sr i Kr shNa says:
"na mAm kar mANi lipant i"
- act ions do not t aint me.
Also, t he sr ut i says:
subhAsubah kar mabhir yo na lipyat i kadAcana
- never t aint ed by act ions, good or bad.
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nAma 11. nAma 11. nAma 11. 9¹PltPl 9¹PltPl 9¹PltPl -- - par amAt mA par amAt mA par amAt mA
The Supr eme Soul - f or whom t her e is no ot her guiding or super ior soul
par o mA asya .sa At mA par amAt mA
- That Soul f or whom t her e is none super ior is par amAt mA.
All of us have Him as our inner souls, but BhagavAn has no one as His I nner
Soul t hat guides Him. Ther e is no one super ior t o Him. The aut hor of Nir ukt i
says:
"At ma I svar at vAt par amAt mA"
- One who is t he Lor d of Himself is par amAt mA.
Sr i Eknat h Easwar an indicat es t hat Lor d Kr ishna says in t he GI t A: "I am in
ever y one, but no one is in Me". He does not give t he r ef er ence t o t he Sanskr it
sloka, and I am unable t o r ef er ence it . I would like help f r om t he Bhakt i
member s in ident if ying t he r elevant sloka. Ther e ar e sever al pr amAnas f r om
t he sr ut is f or t his:
"na par am puNdar I kAkshAt dr syat e bhar at ar shabha"
-Ther e is not hing super ior t o t he Lot us-eyed.
"par am hi puNdar I kAkshAt na bhUt am na bhavishyat i"
- Ther e was not hing in t he past , and t her e will be not hing in t he f ut ur e, t hat is
super ior t o t he Lot us-eyed Lor d.
"na daivam kesavAt par am:"
- Ther e is no God super ior t o Kesava.
"mat t a: par a-t ar am nAnyat kincidast i"
- Gr eat er t han Myself , t her e is not hing else (Git A 7-7)
"par am hi amr t am et asmAt visva-r UpAt na vidyat e"
- Ther e is no gr eat er nect ar t han t he Lor d of Univer sal f or m.
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"par ah par ANAm par amah par amAt mA"
- He is gr eat er t han t he gr eat ; He is super ior , and he is t he Supr eme Soul
(visHNu pur ANa - 1.2.10)
"par amAt mA ca sar veshAm AdhAr a: par amesvar a: |
vishNur nAma sar va-vedeshu vedAnt eshu ca gI yat e" | |
- (VishNu pur ANa 6.4.10)
The I svar a above all I svar as, t he par amAt mA who is t he suppor t er of ever y
being, is sung by all vedas and vedant as as Lor d VishNu.
nAma 12. nAma 12. nAma 12. P 16l+l 9¹Pl ¬|6- P 16l+l 9¹Pl ¬|6- P 16l+l 9¹Pl ¬|6- -- - mukt AnAm par amA gat ih mukt AnAm par amA gat ih mukt AnAm par amA gat ih
One who is t he ult imat e goal f or all mukt as or Released or Liber at ed Souls.
Mukt as ar e t hose who ar e alr eady r eleased f r om all bondage, and enj oy ever y
bliss t hat t he BhagavAn has. They have equalit y wit h God in t he enj oyment of
t his Bliss. The goal t hat such a mukt a longs f or at t his st age is t o const ant ly
ser ve t he Lor d., and t hus t he Par ama pur usha is mukt AnAm-par amA-gat ih.
The mukt as ar e .compar ed t o t hose who r eside in t he celest ial wor ld, t he svet a
dvI pa. They have no needs such as f ood, no want s, no desir es, et c. For t hese
people who have accomplished ever yt hing and who ar e equal t o God in t heir
enj oyment of bliss, t he one goal t hat is of int er est is t he unceasing ser vit ude
t o God, and t hus God is t he Supr eme and Ult imat e Goal f or t he mukt as.
Par amA gat i is t he goal af t er at t aining which you won' t desir e anyt hing else. I n
ot her wor ds, t his is t he limit of t he goal . Nor mally, t he nat ur e of any goal is
such t hat if you at t ain .t hat goal, t hen you will want t o at t ain t he next higher
goal. This is not t he case wit h par amA gat i. Some pr amANas f r om t he sr ut is
ar e t he f ollowing:
".....mAmeva anut t amAm gat im"
- (They at t ain) Me, t he unsur passed goal -Bhagavad GI t A 7.18
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"sA kAsht hA sA par A gat ih"
- He is t he highest means; He is t he Supr eme Goal - kaThopanishad -3.11.
Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he next 5 names in t er ms of why t he mukt As choose
BhagavAn as t heir Supr eme goal. I t should be not ed t hat Sr i Bhat t ar ' s
vyAkhyAna weave a t hr ead of cont inuit y in t he sequence of t he names
occur r ing in t he st ot r am, and f or t his r eason Sr i Bhat t ar ext ends t he
int er pr et at ion t o levels beyond what is et ymologically der ived f r om t he wor d..
r elat ively speaking, Sr i Sankar a seems t o mor e st r ict ly adher e t o t he lit er al
meaning of t he wor d in his vyAkhyAna. Of cour se, t her e ar e also inevit able
dif f er ences in int er pr et at ion because of t he visisht Advait a vs. advait a
philosophies.
The r easons f or t he mukt As choosing Sr i MahA VishNu as t heir Supr eme goal
ar e: He does not send t hem back t o t he cycle of samsAr a once t hey r each Him
(13), He gives t he enj oyment of His Bliss t o t he mukt as in abundance (14), He
wit nesses t he mukt as' enj oyment of Him and is in t ur n pleased, which pleases
t he mukt as (15), He knows t he r ight place f or t he mukt as t o get t heir et er nal
Bliss (16), and He is one whose Gr eat ness never diminishes over t ime in spit e of
t he const ant Bliss t hat He pr ovides t o t he mukt as (17).
nAma 13. nAma 13. nAma 13. H-44- H-44- H-44- -- - avyayah avyayah avyayah
a) One who does not send back anyone who has r eached Him (t o t he cycle of
bir t h and r ebir t h .(Sr i Bhat t ar )
b) I ndest r uct ible (Sr i Sankar a)
Sr i Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna -
na vI yat e - na vyapagamyat e it i avyayah
- He is avyaya because He does not send t hem back (t o samsAr a)
.I n t he Yama Smr t i, we f ind t he f ollowing:
"sat t vam vahat i sUkshmat vAt par am nAr AyaNam pr abhum |
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par amAt mAnam AsAdya par am vaikunTam I svar am | |
amr t at vAya kalpet a na nivar t et a vai puna:| "
The Mukt a bear s a body of pur e and subt le sat t va and at t ains t he Supr eme
Lor d nAr AyaNa. Once he r eaches t he Supr eme Lor d in t he supr eme
VaikuNTha, he becomes f it f or immor t alit y and is not r et ur ned back t o t his
wor ld any mor e.
Sr i Sankar a' s vyAkhyAna -
Sr i Sankar a gives a dif f er ent int er pr et at ion t o t his name - I ndest r uct ible -
based on na asya vyayah it i avyayah, wher e vyaya means somet hing t hat can be
dest r oyed. He gives t he f ollowing pr amANa f r om t he Br hadAr aNya Upanishad:
"aj ar ah amar ah avyayah"
- He is undecaying, immor t al, and indest r uct ible" (6.4.25).
See also t he nAr AyaNa sUkt am - anat amavyayam kavim ..... The I mmor t al and
I ndest r uct ible Seer .
nAma 14. nAma 14. nAma 14. 969- 969- 969- -- - pur ushah pur ushah pur ushah
a) One who best ows on t he Mukt as t he enj oyment of t he Bliss of Himself in
plent y.
- pur u sanot i it i pur ushah
b) One who is r eclining in t his body - pur i set e it i pur ushah
c) One who exist ed bef or e anyt hing else exist ed - pur A AsI t it i pur ushah
d) One who complet es and f ulf ills exist ence ever ywher e - pUr ayat i it i pur ushah
Pur u sanot i it i pur ushah
- One who gives in plent y; pur u means plent y, and sanot i means giver .
Or , pur UNi phalAni sanot i - dadAt i it i pur ur shah -
One who gives plent if ul benef it s.
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We f ind in t he t ait t ir I ya upanisahd -
"r asi vai sah , r asam hveyAm labdhvA AnandI bhavat i -
He is Pur e Bliss I t self . Having at t ained Him, t he Mukt a becomes endowed wit h
j oy".
Sever al ot her explanat ions f or t his name ar e possible. One of t hese t hat is
also given by Sr i Sankar a in addit ion t o t he above t hat Sr i Bhat t ar has also
chosen, is suppor t ed by t he f ollowing in MahAbhAr at a
"navadvAr am pur am puNyam et air bhAvaih samanvit am |
vyApya set e mahAt mA yast asmAt pur usha ucyat e | |
- (12-203-35).
"Since t he gr eat Soul per vades and r esi des in t his holy cit y (t he body) wit h
nine dvAr as or gat es, possessed of t hese or gans (senses, et c.)., He is called
pur usha".
Anot her alt er nat ive int er pr et at ion t hat Sr i Sankar a gives is
"pur i set e it i pur ushah - One who dwells in t his For t cit y - our body". He r ef er s
t o t he f ollowing f r om t he t ait t ir I ya Ar aNyaka -
"pUr vameva aham iha Asam it i pur ushasya pur usaht vam" - I indeed exist ed
her e bef or e; as I exist ed bef or e, I am called pur usha. We r ecall t hat t he
pur usha is somet imes pr onounced as pUr usha in vedic chant ings (at o j yAyAgsca
pUr ushah - in pur usha sUkt am as an example).
Pur a is used t o r ef er t o t his body, as in Git a 5-13: nava dvAr e pur e dehe.. t he
f or t r ess wit h nine gat eways.
Sr i Chinmayananda suggest s t hat t hese dif f er ent ways of int er pr et ing t he
meanings of t he names is a way t o under st and mor e and mor e about t he Nat ur e
of t he Lor d.

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nAma 15. nAma 15. nAma 15. Bl¬l Bl¬l Bl¬l -- - SakshI SakshI SakshI
One who dir ect ly wit nesses ever yt hing, as it is. The All-Knower , The
Omniscient BhagavAn sees ever yt hing dir ect ly by His own awar eness wit hout
any inst r ument f or seeing (such as t he sense or gans) in bet ween. SAkshAt
I kshat e - The Dir ect Cognizer .
J ust as t he sun illumines ever yt hing but is not af f ect ed in anyway by t he st at e
of t he obj ect s it illumines, so also t he Lor d wit nesses ever yt hing but is not
af f ect ed by all t hat He wit nesses. The j I vAt mAs see ever yt hing t hr ough some
sense or gan or t he ot her , and so t he def iciencies of t hese or gans limit s what is
seen. Not so in t he case of t he Lor d.
Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his name as indicat ing t hat t he Lor d wit nesses t he
mukt as enj oying t he Bliss t hat He conf er s on t hem, and is t hus happy Himself .
Obviously, t his give gr eat pleasur e t o Mukht as, since t hey ar e int er est ed in His
happiness, and t his is one of t he r easons f or His being t heir par amA gat i.
nAma 16. nAma 16. nAma 16. ¬×¬- ¬×¬- ¬×¬- -- - kshEt r aj ~nah kshEt r aj ~nah kshEt r aj ~nah
One who knows, and can lead t he mukt as t o t he exact place wher e t he mukt as
will get t heir sought -af t er Supr eme Bliss. Sr i nAr AyaNa is t he vaikunTha
vAsi. VaikunTha is t he place af t er r eaching which t her e is no r et ur n t o t his
wor ld. That t his is a place which even t he gr eat est of sages can r ealize only
af t er int ense medit at ion and devot ion t o t he Lor d is evident f r om t he f ollowing
passage at t r ibut ed t o Sage Agast ya in var Aha pur ANa -
"adyApi t am lokavar am dhyAyan t ishThAmi suvr at a! |
kada pr Apyet t u asau loka: sar va loka var ot t amah | |
"I am even now st eeped in t he medit at ion of t hat supr eme wor ld. When am I
going t o r each t hat best and noblest of all wor lds? This is t he t hought t hat is
haunt ing me".
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I n var Aha pur ANa, BhagavAn t ells Sage Agast ya:
"pasya lokamimam mahyam yo na vedest u dr syat e |
t vat -pr iyAr t ham ayam lokah dar sit ast e dvij ot t ama | |
" See t his wor ld which exist s f or my sake and which is not seen even by t he
vedas. O best of Br ahmins! This wor ld has been shown t o you in or der t o please
you". Not e t hat even a sage of t he st anding of Agast ya has not seen t his place
except when God chose t o show it t o him.
Sr i Sankar a has int er pr et ed t his name based on Bhagavad GI t A Chapt er 13 -
slokas 1 and 2, in par t icular . Her e, t he wor d kshet r a r ef er s t o t he body, and
kshet r aj na r ef er s t o One who knows (under st ands t he pr inciple or t at va
behind) all t he bodies and is t he dir ect wit ness of t he act ions of all t he bodies
(by being dir ect ly inside t he bodies and not needing any secondar y means t o
wit ness t hese). May be kshet r aj na is a guNa of t he Supr eme Soul, and is an
elabor at ion of t he name "bhUt At mA".
nAma 17. nAma 17. nAma 17. H¬¹- H¬¹- H¬¹- -- - akshar ah akshar ah akshar ah
One whose gr eat ness never diminishes over t ime in spit e of being enj oyed by
t he mukt as const ant ly.
na kshar at i it i akshar ah .
His gr eat ness is innat e, and does not der ive f r om somet hing ext er nal. So it
never diminishes.
I n Nir ukt i, t his is explained as f ollows:
"sadA anubhUyamAno' pi nissI ma guNa gaur avAt |
mukt ai: kvacit na kshar at i it i akshar a: par ikI r t it a: | | "
Sr i Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion is: "sa eva na kshar at i it i akshar ah - He alone
exist s wit hout dying. Sr i Bhat t ar has t hus explained nAmas 13 t o 17 as t he
r eason why mukt as consider t he Lor d t he par amA gat i.
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vishNu sahasr a naama r oopam
(dr awing made out of t he t housand nAmAs of sr I mahA vishNu)
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SlOkam 3
4l ¬l 4l ¬|47l + 6l 9¤l+9 69 H¹-· 4l ¬l 4l ¬|47l + 6l 9¤l+9 69 H¹-· 4l ¬l 4l ¬|47l + 6l 9¤l+9 69 H¹-·
+l¹|B r49 - ~lPl+ T H4- 9 69l ¬P-+ °+ +l¹|B r49 - ~lPl+ T H4- 9 69l ¬P-+ °+ +l¹|B r49 - ~lPl+ T H4- 9 69l ¬P-+ °+
yOgO yOgavidAm nEt A pr adhAnapur ushesvar ah |
nAr asimhavapuh sr I mAn kEsavah pur ushOt t amah | |
nAma 18. nAma 18. nAma 18. 4l¬- 4l¬- 4l¬- -- - yOgah yOgah yOgah
a) He Who is t he sole means or upAya f or salvat ion or mukt i.
b) He Who is r eached t hr ough yoga (medit at ion).
The wor d yoga has sever al dif f er ent meanings given in t he amar a koSa: means,
medit at ion, union, f it ness, r emedy, et c.
yogah sannahana upAya dhyAna sa’ngat i yukt ishu (amar a koSa 3.3.22)
Given t his diver sit y of meanings f or t he wor d ‘yoga’, now let us see t he
dif f er ent int er pr et at ions f or t he nAma ‘yogah’.
a) Sr I BhaTTar uses t he meaning ‘upAya’ or ‘means’ f or t he t er m ‘yoga’. His
int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma is t hat bhagavAn is t he sole means or upAya f or
mukt i (salvat ion) – asyaiva nir upAdhika mukt i upAyat vamapi vakt i – yogah – He
alone is t he nat ur al and independent means f or salvat ion. He f ur t her
comment s – sa sAyuj yasya ananyApekshah sAkshAt het uh it yar t hah – The
meaning is t hat He is t he immediat e cause of salvat ion, and does not st and in
need of t he help of anyt hing else.
He gives suppor t t he br ahma sUt r a and f r om t he gI t A:
- t ad-het u-vyapadeSAc-ca (br ahma sUt r a 1.1.15) – He is t he cause of t he
Bliss t hat all souls enj oy. – esha hveya AnandayAt i ( (t ait t . Ananda. 2.7.1)
- aham t vA sar va pApebhyo mokshayishyAmi (gI t A 18.66) – “I will r elease
you f r om all sins”.
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Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives mult iple int er pr et at ions, one of which uses t he
meaning “upAyam” f or t he wor d ‘yoga’. The explanat ion is along t he lines given
by Sr I BhaTTar – bhat AnAm bhava t ar aNa upAya it i yogah – He Who is t he
means of salvat ion f or His devot ees.
Anot her vyAkhyAna kar t A who uses t he meaning ‘upAyam’ f or t he wor d ‘yoga’ is
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj – yogah bhakt a abhilAsha adhigamAya amogha
upAyah – The unf ailing upAya or means f or at t aining t he desir es or wishes of
t he devot ees.
b) Sr I Sa’nkar a uses t he meaning ‘union’ or ‘oneness’ f or t he t er m ‘yoga’, and
gives an int er pr et at ion t hat suppor t s t he advait a concept t hat t he individual
soul and t he Supr eme Soul ar e not dif f er ent f r om each ot her . He not es t hat
yoga is t he pr ocess of cont r olling t he senses and t he mind, and r ealizing t his
“oneness”, and He is called yogah because He is t o be r eached by means of
yoga as descr ibed her e (in ot her wor ds, by at t aining t his knowledge of
oneness).
(I t should be not ed t hat one of t he main r easons f or t he gr eat AcAr ya-s
under t aking t o wr it e comment ar ies on impor t ant wor ks such as t he vishNu
sahasr a nAmam, t he gI t A, t he br ahma sUt r a-s, t he upanishad-s, et c., is t o
show t hat t heir par t icular philosophy is what is suppor t ed and advocat ed by
t he dif f er ent smRt i-s, Sr ut i-s, pur ANa-s, et c. To quot e svAmi AdidevAnanda
f r om his I nt r oduct ion t o bhagavad r AmAnuj a’s gI t A bhAshyam, “Such a
met hod involves some t ext -t or t ur ing t o get t he meaning t hat one want s…. To
impar t a sense of consist ency of a t ext t o t heir f ollower s, t hey ar e compelled
t o give int er pr et at ions t hat may somet imes look f ar -f et ched t o ot her s”. Sr I
AdidevAnanda is car ef ul t o point out t hat on t he whole, t he AcAr ya-s give a
r easonable and sat isf ying int er pr et at ion of t heir philosophy in t he pr ocess.
This is not j ust limit ed t o Sr I Sa’nkar a’s int er pr et at ion, and can be seen in all
int er pr et at ions. The cur r ent int er pr et at ion by Sr i Sa’nkar a is one example of
assigning int er pr et at ions t hat br ing ‘suppor t ’ f or t heir philosophy f r om t he
ancient scr ipt ur es).
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c) Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN seems t o use bot h t he meanings ‘union’ and
‘medit at ion’ f or t he wor d ‘yoga’, and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is
called yogah, because t he devot ee’s mind becomes one wit h Him when t he
devot ee medit at es on Him - yuj yat e manah asmin it i yogah samAdheh
SubhASr ayah.
d) Sr I cinmayAnanda uses t he meaning ‘medit at ion’ f or t he t er m yoga, and
gives t he int er pr et at ion f or t he nAma ‘yogah’ as “One Who is r ealized t hr ough
yoga”. His int er pr et at ion is “By wit hdr awing t he sense-or gans f r om t heir
obj ect s of pr eoccupat ion, when t he mind of t he seeker becomes quiet , he is
lif t ed t o a higher plan of consciousness, wher ein he at t ains ‘yoga’, meaning he
r ealizes t he Realit y”. He not es: “At such moment s of equanimit y and ment al
quiet ‘yoga’ is gained – samat vam yoga ucyat e (gI t A 12.48)”. Not e t hat while
Sr I Sa’nkar a also int er pr et ed t he nAma as “One Who is at t ained t hr ough yoga’,
his int er pr et at ion of yoga was ‘at t aining knowledge of oneness of self and t he
Self ’, wher eas Sr I cinmayAnanda’s meaning f or t he wor d yoga is medit at ion by
quiet ing t he mind and cont r olling t he senses.
Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha also uses t he meaning ‘medit at ion’ f or t he wor d yoga
in one of his int er pr et at ions – yuj yat e hRdi yogibhih dhyAyat a it i yogah – He
Who is medit at ed upon by t he yogi-s is yogah .
This nAma is pr obably a ver y good example wher e dif f er ent vyAkhyAna kar t A-
s use t he diver sit y of meanings f or a wor d, and give int er pr et at ions t hat
suppor t t heir own schools of philosophy, and we get t he benef it of diver se
enj oyment of His guNa-s in t he pr ocess.
nAma 19. nAma 19. nAma 19. 4l ¬|47l + 6l 4l ¬|47l + 6l 4l ¬|47l + 6l -- - yOgavidhAm nEt a yOgavidhAm nEt a yOgavidhAm nEt a
One who leads t hose who pr act ise yogA unt il t hey r each t heir Goal.
Fr om Sankar a BhAshya, a yoga-vit is one who inquir es int o, r ealizes, or acquir es
yoga - yogam vidant i, vicAr ayant i, j Anant i, labhant a it i vA yoga vidah. Nayat i it i
net A - one who leads .
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I n GI t A, Sr i Kr ishna says:
"ananyAs-cint ayant o mAm ye j anAh par yupAsat e|
t eshAm nit yAbhiyukt AnAm yoga-keshemam vahAmyaham| | (GI t A - 9-22)
" On t hose who medit at e on me wit h single-minded devot ion, t hose t hat want
t o be wit h Me unceasingly, I conf er on t hem .t he Bliss of .union (yoga) wit h Me
const ant ly and never r et ur ning back t o samsAr a again (t he saf et y or kshema)"
nAma 20. nAma 20. nAma 20. 9¤l+969H¹- 9¤l+969H¹- 9¤l+969H¹- -- - pr adhAna pr adhAna pr adhAna-- -pur ushEsvar ah pur ushEsvar ah pur ushEsvar ah
One who is t he Lor d of Pr imor dial Mat t er as well as t he J ivas.
Pr adhAna her e r ef er s t o t he cause of bondage, and pur usha r ef er s t o t he
j ivAt mA. Per haps t he easiest way t o under st and t he concept of pr akr t i or
pr adhAna is t hr ough t he f ollowing explanat ion f or t he Br ahma Sut r a - deha
yogAdvA so' pi - This concealment of t he t r ue nat ur e of j iva is caused by t he
cont act wit h t he body (at t he t ime of cr eat ion) or by t he cont act wit h t he
Pr imor dial Mat t er (pr akr t i or pr adhAna) at t he t ime of deluge. Thus pr akr t i or
pr adhAna can be conceived of as t he undif f er ent iat ed or ' asat ' f or m of t he
bondage of t he j iva, and t he sar I r a or body can be conceived of as t he sat
f or m t hat keeps t he j iva in bondage.
Chapt er 13 in t he Bhagavad Git a deals elabor at ely wit h t he concept s of pr akr t i
and j I vAt mA and t heir int er r elat ionship t o each ot her . I n sloka 19 of chapt er
13, BhagavAn point s out t hat bot h pr akr t i and pur usha have always exist ed,
and t his nAma indicat es t hat He is t he Lor d and Mast er of bot h. "pr akr t im
pur usham caiva vidyanAdau ubhAvapi". pr akr t i can be consider ed t o be
composed of r aj as, t amas and sat t va, and f r om t hese all t he r est such as t he
panca bhUt as, t he eleven indr iyas, t he f ive indr iya-gocar as, et c. ar ise. These
ar e explained in det ail in t he gI t A bhAshya by Tir ukkaLLam Sr i
Nr simhAchAr ya.

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nAma 21. nAma 21. nAma 21. +l¹|Br49- +l¹|Br49- +l¹|Br49- -- - nAr asimhavapuh nAr asimhavapuh nAr asimhavapuh
He Who is possessed of a body of man and lion combined.
nArasimha-vapushe namah.
Sr I BhaTTar capt ur es sever al t hought s about t his incar nat ion of bhagavAn in
one sent ence in his comment ar y: sva-bhakt yant ar Aya nivAr aNam bhkat a-
bhayApaha t adapekshA samakshaNa pr at ipannayat hA kAma divya mahA-
nRsimha samhananh.
1. This incar nat ion shows a r emoval of impediment s t o devot ion t o Him.
2. He t akes incar nat ions at will.
3. His incar nat ions ar e divine.
4. They r emove t he f ear of His devot ees .
5. The incar nat ions ar e assumed t he moment t he r equest is made.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i elabor at es on t hese, and add his own anubhava-s.
Among his addit ional t hought s ar e:
6. This incar nat ion shows t hat when it comes t o bhagavAn, our "nor mal"
r at ionalizat ion should not be applied t o anyt hing associat ed wit h Him. For
inst ance, we know t hat man is t he best evolved species in t he t hinking
capabilit y (br ain power ). Similar ly, lion is t he most evolved in physical st r engt h.
I t s st r engt h is locat ed in it s body and it s power f ul nails. So, in or der t o
dest r oy a power f ul asur a such as hir aNya kaSipu, it would have made a lot
mor e sense if bhagavAn had t aken a f or m wit h t he head of a human being (wit h
t he associat ed highly evolved br ain), and t he body of a lion (t he most evolved
wit h r espect t o physical st r engt h). BhagavAn does exact ly t he opposit e - t he
head of a lion, and t he body of a human being. This is a simple illust r at ion of
t he point t hat He is beyond our capabilit ies of analysis.
BhagavAn does what ever it t akes t o f ulf ill t he r equest of His devot ee,
ir r espect ive of whet her it shows Him in t he best light or not . ANDAL r ef er s
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t o His var Aha incar nat ion as "mAnam ilAp panRi" - t he shameless boar wit h dir t
dr ipping f r om all over it s body, t o go af t er anot her r Akshasa, hir aNyAksha,
t he br ot her of hir aNyakaSipu.
7. Anyone who obser ves a scene of an asur a being t or n t o pieces wit h it s nails
by a lion-f aced f or m wit h a human body, will be t er r or -st r icken. And yet , we
see pr ahlAda st anding in gr eat r ever ence, unper t ur bed, and pleased at having
t he divya dar Sanam of t he Lor d. But seeing t he same f or m, hir aNyakaSipu was
t er r or -st r icken as t he half -man-half -lion f or m emer ged f r om t he pillar . Thus,
at t he same t ime, wit h t he same f or m, bhagavAn was pleasing t o t he eye of t he
devot ee, and causing t er r or t o t he devot ee' s enemy. This is anot her r evelat ion
of t he gr eat ness of bhagavAn – t hat simult aneously He is endowed wit h all
opposit es at t he same t ime.
8. I n addit ion t o t he aspect of His being able t o induce f ear or love at t he
same t ime, t her e is t he beaut y aspect t o His f or m of half -man half -lion. J ust
f or a moment , t hink of some human f or m wit h t he head of a lion appear ing in
f r ont of us, and imagine t he aver sion t hat t his sight will induce in us. Not so
wit h Lor d nRsimha. He was absolut ely beaut if ul in t his f or m, as Sr I BhaTTar
elabor at es in t he next nAma – Sr I mAn – because He is always associat ed wit h
Sr I or Lakshmi. t ir umazhiSai AzhvAr descr ibes His beaut y as “ar i po’ngik
kATTum azhagu (nAnmugan t ir u. 21) – The beaut y of nRsimha f or m looked like
beaut y bubbling and spilling over because it can’t be cont ained anywher e.
9. I n nor mal cour se of lif e, somet hing t hat came f r om br eaking a j aDa f or m
such as t he pillar should be expect ed t o be anot her piece of t he same j aDa
f or m. One should expect a live f or m t o be or iginat ing only f r om anot her lif e
f or m. Her s r elat ing t o Him, we should not be applying nor mal logic as we ar e
used t o do.
SvAmi deSikan descr ibes t his unusual bir t h of Lor d nRsimha f r om t he pillar in
his daSavat Ar a st ot r am in one of his poet ic naya-s. He descr ibes t he lucky
pillar f r om which Lor d nRsimha emer ged, as t he gr andmot her of br ahmA –
mahAsur a gRha st hUNA pit AmahyabhUt (Slokam 5). The “lineage” in t his
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descr ipt ion is t hat bhagavAn is t he f at her of br ahmA, and since t he pillar gave
“bir t h” t o Lor d nRsimha, t he pillar t hus becomes t he gr andmot her of br ahmA.
10. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha does not suppor t t he int er pr et at ion t hat
bhagavAn had an act ual mixed body consist ing of some aspect s of man and
some aspect s of lion. I nst ead, he suggest s t hat t he nAma means t hat He t ook
a nor mal f or m t hat possessed t he best aspect s such as t he st r engt h of a lion,
and t he best aspect s of man such as t he abilit y t o t hink. We will not go int o
t he mer it s of t his int er pr et at ion. Only t he int er est ing philosophical aspect
t hat he br ings out is dealt wit h her e. He sees in t his nAma t he illust r at ion t hat
neit her kar ma alone, nor j ~nAna alone, ar e suf f icient in t he f ulf illment of any
under t aking, and t hat bot h ar e needed. He quot es f r om t he Sr t ut i-s in
suppor t :
idam me br ahma ca kshat r am ca ubhe Sr iyam aSnut Am (yaj ur . 32.16)
yat r a br ahma ca kshat r am ca samya' ncou car at ah saha |
t am lokam puNyam pr a~j nesham yat r a devAh sahagninA | | (yaj ur . 20.25)
As a lesson t o t ake f r om t his nAma, Sr I vAsishTha makes t he point t hat
what ever act ion one under t akes, t his should be done af t er f ully analyzing and
under st anding t he consequences associat ed wit h t his act ion. One can also
ext r apolat e f r om t his t he t hought t hat it is not enough t o have t he abilit y t o
use f or ce, but also along wit h t hat , one should know how t o use t his f or ce,
when t o use t his f or ce, et c., in or der f or t he f or ce t o have benef icial ef f ect s.
11. svAmi deSikan descr ibes t he six r ahasya-s associat ed wit h bhagavAn’s
incar nat ions in his Sar aNAgat i dI pikA Slokam 17. All of t hese nat ur ally apply
t o nAr asimha vapuh also. These ar e:
- He t akes many incar nat ions wit h dif f er ent f or ms at will as needed – nAnA
vidhaih. One of t hese is t he nRsimha incar nat ion.
- The incar nat ions ar e all t r ue f or ms t hat He assumes, and not j ust mAyA
f or ms – a-kapaTaih.
- Ever y incar nat ion of His is f ully endowed wit h His par at t vam and all His
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kalyANa guNa-s in f ull, ir r espect ive of t he incar nat ion He t akes – aj ahat -
svabhAvaih
- His f or ms in His incar nat ions ar e not made of pa’nca bhUt a-s like our s, but
His t ir umEni in His incar nat ions is also made of Suddha-sat t va, and so He is
beyond t he t hr ee guNa-s, sat t va, r aj as, and t amas – a-pr AkRt aih
- The f or ms in His incar nat ions ar e t aken as par t of His leelA, and not as a
r esult of any kar ma as in our case – nij -vihAr a-siddhaih
- They ar e t aken pur ely f or t he pr ot ect ion of His devot ees and t he
dest r uct ion of t heir enemies – At mI ya r akshaNa vipaksha vinASanAr t haih.

nAr asimha vapuh
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nAma 22. nAma 22. nAma 22. ~lPl+ ~lPl+ ~lPl+ -- - sr I mAn sr I mAn sr I mAn
One wit h a lovely f or m.
I n t he cont ext of t he uncommon and f r ight f ul f or m of nar a-simha t hat we
encount er ed in t he pr evious nAma, one would not nor mally expect t his t o be a
f or m of beaut y. Not so in t he case of BhagavAn, since His f or m is celest ial,
char ming and beaut if ul. I t is dif f icult t o t r anslat e t he descr ipt ion t hat Sr i
Bhat t ar has given in Sanskr it - soundar ya lAvaNyAdibhih at i-manohar a divya
r upa.
Sr i Sankar a int er pr et s t his name as One who has Lakshmi always wit h Him in
His vaksha-st hala - yasya vakshasi nit yam vasat i sr I : sa sr I mAn. And f or t his
r eason, even t hough He has t he f or m of a man-lion, t her e is no diminut ion in
His beaut y.
nAma 23. nAma 23. nAma 23. T H4- T H4- T H4- -- - kEsavah kEsavah kEsavah
One wit h lovely locks of hair .
The name can be der ived f r om t he wor d kesa - hair . He is beaut if ul not only
because he has Lakshmi wit h Him, but because He is nat ur ally beaut if ul.
"pr asast ah kesAh sant u asya it i kesavah".
An addit ional int er pr et at ion f or t his name, which is suppor t ed by VishNu
pur ANa, is given by Sr i Sankar a. This int er pr et at ion says t hat kesava der ives
f r om t he f act t hat Kr ishNa is t he dest r oyer of t he demon Kesi who was sent
t o kill t he child Kr ishNa by Kamsa.
"yasmAt t vayaiva dr shTAt mA hat ah kesI anAr dana: |
t asmAt kesava nAmnA t vam loke j neyo bhavishyat i | | "
However , t he name kesi-hA appear s lat er on in t he st ot r a, and t his lit er ally
means t he dest r oyer of kesi. So a dif f er ent int er pr et at ion her e will be
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appr opr iat e since ot her wise t her e is t he punar ukt i dosha, or t he f ault of
r epet it ion. I n f act , t he name kesava it self r epeat s lat er on in t he st ot r a, and
we will wait t o see what int er pr et at ion t he gr eat vyAkhyAna kar t As ar e going
t o give us at t hat t ime (kesavah kesi-hA har i: ).
nAma 24. nAma 24. nAma 24. 969l¬P- 969l¬P- 969l¬P- -- - pur ushOt t amah pur ushOt t amah pur ushOt t amah
The Supr eme amongst t he pur ushas (i.e., individual souls).
Pur ushebhya: ut t ama:, pur ushANAm ut t ama:, pur usheshu ut t ama: ar e all
possible der ivat ions f or t his nAma.
We f ind t he ut t ama pur usha (pur ushot t ama) descr ibed in mor e det ail in t he
Git a in sloka 15.16 and 15.17. Her e t he pur ushas ar e descr ibed as of t wo kinds -
t he kshar a or t hose who have t he associat ion wit h pr akr t i and ar e under t he
bondage of samasar a, and t he akshar a or t he mukt as who ar e r eleased f r om
bondage. The ut t ama pur ur sha is dif f er ent f r om eit her of t hese kinds of
pur ushas, and is t he par amAt mA who suppor t s t he acet ana and t he chet anas
who ar e eit her t he baddhas (pur ushas under bondage) or mukt as (pur ushas
r eleased f r om bondage)..
I n Git a 15-18, Lor d Kr ishna summar izes t he above as f ollows:
"yasmAt kshar am at I t o' ham akshar Adapi cot t ama: |
at o' smi loke vede ca pr at it hah pur ushot t ama: | |
"Because I am super ior t o bot h kinds of pur ushas - t he kshar a and t he
akshar a, all t he sr ut is and smr t is pr aise Me as pur ushot t ama."
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SlOkam 4
B4 7H4 |7H4FF¤lT ¬ 6l|7|+ |¤¹-44-· B4 7H4 |7H4FF¤lT ¬ 6l|7|+ |¤¹-44-· B4 7H4 |7H4FF¤lT ¬ 6l|7|+ |¤¹-44-·
B¹¬4l ¬l4+l ¬6l 9¬4- 9¬ ¹lH¹-+ v+ B¹¬4l ¬l4+l ¬6l 9¬4- 9¬ ¹lH¹-+ v+ B¹¬4l ¬l4+l ¬6l 9¬4- 9¬ ¹lH¹-+ v+
sar vas sar vas sivas st hANur bhUt Adir nidhir avyayah |
sambhavO bhAvanO bhar t A pr abhavah pr abhur I svar ah | |
nAma 25. nAma 25. nAma 25. B4 - B4 - B4 - -- - sar vah sar vah sar vah
(sa as in sanAt ana)
One who is all - t he cause of cr eat ion and dest r uct ion of all t hings.
We have t he f ollowing f r om MahAbhAr at a -
"asat asca sat ascaiva sar vasya pr abhavApyayAt
sar vasya sar vadA j nAnAt savamenam pr acakshat e (MB 5.68.11)
"He is t he or igin and end of all t hings, chet ana and achet ana, and He has f ull
knowledge of all beings at all t imes, and so He is called sar va".
Sr i ChinmayAnanda gives a ver y simple illust r at ion t o help under st and t he
concept behind t his nAma. - "All waves ar ise f r om t he same ocean, and so t he
ocean is t he essence in all waves".
nAma 26. nAma 26. nAma 26. H4 - H4 - H4 - -- - sar vah (sa as in kEsava) sar vah (sa as in kEsava) sar vah (sa as in kEsava)
The Remover of all sins
I am unable t o get a good under st anding of t he int er pr et at ion of t his nAma.
The wor d is der ived f r om t he r oot sr - t o t ear t o pieces, t o kill, t o hur t .
Neit her Sr i Bhat t ar nor Sr i Sankar a have given r ef er ences t o ot her sr ut is f or
t his nAma. I f any of you know of a cont ext in t he Git a or elsewher e t hat t his
name occur s or is r ef er r ed t o, please advise me since I would like t o
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under st and t he signif icance of t his nAma bet t er .
Sr i Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna says t hat t he Lor d is called sar va because He
r emoves t he evils of obj ect s t hat ar e His body (sva sar I r a bhUt AnAm
asubhamapi sr NAt i it i sar vah. Per haps t his means t hat BhagavAn dest r oys t he
sins of His devot ees, but t he signif icance of t he wor d . "asubhamapi" in t he
above is unclear . The aut hor of Nir ukt i int er pr et s Sr i Bhat t ar ' s above
vyAkhyAna as f ollows: "sva sar I r a j agad-duhkham sar va: sa st hAt sr NAt i yah"-
Sr i Sankar a int er pr et s t his wor d in t er ms of t he act ion of BhagavAn at t he
t ime of pr alaya in wit hdr awing all beings unt o Himself - sr NAt i samhAr a
samaye samhar at i samhAr ayat i vA sakalAh pr aj A: it i sar vah. I n t his cont ext ,
Sr I RadhAkr shNa Sast r i point s out t hat t his dest r uct ion at t he t ime of pr laya
is not r eally t o be consider ed cr uel, since t his is like "dest r oying" t he shape of
r aw r ice when it is cooked in or der t o make it edible - t he beings ar e
dest r oyed in or der t o give t hem new lif e.
nAma 27. nAma 27. nAma 27. |H4- |H4- |H4- -- - sivah sivah sivah
One who conf er s auspiciousness
subha Avahasca sivah - One who best ows auspiciousness on all.
I n Mahabhar at a Dr ona Par va (202), we have t he f ollowing f or suppor t ing t he
above int er pr et at ion:
"sameghayat i yan-nit yam sar vAr t hAn sar vakar masu |
sivamicchan manushyAnAm t asmAdesha sivah smr t ah | |
"One who best ows all t hat is desir ed always by all His devot ees is called Siva
because of t his guNa of His".
Two inst ances of Sr i VishNu being r ef er r ed t o as Siva ar e in nAr AyaNa
upanishad -
"sAsvat am sivam acyut am" - The Et er nal, The Auspicious, and t he One Who
never let s His devot ees f all"
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"sa br ahma sa sivah sendr ah so' kshar ah par amah svar At " - He is Br ahma, He is
Siva, He is I ndr a, He is Et er nal, He is Supr eme, He is t he Lor d of all.
nAma 28. nAma 28. nAma 28. F¤lT- F¤lT- F¤lT- -- - st hANuh st hANuh st hANuh
One who is f ir m in His benef it s and anugr aha t o t he devot ees.
The name der ives f r om t he wor d st ha - t isThat i, indicat ing f ir mness or
st eadiness. Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his name as indicat ing t hat t he r esult of
BhagavAn' s anugr aha is f ir m in it s ef f ect of blessing t he devot ee f ar beyond
what ot her lesser act s can best ow.
Sr i Radhakr ishnam Sast r i indicat es t hat st hANu is also t he name f or a t r ee
which has mat ur ed t o such an ext ent t hat no changes af f ect it any mor e,
including sun, r ain et c. He int er pr et s t his name as indicat ing BhagavAn' s guNa
of not being af f ect ed by changes such as gr owt h, decay, et c., nor impact ed by
t he changes of t ime, place, et c.
We will r evisit t he name st hANu again in t he sloka "vist Ar ah st hAvar ah
st hANuh.....", wher e we should expect a dif f er ent int er pr et at ion f or t his guNa
in t he cont ext t hat is applicable at t hat par t of t he st ot r am.
nAma 29. nAma 29. nAma 29. ¬6l|7- ¬6l|7- ¬6l|7- -- - bhUt adih bhUt adih bhUt adih
a) One who is eager ly sought af t er by all beings
Sr i Bhat t ar gives t he int er pr et at ion bhUt aih spr haNI yat anat ayA AdI yat e -
One who is eager ly sought af t er by all beings. Sr i Sankar a gives t he
int er pr et at ion bhUt AnAm Adi-kAr aNat vAt bhUt Adih - BhagavAn is called
bhUt Adih because He is t he f ir st cause of all beings. I t is possible t hat Sr i
Bhat t ar chose t o int er pr et it dif f er ent ly because t he second int er pr et at ion is
similar t o t he meaning f or bhUt akr t (nAma 5). I would like t o r equest any of
our bhakt as t o comment f ur t her .
Sr i ChinmayAnanda gives anot her plausible int er pr et at ion . - The ver y cause
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f or t he f ir st f ive gr eat element s - t he panca bhUt as - Space, Air , Fir e, Wat er ,
and Ear t h. BhUt AnAm Adih
nAma 30. nAma 30. nAma 30. |+|¤¹-44- |+|¤¹-44- |+|¤¹-44- -- - nidhir vyayah nidhir vyayah nidhir vyayah
The inexhaust ible t r easur e.
Avayayah nidhih - He is like t he wealt h t hat is kept under saf e keeping and
always available at t he t ime of dist r ess t o His bhakt as. Sr i ChinmayAnanda
point s out t hat t he t er m nidhi means t hat in which pr ecious t hings ar e st or ed
away or pr eser ved secr et ly - nidhI yat e asmin it i nidhih. Sur ely BhagavAn is a
t r easur e t hat is not under st ood or obt ained easily by ever yone.
Sr i Sankar a int er pr et s t his nAma as meaning t hat VishNu is t he One in whom
all t hings go and lie mer ged t her ein t empor ar ily t ill t he next cr eat ion, and so
He is t he I mmut able Tr easur e Chest .
nAma 31. nAma 31. nAma 31. B¹¬4- B¹¬4- B¹¬4- -- - sambhavah sambhavah sambhavah
(Though like a Hidden Tr easur e), One who manif est s Himself at will t o .t hose
who sincer ely seek Him.
He manif est s Himself at any place and at any t ime and in any f or m (e.g.,
nr simha, mat sya, kUr ma, et c.).
Not e t he f ollowing:
"dhar ma samst hApanAr t hAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge" (GI t A 4-8)
"svecchayA sambhavAmyevam gar bha duhkha vivar j it ah"
nAma 32. nAma 32. nAma 32. ¬l4+- ¬l4+- ¬l4+- -- - bhAvanah bhAvanah bhAvanah
(Having manif est ed t hus), One who r egener at es all by dispelling all t heir evils.
The aut hor of Nir ukt i summar izes Sr i Bhat t ar ' s int er pr et at ion by t he
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f ollowing wor ds: yo j anit vA j anAn uj j I vayat i sah bhAvanah - One who, af t er
having manif est ed Himself (sambhavah - see above), br ings back all t o lif e.
Sr i ChinmayAnanda point s out t hat t o do bhAvana is t o give, and BhagavAn
gives t he f r uit s of act ion as t hey deser ve t o all, and so He is bhAvana. This is
consist ent wit h Sr i Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion t hat BhagavAn is bhAvana
because He gives t he f r uit s of act ions t o all j ivas.
nAma 33. nAma 33. nAma 33. ¬6l ¬6l ¬6l -- - bar t A bar t A bar t A
Suppor t er .
Sr i Sankar a gives t he f ollowing vyAkhyAna - pr apancasya adhishTAnat vena
bhar aNAt bhar t A - BhagavAn is bhar t A (Sust ainer ) because He sust ains t he
univer se as it s Lor d. Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t hat He does t his nour ishing of His
devot ees by giving Himself up t o His devot ees because t his is His Nat ur e -
yasmAt pushNAt i At ma-dAnAt .
nAma 34. nAma 34. nAma 34. 9¬4- 9¬4- 9¬4- -- - pr abhavah pr abhavah pr abhavah
One whose bir t h is of a sublime nat ur e.
Asya bhavah pr akr shTa it i pr abhavah - His bir t h (bhava) is unsullied by any
blemish, and is capable of upr oot ing t he f et t er of bir t h of all t hose who
r ealize Him. Or , pr akar sheNa bhavat i .
nAma 35. nAma 35. nAma 35. 9¬ - 9¬ - 9¬ - -- - pr abhuh pr abhuh pr abhuh
He who is all power f ul.
Sr i Sankar a' s vyAkhyAna is - sar vAsu kr iyAsu sAmar t hya at isayavAn pr abhuh -
One who is t he most power f ul, showing it f or t h in all His act ions. The aut hor of
Nir ukt i summar izes Sr i Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna t hus:
"br ahmAdI nAm ca sar veshAm bhoga-moksha-samar paNe |
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samar t hah pr abhu: it yukt ah sar veshTa phalado manuh | | "
He is pr abhu - most power f ul - because he can best ow f r uit s such as t he
enj oyment of t he pleasur es associat ed wit h t hose of Br ahma and even moksha.
nAma 36. nAma 36. nAma 36. ²H¹- ²H¹- ²H¹- -- - I svar ah I svar ah I svar ah
a) One who has t he supr eme power of cont r ol over all beings
b) One who has t he abilit y t o do anyt hing wit hout t he help of any ot her beings
or t hings
This nAma is int er pr et ed based on it s r elat ion t o t he wor d aisvar ya or t o t he
wor d isht a.
The f ir st meaning der ives f r om t he wor d aisvar ya - nir upAdhikam aisvar yam
asya it i I svar ah - He is I svar a because he has unlimit ed might or power . The
second meaning der ives f r om I shTe it i I svar ah - One who can do what ever He
wills wit hout t he help of anyt hing else.

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SlOkam 5
F44¹¬ 7H¹¬ ¹l|7t4- 9 !T¹l¬l PrlF4+-· F44¹¬ 7H¹¬ ¹l|7t4- 9 !T¹l¬l PrlF4+-· F44¹¬ 7H¹¬ ¹l|7t4- 9 !T¹l¬l PrlF4+-·
H+l|7|+¤+l ¤l6l |4¤l6l ¤l6 6¬P-+ -+ H+l|7|+¤+l ¤l6l |4¤l6l ¤l6 6¬P-+ -+ H+l|7|+¤+l ¤l6l |4¤l6l ¤l6 6¬P-+ -+
svayambhUh sambhur Adit yah pushkar AkshO mahAsvanah |
anAdinidhanO dhAt A vidhAt A dhAt ur ut t amah | |
nAma 37. nAma 37. nAma 37. F44¹¬ - F44¹¬ - F44¹¬ - -- - svayambhUh svayambhUh svayambhUh
He who manif est s Himself by His own f r ee will.
Svayameva bhavat i it i svayambhUh - One who is self -bor n.
Sr i RAdhA Kr ishNa Sast r i gives t he example of how in t he case of t he bir t h of
Lor d Kr shNa t o Devaki and Vasudeva, t he child was bor n unlike any ot her child,
decor at ed wit h beaut if ul j ewels, smiling, lot us-eyed, wit h divya r Upa, et c., and
wit h no pain or discomf or t t o t he mot her . I n Sr imad BhAgavat am, we f ind t he
f ollowing descr ipt ion:
t am adbhut am bAlakam ambuj ekshNam cat ur bhuj am sankha gadAr yudAyudham |
sr I vat salakshmam galasobhikaust ubham pI t Ambar am sAndr a payodasoubhagam | |
"(Sr i Kr shNa at bir t h) was of magnif icent appear ance, lot us-eyed, ador ned
wit h sankha, cakr a, and gada, wit h f our ar ms, t he kaust ubha ar ound his neck,
ador ned wit h pit Ambar a (yellow silk clot h) ar ound His waist , and beaut if ul like
t he wat er -laden cloud".
nAma 38. nAma 38. nAma 38. H¹¬- H¹¬- H¹¬- -- - sambuh sambuh sambuh
One who causes happiness t o ever yone by t he beaut y of His appear ance.
Sam bhAvayat i it i sambhuh - her e sam (sa as in Shiva) means sukham or
happiness. This happiness is caused by t he sheer beaut y of His manif est at ion.
I n RAmAyaNa we see t he f ollowing passages:
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"r Upa audAr ya guNai: pumsAm dr sht i cit t a apahAr iNam" - (Sr i Rama) at t r act s
t he eyes and hear t s of beholder s by His beaut y, gener osit y, and similar
qualit ies.
"candr a kAnt Ananam r Amam at I va pr iya dar sanam" - Rama who has a f ace
lovelier t han t he moon, and who has an ext r emely pleasing appear ance.
nAma 39. nAma 39. nAma 39. Hl|7t4- Hl|7t4- Hl|7t4- -- - Adit yah Adit yah Adit yah
a) The pur usha in t he Sun
b) One of t he t welve Adit yas
c) One who sust ains and nour ishes ever yt hing like t he Sun

Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t hat t his is one example of BhagavAn manif est ing
Himself at His will.
We ar e all f amiliar wit h "dhyeyah sadA savt r -manDala madhyavar t i
nAr AyaNa...." -
Sr iman nAr AyaNa who is in t he cent r e of t he or b of t he Sun must always be
medit at ed upon.
We also have "sa yascAyam pur ushe, yascAsAvAdit ye, sa eka: " (t ait t ir I ya
upanishad) -
He is one and t he same deit y who is in t he hear t s of men and who is in t he
middle of t he Sun.
Sr i Sankar a gives t he addit ional explanat ion t hat t his nAma can r ef er t o Lor d
VishNu being one of t he t welve Adit yas or Adit i' s sons. He gives t he Bhagavad
Git a in suppor t of t his:
"Adit yAnAm aham vishNur -j yot ishAm r avir amsumAn |
mar I cir mar uTamasmi naksht r ANAm aham sasI | | (10-21)
"Among Adit yas, I am VishNu", (t he t welf t h Adit ya) .........
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Sr i Chinmaya point s out t hat BhagavAn incar nat ed as Adit i' s son in His vAmana
incar nat ion. .
Sr i Chinmaya also point s out t hat anot her way t o enj oy t his nAma is t o r ealize
t hat BhagavAn is like t he Sun in t hat ever yt hing depends on t he Sun f or it s
sur vival, and so BhagavAn is Adit ya or t he Sun or t he suppor t er and nour isher
of ever yt hing.
nAma 40. nAma 40. nAma 40. 9!T¹l¬- 9!T¹l¬- 9!T¹l¬- -- - pushkar Akshah pushkar Akshah pushkar Akshah
The Lot us-eyed.
Sr i ChinmayAnanda r ef er s us t o t he f amous quot e "The eye is t he r ef lect ion of
t he mind", and point s out t hat t he r ef er ence t o t he beaut y of t he eye in t his
nAma is t o be cont emplat ed on in t er ms of t he I nner J oy and Peace t hat
BhagavAn beams out t o all t hr ough His eyes and magically lif t s out all t he
sor r ows in His devot ee' s hear t s. This nAma r e-occur s as nAma 561 lat er ,
wher e we will f ind a new int er pr et at ion.
Pushkar e akshiNI yasya sa pushkar Akshah;
Poshayat I bhUt Ani pushkar e akshiNI yasya sa pushkar Akshah.
nAma 41. nAma 41. nAma 41. PrlF4+- PrlF4+- PrlF4+- -- - mahAsvanah mahAsvanah mahAsvanah
He of t he vener able sound (of t he vedas)
I n Br hadAr aNya upanishad, we have t he f ollowing:
"asya mahat o bhUt asya ni:svasit amet ad yad-r g-vedo yaj ur -vedah sAma vedo-
at har vAngir asa: it ihAsa: pur ANam vidyA upanishada: slokA:
sUt r ANyaNuvyAkhyAnAni vyAkhyAnAni" (4.4.10)
- Thus has been br eat hed f r om t his gr eat Being what we have as Rg veda,
Yaj ur veda, sAma veda, and at har va veda, et c.
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nAma 42. nAma 42. nAma 42. H+l|7|+¤+- H+l|7|+¤+- H+l|7|+¤+- -- - anAdi anAdi anAdi-- -nidhanah nidhanah nidhanah
One who is wit hout beginning or end.
Yasya Adi nidhanam na ast i sa anAdi-nidhanah - One f or whom t her e is neit her
beginning nor end.
nidhana, which commonly r ef er s t o pover t y or lack of wealt h, also has a second
meaning, deat h or dest r uct ion. .
BhagavAn is anAdi-nidhana because His f or m is not composed of ear t hly
element s like f at , f lesh and bone -
na t asya pr akr t A mUr t i:mAmsa-medost hi-sambhavA (var Aha pur ANa 75.44),
His body is beyond t he r ange of t he sense-or gans, and can be cognized only by
t he eye of t he mind - r Upam vA at I ndr iyam, ant ahkar aNapr at yaksha nir desAt ,
His body is not made up of t he combinat ion of element s like ear t h, wat er , et c.
- na bhUt a sangha samst hAno deho' sya par amAt manah (MahAbhAr at a - sAnt i
par va 206-60), et c.
nAma 43. nAma 43. nAma 43. ¤l6l ¤l6l ¤l6l -- - dhAt A dhAt A dhAt A
a) One Who cr eat ed t he Univer se (dhA – t o pr oduce, or dhA – t o lay upon).
b) He Who suppor t s and sust ains (dhA – dhAr aN poshaNayoySca).
c) He Who has no suppor t ot her t han Himself (a-dhAt A).
d) He Who ‘dr inks’ ever yt hing dur ing pr alaya (dheT – pAne – t o dr ink).
e) One Who is t he ant ar yAmi of t he f our -f aced br ahmA.
This nAma occur s again in Slokam 102 (nAma 951). The nAma can be der ived
f r om t he r oot s
a) dhA - t o pr oduce, t o bear , t o place, t o lay upon; .
b) dhA – dhAr aNa poshaNayoH – t o suppor t and nur t ur e, or ,
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c) dhEt – pAne – t o dr ink.
Sr I Sa’nkar a has also pr ovided an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion based on t he
pATham a-dhAt A.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he cur r ent nAma as “The Cr eat or of ever yt hing,
including t he f our -f aced br ahmA”. Br ahmA has t he r esponsibilit y f or cr eat ion
of ever yt hing inside t he br ahmANDa, t hr ough t he power s given t o him by
bhagavAn. On t he ot her hand, bhagavAn cr eat es t he br ahmANDa it self , and
br ahmA as t he f ir st one in t he br ahmANDa, bef or e br ahmA is given t he
r esponsibilit y f or t he cr eat ion of t he r est of t he t hings inside
br ahmANDa. BhagavAn per f or ms t he f unct ion of cr eat ion inside t he
br ahmANDa by being t he ant ar yAmi of br ahmA. Thus, bhagavAn is t he t r ue
Cr eat or of ever yt hing. BhagavAn’s r ole as t he t r ue Cr eat or is r epeat edly sung
by nammAzhvAr in his t ir uvAimozhi.
Sr I BhaTTar ’s int er pr et at ion f or t he cur r ent inst ance of t he nAma can be
under st ood based on t he r oot dhA – t o put , place, lay, put in, lay on or upon
(Sr I Apt e’s dict ionar y). The main idea being conveyed her e is t hat bhagavAn is
t he Cr eat or of all, including t he f our -f aced br ahmA, r udr a, et c., all t he way
down t o t he blade of gr ass. Sr I BhaTTar ’s int er pr et at ion is: anir uddha
svar UpaH sar va yonau acit -samashTi bhUt AyAm pr akRt au cit -samshTi bhUt am
vir i’ncAt makam gar bham dadhAt i it i dhAt A – BhagavAn, in t he f or m of
anir uddha, places t he aggr egat e of sent ient beings (selves) int o t he pr akRt i
(t he aggr egat e of non-sent ient pr inciples), and it is t his ‘laying’ of one on t he
ot her , or associat ion of one wit h t he ot her by bhagavAn, t hat is t he cause of
all beings, namely, cr eat ion. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he gI t A Slokam 14.3 in
suppor t of his int er pr et at ion:
mama yonir mahad br ahma t asmin gar bham dadhAmyaham |
sambhavaH sar va bhUt AnAm t at o bhavat i bhAr at a | | (gI t A 14.3)
“pr akRt i (r ef er r ed t o her e by t he t er m mahad br ahma, meaning ‘ver y lar ge’) is
like My womb. I n t hat I lay t he ger m (gar bham dadhAmi; t he ‘ger m’ or seed
r ef er r ing t o t he collect ion of all t he j I va-s), and t his is what r esult s in t he
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72
bir t h or cr eat ion of all lif e f or ms wit h a body associat ed wit h t he self , O
bhAr at a!”.
Sr I BhaTTar gives addit ional suppor t s f r om t wo ot her sour ces:
- dhAt A kshet r e kar ma-bI j a- bhUt am gar bham dadhAt i (maula samhit A)
– ‘dhAt A’ places t he f oet us (t he j I va, which is t he seed f or act ions) in t he
kshet r a (pr akRt i).
- Apa eva sasar j a Adau t Asu vI r yam apAsRj at (manu. SmRt i 1.8) – Fir st He
cr eat ed t he wat er s (r ef er r ing t o t he aggr egat e of pr akRt i); and in t hem hee
put His vigor (t he aggr egat e of sent ient s).
We also have r ef er ences t o His f unct ion of cr eat ion in t he f ollowing:
- t amasaH par amo dhAt A Sa' nkha cakr a gadA dhar aH (yuddha kANDa
114.18), wher e maNDodar I descr ibes Lor d r Ama as dhAt A (The Cr eat or ).
- sUr ya candr amasau dhAt A yat hA pUr vam akalpayat |
divam ca Rt hivI m cAnt har iksham at ho svah | | (Rg. 10/ 190/ 3)
He r ecr eat es t he wor ld wit h t he sun, moon, et c., t he same way all over again
af t er each pr alaya.
Sr I bala deva vidyA bhUshaN gives an int er pr et at ion along t he lines of t hat of
Sr I BhaTTar :
“ut pat t i vinASa vir ahAdanAdi nidhanaH kAr aNat ve vir i’ncyAdibhyo viSesham
Aha dhAt A it i |
acit samashTau pr akRt i yonau cit samshTau vir i’nci gar bhasya dhAr aNAt
it uar t haH | "
- He Who is t he cause of cr eat ion, pr ot ect ion and dest r uct ion, and He Who
sows t he seed f or br ahmA (cr eat es br ahmA), by t he union of t he cit samashTi
and acit samsashTi (samashTi = conglomer at e).
All t he ot her int er pr et er s t hat we cover have used t he r oot dhA – dhAr a
poshaNayoH, or t he r oot dheT – pibe – t o dr ink. These int er pr et at ions ar e
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cover ed under nAma 951 (Slokam 102).
nAma 44. nAma 44. nAma 44. |4¤l6l |4¤l6l |4¤l6l -- - vidhat A vidhat A vidhat A
vidhAtre namaH.
a) He Who specially pr ot ect ed t he seed He sowed f or br ahmA t ill t he seed
f ully developed int o t he cr eat ion of cat ur -mukha br ahmA.
b) The Or dainer of t he laws of conduct f or all, including t he likes of yama.
c) The Dispenser of t he f r uit s of act ion and t he inducer of act ion.
d) The Suppor t er of all suppor t s such as AdiSesha.
e) He Who lays down t he code of conduct and t he f r uit s t o be at t ained f r om
t hem.
f ) He Who pr ot ect s t he beings of t his wor ld in diver se ways (vi-dhAt A; vi =
vividhaiH).
g) He Who best ows t he desir es of His devot ees.
h) He Who is bor ne by gar uDa, His vehicle (vi-dhAt A; vi = gar uDa).
This nAma occur s again in Slokam 51 (nAma 485).
The meaning f or t he nAma can be under st ood based on t he f ollowing meanings
given in t he dict ionar y, and t he der ivat ion given by Sr I vAsishTha, among
ot her s:
- vidhAt R – A maker , a cr eat or . Gr ant or , giver , best ower .
- vidhAnam – ar r anging, disposing.
- vidhAnam - a r ule, pr ecept , or dinance, sacr ed r ule or pr ecept , sacr ed
inj unct ion.
- vidhAt A – vidhAnasya kar t A – He Who or dains t he r ules et c.
For nAma 43, Sr I BhaTTar uses t he meaning “Cr eat or ” f or t he wor d dhAt A.
For t he cur r ent nAma, he cont inues on t his int er pr et at ion, discussed below.
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Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN also cont inues on t his same line. All t he ot her
int er pr et er s we have been cover ing, use one of t he ot her meanings f or t heir
int er pr et at ions. These ot her int er pr et at ions ar e cover ed under nAma 485 in
Slokam 51.
a) For nAma 44, Sr I BhaTTar cont inues on t he int er pr et at ion of nAma 43
(dhAt A – The Cr eat or ), and gives t he explanat ion t hat bhagavAn is vidhAt A
because He not only init iat ed t he cr eat ion of br ahmA in t he f or m of t he
gar bha (nAma 43), but also He pr ot ect ed t he gar bham unt il br ahmA was bor n.
Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an explains t hat t he nAma dhAt A r ef er s t o bhagavAn
cr eat ing t he seed f or br ahmA, and vidhAt A as r ef er r ing t o nur t ur ing t his seed
and making it come int o exist ence. Sr I mad Sr I mushNam ANDavan explains t he
nAma as: viSesheNa dhAt A vidhAt A.
Sr I BhaTTar gives sever al suppor t ing r ef er ences:
- yo br ahmANam vidadhAt i pUr vam yo vai vedAnSca pr ahiNot i t asmai |
t am ha devam At am buddhi pr akASam mumukshur -vai
Sar aNam aham par apdye | | (Svet AS. 6.18)
“I , an aspir ant af t er liber at ion, seek r ef uge in t he ef f ulgent God who cr eat ed
br ahmA f ir st , and who endowed him wit h t he Vedas also, and on account of
whom my int ellect shines”.
- hir aNyagar bham paSyat a j AyamAnam (t ait . NAr A.) – BhagavAn saw br ahmA
as he was being bor n.
- t asmAt vir AT aj Ayat a (pur usha.sUk.) – Fr om Him, vir At (i.e., br ahmA) was
bor n.
- t asmin j aj ~ne svayam br ahmA sar va-loka pit AmahaH (manu. 1.9) – Ther ein was
bor n br ahmA himself , who is known as t he gr andsir e of t he univer se”.
Sr I baladeva vidyAbhUshaN’s int er pr et at ion is t he same as t hat of Sr I
BhaTTar – t am gar bham par iNamayya Avir bhAvayat i it vidhAt A. Sr I kRshNan’s
anubhavam is t hat bhagavAn is called vidhAt A because He car ef ully pr ot ect ed
br ahmA in His beaut if ul nAbhI kamalam or t he lot us in t he navel, unt il he was
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bor n.
Please see t he wr it e-up under Slokam 51 (nAma 485) f or ot her int er pr et at ions.
nAma 45. nAma 45. nAma 45. ¤l6 6¬P- ¤l6 6¬P- ¤l6 6¬P- -- - dhAt ur ut t amah dhAt ur ut t amah dhAt ur ut t amah
a) One who is f ar super ior t o Br ahma (dhAt r )
b) The best of all basic const it uent s
The f ir st int er pr et at ion is self -explanat or y based on t he pr evious t wo nAmas.
Anot her explanat ion given is based on t he wor d dhAt u, which means "element "
or basic const it uent . He is t he ult imat e const it uent of all, and so He is
dhAt ur ut t ama.


padmanAbhan


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SlOkam 6
H9P 4l 89lT H- 9T+l¬l 5P¹9¬ -· H9P 4l 89lT H- 9T+l¬l 5P¹9¬ -· H9P 4l 89lT H- 9T+l¬l 5P¹9¬ -·
|4HTPl P+ Ft47l F¤|4UFF¤|4¹l ¤ 4-+ °+ |4HTPl P+ Ft47l F¤|4UFF¤|4¹l ¤ 4-+ °+ |4HTPl P+ Ft47l F¤|4UFF¤|4¹l ¤ 4-+ °+
apr amEyO hr ushikEsah padmanAbhO5mar apr abhuh |
visvakar mA manust vashTA st havishThas st havir O dhr uvah | |
nAma 46. nAma 46. nAma 46. H9P4 H9P4 H9P4 -- - apr amEyah apr amEyah apr amEyah
One who cannot be def ined, explained, measur ed, et c. t hr ough logical means,
(but who can only be exper ienced)
pr amAt um na yogya: apr ameyah -
He is beyond r each t hr ough nor mal means because
 He is beyond sense or gans (pr at yaksha) such as our mor t al eyes, ear s, et c.;
 nor t hr ough inf er ence (anumAna) because he is devoid of t he mar ks leading
t o inf er ence (e.g., t he pr esence of f ir e can be inf er r ed t hr ough smoke but ,
f or t his inf er ence, one should have wit nessed f ir e and smoke t oget her at
least once. No one has seen t he Lor d wit h or wit hout anyt hing associat ed);
 nor t hr ough analogy or compar ison (upamA), because He is wit hout par t s
and ever yt hing else is only par t s, and hence no compar ison can be made;
 nor t hr ough Apt a vAkya or shabda pr amANa (someone else who has seen
Him t elling us, or t hr ough sacr ed t ext s) because no one can see Him, since
even t he mukt As only exper ience Him.
Sr i Bhat t ar goes on t o point out t hat BhagavAn is apr ameya because He is
beyond t he sense or gans of even Br ahma and ot her gods (Sr i RAdhAKr shNa
Sast r i point s out t hat t he means of sensing is t he same f or Br ahma and ot her
gods as it is f or people). He is not descr ibable as This or That , like t his or like
t hat , or inf er r ed because of t his or because of t hat , et c., and so He is
apr ameya.
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nAma 47. nAma 47. nAma 47. 89lTH- 89lTH- 89lTH- -- - hr ushI kEsah hr ushI kEsah hr ushI kEsah
a) The cont r oller of t he sense-or gans of all including Br ahma, Rudr a et c.
b) One who, in t he f or m of t he Sun and t he Moon, makes t his wor ld happy
t hr ough His r ays
The t wo int er pr et at ions ar e der ived by looking at t his wor d as hr shI kA + I sa
or hr ishI + kesa. The f ir st explanat ion is der ived f r om "Hr shI kANAm I sah
hr shI kesah - The Lor d of t he sense-or gans. The second int er pr et at ion is given
based on kesa - r ays, hr shI - t hat give happiness.
Sr i Sankar a gives t he f ollowing suppor t f r om MahAbhAr at a, Moksha dhar ma,
SAnt i par va f or t he second int er pr et at ion:
"sUr ya candr amasoh SaSa vadamSubhi: keSa samj nit aih |
bodhayan svApayanScaiva j agadut t hisThAt e pr t hak | |
bodhanAt svApanAccaiva j agat o har shaNam bhavet | |
agnI shoma kr t air ebhih kar mabhih pANdunandana |
hr I keSo' hamI sAno var ado lokabhAvana: | | "
"The sun and t he moon t hr ough t heir kesa or r ays always uphold t he wor ld by
awakening it and causing it t o sleep. By such awakening and sleeping, t he wor ld
is delight ed. I t is in consequence of t his act of f ir e (Sun) and Soma who uphold
t he univer se t hat I have come t o be known as Hr shI keSa...".
Sr i T.S. Kr ishnamur t hy, who has wr it t en an English t r anslat ion t o Sr i Sankar a
bhAshya, has t aken t his guNAnubhava one mor e st ep by saying t hat t he keSa -
hair of t he Lor d in t he f or m of t he r ays of t he sun and t he moon give delight
(har sha), and t hus He is Hr shI keSa.


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sr i hr ushI kEsah
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nAma 48. nAma 48. nAma 48. 9T+l¬- 9T+l¬- 9T+l¬- -- - padmanAbhah padmanAbhah padmanAbhah
One f r om whose navel t he lot us (t he cause of t he Univer se) emanat es.
Sar va j agat kAr aNam padmam nAbhau yasya sa padmanAbhah -
Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t hat t his name subst ant iat es or summar ies all t hat has
been said t hr ough t he pr evious nAmas about BhagavAn being t he cr eat or or
cause of Br ahma (e.g., dhAt A, vidhAt A, dhat ur ut t amah).
Sr i RadhAkr shNa Sast r i gives a beaut if ul and simple explanat ion t o enable t he
appr eciat ion of t his nAma. I n our nor mal lif e, t he child bef or e and at bir t h is
connect ed t o t he mot her t hr ough t he navel chor d, and get s it s nour ishment
f r om t he mot her t hr ough t his chor d. Similar is t he chor d f r om t he Lor d' s
navel, which is not hing but t he Univer se in it s pr akr t i f or m, and which looks
like a lot us which has not expanded. This is pr ior t o it s expansion t hr ough
Time, and He is t he nour isher of t his cr eat ion of His (which is none ot her t han
Br ahma).
nAma 48. nAma 48. nAma 48. HP¹9¬- HP¹9¬- HP¹9¬- -- - amar apr abhuh amar apr abhuh amar apr abhuh
The Lor d of t he immor t al gods.
Amar ANAm pr abhuh amar apr abhuh.
The Lor d is amar apr abhu because He cr eat ed t he dif f er ent devat As and
ent r ust ed t hem wit h act s such as cr eat ion, dest r uct ion, et c., made t hem
immor t al because of t heir f unct ions, and dir ect s t hem in t heir f unct ions.
Sr i Bhat t ar quot es t he f ollowing wor ds ascr ibed t o Br ahma in Ut t ar a kANda in
RAmAyaNa -
"mahAr Nave SayAnau' psu mAm t vam pUr vam aj I j ana: |
pr AhApat yam t vayA kar ma sar vam mayi niveSit am | | (104-4)
"You wer e lying on t he wat er s of t he gr eat ocean and you f ir st of all cr eat ed
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me. The ent ir e dut y of t he Pr aj Apat i (t he r uler ship of t he beings) was
ent r ust ed t o me by you".
Also, t he f ollowing f r om MahAbhAr at a is given -
"et au dvau vibudha Sr eshThau pr asAda-kr odhaj au smr t au |
t adAdar Sit a pant hAnau sr shTi samhAr a kAr akau | | (169-19)
"These t wo gr eat gods (Br ahma and Rudr a) ar e said t o have emer ged f r om t he
sweet t emper and wr at h of BhagavAn r espect ively. They car r y out t he dut y of
cr eat ion and dest r uct ion in t he way shown by Him".
nAma 50. nAma 50. nAma 50. || |4HTPl 4HTPl 4HTPl -- - visvakar mA visvakar mA visvakar mA
a) One who is t he agent of all act ions wit h r egar d t o t he Univer se.
b) The Cr eat or of t he Univer se
viSvam kar ma j agad-vyApAr ah yasya sa viSva kar mA. Sr i Bhat t ar point s out
t hat t his name signif ies t hat all t he ent ir e wor k wit h r egar d t o t he af f air s of
t he Univer se ar e His alone eit her bef or e or af t er t he cr eat ion of Br ahma. I n
ot her wor ds, He is t he dir ect or and cont r oller .
Among t he many passages in t he sr ut i t hat suppor t t he int er pr et at ion ar e:
"so' kAmayat abahu syAm pr aj Ayeya it i - He willed, I shall become many, I shall
t ake bir t h" - t ait t ir I ya Ar aNyaka - 6.
"so' bidhyAya Sar I r At svAt sisr kshu: vividhAh pr aj A: - Br ahman willed t o
cr eat e dif f er ent kinds of beings out of I t s body and so I t did" -
nAma 51. nAma 51. nAma 51. P+- P+- P+- -- - manuh manuh manuh
The Gr eat Thinker : MananAt manuh -
I n t he Br hadAr aNya upanishad, we have
"nAnyo' t o' st o mant A -
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Ther e is no t hinker but Him" - (B.U. 3.7.23)
To ment ally conceive an act pr ior t o t he act it self is mananam. BhagavAn has t o
but t hink and not do anyt hing else in or der t o achieve what He wills. The
cr eat ion of t he cosmos was only a minut e par t of His will. Sr i Bhat t ar uses t he
wor d sankalpa lava mAt r At - by t he mer e f r act ion (lava mAt r At ) of His will, t o
explain t his
nAma 52. nAma 52. nAma 52. t47l t47l t47l -- - t vashTA t vashTA t vashTA
One who cr eat ed all t he dif f er ent f or ms and names in t his Univer se.
This name is der ived f r om t he r oot t vaksh - t o par e, t o r educe, t o chisel. Sr i
Bhat t ar uses t his meaning t o int er pr et t his nAma t o mean t hat BhagavAn has
"chiseled" so many diver se f or ms and names of gods, man, bir ds, plant s,
insect s, et c., and t hus He is t vashTA. He gives t he t ait t ir I ya ar aNyaka (3-11)
in suppor t -
t vashTAr am r UpANi vikur vant am vipascit am.
Sr i Sankar a uses t he same meaning t o int er pr et t his name as indicat ing t hat
BhagavAn par es down all t he beings or makes t hem shr ink at t he t ime of
cosmic dissolut ion or pr alaya. I t is int er est ing t o not e t hat t he f ir st
int er pr et at ion r ef er s t o t he cr eat ion of f or ms and shapes f r om t he pr imor dial
mat t er , and t he second int er pr et at ion r ef er s t o t he dissolut ion of f or ms and
shapes back int o pr imor dial mat t er .
nAma 53. nAma 53. nAma 53. F¤|4U- F¤|4U- F¤|4U- -- - st havishThah st havishThah st havishThah
One who is exceedingly huge in size.
The name is der ived f r om t he t wo wor ds st hUla and ishTha - One who willed t o
be huge.
Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t hat t his huge size is t he manif est at ion of BhagavAn as
t he br ahmANDa (t he egg-shaped univer se) wit h t he f our t een wor lds. which ar e
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t he places of r esidences f or all t he beings t hat He has cr eat ed, as
well as it s sheat h, and t he sense-or gans of all t he beings, as well as t he sound,
t ouch, and ot her qualit ies t hat ar e t he obj ect s of t hese sense-or gans, as well
as t heir ef f ect s. The f our t een wor lds ar e r ef er r ed t o by Sr i Ramanuj a
in his Sr i VaikuNTha-gadyam (cat ur daSa bhuvanAnt ar am aNdam daSa
guNit ot t ar am ....) in his r ef er ence t o Sr i VaikunTham' s locat ion f ar , f ar beyond
t he limit s of t hese f our t een wor lds.
nAma 54. nAma 54. nAma 54. F¤|4¹- F¤|4¹- F¤|4¹- -- - st havir ah st havir ah st havir ah
One who has always exist ed, Older t han t he oldest .
The name is der ived f r om t he r oot st ha - t ishThat i - t o st and. This nAma
signif ies t hat BhagavAn is not const r ained by Time. All His cr eat ion goes
t hr ough t he cycle of cr eat ion and pr alaya, and He uses Time f or His cr eat ion
and dissolut ion, but He is not const r ained by it . Thus He is older t han t he
oldest .
nAma 55. nAma 55. nAma 55. ¤4- ¤4- ¤4- -- - dhr uvah dhr uvah dhr uvah
One who is unaf f ect ed by Time, Unchanging, Per manent .
The wor d is der ived f r om t he r oot dhr - t o car r y, maint ain, pr eser ve, t o be
et er nal, immovable - (st hir at vAt dhr uvah). The pr evious nAma indicat ed t hat
BhagavAn is t he oldest of t he oldest . This nAma signif ies t hat He is
unchanging while Time keeps moving.
Per haps because bot h t he nAmas st havir a and dhr uva r ef er t o t he qualit y of
BhagavAn being beyond t he inf luence, ef f ect , or cont r ol of Time, Sr i Sankar a
has chosen t o int er pr et t he t wo wor ds as one nAma - st havir o dhr uvah - One
who is unchanging and older t han t he oldest . Thus t he sequence number f or t he
nAmas t hat f ollow st ar t dif f er ing f r om t his nAma bet ween Sr i Sankar a
bhAshya and Sr i Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna.
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SlOkam 7
H¤lG7HlH6- T !Tl ¬l |r6l¬- 967 +-· H¤lG7HlH6- T !Tl ¬l |r6l¬- 967 +-· H¤lG7HlH6- T !Tl ¬l |r6l¬- 967 +-·
9¬ 6|NTT… &lP 9|4× Pñ= 9¹P + ÷+ 9¬ 6|NTT… &lP 9|4× Pñ= 9¹P + ÷+ 9¬ 6|NTT… &lP 9|4× Pñ= 9¹P + ÷+
agr Ahyah sAsvat ah kr ushNO lOhit Akshah pr at ar danah |
pr abhUt as t r ikakuddhAma pavit r am mangaLam par am | |
nAma 56. nAma 56. nAma 56. H¤lG- H¤lG- H¤lG- -- - agr Ahyah agr Ahyah agr Ahyah
One who is beyond t he gr asp of ot her s.
The int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma by Sr i Bhat t ar is t hat BhagavAn cannot be
physically gr asped, cont r olled, or act ed upon by anyone or anyt hing, and is t hus
beyond gr asp. He gives t he f ollowing r ef er ence t o t he sr ut i:
nainam Ur dhvam na t ir yancam na madhye par ij agr abhat -
One could gr asp Him neit her in t he ver t ical dimension, nor in t he hor izont al
dimension, nor in t he t hir d dimension, or f or t hat mat t er , any ot her dimension.
Sr i Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion is kar mendr iayih na gr hyat a it i agr Ahyah -
One who cannot be gr asped by t he or gans of act ion. He gives t he f ollowing
r ef er ence t o t ait t ir I ya upanishad - yat o vAco nivar t ant e, apr Apya manasA saha
- He cannot be descr ibed t hr ough speech, and cannot be r eached by mind.
Sr i ChinmayAnanda gives us yet anot her int er pr et at ion. He point s out t hat t he
Lor d is not t he "obj ect " of per cept ion ever by any one, but He is t he "subj ect "
who per ceives. Thus He is ever t he Subj ect but never t he obj ect of
per cept ion. He is imper cept ible and incompr ehensible. Sr i Chinmaya r ef er s us
t o t he kenopanishad passage "yat cakshushA na paSyat i yena cakshUmsi
paSyant i t adeva br ahma t vam viddhi - Under st and t hat Br ahman is That which
cannot be seen by t he eyes, but because of which eyes ar e per ceiving ot her
t hings.
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nAma 57. nAma 57. nAma 57. HlH6- HlH6- HlH6- -- - sAsvat ah sAsvat ah sAsvat ah
One who is et er nal.
shASvat bhavat I t i shAshvat ah - That which r emains t he same at all t imes is
t he Per manent . Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t hat t he f act t hat BhagavAn is SASvat a
is evident f r om t he et er nal f low of act ion per t aining t o t he wor ld (i.e., cr eat ion
et c.). Sr i Chinmaya point s out t hat f or somet hing t o be per manent , it has t o be
changeless wit h t ime, and BhagavAn is t he cont r oller of t ime, and is not
cont r olled or af f ect ed by t ime, and so is Et er nal and per manent .
nAma 58. nAma 58. nAma 58. T !T- T !T- T !T- -- - kr ushNah kr ushNah kr ushNah
a) One who is always in a st at e of Bliss (wit h His spor t of cr eat ion et c.).
b) One who has a dar k-blue complexion.
The f ir st int er pr et at ion is suppor t ed f r om t he f ollowing ver se in
MahAbhAr at a -
kr shir -bhU-vAcakah Sabdo NaSca nir vr t i vAcakah |
vishNus-t ad bhAvayogAcca kr shNo bhavat i SASvat ah | |
- (MB Udyogapar va 5.68.5)
Appr oximat ely t r anslat ed, t his says: kr ishi means bhU, Na means nir vr t t i or
happiness and bliss, and BhagavAn is called Kr shNa because He is t he union of
t hese t wo. Sr i Sankar a and Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et t he name slight ly dif f er ent ly
wit h t his same st ar t ing point . Sr i Sankar a int er pr et s bhU t o mean exist ence
(bhU - bhav - t o be), and Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s bhU t o mean a r ecept acle or
gr ound or cont ainer (e.g., bhUmi). So Sr i Bhat t ar says t hat kr shNa her e means
t he r ecept acle of ext r eme j oy because of His const ant spor t of cr eat ion et c.
r ef er r ed t o in t he pr evious nAma. Sr i Sankar a int er pr et s t he name t o mean
t hat He is t he union of exist ence and bliss.
The second int er pr et at ion also has it s suppor t in t he MahAbhAr at a -
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kr shAmi pr t hivI m pAr t ha bhUt vA kAr shNAyaso halah |
kr shNo var NaSca me yasmAt t asmAt kr shNo' ham ar j una | |
- SAnt i par va 342.79
Not e t he wor ds kr shAmi, kAr shaNa, and kr shNa in t he above. Each of t hese
wor ds leads t o a new and dif f er ent int er pr et at ion of t he meaning of t he nAma
her e. The meaning of t he f ir st line in t he above sloka is "When t he ear t h
becomes shelled by it s har d cr ust , I shall t ur n myself int o an ir on plough-shar e
(black-color ed), and shall plough t he ear t h." The name kr shNa can ar ise out of
t he f act t hat He is doing t he act denot ed by t he wor d "kr shAmi". Sr i Chinmaya
beaut if ully point s out t hat t his "ploughing" r ef er s t o His ploughing all t he
st upidit ies in His devot ees and pr epar ing t he hear t -f ield, weeding out all t he
poisonous gr owt h of sin, and cult ivat ing t her ein pur e Bliss.
The second par t of t he ver se means "O Ar j una! Because of my dar k
complexion, I am called Kr shNa". The dar k complexion r ef er r ed t o above could
be because He is t he (dar k color ed) ir on plough, or because He is dar k
complexioned like t he wat er -bear ing cloud. Eit her way, because of His dar k
complexion, He is called kr shNa. Not ice t hat t he dar k complexion is associat ed
wit h "kAr mugil vaNNan" or "nI la megha syAmalan" - One who has t he color of
t he r ain cloud loaded wit h His limit less mer cy.
Sr i Chinmaya point s out t hat t he inner meaning behind t he "dar k" complexion is
t hat BhagavAn is not easily r ecognized (i.e., He is veiled behind some dar kness)
by t hose who aspir e t o r each Him except t hr ough single-minded devot ion.
The nAma kr shNa can also be int er pr et ed in t er ms of t he wor d "Akar shaNa"
or magnet ic at t r act ion. He is kr shNa because He ir r esist ibly at t r act s all His
devot ees. Or He sweeps away (like a magnet dr awing away t he ir on f ilings) t he
sins in t he hear t s of t hose who medit at e upon Him.
This nAma occur s once mor e lat er as nAma 554 in "vedAh svAngo' j it ah
kr shNo.....". Sr i Bhat t ar gives t he meaning b) f or nAma 554, and gives t he f ir st
explanat ion f or t he cur r ent nAma descr ibing t he par avAsudeva f or m.
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nAma 59. nAma 59. nAma 59. ¬l |r6l¬- ¬l |r6l¬- ¬l |r6l¬- -- - lOhit Akshah lOhit Akshah lOhit Akshah
One wit h eyes r ed like t he beaut if ul lot us f lower .
Lohit e akshiNi yasya sah lohit Akshah.
Sr i Bhat t ar enj oys t he beaut y of t his nAma by ascr ibing t he r edness in t he
eye t o t he supr eme j oy t hat BhagavAn has. One can r ecall t he mant r a "sa mA
vr shabho lohit akshah sUr yo vipaScit mansA punAt u", which we chant dur ing
our sandhyavandanam. This is t he second r ef er ence so f ar t o t he beaut y of
BhagavAn' s eyes (t he ear lier one was pushkar Aksha).
While Sr i Bhat t ar explains t he r edness of t he eye as r esult ing f r om ext r eme
j oy, anot her explanat ion given is t hat t he r edness is a r esult of BhagavAn' s
anger t owar ds t he evil-doer s, f or t he dest r uct ion of whom He t akes t he
dif f er ent avat Ar as - vinASAya ca dushkr t Am.
nAma 60. nAma 60. nAma 60. 967+- 967+- 967+- -- - pr at ar danah pr at ar danah pr at ar danah
The Dest r oyer .
This name is der ived f r om t he r oot t ar dih - t o cause dest r uct ion. Pr a-t ar da
means ext r eme dest r uct ion. Sr i Bhat t ar gives t he f ollowing f r om
kaThopanisahd - yasya br ahma ca ksht r am ca ubhe bhavat ah odanah - He who
has f or His f ood t he br ahmins and t he kshat r iyas (i.e., all beings of t he
univer se) at t he t ime of pr alaya. Sr i RadhAkr shNa Sast r i point s out t hat given
t he int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma, t he r edness of t he eye in t he pr evious nAma
can be appr opr iat ely t he r esult of anger at t he t ime of dissolut ion.
nAma 61. nAma 61. nAma 61. 9¬ 6 9¬ 6 9¬ 6 -- - pr abhUt a pr abhUt a pr abhUt a
One who is af f luent , ever f ull, and well-endowed wit h wisdom, gr eat ness, and
ot her qualit ies.
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Lit er ally, t he wor d means "bor n f ull" pr a-bhUt a. Even t hough at t he t ime of
pr alaya, BhagavAn dest r oys ever yt hing, st ill His af f luence r emains since He
has t he par ama-pada (t he t r anscendent al wor ld), which is f ull of Bliss. And His
essent ial Nat ur e, well-endowed wit h j nAna, bala, aisvar ya, vI r ya, Sakt i, and
t ej as st ill r emain. Even af t er r educing ever yt hing at pr alaya, t he vAmana can
be t he t r ivikr ama.
nAma 62. nAma 62. nAma 62. |×TT… &lPl |×TT… &lPl |×TT… &lPl -- - t r ikakud dhAmA t r ikakud dhAmA t r ikakud dhAmA
Ther e ar e t hr ee wor ds in t his name - t r i, kakub or kakut , and dhAma.
t r i means t hr ee; kakub means t he dir ect ion or quar t er of a compass (f or
example); kakut means t he hump (such as t he hump on t he back of a bull, or a
peak or mount ain); kakub and kakut also ar e int er changeably used f or eit her
meaning. dhAma means abode or r esidence, and also a r ay of light or br illiance.
Sever al int er pr et at ions ar ise depending on t he choice of t he meanings.
We will st ar t wit h dhAma meaning br illiance. Sr i Bhat t ar indicat es t hat if t his
meaning is used, dhAma will have t o be consider ed as a separ at e nAma. The
f ir st par t is t hen int er pr et ed as t r i-kakut , which r ef er s t o t he incar nat ion of
BhagavAn as t he var Aha, t he Boar wit h t hr ee hor ns. This int er pr et at ion f or
t r i-kakut is suppor t ed by t he f ollowing sloka f r om moksha dhar ma in t he
mahAbhAr at a -
t at haiva Asam t r i-kakudo vAr Aham r Upam Ast hit ah |
t r ikakut t ena vikhyAt ah Sar I r asya pr amApaNAt | |
- moksha dhar ma 343-63.
"Then I assumed t he f or m of a Boar wit h t hr ee hor ns. So I became known as
' t r i-kakut ' . Wit h t hat f or m I killed t he r Akshasa."
Sr i Bhat t ar gives t he above only as an alt er nat ive int er pr et at ion, but does not
int er pr et t he phr ase t r i-kakud-dhaAma as t wo separ at e wor ds as explained
above. Sr i Sankar a also int er pr et s t r i-kakub-dhAma as one nAma.
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One int er pr et at ion Sr i Bhat t ar gives f or t r i-kakud-dhAma is One who has as
His abode par ama-pada, which is t hr ice as lar ge as t his univer se. An alt er nat ive
int er pr et at ion given is t hat t he t hr ee par t s r ef er t o t he t hr ee gr oupings of
t he six guNas (j nAna, bala, aisvar ya, vI r ya, Sakt i, t ej as), and since He is t he
abode of t hese t hr ee gr oups of guNas, He is t r i-kakud-dhAma.
Sr i Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is t he base or suppor t f or t he
t hr ee r egions of t he ent ir e space, t he upper , t he lower , and t he middle, and
t her ef or e He is t r i-kakud-dhAma.
Sr i Chinmaya gives t he vedAnt ic int er pr et at ion t hat He is t he base or suppor t
f or t he t hr ee st at es of consciousness, viz., t he j Agr at , svapna, and sushupt i,
and t his is why He is called t r i-kakud-dhAma.
nAma 63. nAma 63. nAma 63. 9|4× 9|4× 9|4× -- - pavit r am pavit r am pavit r am
Pur it y I ncar nat e.
Up t o t his point , t he qualit ies, possessions, and body of BhagavAn have been
por t r ayed st ep-by-st ep. Now we ar e passing t o His essent ial Nat ur e which is
t o be cognized t hr ough all of t he above. The wor d is der ived f r om poo - t o
pur if y. Eit her He is t he Deit y t hat pur if ies, or He is t he means of pur if icat ion.
The pur it y r ef er r ed t o her e is t he inner pur it y of t he mind, which He gives t o
t hose who medit at e on Him.
Bot h Sr i RadhAkr shNa Sast r i and Sr i Chinmaya of f er a second and mor e
uncommon int er pr et at ion - One who gives pr ot ect ion (t r Ayat e) f r om t he
t hunder bolt of I ndr a (pavi). Sr i Chinmaya point s out t hat in vedAnt a indr a
r ef er s t o t he mind (indr iyANam r Aj A indr ah - t he mind), and t he t hunder bolt
of mind can dest r oy all t he accomplishment s of a sAdhaka, and unint er r upt ed
medidat ion of Sr i VishNu can give t he pr ot ect ion against such dist r act ions, and
t hus VishNu is pavi-t r a.
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nAma 64. nAma 64. nAma 64. Pñ= 9¹P Pñ= 9¹P Pñ= 9¹P -- - mangaLam par am mangaLam par am mangaLam par am
The Embodiment of Supr eme Auspiciousness
Sr i Sankar a quot es t he f ollowing f r om VishNu Pur ANa -
aSubhAni nir AcashTe t anot i Subhasant at im |
smr t i-mAt r eNa yat pumsAm br ahma t anmangalam viduh | |
"Br ahman is known as benef icence because He war ds of f all evils and br ings on
a ser ies of benef it s t o men on being mer ely r emember ed by t hem".
par am j ust emphasizes t hat He is t he Supr eme Benef icence. We may r ecall t he
int r oduct or y sloka "pavit r ANAm pavit r am yo mangalAnAm ca mangalam" by
Bhishma; t hese t wo names occur now sequent ially her e.

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SlOkam 8
²Hl+- 9lT7- 9lTl 74 U7~ U- 9=l9|6-· ²Hl+- 9lT7- 9lTl 74 U7~ U- 9=l9|6-· ²Hl+- 9lT7- 9lTl 74 U7~ U- 9=l9|6-·
|r¹'4¬¬l ¬ ¬¬l Pl¤4l P¤ B 7+-+ <+ |r¹'4¬¬l ¬ ¬¬l Pl¤4l P¤ B 7+-+ <+ |r¹'4¬¬l ¬ ¬¬l Pl¤4l P¤ B 7+-+ <+
I sAnah pr ANadah pr ANO j yEshThas sr EshThah pr aj Apat ih |
hir aNyagar bhO bhUgar bhO mAdhavO madhusUdanah | |
nAma 65. nAma 65. nAma 65. ²Hl+- ²Hl+- ²Hl+- -- - I sAnah I sAnah I sAnah
The cont r oller
By t his name, BhagavAn is clear ly dist inguished f r om t he bound souls, r eleased
souls, and ever -f r ee souls. The name signif ies t hat it is His innat e nat ur e t o
keep all t hings under cont r ol under all cir cumst ances. The name is der ived f r om
t he r oot I s - t o command, t o cont r ol, t o r ule, t o possess.
nAma 66. nAma 66. nAma 66. 9lT7- 9lT7- 9lT7- -- - pr Anadah pr Anadah pr Anadah
The lif e-giver
a) pr ANAn dadAt i it i pr ANa-dah
This gives t he f ir st example of how BhagavAn is t he cont r oller as indicat ed in
t he pr evious nAma. Sr i Bhat t ar indicat es t hat t he lif e-giving f unct ion r ef er r ed
t o her e is t he act of BhagavAn in giving t he st r engt h t o t he nit ya-sUr is or
ever -f r ee Angels t o visualize Him always, enj oy Him and do ser vice t o Him.
Sr i Sankar a point s out t hat in addit ion t o t he above int er pr et at ion, t he same
name can be int er pr et ed t o mean t hat BhagavAn is also t he t aker of t he pr ANa
- pr ANAn dyat i it i - One who t akes away t he pr ANa or vit al air s at t he t ime of
deat h, or pr ANAn dI payat i it i - One who pur if ies and br ight ens t he vit al air s.

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nAma 67. nAma 67. nAma 67. 9lT- 9lT- 9lT- -- - pr ANah pr ANah pr ANah
Lif e.
That which sust ains is pr ANa - pr ANit i it i pr ANah. That which has pr ANa
f unct ioning in it is a pr ANI . BhagavAn is Pr ANa because He sust ains t he
Pr ANi. The name can also be under st ood as r ef er r ing t o BhagavAn being t he
cause of t he pRANA or lif e-impulse in t he air t hat sust ains t he lif e - in
kenopanishad we f ind t he Supr eme def ined as pr ANasya pr ANah - t he pr ANa
of pr ANa it self .
nAma 68. nAma 68. nAma 68. 74U- 74U- 74U- -- - j yEshThah j yEshThah j yEshThah
Older t han t he oldest .
Vr ddhat amo j yeshThah.
Br ahma is called vr ddha-t ar a since he is older t han all ot her beings t hat he
cr eat ed as a r esult of t his f unct ion being ent r ust ed in Him by BhagavAn;
BhagavAn is vr ddha-t ama because He cr eat ed Br ahma, and is t hus older t han
Br ahma. Sr i ChinmayAnanda point s out t hat j yeshTHa is t he super lat ive of
vr ddha (vr ddha - aged; j yAyAn - mor e aged; j yeshTha - most aged).
nAma 69. nAma 69. nAma 69. ~U- ~U- ~U- -- - sr EshThah sr EshThah sr EshThah
Most pr aise-wor t hy.
Pr aSasyat amo Sr eshThah.
Sr eshTha is t he super lat ive of sr eya - glor ious. I t is t o be not ed t hat t he
sequence of t he t hr ee names above, pr ANa, j yeshTHa and Sr eshTHa is t he
same sequence t hat occur s in t he chandogyopanishad - pr ANo vAva
j yeshThaSca Sr eshTHASca.
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nAma 70. nAma 70. nAma 70. 9=l9|6- 9=l9|6- 9=l9|6- -- - pr aj Apat ih pr aj Apat ih pr aj Apat ih
Lor d of t he Ever -f r ee Angels.
Pr akar sheNa j Ayant e it i pr aj Ah, t eshAm pat ih pr aj Apat ih - The leader of
t hose who have a glor ious bir t h - t he nit ya-sUr is, who ar e f ar super ior t o t he
baddha and mukht a, or t he bound and f r eed souls.
An explanat ion which int er pr et s t he t er m pr aj A t o mean all beings, r at her t han
t he special class of Ever -f r ee Angels, has also been pr ovided, and t hus t he
meaning in t his case will be Lor d of all beings.
nAma 71. nAma 71. nAma 71. |r¹'4¬¬- |r¹'4¬¬- |r¹'4¬¬- -- - hir aNyagar bhah hir aNyagar bhah hir aNyagar bhah
He who is in a lovely Abode.
The wor d hir aNya means golden. Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s it as f it t ing or lovely.
The wor d gar bha means womb. Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s it as t he Abode or Living
Place. Thus t he meaning - One who is in a f it t ing or Lovely Abode, viz. The
Par ama Padam. Or , He is t he gar bha , or or iginat or , of hir aNya or gold, a t er m
used t o r ef er t o all t hat is t he Obj ect of f ulf illment and j oy.
nAma 72. nAma 72. nAma 72. ¬¬¬- ¬¬¬- ¬¬¬- -- - bhUgar bhah bhUgar bhah bhUgar bhah
One f or whom t he Ear t h is t he obj ect of pr ot ect ion.
He is t he pr ot ect or of Mot her Ear t h. I t can also mean One who has t he
Univer se in Himself - bhU gar bhe yasya sah bhUgar bhah. Or , He is t he gar bha,
or Or iginat or , of t he Univer se. BhU, which is His gar bha, is const ant ly and
lovingly nur t ur ed and nour ished t hr ough His ver y Essence.

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nAma 73. nAma 73. nAma 73. Pl¤4- Pl¤4- Pl¤4- -- - mAdhavah mAdhavah mAdhavah
a) The consor t of MA or Lakshmi.
b) One who is at t ained t hr ough t he madhu vidyA, or t hr ough mauna, dhyAna,
and yoga
c) The Lor d of knowledge or t he pr opounder of t he knowledge of t he Supr eme
Being.
d) One who is bor n in t he r ace of Madhu, a yAdhava
e) One f or whom t her e is no Lor d (i.e., One who is t he Lor d of ever yone)
f ) A silent obser ver , a maunee,
The nAma mAdhava occur s t hr ee t imes (nAma 73, 169, 741) in Sr i VishNu
sahasr anAmam, and dif f er ent int er pr et at ions ar e of f er ed in t he t hr ee
cont ext s. We will deal wit h all t he dif f er ent int er pr et at ions her e, and will
r ef er back t o t his sect ion f or t he f ut ur e.
a) MAyAh dhavah mAdhavah - One who is t he Lor d or consor t of MA or
Lakshmi.
The concept her e is t hat BhagavAn and Sr I ar e et er nally and const ant ly
associat ed wit h each ot her , and insepar able. As if t o emphasize t his, Sr i
Bhat t ar gives t he det ailed explanat ion f or t he qualit ies of MA or Lakshmi
under t his name, r at her t han dwell on t he nAma MAdhava.
I n Br ahma Pur ANa, we have
t at Sakt ih dur j ayA bhI mA vishNu-Sakt ih it i smr t A |
sar vabhUt a hr dabj ast hA nAnAr Upa dhar A par A | |
pr ANAkhyA mant r amAt A ca viSvasya j ananI dhr uvA | |
"Her power is invincible and awe-inspir ing and She is consider ed t he power of
VishNu Himself . She is t he Supr eme Being who lives in t he hear t s of all beings
of t he univer se and She is endowed wit h divine f or ms. Her name is pr ANa or
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lif e. She is t he Mot her of all mant r as, and is t he et er nal Mot her of t he
Univer se".
I t cont inues on t o say t hat She per vades t he ent ir e univer se, moving and non-
moving - j agat car Acar am idam sar vam vyApya vyavast hit A.
I n Sr i Lakshmi sahasr anAmam, She is called t he Supr eme Pr akr t i who
possesses t he six qualit ies (shAdguNya)- j nAna, bala, aiSvar ya, vI r ya, Sakt i,
t ej as. She is t he supr eme, unique, and et er nal Sakt i of BhagavAn. She is one
wit h Him, and yet r emains dist inct like t he moon-light of t he cool-r ayed moon.
She per vades t he Univer se and is t he ver y embodiment of all Sakt is. She is
endowed wit h all glor y and qualit ies, and is et er nal. Her dhar ma is t he same as
t hat of BhagavAn. She is t he lif e-giving Sakt i of all beings on ear t h. These ar e
expr essed in t he f ollowing Slokas:
mahAvibhUt eh sampUr Na shAdguNya vapushah pr abhoh |
bhagavad vAsudevasya nit yaiva eshA anapAyinI | |
ekaiva var t at e bhinnA j yot sneva himadI dhit eh |
sar vaSakt yAt mikA caiva viSvam vyApya vyavast hit A | |
sar vaiSvar ya guNopet A nit yam t addhar ma dhar miNI |
pr ANaSakt ih par A hyeshA sar veshAm pr ANiNAm bhuvi | |
The secr et of t he t r ue nat ur e of MA is t hus summar ized -
Sr addhayA devo devat vam aSnut e -
Madhava get s His Lor dship because of His associat ion wit h MA or Lakshmi.
b) One who is at t ained t hr ough t he madhu vidyA, involving mauna, dhyAna, and
yoga.
The suppor t f or t his comes f r om t he mahAbhAr at a -
madhuvidyAvabodhat vAt dhavat vAdvA Sr iyo' niSam |
maunAd-dhyAnAcca yogAcca viddhi bhAr at a mAdhavam | |
- (Udyog a par va 68.4)
Her e, mA st ands f or mauna, dha st ands f or dhyAna, and va st ands f or yoga. He
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is exper ienced by t he seeker who has st illed his mind t hr ough mauna, dhyAna,
and yoga pr act ices. Or , it can be said t hat He is mAdhava because He is
endowed wit h mauna, dhyAna, and yoga - He silent ly obser ves t he physical,
ment al, and int ellect ual act ivit ies of all beings, and is ever t he non-int er f er ing
Obser ver .
c) The Lor d of knowledge.
I n t his int er pr et at ion, mA st ands f or knowledge, and dhava is Lor d. The
suppor t f or t his int er pr et at ion comes f r om Har ivamSa -
mA vidyA ca har eh pr okt A t asyA I So yat o bhavAn |
t asmAd mAdhava nAmAsi dhavah svAmI t i Sabdit ah | |
- (Har ivamSa 3.88.49)
"O Har i! You ar e t he Lor d (dhava) of mA (knowledge); hence you ar e named
Madhava, t he Mast er of mA".
d) madhukule j At at vAt mAdhavah - One who is bor n in t he r ace of Madhu, a
yAdava.
e) mA dhavah yasya sa mAdhavah - One f or whom t her e is no ot her Lor d. This
int er pr et at ion is included as one of t he explanat ions f or t his name by
Thir ukkaLLAm sr i Nr simhar AghavAchAr iAr in his bhAshya on Sr i Bhagavad
GI t A.
f ) One who is t he Silent Obser ver - t his is discussed under it em b) above.
nAma 74. nAma 74. nAma 74. P¤ B 7+- P¤ B 7+- P¤ B 7+- -- - madhusUdanah madhusUdanah madhusUdanah
The slayer of t he evil demon called Madhu.
I n t he MahAbhAr at a we have t he f ollowing -
vishNu kar Nodbhavam cApi madhu nAma mahAsur am |
t asya t AvadvadhAdeva deva dAnava mAnavAh madhusUdhana
it yAhur -r shayaSca j anAr danam | |
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- (MahAbhAr at a 2.63.13)
"Because Sr i VishNu dest r oyed t he mahAsur an by name madhu, He is called
MadhusUdhana by t he sages, devas, asur as, and men".
Sr i ChinmayAnanda indicat es t hat madhu is a t er m used in vedAnt a t o r ef er t o
t he f r uit s of act ions. Since BhagavAn dest r oys t he ef f ect s of t he f r uit s of
act ions of t hose who medit at e on Him, He is madhusUdana.


sr i mahA vishNu

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SlOkam 9
²H¹l |44Pl ¤-4l P ¤l4l |44P- 4P-· ²H¹l |44Pl ¤-4l P ¤l4l |44P- 4P-· ²H¹l |44Pl ¤-4l P ¤l4l |44P- 4P-·
H+ ¬Pl T¹l¤9 - T 6¬- T |6¹ltP4l+ + °+ H+ ¬Pl T¹l¤9 - T 6¬- T |6¹ltP4l+ + °+ H+ ¬Pl T¹l¤9 - T 6¬- T |6¹ltP4l+ + °+
I svar O vikr amI i dhanvI mEdhAvI vikr amah kr amah |
anut t amO dur Adhar shah kr ut aj ~nah kr ut ir At mavAn | |
nAma 75. nAma 75. nAma 75. ²H¹- ²H¹- ²H¹- -- - I svar ah I svar ah I svar ah
The Ruler .
This nAma occur r ed ear lier (nAma 36). At t hat t ime we had indicat ed t hat t he
name can be int er pr et ed as One who has unlimit ed aiSvar ya, or One who can do
what ever He wills (I shTe). AiSvar ya means might or power , sover eignt y,
af f luence or wealt h, et c. Sr i Sankar a seems t o int er pr et t he f ir st occur r ence
of t his nAma as One who has unlimit ed might , and t he next one as One who has
unlimit ed power . Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he f ir st occur r ence as One who has
supr eme power of r uler ship over all beings, and seems t o int er pr et t he second
one as One who does what ever He wills - yat r a kAma gamo vaSI - He has self -
cont r ol and goes wher ever He want s. Sr i ChinmayAnanda int er pr et s t he f ir st
occur r ence as One who has t he abilit y t o do what ever He want s and t he second
occur r ence as One who is Omni-pot ent or All-power f ul, wit h cont r ol over all
f or ms of Sakt i - kr iyA Sakt i, icchA Sakt i, and j nAna Sakt i. However , all of
t hem seem t o use t he t wo var iant s we have cover ed under nAma 36.
nAma 76. nAma 76. nAma 76. |44Pl |44Pl |44Pl -- - vikr amI vikr amI vikr amI
a) The most cour ageous, The most power f ul.
b) One who has t he "Special" f oot st eps viz. Vamana
Vikr amah Sour yam, t adyogAt vikr amI - vikr ama is cour age; He who is ever a
cour ageous One, is vikr amI . Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t hat t he name signif ies t hat
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98
it is His nat ur e t hat it dispels all possibilit y of anyt hing going against His will
or desir e.
Sr i ChinmayAnanda gives t he addit ional int er pr et at ion which uses t he meaning
of kr ama as st eps, and int er pr et s t he nAma as One who has "Special"
f oot st eps, r ef er r ing t o t he vAmana incar nat ion.
nAma 77. nAma 77. nAma 77. ¤-4l ¤-4l ¤-4l -- - dhanvI dhanvI dhanvI
The wielder of t he bow.
Dhanur asya ast i it i dhanvI .
He is t he wielder of t he divine bow Sar nga. I t is well-known t hat in His
incar nat ion as Sr i Rama, He had t o dedicat e a subst ant ial par t of His lif e
wielding His bow. I n t he Git A, Sr i Kr shNa says -
r Amah Sast r a bhr t Amaham - I am Rama among t he wielder s of t he bow.
nAma 78. nAma 78. nAma 78. P ¤l4l P ¤l4l P ¤l4l -- - mEdhAvI mEdhAvI mEdhAvI
One who is capable of power f ul memor y.
Sr i Sankar a gives t he f ollowing def init ion -
"medhA bahugr ant ha dhAr aNa sAmar t hyam, sa yasya ast i sa medhAvI - medhA
is t he abilit y t o gr asp sever al ideas on dif f er ent subj ect s at t he same t ime;
One who has t his abilit y nat ur ally is medhAvI ".
Sr i RadhAkr shNa Sast r i point s out t hat BhagavAn is I svar a, vikr amI , dhanvI ,
et c., because He is a medhAvI , one who can command t he knowledge of
anyt hing at any t ime as desir ed.
nAma 79. nAma 79. nAma 79. |44P- |44P- |44P- -- - vikr amah vikr amah vikr amah
a) One wit h gr eat st r ides (see nAma 76), such as in t he vAmana incar nat ion
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b) One who r ides on t he king of bir ds, t he Gar uda.
The f ir st meaning has been explained under t he ear lier nAma 76. The second is
der ived as f ollows: vi r ef er s t o t he king of bir ds, Gar uda; kr ama r ef er s t o His
sancAr a playf ully on t he Gar uda who is t he embodiment of t he t hr ee vedas,
ar ound t he wor ld.
nAma 80. nAma 80. nAma 80. 4P- 4P- 4P- -- - kr amah kr amah kr amah
a) One who is t he basis f or t he or der in t he Univer se
b) One who cont r ols and best ows t he power of movement
c) One who is highly pr osper ous
Kr ama can r ef er t o syst emat izat ion, sequence, or der ing et c. (The wor d kr amam
is commonly used in Tamil as a wor d acquir ed f r om Sanskr it wit h t his meaning).
I t can also r ef er t o st eps, as we indicat ed under vikr amI , vir kr amah, et c., and
as a r esult , mot ion.
Based on t he meaning as or der ing or sequence, He is t he one who makes t he
event s of t he wor ld conf or m t o an or der , f or e.g., night and day f ollowing each
ot her .
Based on t he meaning as st eps or mot ion, He is r esponsible f or t he power of
His cr eat ur es having t he power of mot ion or movement .
Accor ding t o PaNini sUt r a 1.3.38, which r eads "vr t t i-sar ga-t Ayaneshu kr amah",
kr ama also can indicat e cont inuit y, ener gy, or good pr ogr ess or development .
Sr i Bhat t ar uses t he last of t hese, and gives t he meaning "One who has gr eat
pr osper it y".
nAma 81. nAma 81. nAma 81. H+ ¬P- H+ ¬P- H+ ¬P- -- - anut t amah anut t amah anut t amah
One f or whom t her e is not hing super ior or bet t er .
na vidyamAna ut t amo yasmAt sah anut t amah - One f or whom not hing super ior
is known.
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The nir ukt i summar izat ion of Sr i Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna is ut t amo nAst i yasmAt
sah anut t ama udAhr t ah.
nAma 82. nAma 82. nAma 82. T¹l¤9- T¹l¤9- T¹l¤9- -- - dur Adhar shah dur Adhar shah dur Adhar shah
dait yAdhibhih dhar shayit um na sakyat a it i dur Adhar shah -
One who cannot be over come by t he demons and ot her s.
nAma 83. nAma 83. nAma 83. T 6¬- T 6¬- T 6¬- -- - kr ut aj ~nah kr ut aj ~nah kr ut aj ~nah
One who is gr at ef ul.
Sr i Bhat t ar gives t he f ollowing r ef er ences f r om t he GI t A in suppor t of t his
int er pr et at ion:
api cet sudur AcAr o bhaj at e mAm anayabhAk |
sAdhur eva sa mant avyah samyag vyavasit o hi sah | | (9.30)
A por t ion of t he t r anslat ion of t he bhAshya of Sr i RAmAnuj a f or t he above
sloka is: "I f even t he most sinf ul man wor ships Me wit h undivided devot ion,
wit h wor ship as t he only pur pose, such a per son must be consider ed highly
r ight eous. He is eminent among t he wor shipper s of VishNu - a gr eat Sr i
VaishNava (vaishNava Sr eshThasar a eva mant avyah ar e Sr i RAmAnuj A' s own
wor ds). He must be est eemed as f it f or honor ."
BhagavAn is so gr at ef ul t hat t he mer e wor ship of Him wit h sincer it y is
suf f icient f or Him t o f or give all ot her sins commit t ed by t he wor shipper .
The second suppor t given by Sr i Bhat t ar f or t he gr at ef ulness of BhagavAn f or
a devot ee who cr ied f or help wit h f ull sur r ender t o Him is f r om t he
MahAbhAr at a -
govindet i yadAkr andat kr shNA mAm dUr avAsini |
r Nam pr avr ddhamiva me hr dayAt na apasar pat i | | (MB 3-58-22)
"That cr y f or help ut t er ed aloud by Dr aupadi even f r om a dist ance, calling me
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"GovindA" - t hat cr y is never away f r om my mind like a debt t hat has incr eased
wit h t he int er est accumulat ed on it ".
Sr i Sankar a point s out t hat He conf er s emancipat ion (moksha) on t hose t hat
of f er t o Him in wor ship even such common obj ect s as a leaf or f lower -
pat r apushpAdyalpamapi pr ayacchat Am moksham dadAt i.
Anot her explanat ion given f or t his nAma is t hat BhagavAn is One who knows
t he act ions of all t he ot her beings, good and bad - pr ANinAm puNya apuNya
At makam kar ma kr t am j AnAt i it i kr t aj nah. He is t he one Knower who knows all
physical act ivit ies, all emot ional f eelings, and all int ellect ual t hought s and
mot ives. Sr i ChinmayAnanda point s out t hat He knows t he exact dept h of
sincer it y, t he t r ue ar dency of devot ion, t he r eal amount of pur it y in t he hear t
of His devot ees, and as a r esult of His gr at it ude, He br ings j oy and bliss t o
t heir hear t s because He is a kr t aj na.
nAma 84. nAma 84. nAma 84. T |6- T |6- T |6- -- - kr ut ih kr ut ih kr ut ih
One who is t he cause of t he vir t uous act of His devot ees.
I n t he pr evious nAma we saw t hat BhagavAn has gr eat gr at it ude f or t he good
act s of His devot ees. Thr ough t he cur r ent nAma it is point ed out t hat in
r ealit y BhagavAn is r eally t he cause behind t he good deeds, and all we can and
should do is pr act ice pur e and sincer e devot ion. Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t hat
BhagavAn alone makes us do vir t uous act s when He want s t o lif t us up f r om t he
wor lds of mat er ial exist ence. The vir t uous act of t he J iva owes it s or igin t o
t he Lor d when He is pleased - t acca t eshAm sukr t am asmAdeva pr asannAt it i
kr t ih.
nAma 85. nAma 85. nAma 85. HltP4l+ HltP4l+ HltP4l+ -- - At mavAn At mavAn At mavAn
The r eal Owner and Cont r oller of t he souls of t hose who do t hese vir t uous
act s.
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The basic element al f act t hat st ands out f r om t he last t hr ee nAmas is t hat it
is not we who br ing about our salvat ion t hr ough our ef f or t or act ions; it is He
who makes it happen based on t he sincer it y of our devot ion, t r ust , and
sur r ender t o Him as t he sole cause of our salvat ion. He is t he kr t aj na who, j ust
pleased immensely by our small ef f or t of sincer e devot ion, will cause our souls
which He owns, and diver t it t owar ds act ions t hat He will t hen use as t he het u
or r eason or pr et ext f or conf er r ing His blessings on us.
Anot her explanat ion Sr i RAdhAkr shNa SAst r i gives f or t his nAma is One who
is not dependent on anyt hing else f or His act ions - f or example when He killed
PUt anA t he demoness, He dr ank t he same milk t hat she gave Him t o br ing
about her dest r uct ion.
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cat hus sAr ngam
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104
SlOkam 10
B ¹ H7H¹T HP |4H¹ 6l- 9=l¬4-· B ¹ H7H¹T HP |4H¹ 6l- 9=l¬4-· B ¹ H7H¹T HP |4H¹ 6l- 9=l¬4-·
HrFB 4tB¹l -4l=- 9t44FB4 7H +-+ °¤+ HrFB 4tB¹l -4l=- 9t44FB4 7H +-+ °¤+ HrFB 4tB¹l -4l=- 9t44FB4 7H +-+ °¤+
sur Esassar aNam sar ma visvar Et Ah pr aj Abhavah |
ahassammvat sar O vyALah pr at yayassar vadar sanah | |
nAma 86. nAma 86. nAma 86. B¹H- B¹H- B¹H- -- - sur Esah sur Esah sur Esah
a) The Lor d of all t he ot her gods.
b) The best among t hose who can best ow t heir devot ees' desir es.
a) Sur ANAm I Sah sur eSah.
The wor d sur a means one who can f ulf ill t he desir es of t he devot ees (sushThu
r At i - dadAt i - it i sur ah. He is sur eSa because He cr eat ed t he ot her gods
(sur a) such as Br ahma and Rudr a and conf er r ed on t hem t he f unct ions f or
which t hey ar e r esponsible.
b) su r A I sah - Best among t hose who can best ow blessings on t heir devot ees.
su - Sobhanam, r At i - dadAt i, I sah - Their Lor d or The Best . Thus sur eSa
means t he best among t hose who can f ulf ill t he desir es of t he devot ees.
Sr iman nAr AyaNa is t he only one who can f ulf ill t he ult imat e desir e of t he
devot ees - t hat of moksha.
nAma 87. nAma 87. nAma 87. H¹TP H¹TP H¹TP -- - sar aNam sar aNam sar aNam
The Ref uge.
Accor ding t o amar akoSa, Sar aNam means pr ot ect ion as well as home -
Sar aNam vadha r akshit r or gr ha r akshaNayor api. BhagavAn is t he Ult imat e
Ref uge t o t hose who ar e in miser y - Ar t AnAm Ar t i hant Ar am. He is t he also
t he f inal Goal or t he Dest inat ion - nivasishyasi mayyeva at a Ur dhvam na
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105


samSayah; t he one who r ealizes Him comes t o live in Him. Sr i ChinmayAnanda
point s out t hat He is not only t he Home f or t hose who have r ealized Him, but
in pr alaya t ime He is t he home f or all beings.
nAma 88. nAma 88. nAma 88. HP HP HP -- - sar ma sar ma sar ma
One who is Bliss, t he Highest Goal t o be at t ained.
Amar akoSa gives t his wor d as an alt er nat ive (i.e., wit h t he same meaning) as
pr I t i, sukha, et c. I n t he vyAkhyAna f or amar akoSa, LingAyasur in gives t he
f ollowing der ivat ion - Sr NAt i duhkham it i Sar ma - One who dest r oys or
r emoves t he sor r ows. Bot h Sr i Sankar a and Sr i Bhat t ar give t he meaning
"Bliss". Par amAnanda r Upat vAt Sar ma, and sukham par ampr Apyam it i Sar ma,
r espect ively. I could not f ind t he r oot wor d f or t he nAma f r om t he dict ionar y.
Sir William-Monier ' s dict ionar y speculat es t hat t he name is pr obably der ived
f r om Sr i.
nAma 89. nAma 89. nAma 89. |4H¹ 6l- |4H¹ 6l- |4H¹ 6l- -- - visvar Et Ah visvar Et Ah visvar Et Ah
The seed f or t he Univer se.
r et as means seed. ViSvam kAr yam asya it i viSvar et A, or viSvasya kAr aNat vAt
viSvar et A.
The name denot es t hat He is t he seed f r om which t he t r ee of lif e has spr ung
f or t h. Lat er on, in nAmas 118 and 151, we will see t hat He is t he also t he
viSvayoni wher e t he seed develops and t akes f ull f or m. I n ot her wor ds,
ever yt hing r esult s f r om Him and exist s because of Him. Sr i Bhat t ar not es t hat
t he pur pose of His cr eat ion is f or His ser vice and His ser vice only. I n vishNu
t at va, we have t he f ollowing -
"vicit r A deha sampat t ih I svar Aya nivedit um |
pUr vameva kr t A br ahman! Hast a-pAdAdi samyut A | |
"Br ahman! This wonder f ul wealt h, namely body, associat ed wit h hands, legs,
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106
et c., has alr eady been cr eat ed by me wit h a view t o enable beings t o use t hem
in t he ser vice of t he Supr eme."
nAma 90. nAma 90. nAma 90. 9=l¬4- 9=l¬4- 9=l¬4- -- - pr aj Abhavh pr aj Abhavh pr aj Abhavh
One f r om whom all beings have or iginat ed.
I n nAma 70, pr aj Apat i, we f ound t hat pr aj A can r ef er t o t hose special bir t hs
(pr akar sheNa j Ayant e) such as t he nit ya sur is. So her e pr aj Abhava can r ef er
t o t he gener al int er pr et at ion t hat pr aj A r ef er s t o all beings, or mor e
specif ically t hat He cr eat ed all t he ot her sur is or Ever -Fr ee Angels. Sr i
r AdhAkr shNa SAst r i point s out t hat while nor mal evolut ion st ar t s wit h
pr imit ive f or ms and evolves t o higher f or ms, BhagavAn deiced t o cr eat e t he
higher f or ms such as Br ahma f ir st , and t hen t he f or ms t hat ar e not as
accomplished, such as all t he animals, t he humans, et c., lat er .
nAma 91. nAma 91. nAma 91. Hr- Hr- Hr- -- - ahah ahah ahah
a) One who never f or sakes anyone.
b) One who is like t he Day t hat awakens people f r om ignor ance.
c) One who does not dest r oy His devot ees.
The f ir st int er pr et at ion is based on "na hI nah asya ast i it i ahah - Ther e is no
one who is abandoned by Him. The second int er pr et at ion is based on t he
t r adit ional meaning of t he wor d aha - day. The t hir d int er pr et at ion is der ived
by a-ha, wher e ha means dest r oy; One who does not dest r oy is a-ha.
nAma 92. nAma 92. nAma 92. B4tB¹- B4tB¹- B4tB¹- -- - samvat sar ah samvat sar ah samvat sar ah
He who lives f or t he uplif t of His devot ees.
This name r epeat s again as nAma 423. The meaning is der ived f r om t he r oot
vas - t o live. samuddhar aNAya samvasat i it i samvat sar ah. The t er m samvat sar a
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107


is also used t o denot e t he year , and hence anot her int er pr et at ion f or t his
nAma is t hat BhagavAn is Time it self .
nAma 93. nAma 93. nAma 93. -4l=- -4l=- -4l=- -- - vyALah vyALah vyALah
a) One who accept s t he devot ees - e.g., vibhI shaNa.
b) One who is beyond gr asp such as a vyAla - a ser pent , an elephant ,
a t iger , et c.
Sr i Bhat t ar gives t he f ir st int er pr et at ion based on t he r oot lA - t o t ake or
accept . VyAla also means a ser pent , a mad elephant , a vicious t iger et c.
BhagavAn is vyAla because He is slipper y like a ser pent t o gr asp, or beyond
gr asp like a huge elephant . Or He is impossible t o be cont r olled by t he demons,
like a mad elephant - vyAlavat bhuj angavat gaj avat gr ahI t um aSakyat vAt
vyAlah.
nAma 94. nAma 94. nAma 94. 9t44- 9t44- 9t44- -- - pr at yayah pr at yayah pr at yayah
One who can be r elied upon.
Pr at I yat e asmin it i pr at yayah - One in whom we can place conf idence. I n t he
sabhA par va in mahA bhAr at a, we have
"yadi t e hr dayam vet t i yadi t e pr at yayo mayi |
bhI masenAr j unau SI ghr am nyAsabhUt au pr ayaccha me | | (20.7)
"I f your hear t under st ands me, and if you have FAI TH in me, place BhI ma and
ar j una immediat ely at my disposal".
nAma 95. nAma 95. nAma 95. B4 7H +- B4 7H +- B4 7H +- -- - sar vadar sanah sar vadar sanah sar vadar sanah
a) One who shows all His gr ace t o His devot ees
b) The All-seeing.
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108
Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s dar Sana t o mean He shows ever yt hing, and Sr i Sankar a
int er pr et s t his wor d t o mean He sees ever yt hing. Gr eat indeed ar e t he ways
gr eat minds see and enj oy t he BhagavAn in many dif f er ent ways! Sr i Sankar a
gives t he f ollowing r ef er ence t o t he sr ut i -
"viSvat aScakshur viSvAksham - One who has eyes on all sides - One who has a
Univer sal eye". (t ait t ir I ya Ar aNyaka 10.1, 11).
Sr I ChinmayAnanda gives t he f ollowing r ef er ence t o GI t A -
sar vat o' kshi Sir omukham - One who has eyes and heads ever ywher e.
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109


SlOkam 11
H=FB4 H¹|FB&- |B|&FB4l |7¹¬4 6-· H=FB4 H¹|FB&- |B|&FB4l |7¹¬4 6-· H=FB4 H¹|FB&- |B|&FB4l |7¹¬4 6-·
4 9lT|9¹P 4ltPl B4 4l ¬|4|+FB 6-+ °°+ 4 9lT|9¹P 4ltPl B4 4l ¬|4|+FB 6-+ °°+ 4 9lT|9¹P 4ltPl B4 4l ¬|4|+FB 6-+ °°+
aj assar vEsvar as siddhah siddhis sar vAdir acyut ah |
vr ushAkapi r amEyAt mA sar vayOga vinissr ut ah | |
nAma 96. nAma 96. nAma 96. H=- H=- H=- -- - aj ah aj ah aj ah
a) Unbor n.
b) The Remover of all obst acles.
c) One who moves in t he hear t s of t he devot ees
d) One who r emoves t he ignor ance f r om t he hear t s of His devot ees
e) One who is t he r oot of all sound (akshar a "a").
This nAma occur s t wo mor e t imes lat er (nAma 206 and 524).
a) The f ir st meaning is der ived as na j Ayat a it i aj ah - One who is not bor n in
t he t r adit ional sense.
Sr i Sankar a gives t he f ollowing f r om t he sr ut is t o suppor t t his explanat ion:
na j At o na j anishyat e - He was neit her bor n nor will be bor n (Rg veda 1.81.5)
"na hi j At o na j Aye' yam na j anishye kadAcana |
kshet r aj ~nah sar vabhUt AnAm t asmAt aham aj ah smr t ah | |
- MB SAnt ipar va 330.9
"I was not bor n, nor am I bor n, nor will I have a f ut ur e bir t h; I am t he soul in
all beings; hence I am called t he Unbor n".
Ot her r ef er ences t o t he name aj a ar e:
"aj o nit yah SASvat o' yam pur ANah" (kaThopanishad 1.2.18), and
"sa vA esha mahAn aj a At mA" (br hadAr aNyaupanishad 4.4.22).
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110
Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t hat BhagavAn only emer ges out of a pillar et c., but is
not bor n like ot her s (see t he explanat ion f or svayambhuh - nAma 37).
b) Ther e ar e sever al int er pr et at ions of t he nAma aj a using t he meaning
"movement " f or t he r oot aj - aj a gat i kshepaNayoh - The r oot ' aj ' signif ies
movement or t hr owing away .
Sr i Bhat t ar uses t his meaning and int er pr et s t he name as meaning "The
Remover of all obst acles" t o ensur e t hat His devot ees accomplish in t heir
obj ect ive of r eaching Him. Sr i Sankar a uses t he same meaning f or aj a
(movement , mot ion) and comes up wit h t he explanat ion - aj at i gacchat i kshipat i
it i vA aj ah - He who moves int o t he hear t of His devot ees. Sr i r AdhAkr shNa
SAst r i uses t he meaning "movement " and int er pr et s t he name as Remover of
t he ignor ance in us, or One who goes t o t he bhakt as t o enable t hem t o r each
Him, or One who t hr ows away His weapons at anyone who dist ur bs or causes
har dship t o His devot ees.
One ot her explanat ion given f or aj a is akAr avAcyat ayA j At ah - One who is
known t hr ough t he let t er "a". - akAr a vAcyat ayA j At ah aj ah. I n t he gI t A we
have "akshar ANaAm akAr o' smi - (gI t A 10.33) - I am "a" among t he syllables.
Sr i r AdhAkr hNa SAst r i point s out t hat at t he t ime of pr alaya t he panca
bhUt as coalesce int o et her (t he r ever se of AkASAt vAyuh, vAyor agnih,
aganer Apah, adbhyah pet hivI , et c.)., and t he et her coalesces int o it s
t anmAt r a, t he sound, and Sabda ult imat ely dissolves int o t he sound "a", which
is t he f or m of BhagavAn at t he conclusion of pr laya. The sr ut i is ' akAr o vai
sar vA vAk". I n t ir ukkur al we have "akar a mudalAya ezhut t hellAm Adi
bhaghavan mudat r e ulagu".
nAma 97. nAma 97. nAma 97. B4H¹- B4H¹- B4H¹- -- - sar vEsvar ah sar vEsvar ah sar vEsvar ah
a) One who r eaches all who seek Him
b) One who is t he I svar a f or all isvar as
a) Sr i Bhat t ar der ives t he f ir st int er pr et at ion f r om t he r oot aS t o per vade. By
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111


t he uNAdi sUt r a 738, aSnot er ASukar maNi var at ca - t he af f ix var at comes
af t er t he r oot aS - t o per vade, when t he wor d f or med f r om it r ef er s t o
"having t he power of gr ant ing success soon". Thus aS + var at = I Svar ah. The
int er pr et at ion is t hat He is sar veSvar a because He quickly r eaches all t hose
who have t aken r ef uge in Him in or der t o avoid delay in dispelling t heir
uneasiness whet her t hey ar e qualif ied or not . Or r at her , t he suf f icient
qualif icat ion is t hat t hey have t aken r ef uge in Him.
b) sar veshAm I Svar ANAm I Svar ah sar veSvar ah. The Sr ut i says - esha
sar veSvar ah - Br hadAr aNya upanishad - 4.4.22 - He is t he Lor d of all lor ds.
nAma 98. nAma 98. nAma 98. |B&- |B&- |B&- -- - siddhah siddhah siddhah
One who is available at t he hands of His devot ees.
nir ukt am summar izes Sr i Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna as svar UpeNaiva bhakt AnAm
siddhat vAt siddhah ucyat e - He is in t he hands of His devot ees in His t r ue
f or m. A siddha can also mean One who has accomplished all t hat has t o be
achieved. Sr i Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is ever per f ect - nit ya
nishpanna r Upat vAt siddhah.
An int er pr et at ion f or t he amar akoSa gives t he def init ion siddhyat i it i siddhah.
nAma 99. nAma 99. nAma 99. |B|&- |B|&- |B|&- -- - siddhih siddhih siddhih
The Goal.
The wor d siddhi lit er ally means accomplishment , success et c. BhagavAn is
siddhi because He is t he Goal or accomplishment by adopt ing t he means. Or , in
t he cont ext of success or accomplishment , He is siddhi because He gives t he
ult imat e f r uit of act ion, moksha. All ot her accomplishment s can only give lesser
benef it s such as t he lesser j oys of heaven et c., but only by at t aining Him one
can get moksha, t he ult imat e success.
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nAma 100. nAma 100. nAma 100. B4l |7- B4l |7- B4l |7- -- - sar vAdih sar vAdih sar vAdih
The Or igin or Cause of all t hings.
Sar veshAm pur ushAr t AnAm Adi h sar vAdi h or sar va bhUt AnAm
AdikAr aNat vAt sar vAdih. One who is t he ver y beginning of all; One who was in
exist ence ear lier t han anyt hing else. Even bef or e t he ef f ect s ar ise, t he Cause.
The I nf init e whish was bef or e cr eat ion, and f r om which t he cr eat ed beings
emer ged out .
nAma 101. nAma 101. nAma 101. H¬46- H¬46- H¬46- -- - acyut ah acyut ah acyut ah
a) One who has never slipped f r om His glor y.
b) One who never let s His devot ees slip.
c) One who under goes no modif icat ions such as bir t h, gr owt h, decay,
disease, et c.
This nAma occur s t wo mor e t imes lat er (320 and 557).
a) cyt i means "f all" and cyut a means "f allen". acyut a means "One who has never
f allen f r om His t r ue nat ur e". Sever al explanat ions ar e given t o f ur t her expand
t his guNa of t he Lor d. Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t hat He does not ever f all f r om
His posit ion of over lor dship unlike Br ahma, I ndr a, et c. who ar e subj ect t o loss
of posit ion, and t her ef or e He is called acyut a. Sr i r AdhAkr shNa SAst r i point s
out t hat He also does not slip f r om His posit ion by being inf luenced by kAma
et c. unlike Br ahma, I ndr a et c.
I n mahAbhAr at a we have
"yasmAt na cyut a pUr vo' ham acyut ast ena kar maNA" - SAnt i par va 12.330.16.
Sr i Sankar a and Sr i Bhat t ar have int er pr et ed t he above sr ut i slight ly
dif f er ent ly. Sr i Sankar a' s wor ds ar e - svar UpasAmar t hyAt na cyut o na cyavat e
na cyavishyat a it i acyut ah - He has not lapsed, is not lapsing, and will not lapse
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113


f r om His own glor y; hence t he name acyut a. Sr i Bhat t ar ' s int er pr et at ion of t he
above Sr ut i lead t o t he second meaning, which f ollows:
b) Sr i Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna f or t he above is "I have never abandoned (my
bhakt as). Because of t his act of mine, I am known as acyut a". His wor ds ar e
"t ebyah pr apannebhyah na apagat ah acyut ah - He is never away f r om t hose who
have sought r ef uge in Him". Sr i t ir ukkaLLam nr simhar AghavAchAr yar in his
bhagavadgI t A bhAshya has given t he explanat ion na cyAvayat i it i acyut ah -
One who does not let His devot ees slip - ar j una using t his name her e t o call
Lor d kr shNa who has t aken it upon Himself t o be his char iot eer and who will
not let him slip.
c) cyut am means modif icat ion. The upanishad says of BhagavAn - "SASvat am
Sivam acyut am" - Et er nal, Auspicious, and Changeless" - t ait t ir I ya Ar aNyakam
- 10.11). Sr i r AdhAkr shNa SAst r i point s out t hat BhagavAn is acyut a because
he does not slip f r om st age t o st age in t he sequence of event s such as bir t h,
living, gr owt h, change in appear ance, decay, and f inally disappear ance f r om t he
body.
nAma 102. nAma 102. nAma 102. 49lT|9- 49lT|9- 49lT|9- -- - vr ushAkapih vr ushAkapih vr ushAkapih
One who lif t ed t he Ear t h f r om t he wat er s of adhar ma in t he f or m of var Aha.
I n t he mahAbhAr at a we have
"kapir var Ahah Sr eshThaSca dhar maSca vRsha ucyat e |
t asmAd vRshAkapim pr Aha kASyapO mAm pr aj Apat ih | |
- (Sant i par va 330.24)
"The wor d vRsha means dhar ma, and t he wor d kapi r ef er s t o boar (pA means t o
pr ot ect and ka means wat er , and so kapi r ef er s t o var Aha incar nat ion wher e
He pr ot ect ed t he Ear t h f r om t he wat er s). Sr i chinmayAnanda point s out t hat
t he name der ives f r om t he f act t hat He pr ot ect ed t he Ear t h f r om t he ocean
of adhar ma in His var Aha incar nat ion. The meaning dhar ma f or t he wor d vRsha
is based on t he abilit y of dhar ma t o shower all t hat is desir ed.
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114
Sr i chinmayAnanda point s out t hat t his is one of t he nAmas on which t her e is
wide cont r over sy bet ween t he dif f er ent vyAkyAna kar t As; however , in t he f ew
t est s t hat I have r ef er r ed t o, t his indicat ion of ser ious cont r over sy is not
evident . I f any of you can elabor at e on ot her int er pr et at ions by our AchAr yas
and ot her vyAkhyAna kar t As, I will be ext r emely gr at ef ul.
nAma 103. nAma 103. nAma 103. HP4ltPl HP4ltPl HP4ltPl -- - amEyAt mA amEyAt mA amEyAt mA
One whose Nat ur e cannot be compr ehended.
Ameya means unaccount able or incompr ehensible. Sr i ChinmayAnanda indicat es
t hat t he vir At pur usha f or m of t he Lor d is suggest ed her e. His self or nat ur e
is such t hat it cannot be measur ed by any par t icular st andar d and det er mined.
nAma 104. nAma 104. nAma 104. B44l¬|4|+FB6- B44l¬|4|+FB6- B44l¬|4|+FB6- -- - sar vayOgavinisr ut ah sar vayOgavinisr ut ah sar vayOgavinisr ut ah
a) One who is beyond any at t achment
b) One who is easily at t ained by all means by His devot ees
The wor d yoga can mean union or it can mean t he means. Depending on which
one of t hese is chosen, we get a dif f er ent int er pr et at ion. VinissRt a means gone
f or t h or out , or escaped accor ding t o t he Sanskr it dict ionar y by Sir William-
Monier .
Using t he f ir st meaning f or yoga, we get t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is f r ee
f r om any and all of kind of bondage, and so He is sar va yoga vinissRt a. Using
t he second meaning, Sr i Bhat t ar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He is at t ainable easily
by all means. His int er pr et at ion is -
yOgaih - upAyaih;
vi - viSheshENa - vEda par ama guhyair iva;
nissRt ah - pr Apt um yogyah, sugr aha it i vA.
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SlOkam 12
4B 4 B P+lFBt4FBPltPl B|¹P6FBP-· 4B 4 B P+lFBt4FBPltPl B|¹P6FBP-· 4B 4 B P+lFBt4FBPltPl B|¹P6FBP-·
HPl ¤- 9 '7¹lTl¬l 4 9TPl 4 9lT |6-+ °-+ HPl ¤- 9 '7¹lTl¬l 4 9TPl 4 9lT |6-+ °-+ HPl ¤- 9 '7¹lTl¬l 4 9TPl 4 9lT |6-+ °-+
vasur vasumanAs sat yas samAt mA sammit as samah |
amoghah puNDar I kAkshO vr ushakar mA vr ushAkr ut ih | |
nAma 105. nAma 105. nAma 105. 4B - 4B - 4B - -- - vasuh vasuh vasuh
a) One who dwells in t he hear t s of His devot ees.
b) One who dwells in t he Milk-Ocean.
c) One who is t he wealt h t hat His devot ees seek.
d) The best among t he eight vasus - pAvaka.
e) One who lives in t he sky.
This nAma occur s t wo mor e t imes (nAma 271 and 701).
a) & b): vasat i it i vasuh - One who dwells.
He dwells in t he hear t s of His devot ees even wit h a small amount of devot ion,
and He dwells in t he kshI r Ar Nava. Sr I kr shNa-pr Emi in one his upanyAsas
r emar ks t hat Sr I man nAr AyaNa chose t o dwell in t he Milk-Ocean as if t o be
near er t o t hose devot ees who ar e not yet accomplished enough t o j oin Him t o
Sr ivaikuNTham, or as if He can be closer t o t he devot ees so as t o r ush t o help
t hose who need Him.
We have t he f ollowing f r om t he sr ut is -
"sa lokAnAm hit Ar t hAya kshI r OdhE vasat i pr abhuh"
-The gr eat Lor d r esides in t he milk ocean f or doing good t o t he people of t he
wor ld.
"Esha nAr AyaNah Sr I mAn kshI r Ar Nava nikEt anah"
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116
-This nAr AyaNa is always wit h Lakshmi, and r esides in t he Milk-ocean
(Har ivamSa 113.62).
c) The wor d vasu also means wealt h - vasat i nI t imat Am gRha it i vasu.
I n gI t A we have vAsudevah sar vam - vAsudeva is ever yt hing (gI t A 7.19). He is
t he wealt h t hat gr eat men seek.
d) He is vasu because He is one of t he eight vasus. Sr i Sankar a gives t he
f ollowing r ef er ence t o t he gI t A t o suppor t t his int er pr et at ion - vasUnAm
pAvakaScAsmi - I am pAvaka among t he vasus (gI t A 10.23).
e) One who, as air , moves about and has r esidence in t he mid-r egion.
I n kaThopanishd we have vasur ant iksha sat ( kaThopanisahd 2.5.2).
nAma 106. nAma 106. nAma 106. 4B P+l- 4B P+l- 4B P+l- -- - vasumanAh vasumanAh vasumanAh
a) One who has a ' wealt hy' or r ich mind.
b) One who has a mind which t hinks of His devot ees as a t r easur e.
vasumanasE namah
a) BhagavAn is vasu-manA because His mind is unpollut ed by anyt hing such as
r Aga, dvesha (at t achment , hat e), and similar secondar y af f lict ions such as
mada or inf at uat ion. He has a mind which has none of t he sins of passions and
pains, none of t he st or ms of desir es and j ealousies, none of t he quakes of likes
and dislikes.
b) Sr i kRshNa says in t he gI t A t hat t he high-souled man is ver y har d t o f ind -
sa mahAt mA sudur labhah - gI t A 7.19.
nAma 107. nAma 107. nAma 107. Bt4- Bt4- Bt4- -- - sat yah sat yah sat yah
a) The Tr ut h
b) One whose f or m is made up of pr ANa, mat t er and sun
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c) One who is well-disposed t owar ds t he good.
satyAya namah
This nAma occur s t wo mor e t imes lat er (nAma 213, 873).
a) The most commonly known meaning f or t his wor d is Tr ut h. The dir ect
suppor t f or t his int er pr et at ion comes f r om mahAbhAr at a -
"sat ye pr at isThit ah kRshNah sat amasmin pr at ishThit am |
sat t Asat t E ca gOvindah t asmAt sat yah sat Am mat ah | |
- (udyOga par va 69.12.13)
"KRshNa is r oot ed in sat ya and sat ya is r oot ed in kRshNa. Exist ence and non-
exist ence ar e gr ounded in govinda. So gr eat men opine t hat kRshNa is Tr ut h
it self ".
b) Sr i Sankar a gives t he f ollowing f r om ait r Eya Ar aNyaka in suppor t of t he
second int er pr et at ion -
sadit i pr ANAst I t yannam yamit yasAvAdit yah - sat means pr ANa, t i means f ood,
and yam t he sun. He is sat ya because His f or m is made up of pr ANa, mat t er
and sun.
c) sat su sAdhut vAt sat yah - He is sat ya because He is well-disposed
(excellent ) t owar ds t he noble souls. The pANini sut r a t hat suppor t s t his
int er pr et at ion is t at r a sAdhuh (4.4.98) -
t at r Et i sapt amI samar t hAt h sAdhur it yEt asminnar t hE yat pr at yayO bhavat i
- The af f ix yat comes af t er a wor d in t he locat ive const r uct ion, in t he sense of
' excellent in r egar d t her et o' .
Sr i ChinmayAnanda point s out t hat in philosophy, sat ya is t hat which is t he
same in all t hr ee per iods (past , pr esent , and f ut ur e). He is t he t he only one
who f it s t his def init ion, and so He is sat ya.

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118
nAma 108. nAma 108. nAma 108. BPltPl BPltPl BPltPl -- - samAt mA samAt mA samAt mA
One who has an even mind.
samAtmanE namah
One whose mind is undist ur bed by love or hat r ed. He is also sama At mA since
He does not dist inguish one f r om anot her when it comes t o His t hought s on His
devot ees. Since He is t he soul in ever yt hing, He f inds no dist inct ion bet ween
t hem. Since He is unat t ached t o anyt hing, He sees ever yt hing and ever yone as
equal.
nAma 109. nAma 109. nAma 109. B|¹P6- B|¹P6- B|¹P6- -- - sammit ah sammit ah sammit ah
a) One who has let Himself be under st ood (cont r olled) by His devot ees.
b) The One Tr ut h who is accept ed by t he Rshis and r evealed in t he upanishads.
sammitAya namah
Eit her meaning seems t o be based on t he wor d sammat a - accept ed. The f ir st
int er pr et at ion is by Sr i Bhat t ar , who point s out t hat t his name signif ies t hat
He willingly accept ed t he r ole of being ' cont r olled' by devaki, kausalyA,
yasoda, dasar at ha, vasudeva, et c. He chose t he par ent s t o whom He was going
t o be t he child, and t hen ' played' t he r ole of t he child willingly.
Sr i chinmayAnanda point s out t hat sammit a can mean t hat He is t he only one
who is t he accept ed Tr ut h or sammat a by t he Rshis and t he upanishads.
The advait a pATha is asammit a, which is int er pr et ed as r ef er r ing t o One who
is limit less or immeasur able.
nAma 110. nAma 110. nAma 110. BP- BP- BP- -- - samah samah samah
One who t r eat s all His devot ees equally.
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samAya namah
I n gI t A we have "samO' ham sar va bhUt Eshu" - I am equally disposed t owar ds
all beings (gI t a 9.29).
Sr i Sankar a int er pr et s t he meaning as One who is t he same at all t imes.
He gives anot her int er pr et at ion also - He is (sa) wit h (mAyA) lakshmi always;
t her ef or e, He is sama.
nAma 111. nAma 111. nAma 111. HPl¤- HPl¤- HPl¤- -- - amOghah amOghah amOghah
One who always gives f r uit s t o t hose who wor ship Him.
amoghAya namah
MOgha means f ut ile. Mogham nir ar t hakam is amr akOSa. AmOgha is t he
opposit e of it . We have t he f ollowing f r om r AmAyaNa -
"amOgham dar Sanam r Ama na ca mOghah t ava st avah |
amOghAst E bhavishyant i bhakt imant aSca yE nar Ah | |
- (r AmAyaNa yuddha 120.31)
"o r Ama! A sight of You is never f ut ile. The pr aise of You is also never f ut ile.
Those who ar e endowed wit h devot ion t o You will always be successf ul in t heir
lif e".
nAma 112. nAma 112. nAma 112. 9'7¹lTl¬- 9'7¹lTl¬- 9'7¹lTl¬- -- - punDar I kAkshah punDar I kAkshah punDar I kAkshah
a) One whose eyes ar e beaut if ul like t he lot us f lower
b) One who r esides in t he hear t space of ever yone and obser ves all
c) One who is like t he eye t o t he r esident s of Sr I vaikunTham.
puNdarIkAkshAya namah
puNdar I kam means lot us f lower . PuNdar I kE iva akshiNI yasya sah
puNdar I kAkshah - One whose eyes ar e beaut if ul like lot us f lower s.
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120
lingAyat asUr in in his bhAshya f or amar akOSa gives a second int er pr et at ion as
well - puNdar I kam hRt kamalam akshat I t i vA - One who per vades t he hear t
space - akshat i per vades. Sr I Bhat t ar gives t he meaning ' vaikuNTham' t o t he
wor d puNdar I ka based on t he f ollowing, and int er pr et s puNdar I kAkshah as
One who is t he eye f or t he r esident s of Sr I vaikunTham -
puNdar I kam par am dhAma nit yam akshar am avyayam |
t adbhavAn pundar I kAkshah ........ | |
PuNdar I ka is t he Tr anscendent al wor ld which is et er nal, indest r uct ible, and
immut able. You ar e like t he eye t o t hat wor ld and so you ar e known as
puNdar I kAksha." - (MahAbhAr at a udyoga - 69.6).
nAma 113. nAma 113. nAma 113. 49TPl 49TPl 49TPl -- - vr ushakar mA vr ushakar mA vr ushakar mA
One who is of r ight eous act ions.
vRshakarmaNE namah
VRsha means dhar ma or vir t ue - abhilashit am var shat I t i vRshah. Sr I
chinamayAnanda point s out t hat His act ions ar e r ight eous, and He act s only t o
est ablish r ight eousness - dhar ma samst hApanAr t hAya sambhavAmi yugE yugE.
I n gI t A BhagavAn says t hat He does his act ions accor ding t o His dhar ma even
t hough He has not hing t o gain or lose by any act ion - na anavApt am avApt avyam
var t a eva ca kar maNi - 3.22.
nAma 114. nAma 114. nAma 114. 49lT|6- 49lT|6- 49lT|6- -- - vr ushAkr ut i vr ushAkr ut i vr ushAkr ut i
One who is an embodiment of dhar ma.
vRshAkRtaye namah
vRsha - dhar ma, AkRt i - f or m. One whose f or m is it self dhar ma. Lor d Rama is
consider ed Dhar ma I ncar nat e. Or it can mean One who incar nat es f or t he sake
of pr eser ving dhar ma - dhar ma samst hApanAr t hAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge.
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121







punDar I kAkshan

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SlOkam 13
6ãl 4r |H¹l 4H |4 H4l |+7H |¬~4l-· 6ãl 4r |H¹l 4H |4 H4l |+7H |¬~4l-· 6ãl 4r |H¹l 4H |4 H4l |+7H |¬~4l-·
HP 67Hl746FF¤lT 4 ¹l¹l rl Prl69l-+ °°+ HP 67Hl746FF¤lT 4 ¹l¹l rl Prl69l-+ °°+ HP 67Hl746FF¤lT 4 ¹l¹l rl Prl69l-+ °°+
r udr O bahusir A babhr u visvayOnissucisr avAh |
amr ut as sAsvat a st hANur var Ar OhO mahAt apAh | |
nAma 115. nAma 115. nAma 115. 6ã- 6ã- 6ã- -- - r udr ah r udr ah r udr ah
a) One who br ings t ear s t o t he eyes.
b) One who conf er s t he good on t he devot ees
c) One who dest r oys miser y.
rudrAya namah
r Odayat i it i r udr ah - Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his t o mean t hat He br ings t ear s
of j oy t o t he eyes of His devot ees.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SASt r i gives an example f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am in
suppor t of t his, but pr obably because of a t ypogr aphical er r or in t he book I
could not f ind t he par t icular Sloka in my copy of Sr I mad bhAgavat am. The gist
of t his r ef er ence is t hat one who is not shedding t ear s of j oy on hear ing of
bhagavAn' s guNas, singing His pr aise et c., must indeed have a hear t made of
st one. The r ef er ence given is MB 3.3.24. I t could also mean t hat He br ings
t ear s t o t he eyes of t he beings when He wit hdr aws t hem dur ing t he pr alaya.
Sr i Sankar a point s out t hat it could also mean one who conf er s (r a) t he good
(r ud), or it could mean one who dest r oys (dr u) miser y and it s cause (r u -
duhkham) - r um dr Avayat i it i r udr ah.
nAma 116. nAma 116. nAma 116. 4r |H¹l- 4r |H¹l- 4r |H¹l- -- - bahu bahu bahu-- -sir Ah sir Ah sir Ah
One who is mult i-headed.
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bahu-SirasE namah.
I n pur usha sUkt am of Rg veda we have t he descr ipt ion of t he cosmic f or m of
BhagavAn descr ibed as "sahasr a SI r shA pur ushah sahasr Akshah sahasr a pAt -
The pur usha of t housand heads, t housand eyes and t housand f eet ..... I n gI t A
we f ind t he f ollowing descr ipt ion of t he viSvar Upa of bhagavAn -
sar vAScar yamayam devam anant am viSvat Omukham - t he r Upa wit h
uncount able f aces in all dir ect ions (11.11). Again in gI t A (13.13), we have
"sar vat ahpANi pAdam t at sar vat o' kshi Sir O mukham - The Pur e j ivAt ma
savar Upa has hands and legs ever ywher e, has eyes, heads, and mout hs
ever ywher e.....". Sr i Bhat t ar has int er pr et ed t he name as r ef er r ing t o t he f or m
of bhagavAn as anant a, in which f or m He has many f aces and over a t housand
hoods.
nAma 117. nAma 117. nAma 117. 4H - 4H - 4H - -- - babr uh babr uh babr uh
The Suppor t er .
babhravE namah
bibhar t i lOkAn it i babhr uh - The one who suppor t s t he wor lds. He as AdiSesha
suppor t s t he ear t h. He is also t he suppor t er of t he Ear t h as Adi kUr ma, Adi
var Aha, et c.
nAma 118. nAma 118. nAma 118. |4H4l|+- |4H4l|+- |4H4l|+- -- - visvayOnih visvayOnih visvayOnih
a) The cause of t his wor ld.
b) One who unit es His devot ees wit h Himself .
viSva-yOnayE namah
yOni means cause. Since He is t he cause of t his wor ld He is called viSvayOni.
I n nAma 89 - viSvar Et A - we saw t hat He is t he seed f r om which t he wor ld
or iginat es. This nAma says t hat He is also t he place wher e t he seed develops
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124
int o it s f ull blossom. yOni means womb, and He is t he seed, t he womb, t he
sust ainer af t er t he bir t h of t he wor ld, t he one who impar t ially obser ves as t he
kshet r aj ~na, et c. Not e t hat we have r ef er r ed t o t he f ollowing f r om t he gI t A a
f ew t imes bef or e, and it applies her e again - vAsudevah sar vam.
The wor d yOni can also be der ived f r om t he wor ld yu - t o unit e (yu miSr aNE).
Thus yOni can r ef er t o bhagavAn' s act of unit ing His devot ees wit h Him.
Wit hout His will, no one will be unit ed wit h Him. He is viSvayOni because He
unit es His devot ees wit h Himself .
nAma 119. nAma 119. nAma 119. H|¬~4l- H|¬~4l- H|¬~4l- -- - suci suci suci-- -sr avAh sr avAh sr avAh
a) One who list ens t o wor ds which ar e pur e.
b) One whose names ar e wor t hy of being hear d.
c) One who has beaut if ul and divine ear s.
Suci-Sravase namah.
a) SucI ni Sr AvaNyAni SRNot i it i Suci-Sr avAh -
One who list ens t o wor ds t hat ar e pur e. Sr i Bhat t ar gives t he f ollowing
r ef er ence t o mahAbhAr at a in suppor t of t his int er pr et at ion -
SucI ni Sr AvaNI yAni SRNomi iha dhanan~j aya |
na ca pApAni gRhNAmi t at o' ham vai SuciSr avAh | |
- (MB Sant i par va 344.61)
"O dhanan~j aya! I list en her e t o all t hat is pur e and agr eeable t o hear . I do not
heed t o what is sinf ul. Ther ef or e I am known as Suci-Sr avAh".
I n t his cont ext , Sr i Bhat t ar point s out t he incident wher e bhagavAn j ust kept
list ening t o t he wor ds of vidur a which wer e f ull of dhar ma, and t he night
passed away f or KRshNa unnot iced -
dhar myA r amyASca ar t havat I h vicit r Ar t ha padAkshar Ah |
SRNvant o vividhA vAcah vidur asya mahAt manah |
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akAmasyaiva kRshNasya sA vyat I yAya Sar var I | |
- (MB Udyoga 93.2)
b) Sr i Sankar a gives t he f ollowing int er pr et at ion -
SucI ni Sr avamsi nAmAni Sr avaNI yAnyasyet i Suci-Sr avAh -
One whose names and glor ies ar e ver y holy and pur if ying t o hear .
c) The wor d Sr avas also means ear . Sr i chinmayAnandA t hus int er pr et s t he
name as meaning One who has divine ear s - He is t he Hear er of all ear s.
nAma 120. nAma 120. nAma 120. HP6- HP6- HP6- -- - amr ut ah amr ut ah amr ut ah
a) The unsat iat ing nect ar t o His devot ees
b) One who is I mmor t al
amRtAya namah
a) The devot ees never get sat iat ed by doing ser vice t o bhagavAn, and He is
sweet t o t he devot ees t o an unlimit ed ext ent .
b) na vidyat e mRt am mar aNam asya it i amRt ah - He has no decay or deat h. The
sr ut i says He is non-decaying and I mmor t al - aj ar ah amar ah -(bRhadAr aNya
upanishad 4.4.25).
Sr i chinmayAnandA point s out t hat He is amRt ah because He can cur e t he
disease of ignor ance in His devot ees.
nAma 121. nAma 121. nAma 121. Hl746F¤lT- Hl746F¤lT- Hl746F¤lT- -- - sAsvat a sAsvat a sAsvat a-- -st hAnuh st hAnuh st hAnuh
One who is Et er nally Fir m.
SaSvata-SthANave namah.
The t wo par t s of t his name, SASvat a and St hANu, occur r ed as separ at e names
ear lier (SASvat a - which occur r ed as nAma 57, and st hAnu as nAma 28).
st hANu also occur s as par t of t he cur r ent nAma and of nAma 427 - st hAvar a-
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126
st hANuh lat er . Recall t hat st hANu was ear lier int er pr et ed as One who is f ir m
in blessing His devot ees, and SASvat a was int er pr et ed as One who is Et er nal
because of His unceasing act of cr eat ion, sust enance and dest r uct ion.
SASvat a-St hANu her e is int er pr et ed as one name in all t he r ef er ences I have,
and t her e is no discussion on why it is t r eat ed t hus.
Sr i Bhat t ar gives t his name t he meaning ' Et er nal and St eady' . Unlike t he
nect ar f or which t he devas and asur as chur ned t he Ocean, He is Et er nal
because he cannot be t aken away f r om t hose who enj oy Him. Sr i Sankar a gives
t he meaning "Et er nally Fir m". Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat He is SASvat a because He has no beginning or end, and
st hANu because He does not age or decay.
nAma 122. nAma 122. nAma 122. 4¹l¹lr- 4¹l¹lr- 4¹l¹lr- -- - var Ar Ohah var Ar Ohah var Ar Ohah
a) One who is t he most supr eme obj ect of at t ainment .
b) One of Excellent Ascent .
varArohAya namah.
Var am means supr eme, and Ar ohanam means ascent . Sr i Bhat t ar ' s
int er pr et at ion is t hat He is t he Supr eme obj ect of at t ainment , since all ot her
obj ect s ar e inf er ior . Sr i Sankar a gives t he meaning t hat He is of Excellent
Ascent . Sr i r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i suggest s t hat bhagavAn is var Ar oha because
He is r eclining on AdiSesha, t he high par yanka.
I n t he second or t hir d ar t icle in t his ser ies, I had indicat ed t hat Sr i Bhat t ar
int er pr et s t he f ir st 122 nAmas as descr ibing t he par a-vAsudeva f or m of t he
Lor d, which is not condit ioned by any limit ing adj unct s and which is not t he
ef f ect of anot her obj ect . I t is endowed wit h six qualit ies (~j nAna, bala,
aiSvar ya, vI r ya, Sakt i, t ej as). This is t he obj ect of at t ainment of t he r eleased
souls. The t r anscendent al nat ur e (par at va) of bhagavAn has been spoken of
most ly by t he names ending wit h t he above nAma - var Ar oha. Sr i Bhat t ar also
int er pr et s t he cont ent s of t he f ir st 122 names as t he r esponse f r om BhI shma
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t o YudhisThir a f or t he f ir st t wo of t he six quest ions posed t o him -
1) kim ekam daivat am loke?
2) kim vApi ekam par AyaNam?
The next set of nAmas ar e int er pr et ed by Sr i Bhat t ar as a) r epr esent ing t he
vyuha (emanat ion) f or ms, and b) r esponding t o YudhisThir a' s quest ion -
st uvant ah kim - eulogising whom? The vyuha f or ms ar e f our in number -
vAsudeva, samkar shaNa, pr adyumna, anir uddha. Of t hese, vAsudeva can be
t aken as having been included in t he par a f or m. The vyUha f or ms ar e in char ge
of t he wor k of cr eat ion, sust enance, and dest r uct ion; t hey pr opound t he
Sast r as, explain t heir signif icance, and give t he f r uit s in accor dance wit h t he
r ules laid down t her ein; t hey also t each t he met hod of medit at ion and wor ship
of bhagavAn. The six qualit ies of t he par a r upa ar e dist r ibut ed amongst t he
f our vyUhas and each has it s own f or m and dut ies. They ar e t he means f or t he
at t ainment of salvat ion.
The samkar shaNa f or m is associat ed wit h knowledge and st r engt h. St ar t ing
wit h t he next nAma, t he samkar shaNa f or m - t he second in t he vyuhas - is t o
be dealt wit h.
nAma 123. nAma 123. nAma 123. Prl69l- Prl69l- Prl69l- -- - mahA mahA mahA-- -t apAh t apAh t apAh
One who is endowed wit h gr eat knowledge.
mahA-tapase namah.
Tapas is given t he meaning "gr eat knowledge" based on muNdakopanishad -
yasya ~j nAnamayam t apah - Whose t apas is t he nat ur e of knowledge.
Mahat is pUj yam - wor t hy of r espect . Her e, knowledge is t he abilit y t o guide
people so t hat t hey may be r id of t he miser ies of t he wor ld which t hey have
been having f r om t ime immemor ial.
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128
SlOkam 14

B4 ¬- B4 |4Tl+ - |4!41B +l =+l7 +-· B4 ¬- B4 |4Tl+ - |4!41B +l =+l7 +-· B4 ¬- B4 |4Tl+ - |4!41B +l =+l7 +-·
4 7l 4 7|47-4ñl 4 7lñl 4 7|4tT|4-+ °v+ 4 7l 4 7|47-4ñl 4 7lñl 4 7|4tT|4-+ °v+ 4 7l 4 7|47-4ñl 4 7lñl 4 7|4tT|4-+ °v+
sar vagah sar vavidbhAnuh vishvaksEnO j anAr danah |
vEdO vEdavidavyangO vEdAngo vEdavit kavih | |
nAma 124. nAma 124. nAma 124. B4¬- B4¬- B4¬- -- - sar vagh sar vagh sar vagh
One who r eaches all.
sarvagAya namah.
sar vat r a gacchat i it i sar va-gah - One who per vades ever yt hing.
Or , by His st r engt h which displays His capacit y t o suppor t , He suppor t s
ever yt hing He has t aken in dur ing t he pr alaya, and t hus He r eaches all.
nAma 125. nAma 125. nAma 125. B4 |46 B4 |46 B4 |46 -- - sar vavit sar vavit sar vavit
One who is t he All-knower .
sarva-vide namah.
Sar vam vet t i vindat a it i vA sar va-vit - One who knows ever yt hing or One who
obt ains ever yt hing. I n t he f ir st int er pr et at ion, bhagavAn is t he knower in all -
t he inner soul. I n t he second int er pr et at ion, He per f or ms t he f unct ion as
pr adyumna and r ecover s or obt ains all t he j ivas t hat have been absor bed int o
Him in t he f or m of samkar shaNa.
nAma 126. nAma 126. nAma 126. ¬l+ - ¬l+ - ¬l+ - -- - bhAnuh bhAnuh bhAnuh
One who shines.
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129


bhAnave namah.
bhAt i it i bhAnuh.
I n spit e of His act of cr eat ion and maint enance, He r emains unchanged and
cont inues t o shine undiminished.
nAma 127. nAma 127. nAma 127. |4!41B+- |4!41B+- |4!41B+- -- - vishvaksEnah vishvaksEnah vishvaksEnah
One who has His ar my in all dir ect ions f or t he pr ot ect ion of all.
vishvaksenAya namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his nAma as r ef er r ing t o anir uddha, t he pr ot ect or .
The wor d senA is der ived f r om "inena var t at e it i senA" - wher e inena means
svAmin saha. So sena is one which is wit h t he Lor d always - seSvar a. This nAma
indicat es His Sakt i which indicat es His capacit y. a-nir uddha r ef er s t o One who
is not under anyone else' s cont r ol. This nAma also indicat es t he gUna of t he
Lor d by which He is always t her e t o pr ot ect His devot ees.
nAma 128. nAma 128. nAma 128. =+l7 +- =+l7 +- =+l7 +- -- - j anAr danah j anAr danah j anAr danah
a) One who dest r oys t he wicked.
b) One who pr ot ect s people f r om t he wicked.
c) One who is appr oached by devot ees f or t heir wishes.
janArdanAya namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar gives t he suppor t f r om mahAbhAr at a - dasyu-t r ANAt j anAr danah
(MB udyoga par va 71.6) - He is j anAr dana because He pr ot ect s people f r om
dasyus (demons). Sr I Sankar a gives t he f ollowing t wo int er pr et at ions: One who
dest r oys t hose who ar e wicked - j anAn - dur j anAn, ar dayat i - hinast i
(dest r oys). and also means t o beg, t o ask - gat au yAcane ca. j anaih ar dyat e -
yAcyat e - One who is appr oached by His devot ees f or what ever t hey want .
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130
nAma 129. nAma 129. nAma 129. 47- 47- 47- -- - vEdah vEdah vEdah
One who is t he embodiment of scr ipt ur es.
vedAya namah.
Veda is der ived f r om vid - t o know. Vedayat i it i vedah - One who explains
ever yt hing or That which explains ever yt hing - t he Ult imat e Tr ut h - is vedah.
Since veda-s or iginat ed f r om His br eat h, t hey ar e not dist inct f r om Him. I n
mahAbhAr at a, we have
"sar ve vedAh sar vavidyAh saSAst r Ah sar ve ya~j nAh sar va ij yASca kRshNah"
"All t he veda-s, all t he vidyA-s, all t he Sast r a-s, all t he ya~j na-s, and all
of f er ings, ar e kRshNa".
I n Sr I Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna, t his nAma again r ef er s t o t he vyUha f or m of
nAma 130. nAma 130. nAma 130. 47|46 47|46 47|46 -- - vEdavit vEdavit vEdavit
The t r ue knower of t he meaning of t he veda-s.
veda-vide namah.
This nAma appear s once mor e in t his slokam it self (nAma 133).
Vedam, vedAr t ham vet t i it i vedavit . Or , vedAn vint e - vicAr ayat i it i vedavit .
One who knows t he veda-s, or One who spr eads t he knowledge of veda-s (e.g.,
in t he f or m of pr adyumna, vyAsa, et c.).
He is vedavit since He is t he knower wit hout any doubt s or er r or s of
int er pr et at ion, and He is t he only one. I n gI t A t he Lor d says - vedAnt a-kRt
vedavideva ca aham - I am t he aut hor of t he upanishads - vedAnt a-s, and I am
indeed t he knower of t he vedas (gI t A - 15.15).
He is also vedavit in t he sense of knowing t he t r ue meaning behind t he veda-s,
viz. dhar ma. Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his nAma as r epr esent ing t he pr adyumna
incar nat ion - as one who pr opounds t he Sast r a-s and explains t heir
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131


signif icance. samkar shaNa who has knowledge as one of His at t r ibut es.
nAma 131. nAma 131. nAma 131. H-4ñ- H-4ñ- H-4ñ- -- - avyangah avyangah avyangah
One who has no imper f ect ions.
avya~ngAya namah.
vya~ngam is imper f ect ion. a-vya~ngam is no imper f ect ion. I n t he cont ext of
t he pr evious nAma-s r elat ing t o His or iginat ing veda, and His f ull knowledge of
veda, t his nAma means t hat He is not in any way def icient in t he knowledge of
t he chandas, kalpa, and ot her accessor ies of t he veda-s which He himself has
cr eat ed. One could also int er pr et t he nAma as meaning t hat He is not def icient
in any way in any of t he six guNas - ~j nAna, bala, aiSvar ya, vI r ya, Sakt i, and
t ej as.
nAma 132. nAma 132. nAma 132. 4 7lñ- 4 7lñ- 4 7lñ- -- - vEdAngah vEdAngah vEdAngah
a) One who has veda-s as His body.
b) One who has t he sr ut i-s and smRt i-s as His body.
vedA~ngAya namah.
vedAh a~ngabhUt Ah yasya sah vadA~ngah. I n kenopanishad we have vedAh
sar vA~ngAni... - all veda-s ar e His limbs. Or He is vedA~nga since t he sr ut i-s
and smRt i-s ar e His commands. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he f ollowing
quot es f r om Sr I mad BhAgavat am in suppor t of t he int er pr et at ion t hat He has
veda-s f or His body:
"...t r ayI m t anum svAm par idhunvat e namah - We of f er our wor ship t o One who
has veda f or His body" - (Sr I mad bhAgavat am 3.13.34)
"t r ayI mayam r Upamidam ca saukar am - One who has t he var Aha f or m which is
t he veda svar Upam" - (Sr I mad bhAgavat am 3.13.41).
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132
nAma 133. nAma 133. nAma 133. 47|46 47|46 47|46 -- - vEdavit vEdavit vEdavit
One who knows not only t he veda-s, but t he t r ue meaning behind t he veda-s,
viz. t he dhar ma.
vedavide namah.
Please see t he explanat ion under nAma 130 f or t he int er pr et at ion of t he guNa
expr essed by t his nAma.
nAma 134. nAma 134. nAma 134. T|4- T|4- T|4- -- - kavih kavih kavih
One who cognizes beyond or dinar y per cept ion.
kavaye namah.
kr Ant a-dar Sit vAt kavih - sar vadRk. One who sees beyond what is r evealed only
by t he senses. BhagavAn is t he best among t he kavi-s.

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133


SlOkam 15
¬l Tl\4¬FB ¹l\4¬l ¤Pl \4¬- T 6lT 6-· ¬l Tl\4¬FB ¹l\4¬l ¤Pl \4¬- T 6lT 6-· ¬l Tl\4¬FB ¹l\4¬l ¤Pl \4¬- T 6lT 6-·
¬6 ¹ltPl ¬6 -4 r¾6 7 7 ¾6 ¬ =-+ °-+ ¬6 ¹ltPl ¬6 -4 r¾6 7 7 ¾6 ¬ =-+ °-+ ¬6 ¹ltPl ¬6 -4 r¾6 7 7 ¾6 ¬ =-+ °-+
lOkAdhyakshas sur AdhyakshO dhar mAdhyakshah kr ut Akr ut ah |
cat ur At mA cat ur vyUhas cat ur damshTr as cat ur bhuj ah | |
nAma 135. nAma 135. nAma 135. ¬l Tl\4¬- ¬l Tl\4¬- ¬l Tl\4¬- -- - lOkadhyakshah lOkadhyakshah lOkadhyakshah
nAma 136. nAma 136. nAma 136. B¹l\4¬- B¹l\4¬- B¹l\4¬- -- - sur Adhyakshah sur Adhyakshah sur Adhyakshah
nAma 137. nAma 137. nAma 137. ¤Pl \4¬- ¤Pl \4¬- ¤Pl \4¬- -- - dhar mAdhyakshah dhar mAdhyakshah dhar mAdhyakshah
The Lor d of t he wor lds, of t he deva-s, and of dhar ma.
lokAdhyakshAya namah.
surAdhyakshAya namah
dharmAdhyakshAya namah.
adhyaksha means mast er or super int endent . Loka r ef er s t o people whose dut y
it is t o pr act ice dhar ma, sur a-s r ef er s t o devas who ar e wor shipped wit h t he
dhar ma, and dhar ma signif ies t he means by which t his wor ship is per f or med.
BhagavAn in t he f or m of anir uddha is t he pr esiding deit y over all t hese, who
closely obser ves all t hese and gr ant s t he f r uit s of t he dhar mic act s. He also
ensur es t hat t he benef it s ar e not obt ained by t hose who do not obser ve t he
dhar mic act s, and ensur es t hat t hose who obser ve t he dhar mic act s do not go
wit hout t he f r uit .
An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion is t hat loka r ef er s t o t he people, sur a-s ar e t hose
who pr ot ect t he people, and dhar ma is t he means by which t hey pr ot ect t hem.
BhagavAn is t he cont r oller and super visor or mast er of all t hese. For inst ance,
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t he deva-s cont r ol t he nat ur al element s and ensur e t hat t hese per f or m in such
a way t hat t hey benef it t he people. Thus t he r ising of t he sun, t he r ains, et c.
ar e cont r olled. When t he deva-s swer ve f r om t heir pat h, BhagavAn t akes over
and ensur es t hat t he violat ions ar e set r ight . For inst ance, when indr a got
angr y wit h t he gokula-vAsi-s and t r ied t o dest r oy gokulam wit h unending r ain,
Lor d KRshNa bor e t he govar dhana mount ain and pr ot ect ed t he people f r om
indr a' s f ur y and br ought indr a under cont r ol.
nAma 138. nAma 138. nAma 138. T6lT6- T6lT6- T6lT6- -- - kr ut Akr ut ah kr ut Akr ut ah kr ut Akr ut ah
a) The gr ant or of f r uit s t hat ar e t his t his-wor ldly as well as t hose t hat ar e
et er nal.
b) One who is bot h t he cause and ef f ect of all t hings.
c) One who has a f or m which is nit ya or per manent , as well as t r ansient f or ms.
Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s kRt a as ef f ect (kAr ya r Upa) and akRt a as cause
(kAr aNa r Upa), and t hus he int er pr et s t his nAma as symbolizing t hat bhagavAn
is bot h cause and ef f ect of all t hings. KRt am is vyakt am (t hat is manif est ed),
and akRt am is unmanif est ed or avyakt am. Or , t he nAma can mean t hat
bhagavAn appear s wit h a f or m t hat is akRt am or nit yam in nat ur e, and also in
f or ms which r emain only f or a limit ed t ime (kRt am).
A t hir d int er pr et at ion is t hat He gives benef it s which ar e t his-wor ldly
(kRt am), as well as et er nal (akRt am), and so He is kRt AkRt a.
nAma 139. nAma 139. nAma 139. ¬6¹ltPl ¬6¹ltPl ¬6¹ltPl -- - cat ur At mA cat ur At mA cat ur At mA
One whose Self has a f our -f old manif est at ion.
caturAtmane namah.
One explanat ion f or t his is t he Self has cont r ol over t he f our -f old nat ur e - t he
wakef ul st at e, t he st at e of dr eams, dr eamless deep sleep, and t ur I ya st at e
wher e even t he br eat h is suspended. These involve t he ext er nal senses, t he
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mind, br eat h, and suspended br eat h. These ar e also t he f our st ages of
development which a wor shipper who medit at es upon t he Lor d goes t hr ough.
Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s t he nAma as signif ying t hat bhagavAn expr esses His
ener gies in f our f or ms in each of His act s of cr eat ion, pr ot ect ion, and
dissolut ion. He quot es t he f ollowing sloka in vishNu pur ANa -
br ahmA dakshAdayah kAlas_t at haivAkhila j ant avah |
vibhUt ayo har er et A j agat ah sRsht i_het avah | |
vishNur _manvAdayah kAlah sar va_bhUt Ani ca dvij a |
st it her _nimit t a_bhUt asya vishNor et A vibhUt ayah | |
r udr ah kAlot ankAdyASca samast AScaiva j ant avah |
cat ur dhA pr alayAyait A j anAr dana-vibhUt ayah | |
The f our ener gies of Har i f or cr eat ion ar e - br ahmA, daksha and ot her s, t ime,
and all cr eat ur es. The f our ener gies of Har i f or pr ot ect ion ar e - vishNu, manu
and ot her s, t ime, and all cr eat ur es. The f our ener gies of J anAr dana f or
dissolut ion ar e - r udr a, t ime, t he god of deat h, and all cr eat ur es. Thus He is
cat ur At ma at all t imes.
nAma 140. nAma 140. nAma 140. ¬6-4r- ¬6-4r- ¬6-4r- -- - cat ur vyUhah cat ur vyUhah cat ur vyUhah
One wit h f our f or ms (t he vyUha f or ms).
catur-vyUhAya namah.
This nAma is int er pr et ed as signif ying t he f our vyUha emanat ions (vAsudeva,
samkar shaNa, pr adyumana, and anir uddha). Sr I Sankar a give t he f ollowing
r ef er ence t o suppor t t his int er pr et at ion. I n my ver sion of t he vyAkhyAna, t he
or iginal sour ce f or t his r ef er ence is not given, but t he quot e is at t r ibut ed t o
vyAsa -
vyUhyAt mAnam cat ur dhA vai vAsudevAdi_mUr t ibhih |
sRsht yAdI n pr akar ot yesha viSr ut At mA j anAr danah | |
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vishNu, of excellent f ame, manif est s Himself in f our f or ms, vAsudeva, et c.
(vAsudeva, samkar shaNa, pr adyumna, anir uddha) and car r ied on cr eat ion et c.
vyUha r ef er s t o a f or m t hat has a pur pose associat ed wit h it . pr adyumna is f or
"padaippu" or cr eat ion; samkar shaNa is f or samhAr a or dest r uct ion; anir uddha
is f or pr ot ect ion; vAsudeva is t he over all leader of t hese t hr ee f or ms.
Pr adyumna, t he one in char ge of "padaippu" or cr eat ion, is endowed wit h t he
leader ship of aisvar ya and vI r ya. pr a-dymna means one who has enor mous vI r ya
in His r esponsibilit y of cr eat ion. anir uddha, in char ge of pr ot ect ion, is endowed
wit h immeasur able Sakt i and t ej as. a-nir uddha means One who cannot be
obst r uct ed in His f unct ion of pr ot ect ion. Samkar shaNa is endowed wit h
enor mous ~j nAnam and balam. Sam-kar shaNa means one who at t r act s (not e
Akar shaNa - at t r act ion) or dr aws ever yt hing t owar ds Him and makes t hem
dr aw int o Him dur ing t he pr alaya or gr eat dest r uct ion. VAsudeva is t he f or m
endowed wit h all t he six qualit ies and is t he Supr eme par abr ahman.
nAma 141. nAma 141. nAma 141. ¬677- ¬677- ¬677- -- - cat ur damsTr ah cat ur damsTr ah cat ur damsTr ah
He of f our t eet h.
catur-damshtrAya namah.
damsht r a r ef er s t o canine t eet h. The r ef er ence her e could be t o t he f our f ull
and st r ongly developed, power f ul, beaut if ul canine t eet h in His incar nat ion in
nRsimhAvat Ar a. Sr I Bhat t ar point s out t hat cat ur -damsht r at vam is a
mahApur usha lakshNam. He gives r ef er ence t o t he descr ipt ion of Sr i Rama by
Hanuman t o SI t A devi - cat ur -daSa sam-dvandvah cat ur -damsht r ah cat ur -
gat ih - One who has t he f our t een par t s of t he body such as t he legs, t he
hands, et c. f ully symmet r ic wit h no blemishes, One who has f our beaut if ul
canine t eet h, and One who has t he beaut y of t he walks of elephant , t iger , lion,
and bull. (VAlmI ki RamayaNam Sundar a kANdam - 35.19).

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137


nAma 142. nAma 142. nAma 142. ¬6¬=- ¬6¬=- ¬6¬=- -- - cat ur bhuj ah cat ur bhuj ah cat ur bhuj ah
One wit h f our ar ms.
catur-bhujAya namah.
The f our hands car r y t he conch, t he discus, t he mace, and t he lot us
r espect ively. Sr I ChinmayAnanda gives a ver y nice explanat ion of how t he f our
ar ms ar e used by t he Lor d in maint aining dhar ma. The conch calls man t o t he
r ight eous pat h t hat dir ect ly leads t o peace and per f ect ion, t he divine vishNu
padam. Not ver y many of us list en t o t his inner voice of conscience, t he sound
of t he pAncaj anya conch, and so He gent ly wields t he ' Mace' and we come t o
suf f er small calamit ies and t r agic j er ks in our smoot h exist ence. I f t he
individual st ill does not list en t o t he call of t he ' Conch' , t he ' Chakr a' - t he
wheel of t ime, annihilat es t he ent ir e being. This call and punishment ar e solely
meant t o t ake man t o t he Ult imat e Goal, symbolized by t he ' Lot us' in His hand.
Sr I RAdhAkRshNa SASt r i gives t he explanat ion t hat t he f our hands signif y
t hat He gives t he f our pur ushAr t a-s (I assume dhar ma, ar t ha, kAma, and
mokha ar e t he f our being r ef er r ed t o her e). Or t he f our ar ms r epr esent t he
f our t at va-s - sat va, r aj as, t ama, and ahamkAr a. "sat vam r aj as t ama it i
aha~nkAr aScat ur bhuj ah (gopAlot t ar at Amini 55).
Yet anot her explanat ion is t hat t he Self f unct ions in a f our -f old pat t er n
involving mind, int ellect , cit , and ego, and t hese ar e r epr esent ed by t he f our
ar ms cont aining t he conch, t he mace, t he cakr a, and t he padma. The cit is
r epr esent ed by t he Lot us or Padma, t he int ellect is t he ' Conch' , ego is t he
' Mace' , and mind is t he ' Discus' .
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138
SlOkam 16
Hl|=!T ¬l =+ ¬l ±l B|r!T = ¬7l|7=-· Hl|=!T ¬l =+ ¬l ±l B|r!T = ¬7l|7=-· Hl|=!T ¬l =+ ¬l ±l B|r!T = ¬7l|7=-·
H+¤l |4=4l = 6l |4H4l |+- 9 +4 B -+ °°+ H+¤l |4=4l = 6l |4H4l |+- 9 +4 B -+ °°+ H+¤l |4=4l = 6l |4H4l |+- 9 +4 B -+ °°+
bhr Aj ishhNur bhOj anam bhOkt A sahishNur j agadAdij ah |
anaghO vij ayO j Et A visvayonih punar vasuh | |
nAma 143. nAma 143. nAma 143. Hl|=!T- Hl|=!T- Hl|=!T- -- - bhr Aj ishNuh bhr Aj ishNuh bhr Aj ishNuh
One who is ef f ulgent .
brAjishNave namah.
bhr Aj at a it i t acchI lo bhr Aj ishNuh - One who has t he habit of being ef f ulgent .
The name is der ived f r om t he r oot bhr Aj R and t he pANini sut r a 3.2.138 -
bhuvasca - which st at es t hat t he af ix ishNuc in t he sense of "t he agent having
such a a habit et c." comes af t er t he ver bs such as bhU, bhr Aj R et c. Sr I
Bhat t ar point s out t hat it is t he nat ur e of bhagavAn t o show Himself t o His
wor shipper s.
An aut hor by name sat yadevo vAsishTha, who has wr it t en a det ailed
vyAkhyAna f or Sr i vishNu shasr anAma in samskRt in t his cent ur y, point s out
t hat t he r adiance in t he sun, t he moon, et c. ar ise only because t hey der ive it
f r om t he ef f ulgence of vishNu.
Sr i r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i point s out t hat we see obj ect s because of t he light
t hat makes t hem visible, and we see t he light only because it get s scat t er ed by
t he obj ect s. But bhagavAn is Pur e Ef f ulgence wit hout any associat ion wit h any
obj ect , and t his is why t he non-devot ees don' t see Him, t hough He makes
Himself visible t o His devot ees.
The yaj ur vedic passages given t o suppor t t he int er pr et at ion f or t his nAma ar e:
"br ahma sur ya samam j yot ih"; "sur yo j yot ir -j yot ih sur ya" et c.
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nAma 144. nAma 144. nAma 144. ¬l =+ ¬l =+ ¬l =+ -- - bhOj anam bhOj anam bhOj anam
One who is t he obj ect of enj oyment .
bhojanAya namah.
t aih bhuj yat e - sukhena anubhuyat e it i bhoj anam -
bhagavAn is bhoj anam because He is enj oyed wit h pleasur e by His wor shipper s.
bhoj anam also means lit er ally f ood or t he means of sust enance. Even t hough in
nat ur e one obj ect becomes t he means of sust enance of anot her obj ect , He is
t he one who maint ains t his balance and sust ains ever yt hing. The vedAnt ic
int er pr et at ion f or bhoj anam is t he collect ion of all obj ect s of enj oyment by
t he sense-or gans. He makes t he obj ect s of t his wor ld f it f or enj oyment , and
He also becomes t he obj ect of enj oyment Himself when His devot ee
over comes t he desir e f or t he mat er ial obj ect s of enj oyment and longs f or Him.
nAma 145. nAma 145. nAma 145. ¬l ±l ¬l ±l ¬l ±l -- - bhOkt A bhOkt A bhOkt A
The Enj oyer .
bhoktre namah.
He Himself is t he Enj oyer since He enj oys t he t hings of f er ed by His devot ees
like nect ar . I n gI t A we have
pat r am pushpam phalam t oyam yo me bhakt yA pr ayacchat i |
t adaham bahkt yupahRt am aSnAmi pr ayat At manah | |
- (gI t A 9.16)
"I f a devot ee of f er s t o me a mer e leaf , f lower , f r uit , or wat er wit h sincer e
devot ion and love, I accept it as invaluable t r easur e."
Or He is t he bhokt A f or all t he sacr if icial of f er ings ir r espect ive of t he deit y
t o whom t he of f er ing is made -
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140
aham hi sar va ya~j nAnAm bhokt a - gI t A 9.14.
nAma 146. nAma 146. nAma 146. B|r!T- B|r!T- B|r!T- -- - sahishNuh sahishNuh sahishNuh
The For giver .
sahishNave namah.
The wor d is der ived f r om sah - t o put up wit h, f or give. Not e t he gr ammat ical
r ule quot ed f or bhr Aj ishNu ear lier - t he af f ix ishNuc is added t o indicat e one
having a habit et c. Thus it is His Nat ur e t o f or give. We have t he yaj ur vedic
mant r a "saho' si saho mayi dhehi".
sah also means t o suf f er pat ient ly. He is sahishNu because He suf f er s
pat ient ly, in His per f ect det achment , all t hat is happening ar ound. He is j ust a
mer e wit ness. He cont inues t o suppor t t his wor ld wit hout ever get t ing
impat ient - nAkshast apyat e bhUr ibhAr ah - Rgvedic mant a.
sahat e also means conquer s, and Sr i Sankar a uses t his meaning and int er pr et s
t his nAma as meaning t hat bhagavAn is sahishNu because He conquer s dait ya-s
such as hir aNyAksha.
I n Sr I Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna, t he vyuha f or ms ar e cover ed up t o t he above
nAma. .St ar t ing wit h t he next nAma, he int er pr et s t he guNa-s as r ef lect ing
t hose of t he vibhava f or m of vishNu, t he second of t he t r init ies.
nAma 147. nAma 147. nAma 147. =¬7l|7=- =¬7l|7=- =¬7l|7=- -- - j agadAdij a j agadAdij a j agadAdij a
He who was bor n at t he beginning of t he Univer se.
jagadAdijAya namah.
j agat + Adi + j At ah = j agadAdij ah.
Bef or e t he wor ld got cr eat ed, one who had t he abilit y t o cr eat e t he wor ld had
t o exist . Thus bhagavAn exist ed bef or e t he wor ld was cr eat ed. Sr I
chinmayAnanda point s out t hat t his is t he manif est at ion of bhagavAn as
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141


Hir aNyagar bha, t he f or m wher e t he wor ld of all obj ect s is submer ged af t er
pr alaya and bef or e t he manif est at ion of t he gr oss wor ld emer ges out . This is
t he manif est at ion of bhagavAn as t he vir At At ma.
That vishNu was t he f ir st -bor n among t he gods is suppor t ed by t he f ollowing
f r om mahAbhAr at a -
gat iSca nast vam pUr vaj o j agat ah pr abhuh |
r akshAr t ham sar va-bhUt AnAm vishNust vam upaj agmivAn | |
- (MB Udyoga 12.11)
"Thou ar t our r ef uge; Thou ar t t he f ir st -bor n amongst t he gods. Thou ar t t he
Lor d of t he Univer se. Thou didst assume t he r ole of vishNu f or t he pr ot ect ion
of all t he wor lds."
nAma 148. nAma 148. nAma 148. H+¤- H+¤- H+¤- -- - anaghah anaghah anaghah
One who is Sinless, Un-cont aminat ed.
anaghAya namah.
aghah pApam na vidyat e asmin it i anaghah. Though He r esides in t he midst of
t he samsAr a in His incar nat ions, He is unt aint ed by sins. Because He is
unat t ached, He is not cont aminat ed by t he ef f ect s of any act ions. Sever al
passages in t he sr ut i-s r ef er t o t his at t r ibut e - suddham apApaviddham - yaj ur
40.8, na puNya pApe mama (kaivalya 22), et c.
nAma 149. nAma 149. nAma 149. |4=4- |4=4- |4=4- -- - vij ayah vij ayah vij ayah
Vict or y I ncar nat e.
vijayAya namah.
vividham viSesheNa vA j ayat i it i vij ayah - One who wins over ever yt hing in
dif f er ent and special ways. He is sat , cit , and Ananda r upa, and t hus cont r ols
ever yt hing including t he pr akRt i and j iva-s. Or He excels in ever yt hing -
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142
~j nAna, vair Agya, aisvar ya, et c.
Sr I Bhat t ar point s out t hat He is vij aya because He cont r ols ever yt hing t hat
happens in t his wor ld, including t he cr eat ion and dest r uct ion, which ar e
per f or med by Br ahma and Rudr a wit h His help and guidance - "t ad_Adar Sit a
pant hAnau sRsht i samhAr a kAr akau - Guided by Him in t he r ight way, Br ahma
and Rudr a car r y out t he t ask of cr eat ion and dest r uct ion (MB moksha 169.19).
nAma 150. nAma 150. nAma 150. = 6l = 6l = 6l -- - j Et A j Et A j Et A
The Conquer er .
jetre namah.
sar vam j agat sa j ayat i it i j et A. He is j et A because not hing ever can happen
t hat is not His will. All t he ot her gods act His will. One who has sat yam as His
st hir a guNa never has any f ailur e or def eat . He is sat ya kAma, sat ya samkalpa,
et c.
nAma 151. nAma 151. nAma 151. |4H4l|+- |4H4l|+- |4H4l|+- -- - visvayOnih visvayOnih visvayOnih
The Cause of t he Univer se.
viSva-yonaye namah.
viSvasya - sakalasya yonih - kAr aNam viSva-yonih. Anot her int er pr et at ion is
t hat He is viSva-yonih because He has t he wor ld as His Cause, i.e., He
manif est s Himself in var ious incar nat ions because of t he condit ion of t his
wor ld.
nAma 152. nAma 152. nAma 152. 9+4B- 9+4B- 9+4B- -- - punar vasuh punar vasuh punar vasuh
One who lives again and again as t he ant ar At mA of all His cr eat ions.
punarvasave namah.
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143


He is t he ant ar At mA of all t he ot her gods whom He cr eat es f or dif f er ent
f unct ions, beginning wit h r udr a and br ahma. I n moksha dhar ma in
mahAbhAr at a we have indr a saying t o r udr a -
t avAnt ar At mA mama ca ye cAnye dehi-samj nit Ah -
He is t he I nner Soul of your self and myself as well as t hose who ar e called t he
Released Souls" - MB moksha 179.4.
I t can also mean t hat He is punar vasu because He r ecr eat es t he wor ld wit h t he
sun, moon, et c., t he same way all over again af t er each pr alaya -
sUr ya candr amasau dhAt A yat hA pUr vam akalpayat |
divam ca pRt hivI m cAnt har iksham at ho svah | |
- (Rg 10/ 190/ 3)

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SlOkam 17
79 -ãl 4lP+- 9l H ¹Pl ¤7H |¬-|= 6-· 79 -ãl 4lP+- 9l H ¹Pl ¤7H |¬-|= 6-· 79 -ãl 4lP+- 9l H ¹Pl ¤7H |¬-|= 6-·
H6l-ãFB5 H6l-ãFB5 H6l-ãFB5œœ œ¤rFB¬l ¤ 6ltPl |+4Pl 4P-+ °÷+ ¤rFB¬l ¤ 6ltPl |+4Pl 4P-+ °÷+ ¤rFB¬l ¤ 6ltPl |+4Pl 4P-+ °÷+
upEndr O vAmanah pr Amshuh amoghassucir Ur j it ah |
at I ndr assangr ahas sar go dhr ut At mA niyamO yamah | |
nAma 153. nAma 153. nAma 153. 79 -ã- 79 -ã- 79 -ã- -- - upEndr ah upEndr ah upEndr ah
a) One who appear ed as t he younger br ot her of indr a t o help him.
b) One who is super ior t o indr a.
upendrAya namah.
a) upagat ah indr am - One who assist ed indr a. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i gives
t he f ollowing inst ance in t his cont ext . Pr ahlAda' s gr andson Bali def eat ed I ndr a
by doing penances accor ding t o Sukr AcAr ya' s advice. I ndr a' s mot her adit i
pr ayed t o God t o get I ndr a' s posit ion back. Since Bali had at t ained I ndr a' s
posit ion t hr ough penance et c., t her e was no way of get t ing back t he posit ion
easily. So bhagavAn appear ed as t he younger br ot her of indr a by being bor n as
t he son of adit i, and r est or ing t he posit ion of indr a by asking f or t hr ee f eet of
land f r om Bali in his yAga Sala.
b) indr asya upar i indr ah - One who is super ior t o indr a. upa also means above or
super ior . Sr i r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i gives t he example of Lor d KRshNa subduing
indr a' s self -assumed super ior it y complex in gokulam when indr a t r ied t o f lood
and dest r oy t he place f or not of f er ing pr ayer s t o him.
nAma 154. nAma 154. nAma 154. 4lP+- 4lP+- 4lP+- -- - vAmanah vAmanah vAmanah
One wit h t he Dwar f f or m.
vAmanAya namah.
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vAmayat i t yAj ayat i madam
balim - One who expelled t he
pr ide out of Bali. Vam lit er ally
means t o vomit out , and vAm
could mean one who made Bali
lit er ally vomit out his pr ide.
Li ngAyat asur i n gi ves t he
int er pr et at ion vAmo valgut vam
asya ast i it i vAmanah - One who
has a ver y char ming shor t
f or m. Or it can be also be
int er pr et ed as vAmo vat ut vam
asya ast i it i vAmanah - One who
has a shor t f or m of a gur ukula
st udent , whi ch i s how
mahAvishNu appear ed in f r ont
of Bali t o ask f or t he t hr ee
f eet of ear t h f r om him. The
r upa soundar yam (valgut vam)
of t he vAmana incar nat ion is beaut if ully descr ibed in Sr imad bhAgavat am -
e.g.,
yaj amAnah pr amudit o dar SanI yam manor amam|
r UpAnur UpAvayavam t asmA Asanam Ahar at | |
- Bali, t he yaj amAna of t he yAgaSala, saw t he beaut if ul appear ance of t he
br ahmachAr i in t he dwar f f or m and of f er ed t he seat t o him wit h a complet ely
capt ivat ed hear t (BhAgavat am 8-18-26).
Anot her int er pr et at ion - sar vANi vAmAni nayat i it i vAmanah - One who
best ows all t he desir es of t he devot ees, or He pr oduces j oy in t hose who see
Him, by His ef f ulgence. I n chAndogyopanishad we have "esha u eva vAmanI h
esha hi sar vANi vAmAni nayat i (chAndogyopanishad 4.25).
vAmanah
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nAma 155. nAma 155. nAma 155. 9l H - 9l H - 9l H - -- - pr Amsuh pr Amsuh pr Amsuh
The Tall.
prAmSave namah.
pr ASnut e pr akar sheNa Ur dhvam it i pr AmSuh -
I n t he vAmana incar nat ion, bhagavAn ver y quickly gr ew f r om His dwar f f or m
int o a f or m which cover ed t he t hr ee wor lds under His t wo f eet . As soon as Bali
pour ed t he wat er t o accompany his gif t of t hr ee f eet of land int o t he dwar f
hands, t he dwar f was no longer a dwar f . The Lor d manif est ed His univer sal
f or m; t he ear t h was His f eet , t he sky His head, and t he sun and t he moon His
eyes. The vyAkhyAna kar t A-s give t he r ef er ence, f r om Har ivamSa, t o t he
beaut y of His gr owt h f r om t he dwar f f or m, in r elat ion t o f ixed obj ect s, t he
Sun and t he Moon. Fir st , He assumed t he t all f or m wher e t he Sun and t he
Moon wer e His t wo eyes. Then as He measur ed t he ear t h, t hey wer e at t he
level of His bosom. As He measur ed t he space, t he Sun was at t he level of His
navel, and as He lif t ed His f eet t o measur e t he Heaven, t he Sun and Moon
wer e j ust below His knees.
t asya vikr amat o bhUmim candr Adit yau st anAnt ar e |
nabhah pr akr amANasya nAbhideSe vyavast hit hau | |
- (Har ivamSa 31.89)
nAma 156. nAma 156. nAma 156. HPl¤- HPl¤- HPl¤- -- - amOghah amOghah amOghah
One whose act s ar e never pur poseless.
amoghAya namah.
na mogham ceshTit am yasya sah amoghah. When bhagavAn asked f or t hr ee
f eet of ear t h f r om bali, it helped indr a; when Bali could not give t he t hir d f oot
of ear t h, it helped subdue Bali and make him a gr eat devot ee on t he spot ;
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subduing Bali led t o Bali get t ing t he st at us equal t o indr a in a t r ice, and led t o
all t he gods par t aking in t he of f er ings made in t he sacr if ice. Thus ever y act of
His has a pur pose.
nAma 157. nAma 157. nAma 157. H|¬- H|¬- H|¬- -- - sucih sucih sucih
Pur e.
Sucaye namah.
Sucyat a it i Sucih - One who pur if ies is Sucih. BhagavAn is Pur e because He is
t he Par amAt mA who is uncont aminat ed by act ions and t heir ef f ect s. He is
Sucih because One who cont emplat es on Him becomes pur e, and t hus
associat ion wit h Him makes one pur e. What ever He does is uncont aminat ed by
anyt hing ot her t han dhar ma, and so His pur it y never diminishes. When He
helped indr a by subduing Bali, one could say He was biased t owar ds t he deva-s;
not so, since He made Himself t he door -keeper of Bali and t hus Bali benef it ed
sever al-f old mor e t han indr a did in t he pr ocess. He is pavit r ANAm pavit r am, or
pur er t han t he pur est . The sever al r ef er ences f r om sr ut i at t est t o His pur it y -
Suddham apApa viddham - (I SAvasya - 8); aspar SaSca mahAn Sucih et c.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha t akes t his int er pr et at ion one st ep f ur t her by
point ing out t hat ever yt hing bhagavAn does is r esplendent wit h t he beaut y
t hat speaks of His pur it y. All one has t o do t o r ealize t his is t o look at t he
beaut y of His cr eat ions such as t he f lower s, t he leaves, t he wat er s of t he
r iver s, et c. So He is all ar ound us displaying His innat e qualit y of pur it y
const ant ly. He point s out t hat t hus guNa of bhagavAn should const ant ly r emind
His devot ees t o be always pur e in t heir act ions, wor ds, and deeds as a means t o
at t ain Him.
nAma 158. nAma 158. nAma 158. 7|=6- 7|=6- 7|=6- -- - Ur j it ah Ur j it ah Ur j it ah
One who is endowed wit h immense st r engt h.
UrjitAya namah.
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148
Ur j A means balam or st r engt h. This is one of t he shadguNa-s of bhagavAn
(~j nAna, bala, et c.). This st r engt h is displayed whenever He has had t o t ake
car e of t he evil demons. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha point s out t hat He is Ur j it a
not only because of His immense st r engt h, but also because what ever st r engt h
each being in His cr eat ion has, is because He is t he sour ce. He gives t he
f ollowing vedic quot es t o subst ant iat e t his int er pr et at ion -
Ur j A det Am avasyoj asA t vAm pibA somamadAya kam Sat akr at o (Rg. 8.36.3)
Ur j A pinvasva samishodidehi na (Rg 3.3.7)
Ur gasyAngir asyUr Namr adA Ur j am mayi dehi (yaj ur 4.15)
balamasi balam mayi dehi (yaj ur 19.9)
Ur j o balam sa oj o ma Agan (at har va 18.4.53)
Oj o' si saho' si balamasi bhr Aj o' si
As is evident , t hr ough many of mant r a-s, t he devot ee is asking f or balam f r om
bhagavAn i.e, He is t he sour ce of balam or st r engt h in all His cr eat ions.
nAma 159. nAma 159. nAma 159. H6l-ã- H6l-ã- H6l-ã- -- - at I ndr ah at I ndr ah at I ndr ah
One who is super ior t o indr a.
atIndrAya namah.
We saw how He sur passes indr a by His lor dship and glor ious act s. I ndr a is t he
king of gods, and bhagavAn exceeds him in wisdom, gr eat ness, et c. Sr I
chinmayAnanda point s out t hat in vedAnt a indr a st ands f or mind-int ellect , and
t he par amAt mA or t he Pur e Self is super ior t o mind since it t r anscends t he
mind.
nAma 160. nAma 160. nAma 160. B5œ ¤r- B5œ ¤r- B5œ ¤r- -- - sangr ahah sangr ahah sangr ahah
a) He who is easily r eached.
b) He who has ever yone under His cont r ol.
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149


samgrahAya namah.
The meaning given in t he dict ionar y by Sir William-Monier is "holding
t oget her ", "dr awing t oget her ", et c.
a) Sr I Bhat t ar gives t he int er pr et at ion "at ha bhakt aih ayat nena samgRhayat a
it i samgr ahah" - One who is r eached by His devot ees wit hout any ef f or t (ot her
t han pur e devot ion).
b) Sr I Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion "sar veshAm samhRt au pr at isamhAr At
samgr ahah" - One who wit hdr aws ever yt hing int o Him dur ing pr alaya.
c) Sr I chinmayAnanda gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is samgr aha
because he holds t he ent ir e wor ld of beings and t hings t oget her . Sr I sat ya
vAsishTha looks at t he nAma as sama + gr aha, or holding ever yt hing t oget her
in one f or m, viz. by being t he At ma in ever yt hing.
nAma 161. nAma 161. nAma 161. B¬- B¬- B¬- -- - sar gah sar gah sar gah
The cr eat or of Himself .
sargAya namah.
sRj at i it i sar gah - One who cr eat es. The wor d sar ga is der ived f r om t he r oot
sRj - t o cr eat e. He is sar ga since He cr eat ed t he whole wor ld out of Himself .
Sar ga r ef er s t o pr imar y cr eat ion as opposed t o pr alaya or dissolut ion, and
st hit i or maint enance.
nAma 162. nAma 162. nAma 162. ¤6ltPl ¤6ltPl ¤6ltPl -- - dhr ut At mA dhr ut At mA dhr ut At mA
The suppor t er of all t he j ivAt mA-s.
dhRtAtmane namah.
dhRt ah At mA yena sah dhRt At mA - One who suppor t s all t he j I vAt mA-s, or
One who suppor t s (conduct s) Himself uninf luenced by any change (bir t h, deat h,
likes, dislikes, et c.).
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150
nAma 163. nAma 163. nAma 163. |+4P- |+4P- |+4P- -- - niyamah niyamah niyamah
The Cont r oller .
niyamAya namah.
niyamayat i it i niyamah - One who assigns and dir ect s t he dif f er ent f unct ions t o
t he dif f er ent beings. The r oot yam has t wo meanings: yam upar ame - t o check,
and yam par iveshaNe - t o sur r ound. One who is t he Cr eat or of all beings is also
nat ur ally t he Cont r oller of all t hose beings. I t is He who or der s all t he might y
f or ces of nat ur e and pr escr ibes f or each t he laws of t heir conduct , t he ways
of t heir behavior and t he met hods of t heir f unct ions. The Sun, Moon, Air ,
Wat er s, Deat h, et c., ar e all appoint ed and cont r olled by t he Lor d.
nAma 164. nAma 164. nAma 164. 4P- 4P- 4P- -- - yamah yamah yamah
The Ruler .
yamAya namah.
yacchat i it i yamah or yamayat i it i yamah - One who r ules. He r ules all our
selves f r om wit hin. He also r ules all t he beings of t he ear t h f r om wit hin t he
spher e of t he Sun. We have t he passage f r om bRhadAr aNya upanishad -
yah sar vANi bhUt Ani ant ar o yamayat i (3.7.15). Ot her passages f r om t he sr ut i-
s ar e "yah pRt hivI m ant ar o yamayat i - He who r ules t he ear t h f r om wit hin"
- BRhadAr aNya 3.7.3, yah At mAnam ant ar o yamayat i - He who r ules t he self
f r om wit hin", et c.
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SlOkam 18
4 Hl 4 HFB7l4l ¬l 4l¹rl Pl¤4l P¤ -· 4 Hl 4 HFB7l4l ¬l 4l¹rl Pl¤4l P¤ -· 4 Hl 4 HFB7l4l ¬l 4l¹rl Pl¤4l P¤ -·
H6l|-ã4l PrlPl4l Prl tBlrl Prl4¬-+ °<+ H6l|-ã4l PrlPl4l Prl tBlrl Prl4¬-+ °<+ H6l|-ã4l PrlPl4l Prl tBlrl Prl4¬-+ °<+
vEdyO vaidyas sadAyogI vI r ahA mAdhavO madhuh |
at I ndr iyO mahAmAyO mahOt sAhO mahAbalah | |
nAma 165. nAma 165. nAma 165. 4 H- 4 H- 4 H- -- - vEdyah vEdyah vEdyah
a) He who can be r ealized.
b) That which should be known or r ealized.
vedyAya namah.
vedit um Sakyah vedyah, vedanAr hat vAt vedyah, or vedit um yogya it i vedyah.
Sr I chinmayAnanda int er pr et s t he wor d t o mean "That which should be known
- as t he Ult imat e Tr ut h; having known which, ever yt hing else becomes known".
This is suppor t ed by t he f ollowing f r om t he gI t A - "vedaiSca sar vair ahameva
vedyah - I am t he One who is t o be known t hr ough all t he veda-s" - gI t A 15.15,
and vedair _anekair -ahmeva vedyah - kaivalya 22.
nAma 166. nAma 166. nAma 166. 4 H- 4 H- 4 H- -- - vaidyah vaidyah vaidyah
The knower of vidyA or knowledge.
vaidyAya namah.
The wor d vaidya is r elat ed t o t he wor d vidyA. One who r ight f r om t he
beginning of t he wor ld knew all t he vidyA-s t hat went int o t he cr eat ion of t his
Univer se is vaidya. I t is not only t hat He is t he knower , but no one else is t he
knower of cr eat ing all t he wondr ous and manif old obj ect s in His cr eat ion. This
is suppor t ed by "viSvAni deva vayunAni vidvAn" - yaj ur 7.43. He is t he sar va-
vidyA-maya vaidya. Also not e "I svar ah sar va-vidyAnAm"- t ait t ir I ya Ar aNyaka
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152
10.21.
The knowledge t hat we see displayed even in t he insect s, bir ds, et c., should be
a const ant r eminder of t he vaidya or All-knower t hat is bhagavAn, and should
lead us t o t he const ant awar eness t hat it is His f eet t hat we should wor ship.
Sr I Bhat t ar point s out t hat He knows t he vidyA of r eleasing His devot ees
f r om t he cycle of r ebir t h, and so He is vaidya.
I n t he t r adit ional meaning of vaidya r ef er r ing t o a doct or , Sr I chinmayAnanda
point s out t hat He is vaidya since He alone can doct or t o t he wor ld' s suf f er ing
f r om ego and ego-cent r ic misconcept ions. I n Sr I Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna we f ind
a suppor t ing r ef er ence -
"mer u mandar a mAt r o' pi pApasya kar maNah |
keSavam vaidyam AsAdya dur vyAdhir iva naSyat i | |
- (vishNu dhar mam 69.110)
- One might have accumulat ed sins t he size of t he mer u mount ain; however if
one wor ships keSava, t he sins disappear j ust as t he wor st diseases disappear
when t r eat ed by a good vaidya or doct or ".
nAma 167. nAma 167. nAma 167. B7l4l ¬l B7l4l ¬l B7l4l ¬l -- - sadAyOgI sadAyOgI sadAyOgI
a) One who is always awake wit h r espect t o His devot ees.
b) One who unit es t his Univer se as t he sar va-vyApi
c) One who always f ollows t he dhAr mic way.
d) One who is in const ant yogic medit at ion
e) One who always displays t he samat va-bhAva, i.e., t r eat s ever yone equally.
sadA-yogine namah.
One explanat ion f or t his nAma is t hat bhagavAn is always at t ainable, and so He
is sada-yogI . Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he nAma t o mean t hat He is awake at all
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t imes wit h r espect t o His devot ees, and He is always awake as t he ant ar yAmi
in all of us.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t hr ee dif f er ent int er pr et at ions f or t his nAma -
sat ah AyogI , sadA yogI , and sadA AyogI . Sat as means equally, and Ayuj means
t o unit e or t o j oin. The r oot s f r om which f r om t he nAma can be der ived ar e
also many - yugi var j ane - t o give up; yuj samAdhau - t o concent r at e t he mind;
yuj yoge - t o unit e; yuj samyamane - t o j oin;
He is a sadA-yogi because He has always given up ever yt hing except t he good
and t he j ust , t he dhar mic way. He is also a sadA-yogI because He unit es t his
wor ld int o one t hr ough His sar va-vyApt i, His per vasion int o ever yt hing t hat
exist s - sadaiva yoj ayat i samyamayat i visvAn lokAn sa sadA-yogI . He is also a
sada-yogI because He is const ant ly in yogic medit at ion, which is His nat ur e.
Yoga her e can be int er pr et ed as samat va-bhAva. SadA yogah asya ast i it i t am
sadA-yoginam, sadA yoga Silam svabhAva-dhar mANam vA.
The vyAkhyAna in dhar ma cakr am (whose aut hor is not ident if ied) point s out
t hat people live one of t hr ee ways of lif e - a r ogi, a bhogi, or a yogi. Of t hese,
t he lif e of a yogi (who spends his lif e by diver t ing his senses away f r om sense-
enj oyment and t owar ds t he par ama-pur usha) is t he one t hat leads t o peace of
mind and bodily healt h. The yogic st at e of mind is nat ur ally at t ained by one
who devot es one' s mind t o t he wor ship of t he Lor d, t he sadA-yogi.
nAma 168. nAma 168. nAma 168. 4l¹rl 4l¹rl 4l¹rl -- - vI r ahA vI r ahA vI r ahA
The slayer of st r ong men of wicked nat ur e.
vIraghne namah.
We may r ecollect "par it r RNAya sAdhUnAm vinASAya ca dushkRt Am" - ' For
t he pr ot ect ion of t he good and t he dest r uct ion of t he wicked' . I f t he qualit y
of being a vI r a is used t o commit adhar ma, bhagavAn dest r oys t hose vI r a-s or
r Akshasa-s.
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he vI r a-s her e as r ef er r ing t o people who ar e
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154
"kut ar ka-Sur a-s" or t hose who put up f alse ar gument s t o pr event people f r om
medit at ing on Him. He r ef er s us t o t he sloka-s in bhagavad gI t A in Chapt er 16
st ar t ing f r om sloka 16-8 and ending in 16-19, wher e bhagavAn gives a
descr ipt ion of t he kinds of behavior s t hat t hese kut ar ka-vAdi-s demonst r at e -
claiming t hat God does not exist , or claiming t hat t hey ar e t he God, et c.
nAma 169. nAma 169. nAma 169. Pl¤4- Pl¤4- Pl¤4- -- - mAdhvah mAdhvah mAdhvah
The pr opounder of t he knowledge of t he Supr eme Being.
mAdhavAya namah.
The det ailed int er pr et at ions f or t his nAma have been given ear lier under nAma
73. Please r ef er t o t hat descr ipt ion.
nAma 170. nAma 170. nAma 170. P¤ - P¤ - P¤ - -- - madhuh madhuh madhuh
One who is like honey t o His devot ees.
madhave namah.
He is madhu because He cr eat es Nect ar ine Bliss in t he hear t s of His devot ees.
He causes gr eat sat isf act ion, like honey. We have f r om bRhadAr aNya
upanishad - ayamAt mA sar veshAm bhUt AnAm madhu - 2.5.14. We also have
"t hEnil iniya pir Ane" as He is r ef er enced by Per iyAzhvAr in his PoocchUt t al.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha indicat es t hat madhu also means knowledge (der ived
f r om man- ~j nAne t o know), and He is madhu because He knows ever yt hing by
His per vading ever yt hing - ~j nAna dhar meNa vyApnuvan sar vam viSvam
manyat e j AnAt i, t asmAt sa madhuh. We have t he yaj ur vedic mant r a -
t adant ar sya sar vasya t adu sar vasyAsya bAhyat ah - He is inside ever yt hing, and
He is also out side of ever yt hing, and by vir t ue of t his, He is ~j nAna mayam or
Knower of ever yt hing.
The comment at or in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat madhu or honey is unique
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among all t he edibles t hat when consumed, all of it is digest ed int o t he syst em
wit h no wast e pr oduct s. He also point s out t hat madhu is unique in t hat t her e is
no ill-ef f ect t hat r esult s f r om it s consumpt ion, unlike some of t he ot her
edibles wher e an excessive consumpt ion will lead t o har mf ul ef f ect s. I n our
cont ext , bhagavAn is t he knowledge t hat is madhu, f r om which only good can
r esult .
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he next sever al nAmas as descr ipt ive of t he six
celest ial qualit ies of bhagavAn - ~j nAna, bala, aiSvar ya, vI r ya, Sakt i, and t ej as.
nAma 171. nAma 171. nAma 171. H6l|-ã4- H6l|-ã4- H6l|-ã4- -- - at I ndr iyah at I ndr iyah at I ndr iyah
He who is beyond t he r ange of t he sense or gans.
atIndriyAya namah.
Only t hose obj ect s t hat have a f ixed shape, color , or ot her char act er ist ics will
be r ecognizable by t he indr iya-s or sense or gans. He is beyond t hese sense-
or gans, and cannot be r ealized t hr ough t hese or t hr ough sheer r easoning. The
only way t o r ealize Him is t o exper ience Him t hr ough pur e devot ion. The t wo
mant r a-s of I SAvAsya upanishad (anej adekam.., and t adej at i t annaij at i..)
r emind us of t his qualit y of bhagavAn in simple wor ds. I n kaThopanisahd we
have -
indr iyebhyah par Ahyar t hA ...avyakt At pur ushah par ah |
aSabdam-aspar Sam-ar Upam-avyayamt at hAr asam nit yam-agandhavacca yat |
- (kaTho 1.3.10 et c.)
(He is soundless, unt ouched, f or mless, immut able, and so wit hout t ast e,
et er nal, smell-less.)
Sr I chinmayAnanda point s out t hat it is not j ust He is beyond t he r each of t he
sense-or gans, but t hat t he sense-or gans don' t exist wit hout Him, and so
cannot sense anyt hing wit hout His power . So He is t he ver y subj ect of t he
sense-or gans, and not t he obj ect of t he sense-or gans (t he eye cannot see
it self , but only it s r ef lect ion in a mir r or !).
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He is also not seen by t he indr iya-s because He is not anywher e out side wher e
t he senses can sense Him, but is inside each of us in t he cavit y of our hear t s
wher e t he senses cannot r each, t he size of a t humb - angusTha mAt r ena.
nAma 172. nAma 172. nAma 172. PrlPl4- PrlPl4- PrlPl4- -- - mahAmAyah mahAmAyah mahAmAyah
One who is possessed of wonder f ul power of enchant ment .
mahA-mAyAya namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar point s out t hat t his nAma signif ies t hat He conceals Himself f r om
t hose who ar e not devot ed t o Him t hr ough His power of enchant ment . This is
nat ur al f or one who is not wit hin t he r each of t he senses-or gans as we saw in
t he pr evious nAma. Lor d KRshNa says in t he gI t A - mama mAyA dur at yayA -
My mAyA is ver y dif f icult t o over come - gI t A 7.14). mAyA her e is not t o be
int er pr et ed t o as magic or illusion or unt r ut h, but as somet hing wonder f ul and
unusual. (sI t A devi is r ef er r ed t o as devamAyA - j anakasya kule j At A
devamAyeva nir mit A). The mAyA r ef er r ed t o her e is t hat bhagavAn
wonder f ully conceals Himself f r om t hose who do not seek Him.
Ot her r ef er ences t o t he sr ut i-s ar e - at i-mohakar I mAyA mama (Sar abha 24),
vidyAt mAyinam t u maheSvar am (Svet ASvat Ar a 4.10).
nAma 173. nAma 173. nAma 173. PrltBlr- PrltBlr- PrltBlr- -- - mahOt sAhah mahOt sAhah mahOt sAhah
He of gr eat ent husiasm.
mahotsAhAya namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar point s out t hat t his nAma par t icular ly indicat es t hat unlike t he
I svar a of t he sAnkhya syst em who is possessed of knowledge but is a non-doer
of act s and is indif f er ent , Sr i mahA vishNu is ent husiast ic in per f or ming act s
which signif y His lor dship, such as t he var iet ies of His cr eat ion, t heir
sust enance et c. The mahot sAha is a guNa t hat bhagavAn has as an aiSvar ya,
wit h no dependence on anyt hing else f or suppor t . Because of t his, He is
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unceasingly cr eat ing, maint aining and wit hdr awing His cr eat ions, and managing
t he af f air s of t he Univer se. Sr I chinmayAnanda point s out t hat t his wor ld will
not exist wit hout t he endless ent husiasm of His Might y Power . J ust as t he
ocean, wit h it s endless waves is t he "sleepless agit at or ", so also bhagavAn is
t he Ent husiast ic Accomplisher .
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives a dif f er ent int er pr et at ion t o t his nAma. He
looks at t his wor d as mahAn + ut + sAhah - mahAnt am uccaist amam sAhah,
sahat e, sAhayat i, sahat i vA sa mahot sAhah - One who has immense abilit y t o
endur e. Her e sAhah has t he same meaning as sahah - sahat i. He gives
r ef er ence t o t he Rg vedic mant r a nAkshast apyat e bhUr ibhAr ah - 1.164.13 t o
suppor t t his int er pr et at ion. He suppor t s t he Sun, t he Moon, et c., t ir elessly,
and He is also t he self in ever y being t hat has been cr eat ed, and it is His
mahot sAha t hat is manif est ed in His act . His guNa of endur ance is also not ed
t hr ough t he yaj ur vedic mant r a "saho' si saho mayi dehi (yaj ur 19/ 9)".
The wor d ut sAhah t r adit ionally means ent husiasm. The comment at or in dhar ma
cakr am point s out t hat of t he t hr ee qualit ies, t he r aj as, t amas, and sat va
bhAva-s, act ions t hat ar e done wit h ent husiasm and t hat benef it t he r est of
mankind ar e t hose t hat ar e done by t hose wit h t he sat va disposit ion. The
act ions by t hese ar e t he ones t hat cont inue successf ully, wit h f ull benef it s t o
His subj ect s. I t is good t o r emind our selves in t his cont ext t hat He is pur e
Sat va, and one way of of f er ing wor ship t o Him is t o f ollow t his model and lead
a sAt vic lif e our selves.
nAma 174. nAma 174. nAma 174. Prl4¬- Prl4¬- Prl4¬- -- - mahAbalah mahAbalah mahAbalah
One wit h immeasur able st r engt h - The Omnipot ent .
mahAbalAya namah.
Sr I Sankar a' s vyAkhyAna is
"balinAmapi balavat vAt mahAbalah - Being st r onger t han t he st r ongest , He is
mahAbalah".
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Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SASt r i gives sever al examples of t his guNa of bhagavAn.
RAvaNa went t o t he pAt Ala loka t o win over bali. BhagavAn wo had est ablished
Himself as t he gat ekeeper of bali t empor ar ily made Himself invisible. RAvaNa
t r ied t o move t he kundalam of hir aNyakaSipu which was lying at t he door st ep
as it has f allen f r om hir aNyakaSipu' s ear s at t he t ime of his being slain by
Lor d nRsimha. RAvaNa' s hands got caught under t he kundalam. BhagavAn
appear ed on t he scene, and kicked r AvaNa wit hout ef f or t and r AvaNa f ell f ar
f ar away.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha st ar t s f r om t he r oot bal - pr ANane t o live or t o
br eat he, and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is mahAbalah because He
makes t he wor ld live or suppor t s t he wor ld. He point s out t hat t her e ar e
dif f er ent kinds of balam, e.g., vidyA balam, senA balam, dhana balam, anna
balam, et c., and bhagavAn is t he One who is t he best ower of all t he balams
(means of suppor t ) t o t he dif f er ent devot ees, and so He is mahA-balah.
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SlOkam 19
Prl4 |&P rl4l4l PrlH|16P rlH |6-· Prl4 |&P rl4l4l PrlH|16P rlH |6-· Prl4 |&P rl4l4l PrlH|16P rlH |6-·
H|+7 7449 - ~lPl+ HP 4ltPl Prl|㤠6 + °°+ H|+7 7449 - ~lPl+ HP 4ltPl Prl|㤠6 + °°+ H|+7 7449 - ~lPl+ HP 4ltPl Prl|㤠6 + °°+
mahAbuddhir mahAvI r yO mahAshakt ir mahAdyut ih |
anir dEsyavapuh sr I mAn amEyAt mA mahAdr idhr ut | |

nAma 175. nAma 175. nAma 175. Prl4|&- Prl4|&- Prl4|&- -- - mahAa mahAa mahAa-- -buddih buddih buddih
He of inf init e knowledge.
mahA-buddhaye namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar point s out t hat He is mahA-buddhi because His knowledge does
not depend on His sense or gans or any ext er nal help. He sees and hear s and
senses all at t he same t ime wit h any of His or gans or wit h no need f or any of
t he or gans. This is suppor t ed by sever al passages f r om t he sr ut i-s -
viSvat aScakshur ut a viSvat omukhah - He has eyes on all sides and f aces on all
sides (t ait t ir I ya nAr AyaNa upanishad 1.12); paSyat _yacakshuh sa SRNot i
akar Nah - He sees wit hout eyes and hear s wit hout ear s (Svet ASva 3.19);
sar vat o' kshi Sir omukham - He has ever ywher e eyes, heads, and mout hs (gI t A
13.13). We also have t he vener able AcAr ya nAt hamuni' s wor ds - yo vet t i
yagapat sar vam pr at yaksheNa sadA svat ah - Who sees dir ect ly by per cept ion
and of His own accor d all t hings simult aneously (nyAyat at va).
The dhAt u wor d f r om which t he name is der ived is budh ~j nAne t o know, t o
under st and. BhagavAn is t he buddhi behind t he f unct ioning of all His cr eat ions,
and so He is t he mahA-buddhi. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha point s out t hat t he
behavior of many obj ect s such as even t he shedding of t he leaves by t he t r ees
dur ing t he wint er mont hs and t he r egener at ion dur ing t he summer mont hs et c.,
is indicat ive of knowledge t hat He has invest ed in t hem. The est ablishment of
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t he st ar s and planet s in t heir r espect ive posit ions and or bit s is a t ot ally
dif f er ent dimension of t he same mahA-buddhi of t he Lor d. The magic of
cr eat ion of t he mult it ude of beings and t heir being held t oget her as a
f unct ional ent it y is beyond t he knowledge of anyone else but Him. The aut hor
also point s out cases such as a "laj j Avant i" plant which sur vives and gr ows only
if a woman wat er s t he plant , and dies if a man pour s t he wat er t o t he plant ,
which ar e all examples of t he wonder s of t he ~j nAna t hat is t he mahA-buddhi.
I n a publicat ion t it led dhar ma cakr am published by Sr I r AmakRshNa
t apovanam in I ndia, a wr it er has given t he addit ional example of a cr ow' s
behavior when t hr eat ened by an enemy as an illust r at ion of t he knowledge t hat
He has invest ed in His cr eat ions. When a cr ow is chased by a small child, it
j ust displays minimal ef f or t t o get away. I f a gr own-up per son chases it wit h a
st ick, it t akes j ust a lit t le bit mor e ef f or t t o r un. I f a per son wit h a gun
appear s, t he cr ow will be nowher e t o be seen. Who but t he mahA-buddhi could
have given t he cr ow t his level of buddhi, which in addit ion get s t r ansmit t ed
f r om par ent t o of f spr ing in an unending chain?
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i point s out t hat buddhi is t he most impor t ant of t he
f our ant ah:kar aNa-s. buddhi chooses bet ween t he opt ions pr ovided by t he
manas, t aking int o account t he pict ur es of pr evious exper iences pr ovided by
t he cit t am, bef or e t he ahamkAr am t akes over and execut es t he act ion. I f t he
buddhi makes a poor choice, t hen it becomes alpa-buddhi; if t he buddhi always
chooses noble choices, t hen it is t he mahA-buddhi.
nAma 176. nAma 176. nAma 176. Prl4l4- Prl4l4- Prl4l4- -- - mahA mahA mahA-- -vI r yah vI r yah vI r yah
He of gr eat vir ilit y.
mahA-vIryAya namah.
He is mahA-vI r ya because He r emains unchanged unlike ever yt hing else which
changes wit h t ime (e.g., milk changing t o cur d). I t is but a t iny f r act ion of t his
qualit y of His t hat is r ef lect ed in t he f act t hat t hat t he Yogins ar e of st eady
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mind and do not get dist r act ed. J ust as f lower s give out t heir f r agr ance t o all
t heir sur r oundings wit h no ef f or t on t heir par t , bhagavAn per f or ms all His
act s wit h no ef f or t on His par t , and t his is an indicat ion of His vI r ya.
Sr I chinmayAnanda point s out t hat vI r ya is t he essence of all dynamism or
cr eat ive ur ges, and He is mahA-vI r ya because He is t he dr iving f or ce f r om
whom alone all t he dynamism f or cr eat ion can manif est .
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i explains t hat vI r yam is t he qualit y of achieving one' s
obj ect ive no mat t er how dif f icult it is. bhagavAn' s f ir st accomplishment , t he
cr eat ion of t his Univer se f r om t he pr akRt i or pr imor dial mat t er , is a r esult of
His vI r ya.
I n t he vyAkhyAna in dhar ma cakr am it is point ed out t hat one wit h t he vI r ya
or cr eat ive ener gy should also be one who has complet e cont r ol of t he indr iya-s
in or der f or t his cr eat ive ener gy t o be benef icial t o ever y one else. Fr om t his
point , t he Lor d is t he only one who can be called t he mahA-vI r ya.
nAma 177. nAma 177. nAma 177. PrlH|16- PrlH|16- PrlH|16- -- - mahA mahA mahA-- -sakt ih sakt ih sakt ih
Of immense power .
mahA-Saktaye namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar point s out t hat t his nAma emphasizes t hat bhagavAn is not j ust
t he sent ient cause of t his wor ld, but is also t he mat er ial cause of t his wor ld;
i.e., He is not only t he br ain behind t he cr eat ion, but He is also t he one whose
immense power caused t he physical cr eat ion of t his wor ld f r om t he pr akRt i.
Sr I Bhat t ar indicat es t hat t his is unlike t he view held by t he pasupat a school
t hat holds t hat I svar a is only t he sent ient cause and not t he mat er ial cause.
He point s out t hat t he const ant change going on in pr adhAna or pr imor dial
mat t er , milk, cur d, et c., ever y moment , is but t he r esult of a small f r act ion of
t his Sakt i of bhagavAn. Unf or t unat ely I am unf amiliar wit h t he det ails of t he
point made her e about t he pasupat a school of t hought , and would like t o invit e
addit ional comment s/ elabor at ions f r om t he r eader s.
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The wor d can be der ived f r om Sak - mar shane t o endur e, t o be able, or Sak
Sakt au t o be able, t o endur e, t o be power f ul. Thus Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha
int er pr et s t he meaning t o be similar t o be mahA-bala, mahot sAhah et c. Sr I
Sankar a int er pr et s Sakt i as sAmar t hyam or skill, and Sr i chinamayAnanda
f ollows up on t his and indicat es t hat He is mahA-Sakt i because He is t he cause
of t he int er play of t he t hr ee Sakt i-s, t he kr iyA Sakt i or t he power -of -act ion,
t he kAma-Sakt i or t he power -of -desir e, and t he ~j nAna Sakt i or t he power -
of -knowledge, which in t ur n is t he cause of t his Univer se.
As point ed out under t he pr evious nAma, He uses t he might y power f or t he
good of t he wor ld, and ever y inst ance of t his Might should r emind us of Him.
nAma 178. nAma 178. nAma 178. PrlH |6- PrlH |6- PrlH |6- -- - mahA mahA mahA-- -dyut ih dyut ih dyut ih
He of gr eat splendor .
mahA-dyutaye namah.
The der ivat ion of t his nAma is f r om t he dhAt u dyut a dI pt au t o shine. dyot at e
it i dyut ih - One who is shining is dyut ih, dyot ayit A vA dyut ih - One who makes
t hings shine is dyut ih. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he f ollowing yaj ur vedic
mant r as t o suppor t t he point t hat all t hat shines in t his wor ld is because of His
ef f ulgence -
yast e divi sUr ye mahimA sambabhUva|
t asmai t e mahimne pr aj Apat aye devebhyah svAhA | |
yast e nakshat r eshu candr amasi mahimA sambabhUva |
t asmai t e mahimne pr j Apat aye devebhyah svAhA | |
- (yaj ur 23-2, 23-4)
Sr I Bhat t ar explains t hat t his nAma indicat es t hat bhagavAn neit her depends
on nor needs any ext er nal help f or any of His act ions, and t he gr eat splendor
(t ej as) in His appear ance r eveals t his. This t ej as is capable of r emoving bot h
t he out er and t he inner dar kness in us. The t ej as of t he Sun and t he shining of
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t he pr ecious j ewels ar e but a t iny par t of t he t ej as of t he Lor d. This t ej as of
t he Lor d is so pleasing t o His devot ees, and so f r ight ening t o His enemies (we
may r ecall t he descr ipt ion of t he nAma nAr asimha-vapu ear lier , wher e we
emphasized t he same point about t he nRsimha avat Ar am).
The sr ut i r ef er ences t hat suppor t t his ar e:
svayam j yot ih - He is pur e Ef f ulgence Himself wit hout t he need f or ext er nal
means t o i l l umi nat e Hi m ( bRhadAr aNya upani shad 4.3.9) ,
j yot ishAm j yot ih - The Light among light s (muNdakopanishad 2.2.9), et c.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat t hose who wor ship t he Lor d ar e
aut omat ically blessed by t he Lor d wit h a par t of t his dyut i (The f ace is t he
index of t he mind - agat t in azhagu mugat t il t er iyum is t he Tamil saying).
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i point s out t hat t her e ar e 43 nAmas in
sahasr anAmam t hat st ar t wit h mahA. Of t hese, t he above six nAmas r ef er t o
bhagavAn' s qualit ies of over lor dship, st r engt h, knowledge, vir ilit y, power , and
ef f ulgence. The combinat ion of t hese six guNas is what makes bhagavAn t he
mahA-mAya or t he One who per f or ms t he wonder f ul act s which ar e His spor t .
The six gr eat qualit ies of bhagavAn t hat have been r ef er r ed t o in t he pr evious
nAma-s 173-178 ar e also r ef er enced in many sr ut i-s: (173 - mahot sAhah 174 -
mahA-balah 175 - mahA-buddhih 176 - mahA-vI r yah 177 - mahA-Sakt ih 178
- mahA-dyut ih )
par A asya Sakt ih vividhaiva Sr Uyat e svabhAvikI ~j nAna bala kr iyA ca
(Svet Asvat ar a U. 6-8) -
He has var iet ies of Sakt i-s in par excellence as par t of His Nat ur e. His
super ior knowledge, super ior might , and His power of cr eat ion et c., ar e some
examples.
~j nAna Sakt i bala aiSvar ya vI r ya t ej Amsi aSeshat ah |
bhagavacchabda-vAcyAni vinA heyaih guNadibhih | |
- (vishNupur ANam 6-5-79)
The wor d bhagaVan is associat ed wit h t he six super ior qualit ies of knowledge,
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st r engt h, lor dship or non-dependence on anyt hing else, vir ilit y, power , and
ef f ulgence, wit h no associat ion what ever wit h any negat ive connot at ions.
t ej o bala aiSvar ya mahA avabodha suvI r ya Sakt yAdi guNaika r ASih|
- (vishNu pur ANam 6-5-85)
The Lor d is t he abode f or good qualit ies such as t ej as, balam, aiSvar yam, gr eat
knowledge, abudant vI r ya, Sakt i et c.
nAma 179. nAma 179. nAma 179. H|+77449- H|+77449- H|+77449- -- - anir dEsya anir dEsya anir dEsya-- -vapuh vapuh vapuh
He who possesses an indescr ibable body.
anirdeSya-vapushe namah.
Somet hing t hat can be descr ibed as t his or t hat , or can be point ed t o as t his
or t hat , is nir deSa - idam t at it yAdi r UpeNa vi~j nApanam, ~j nApyasya
pr akASanam vA nir deSah. Anir deSa is somet hing t hat cannot be descr ibed as
above. vapu means Sar I r a or body. vapu also can be der ived f r om t he dhAt u
vap - bI j asant Ane chedane ca - t o sow, t o scat t er , et c. Sr I sat yadevo
vAsishTha uses t his lat t er appr oach and gives a meaning f or anir deSyavapu as
One who cannot be easily descr ibed and who is t he sower of t he seed f or t his
Univer se. He indicat es t hat t he wor d bAp, bApu et c., - f at her in Hindi is
der ived f r om a colloquial der ivat ive of vapu.
All beings who have a body as we know it have t he body which is f or med f r om
t he panca-bhut a-s, mahat and ahamkAr am. BhagavAn' s body is dif f er ent - it is
f or med f r om t he six maha-guNa-s t hat we j ust lear ned about . He becomes
what ever He want s t o become. He is pur e ef f ulgence, pur e knowledge, pur e
power , pur e lor dship incar nat e, et c. I n vishNu pur ANa, we have "r Upa var NAdi
nir deSa viSeshaNa vivar j it ah - Regar ding His f or m, color , et c., t her e is not hing
t hat can be compar ed t o t hem" - (1.2.10). Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i r emar ks in
his comment ar y t hat t he mahA-guNas cannot be visualized by t he meager
knowledge t hat we possess, and it is only by t he inner exper ience t hat He can
be r ealized.
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Sr I chinmayAnanda point s out t hat He is t he knowledge t hr ough which we can
descr ibe ever yt hing else, but He himself cannot be descr ibed. (J ust as t he eye
can see ot her s, but t he eye cannot be used t o see it self ).

Sr iyah Pat i
nAma 180. nAma 180. nAma 180. ~lPl+ ~lPl+ ~lPl+ -- - sr I mAn sr I mAn sr I mAn
Possessed of beaut y.
SrImate namah.
This nAma occur r ed ear lier as nAma 22, and will r e-occur as nAma 222 lat er .
NAma 22 occur r ed succeeding t he nAma nAr asimha-vapuh, which was nAma 21,
and was int er pr et ed in t hat cont ext (viz., t he nRsimha incar nat ion was of
except ional beaut y). The nAmas immediat ely pr eceding nAma 222 ar e
int er pr et ed by Sr I Sankar a and Sr I Bhat t ar in t he cont ext of t he mat sya -
avat Ar a, and so t hey int er pr et nAma 222 as r ef er r ing t o t he beaut y of t he
mat sya-avat Ar a. For t he cur r ent nAma, since t his immediat ely succeeds t he
descr ipt ion of t he body of t he Lor d (anir deSya vapu), t hey int er pr et t his in
t his cont ext , and give t he meaning t hat her e it r ef er s t o t he enor mously
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beaut if ul or nament s t hat decor at e t he body of bhagavAn (Sr I Bhat t ar ), or
t hey r ef er t o t he beaut y associat ed wit h t he six gr eat qualit ies (Sr I Sankar a).
Not e t hat even t hough t he same nAma, Sr I mAn, occur s t hr ee t imes, bot h Sr I
Sankar a and Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et t hem dif f er ent ly each t ime depending on
t he cont ext .
Sr I mAn also r ef er s t o Sr iyah pat i, or t he Lor d of Sr i or mahA-lakshmi.
BhagavAn' s beaut y is nat ur al t o Him because He has Sr I in his vaksha-st hala.
The dhar ma-cakr am aut hor int er pr et s t his nAma t o mean t hat t he pr akRt i and
pur usha ar e insepar able, j ust as Sr I and t he Lor d ar e insepar able, and ar e par t
of t he same par a-br ahmam.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he r oot as "Sr i -sevAyAm" - One who is f it t o
be ser ved. Sr I also means SobhA or beaut y or "kAnt i". He point s out t hat t he
beaut y t hat is seen all ar ound us in t he t r ees, t he bir ds, t he r iver s, t he
f lower s, t he Sun, t he Moon, t he st ar s, et c., should r emind us const ant ly of
bhagavAn, t he Sr I mAn whose Sr I is shining in ever yt hing. Sr I also means
wealt h. The wealt h t hat humans have is t r ansient , and can disappear any t ime.
BhagavAn is Sr I maAn whose wealt h is nit ya or per manent .
nAma 181. nAma 181. nAma 181. HP4ltPl HP4ltPl HP4ltPl -- - amEyAt mA amEyAt mA amEyAt mA
He of an incompr ehensible nat ur e.
ameyAtmane namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar explains t hat based on t he diver se qualit ies which ar e in
abundance as descr ibed in t he pr evious nAma-s, He is ameyAt mA.
Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s t he meaning of At mA her e as buddhi or int elligence,
and He is ameyAt mA because He has r emar kable int elligence which is beyond
measur e.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha st ar t s f r om t he r oot or dhAt u f r om which t his nAma
is der ived - mA mAne t o measur e, t o compar e wit h. MAt um ar hah meyah; na
mAt um ar hah ameyah. Her e At mA r ef er s t o t he svar Upam. Since He in t he
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inner soul of ever yt hing, it is not possible t o descr ibe Him f r om out side, j ust
as an ocean cannot be pr ecisely def ined when you ar e in t he middle of t he
ocean.
nAma 182. nAma 182. nAma 182. Prl|ã¤6 Prl|ã¤6 Prl|ã¤6 –– – mahAdri mahAdri mahAdri-- -dhrut dhrut dhrut
The bear er of t he gr eat mount ain.
mahAdri-dhRte namah.
Ther e ar e t wo inst ances of bhagavAn bear ing t he mount ain. One was t he
inst ance of bear ing t he mandar a mount ain dur ing t he t ime of chur ning of t he
Milk Ocean, when bhagavAn appear ed in t he f or m of t he Gr eat Tor t oise t o
bear t he chur ning st ick (which was t he mandar a mount ain) on His back. The
ot her is t he inst ance when Lor d KRshNa bor e t he govar dhana mount ain in
gokulam t o pr ot ect t he cows.
Sr I chinamayAnanda point s out t hat bhagavAn also suppor t s t he mind-int ellect
of t he sAdhaka while he is chur ning, t hr ough Sr avaNa (st udy) and manana
(r ef lect ion), his own milk-like pur e hear t of devot ion in or der t o gain t he
amRt am of immor t alit y.
Some ver sions of sahasr anAmam have t his nAmam as mahAdr idhRk inst ead of
mahAdr i-dhRt . Sr i r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i point s out t he dif f er ence bet ween
t he t wo as f ollows: mahAdr i-dhRk - One who is capable of bear ing a huge
mount ain (mahAdr aye didhRshNot i); mahAdr i-dhRt - One who bear s a huge
mount ain (mahAdr im dhar at i). My knowledge of samskRt gr ammar is not good
enough t o explain t his dist inct ion clear ly. I would r equest anyone who can
explain t he dif f er ence bet ween t he t wo ver sions based on et ymological
consider at ions t o cont r ibut e t o clar if ying t his dif f er ence in meaning.
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SlOkam 20
Pr !4lBl Prl¬6l ~l|+4lBFB6l ¬|6-· Pr !4lBl Prl¬6l ~l|+4lBFB6l ¬|6-· Pr !4lBl Prl¬6l ~l|+4lBFB6l ¬|6-·
H|+6&FB ¹l+-7l ¬l |4-7l ¬l |47l 9|6-+ -¤+ H|+6&FB ¹l+-7l ¬l |4-7l ¬l |47l 9|6-+ -¤+ H|+6&FB ¹l+-7l ¬l |4-7l ¬l |47l 9|6-+ -¤+
mahEshvAsO mahI bhar t A sr I nivAsas sat Amgat ih |
anir uddhah sur AnandO gOvindO gOvidAm pat ih | |
nAma 183. nAma 183. nAma 183. Pr !4lB- Pr !4lB- Pr !4lB- -- - mahEshvAsah mahEshvAsah mahEshvAsah
a) The dischar ger of gr eat ar r ows
b) The wielder of t he might y bow
maheshvAsAya namah.
mahAn - manohAr I - enchant ing; ishUNAm - ar r ows; Asah - dischar ger . Sr I
Bhat t ar gives t he examples of Lor d Rama dischar ging t he ar r ows t o est ablish a
br idge acr oss t he set hu r iver and at t he t ime of dest r oying t he t en-headed
RAvaNa.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha point s out t hat ishvAsa can mean t he bow (t hat
which t hr ows or dischar ges t he ar r ows), and one who has t he gr eat dhanus is
maheshvAsa - mahAn ishvAsah asya ast i it i maheshvAsah.
The dhar ma cakr am aut hor point s out t hat even t hough moder n science
pr ovides a lot of f acilit ies like being able t o build br idges t o cr oss gr eat r iver s
in t imes of war in a shor t t ime nowadays, t he r esult is mor e war and mor e
insecur it y and mor e evils. Not so wit h t he Lor d' s ar r ows, which always achieve
t heir obj ect ive wit hout f ail (r Ama bANam vI N pogAdu is a saying in Tamil -
Rama' s ar r ows never go t o wast e), and br ing good t o mankind.
nAma 184. nAma 184. nAma 184. Prl¬6l Prl¬6l Prl¬6l –– – mahI bhar t A mahI bhar t A mahI bhar t A
The bear er of t he ear t h.
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mahI-bhartre namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his nAma as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn bear ing t he ear t h
const ant ly as t he Adi kUr ma. Sr I Sr I nivAsa r AghavAchAr yAr has point ed out
in his nRsimha pr iyA ar t icles t hat t he f ollowing mant r a in t he nit ya Ahnika
kar ma - (Pr aNavam) akhila j agadAdhAr Aya kUr ma-r UpiNe nAr AyaNAya namah
- is a r ef er ence t o t his act of Sr iman nAr AyaNa.
Bhar t A lit er ally means husband or suppor t er . mahI means ear t h. mahI -bhar t A
means t he Husband of Mot her Ear t h. We have t he descr ipt ion of how t he
Lor d, as t he Gr eat Boar (var Aha) uplif t ed t he ear t h f r om t he "wat er s of
Deluge", and is st ill suppor t ing t he ear t h. The aut hor in dhar ma cakr am
sur mises t hat t he gr avit at ional f or ce which keeps ever yt hing in t his univer se in
it s place is j ust a demonst r at ion of t he Sakt i or power of t his mahI -bhar t A.
nAma 185. nAma 185. nAma 185. ~l|+4lB- ~l|+4lB- ~l|+4lB- -- - sr I nivAsah sr I nivAsah sr I nivAsah
I n whom Lakshmi r esides.
SrInivAsAya namah.
Sr I r ef er s t o Lakshmi. NivAsam is t he place or abode. Sr i mahA-lakshmi
emer ged f r om t he ocean as one of t he nect ar s as it was chur ned. All t he deva-
s wer e wat ching and wait ing, and She chose t he Lor d as She emer ged.
BhagavAn gr eet ed Her wit h sweet wor ds and of f er ed Her t he place on His
vaksha-st halam. This is one of His leela-s.
Sr I chinmayAnanda point s out t hat Sr I connot es "all Glor y and power ,
f acult ies and st r engt h, t o be good and t o per f or m cr eat ive act s of
r ight eousness". She never r esides per manent ly in any bosom, and even gr eat
saint s and sages ar e known t o have compr omised t he per f ect ions in t hem in
r ecor ded hist or y. The only place wher e imper f ect ions never ent er t o molest
t he ser ene essence, is t he seat of Et er nal Per f ect ion, which is t he bosom of
nAr AyaNa. This is a ver y elegant way of int er pr et ing and under st anding t he
signif icance of t he st at ement t hat Sr I is always in t he vaksha-st halam of t he
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Lor d.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha point s out t hat Sr I also means beaut y (SobhA), f ame
(vibhUt i), wealt h (dhana). One who is t he r esidence of all t hese is Sr I -nivAsa.
The st at ement t hat Sr I r esides always wit h mahA-vishNu in his vaksha-
st halam emphasizes t he concept t hat lakshmi and nAr AyaNa should be viewed
as One, j ust as t he f ir e and t he heat associat ed wit h it ar e not t wo separ at e
t hings. Sr I is t he br ight ness, t he success, t he wealt h, t he beaut y, associat ed
wit h nAr AyaNa.
nAma 186. nAma 186. nAma 186. B6l ¬|6- B6l ¬|6- B6l ¬|6- -- - sat Am gat ih sat Am gat ih sat Am gat ih
The Ult imat e Goal f or all spir it ual seeker s.
satAm-gataye namah.
sat r ef er s t o all spir it ual seeker s and all t hose who ar e vir t uous. Sr I
chinmayAnanda point s out t hat t his name implies t hat He is not only t he f inal
goal f or t hese, but also t he ver y dir ect ion, pat h, and pr ogr ess as well.
BhagavAn is t he goal f or t he devot ees because t hey do not want anyt hing
except Him once t hey become His devot ees.
nAma 187. nAma 187. nAma 187. H|+6&- H|+6&- H|+6&- -- - anir uddhah anir uddhah anir uddhah
One who cannot be obst r uct ed or r esist ed by anyone.
aniruddhAya namah.
Examples of t his guNa of bhagavAn ar e seen all ar ound us all t he t ime. Not hing
can st op t he r ising and set t ing of t he sun, t he absor pt ion of sun' s ener gy by
t he dif f er ent t hings, et c. The laws of Nat ur e ar e ir r esist ible. I n Sr I
chinmayAnanda' s wor ds r elat ing t o t his nAma, "Time and t ide wait f or none".
BhagavAn has been vict or ious and unobst r uct ed in all of His incar nat ions. Sr I
Bhat t ar gives t he r ef er ence t o maula smahit A t o suppor t t he int er pr et at ion
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f or t his nAma - apar imit a cheshTo bhagavAn anir uddhah - Unlimit ed ar e t he
exploit s of bhagavAn anir uddha".
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am gives a ver y obvious example of t he unobst r uct ed
nat ur e of bhagavAn' s wishes. Kamsa t r ies many t hings t o get r id of child
KRshNa r ight f r om t he t ime of His bir t h, and in f act He had planned t o get r id
of t he child long bef or e t he child was t o be bor n. We all know t hat not hing
wor ked, and t he child kRshNa became t he boy kRshNa and got r id of kamsa as
He had planned. This nAma not only says t hat no one can obst r uct bhagavAn
helping His devot ees, but it also says t hat no one can save His enemies.
nAma 188. nAma 188. nAma 188. B¹l+-7- B¹l+-7- B¹l+-7- -- - sur Anandah sur Anandah sur Anandah
One who gives delight t o t he gods.
surAnandAya namah.
sur An Anandayat i it i sur Anandah. The wor d sur a is composed of su - good, and
r A - t o give. So bhagavAn is One who br ings happiness t o t hose who br ing good
t o t he wor ld (sur a-s). He has assigned t hem t he dif f er ent f unct ions on t hese
lines. He gives delight t o t he gods by helping t hem in t imes of dist r ess. One
inst ance of t his is when t he Milk-Ocean was chur ned and t he Lor d gave t he
amRt am t o t he sur a-s. The inst ance t hat Sr i Bhat t ar alludes t o is t he hamsa
incar nat ion which is ext ensively r ef er r ed t o in t he divya pr abandham. This is
cover ed in sever al places in t he divya pr abandham, and in addit ion t her e is a
whole chapt er dedicat ed t o t his incar nat ion in Sr I mad-bhAgavat am. The
f ollowing ar e r ef er ences in divya pr abandham:
mun iv-Ezhu ulagu uNar vinRi ir uL miga umbar gaL t ozhudEt t a annamAgi anRu
ar u-maRai payandavanE enakku ar uL pur i nI yE...
- (per iya t ir umozhi 5.3.8)
"When all t he seven wor lds wer e immer sed in dar kness because of all kinds of
conf lict ing and cont r adict or y belief s, br ahma and sanaka-sanandanAdi deva-s
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pr ayed t o Lor d nAr AyaNa, He appear ed in t he f or m of a hamsa (swan) and gave
t hem t he benef it of t he knowledge of t he pat h of r ight eousness."
The signif icance of hamsa her e is t hat it is capable of separ at ing t he milk f r om
t he wat er ; so also, bhagavAn ident if ied t he good f r om t he bad f or t he benef it
of t he sur a-s.
"t unni maNNum viNNAdum t OnRAdu ir uLAi mUdiya nAL
annamAgi ar u mar aigaL ar uLicceyda amalanidam....
- (per iya t ir umozhi 5.1.9)
mannu mA-nilamum malaigalum kadalum vAnamum t Anavar -ulagum
t unnu mA-ir uLAi t ulangoLi Sur ungi t ollai-nAnmaRaigaLum maRaiya
pinnum vAnavar kkum munivar kkum nalgi piRangir uL niRam keDa or unAL
annamAi a~ngu ar umaRai payndAn ar anga-mA-nagar amr ndAnE.
- (per iya t ir umozhi 5.7.3)
"t unniya pEr ir uL Suzhndu ulagai mUDa
manniya nAnmaRai muRRum maRaindiDa
pin ivvulagil pEr ir uL nI ~nga anRu
annamadAnE! AccOvaccO ar umaRai t andAnE! AccOvaccO!"
- (per iyAzhvAr t ir umozhi 1.9.10)
I n Sr I mad-bhAgavat am, chapt er 13 of t he 11t h skandam is devot ed t o hamsa
avat Ar am. Ther e bhagavAn descr ibes how br ahma medit at ed upon Him f or
guidance in answer ing t he quest ion f r om sanaka-sanandanA-s on t he
r elat ionship bet ween buddhi, At mA, guNa-s, et c., and how He appear ed in t he
f or m of a swan incar nat ion and gave t he upadeSa t o t hem.
nAma 189. nAma 189. nAma 189. ¬l|4-7- ¬l|4-7- ¬l|4-7- -- - gOvindah gOvindah gOvindah
a) One who is pr aised by t he gods (f or His help).
b) One who dug out t he Ear t h f r om t he dept hs of t he Ocean.
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c) The pr ot ect or of cows.
d) One who conf er s t he veda-s
govindAya namah.
go in samskRt means "Ear t h", "cows", "speech", or "veda-s" - gaur -vANI ,
dhar A, dhenur vA. Fr om t his we der ive gavAm, gAm, et c. vid - lAbhe t o get , t o
f ind, t o f eel is t he r oot f r om which vinda is der ived.
a) gavAm vindah govindah - gavAm - pr aise, vindah - r ecipient . He is govinda
because He is t he r ecipient of pr aise by t he gods f or t he help He r ender s as
out lined in t he pr evious nAma.
b) Anot her int er pr et at ion is gAm avindat - One who r et r ieved t he Ear t h f r om
t he dept hs of t he Ocean. The f ollowing is f r om Sant i par vam in mahAbhAr at am
-
nashTAm vai dhar aNI m pur vam avindam vai guhAgat Am |
govinda it i t enAham devair -vAgbir -abhishTut ah| |
- (Sant i - 330.5)
"I f ir st r escued t he ear t h which was car r ied away and hidden in dept hs of t he
Ocean (by an asur a); hence I am pr aised by t he appellat ion Govinda by gods and
scr ipt ur es". The signif icance of t his is point ed out by t he dhar ma cakr am
wr it er . BhagavAn is t he One who t r uly under st ands t he wor ld and all it s
subj ect s.
c) gAvo vedavANyo yam vindant i labhant e, yat r a vA avat isThant e sa govindo
bhagavAn vishNuh - One who is r eached by vedic chant ing, or One who is t he
abode of t he veda-s, is govinda or vishNu. I n har ivamSa we have t he f ollowing -
gaur eshA t u yat o vANI t Am ca vindayat e bhavAn |
govindast u t at o deva! munibhih kat hyat e bhavAn! | |
- (har ivamSa 3.88.50)
gau means wor ds. You per vade all wor ds giving t hem power . Sages, t her ef or e,
call you govinda.
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d) The pr ot ect or of t he cows - again suppor t ed f r om har ivamSa -
aham kilendr o devAnAm t vam gavAm indr at Am gat ah |
govinda it i lokAst vAm st oshyant i bhuvi SASvat am | |
- (har ivamSa 2.19.45)
"I am indr a, leader of deva-s. You have at t ained t he leader ship of t he cows. So
in t his wor ld men pr aise You always addr essing you as govinda". He is t he
pr ot ect or of t he cows and played t he par t of gopAla in gokulam. Sr I sat yadevo
vAsishTha point s out t hat t he leader ship of cows also suggest s t he impor t ance
of milk, ghee, et c., in wor ship, yaj ~na et c., and how t hese also play a key r ole in
t he nour ishment of t he wor ld.
An aut hor by name anant a kRshNa Sast r i, who has t r anslat ed Sr I Sankar a' s
vishNu sahasr anAma vyAkhyAnam, gives 10 meanings f or t he combinat ion
go+vid - 1) go -svar gam - He t r anscends Heaven. 2) ar r ows - He knows all t he
weapons. 3) cat t le - He is t he leader of cows. 4) Speech - He is t o be known by
t he veda-s. 5) Thunder bolt - He has t he vaj r a mar ks on His f eet . 6) Quar t er s -
He is known in all quar t er s. 7) Eyes - He is t he seer in ever y per son. 8) The Sun
- He is in t he or b of t he sun. 9) Ear t h - He r ecover ed t he Ear t h f r om t he
Ocean. 10) Wat er s - His seat is in t he wat er s.
nAma 190. nAma 190. nAma 190. ¬l|47l 9|6- ¬l|47l 9|6- ¬l|47l 9|6- -- - gOvidAm pat ih gOvidAm pat ih gOvidAm pat ih
The pr ot ect or of t hose who know t he veda-s.
govidAm-pataye namah.
Her e go means veda-s. vid is one who knows. pat i is t he leader or pr ot ect or .
The signif icance t o be r ecognized her e is t hat He is t he sour ce of all
knowledge, and it is by His gr ace t hat knowledge is at t ained.
Recall f r om t he pr evious nAma t hat t he wor d go in samskRt has sever al
meanings, including speech, ear t h, cows, et c. This opens up t he beaut y of ot her
int er pr et at ions f or t he cur r ent nAma. BhagavAn is also t he mast er of speech
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of all ot her cr eat ions such as bir ds, et c., t he leader of t hose who know t he
pr inciple (t at vam) of t his Univer se, et c.
I am indebt ed t o Sr i M. Sr inivasan f or helping me wit h ident if ying t hese
r ef er ences.
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SlOkam 21
P¹l|¬7 P+l r B- B 9Tl ¬ =¬l ¬P-· P¹l|¬7 P+l r B- B 9Tl ¬ =¬l ¬P-· P¹l|¬7 P+l r B- B 9Tl ¬ =¬l ¬P-·
|r¹'4+l¬FB 69l- 9T+l¬- 9=l9|6-+ -°+ |r¹'4+l¬FB 69l- 9T+l¬- 9=l9|6-+ -°+ |r¹'4+l¬FB 69l- 9T+l¬- 9=l9|6-+ -°+
mar I cir damanO hamsah supar NO bhuj agOt t amah |
hir aNyanAbhassut apAh padmanAbhah pr aj Apat ih | |
nAma 191. nAma 191. nAma 191. P¹l|¬- P¹l|¬- P¹l|¬- -- - mar I cih mar I cih mar I cih
Ray of light .
marIcaye namah.
The wor d mar I ci means a r ay of light . Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his name as
indicat ing t hat bhagavAn r eveals Himself t o His devot ees t hr ough t he eye of
t heir devot ion even t hough t hey can' t see Him t hr ough t heir nat ur al eye.
The aut hor in dhar ma cakr am indicat es t hat t his guNa of bhagavAn should
r emind us t hat we should aim f or t he r ay of light t hat will help us medit at e on
Him. This we can achieve by f ir st cont r olling our indir ya-s, which t hen conver t s
t he body' s ener gies int o ment al ener gy. Then by cont r ol of t he mind, t his
ener gy is conver t ed int o t he light t hat gives t he clar it y of mind t hat can help
us medit at e on Him.
A dif f er ent int er pr et at ion is given by Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha f or t his nAma.
The wor d mar I ci is der ived f r om mR pr ANat yAge t o die, t o per ish. He
int er pr et s mar I ci as one who dest r oys. Since it is one of bhagavAn' s f unct ions
t o dest r oy t he beings t hat He cr eat es, He is mar I ci. To suppor t t his, he gives
t he examples f r om bhagavad-gI t A - j At asya hi dhr uvo mRt yur -dhr uvam j anma
mRt asya ca (2.25); mRt yuh pr aj AnAm adhipat ih (at har va 5.24.13), et c.
nAma 192. nAma 192. nAma 192. 7P+- 7P+- 7P+- -- - damanah damanah damanah
a) Dispeller (of t he samsAr a bhAr am)
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b) Subduer - One who cont r ols and punishes t hose who swer ve f r om t heir
pr escr ibed pat h.
c) He Who cont r ols ever yt hing by per vading ever yt hing.
damanAya namah
The wor d is der ived f r om t he dhAt u - dam upaSame = t o t ame. damayat i it i
damanah - One who dispels.
a) Cont inuing his int er pr et at ion of t he pr evious nAma (One wit h gr eat
r adiance), Sr i Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his nAma as indicat ing t hat He guides His
devot ees over come t he suf f er ings of samsAr a or t he mat er ial wor ld t hr ough
His guiding Light – kAnt i mandAkinI bhih bhava-t Apam daayat i it i damanah
Sr I kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj and Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN give similar
int er pr et at ions. Sr I baladeva vidyA bhUshaN explains t he nAma as “damayat i
vicheda t Apam sva-dhyAt RRNAm kAnt i kant alI bhih it i damanah” – He Who
dispels t he suf f er ings of t hose who medit at e on Him t hr ough His kAnt i. Sr I
kRshNa dat t a bhAr advAj gives t he int er pr et at ion: dAmyat i upaSamayat i
kAnt i kir aNaih upAsI nAnAm manas-t Apam it i damanah – He Who r emoves t he
sor r ow in t he minds of His devot ees t hr ough His when t hey medit at e on Him.
b) Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s t he nAma as “The Subduer ” - One Who cont r ols and
punishes t hose t hat swer ve f r om t heir assigned dut ies (damayit um Seelam
yasya sa damanah). This could be in t he f or m of a king while t he people ar e in
t heir mor t al bodies, as yama af t er t hey die, et c. Sr I cinmayAnanda explains
t hat t he damana aspect of bhagavAn is r esponsible f or cont r olling t he
r Akshasic impulses wit hin ever y one of us. I n t he f or m of pain and agit at ion,
sor r ow and deat h, it is He who cont r ols all t he negat ive t endencies in
ever yone' s hear t . He also has cont r olled t he vicious against t he good in t he
f or m of His t en incar nat ions.
c) Sr I vAsishTha int er pr et s t he nAma as “One Who cont r ols ever yt hing in t his
wor ld by per vading ever yt hing and keeping t hings in or der ” – damayat i –
upaSamayat i yat hA st hAnam pr Apayat i, damana dhar meNa viSvam sa-
car Acar am vyApnot i, it i damanah.
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d) Sr I sat ya sandha t I r t ha gives sever al int er pr et at ions f or t he nAma:
i) damanAsur a samhAr at vAt damanah – He Who dest r oyed t he asur a by
name damana.
ii) damana pr iyat vAt da-manah – He Who likes t aming or subduing t he
wicked.
iii) damo yeshAm ast i it i damAh, t An nayat i it i dama-nah – He Who is t he
Supr eme among t hose who have cont r ol of t he mind and t he indr iya-s (dama-
nah).
iv) dam abhI shTa dAt R mano yasya sa it i vA da-manah – He Who has t he
mind t o best ow what ever is desir ed on His devot ees (da-manah).
The aut hor in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat when one does not lead a lif e
based on st r ict sAt t vic pr inciples, including t he f ood habit s, et c., one get s
diseases and ot her ment al pains. These ar e all act s of bhagavAn t o discipline
t he per son wit h t he int ent of helping t he per son lear n and r ealize t he r ight
pat h. This is His act of damana, or cont r olling, punishing, guiding, et c.
The r eader is also r ef er r ed t o nAma 864 (Slokam 92) - damayit A, which is
der vied f r om t he r oot as t he cur r ent nAma, damanah.
nAma 193. nAma 193. nAma 193. r B- r B- r B- -- - hamsah hamsah hamsah
One who is like t he swan.
hamsAya namah.
Hamsa is capable of separ at ing milk f r om wat er and dr inking only t he milk and
leaving t he wat er behind. Hamsa is also not ed f or it s beaut y, especially f or it s
walk. BhagavAn is hamsa in t hat He is ever yt hing t hat is good and not hing t hat
is not good. He is also hamsa f or His beaut y in t hought , wor d, and deed.
We had made ext ensive r ef er ence t o t he hamsa incar nat ion of bhagavAn in t he
explanat ion f or t he nAma sur Ananda. Thus t he cur r ent nAma can also be
viewed as a r ef er ence t o t he hamsa avat Ar a of bhagavAn.
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Anot her int er pr et at ion, given by Sr I Sankar a, is t hat hamsah indicat es t hat
bhagavAn kills (han) t he f ear of samsAr a in t hose who r ealize t hat aham sah -
I am He. This (I am He) is t r adit ionally quot ed in discussions suppor t ing t he
advait a philosophy. I n some of his upanyAsa-s, Sr I kRshNa Pr emi descr ibes
t he f ollowing upa-kat ha involving a disciple who went alt er nat ely t o an advait a
and a visishTAdvait a t eacher , who t aught him alt er nat ely t heir philosophy -
so' ham, dAso' ham, sadA so' ham, and dAsadAso' ham. Not ice t he play of wor ds
her e, adding dA t o t he f ir st one, sa t o t he next one, and dA again t o t he t hir d
wor d t o get t he f our t h.
Yet anot her int er pr et at ion is hant i gacchat i sar va Sar I r eshu it i vA hamsah -
He moves in all beings and bodies and so He is called hamsa.
nAma 194. nAma 194. nAma 194. B9T- B9T- B9T- -- - supar Nah supar Nah supar Nah
a) (lit er ally) One possessed of char ming f eat her s – see below.
b) One who can lead men t o t he ot her shor e acr oss t he ocean of samsAr a.
suparNAya namah.
a) I n Sr I mad-bhAgavat am we have - siddheSvar ANAm kapilah supar No' ham
pat at r iNAm - Among t he siddha-s, I am Kapila, and among bir ds I am Gar uDa
(11.16.15). I n Bhagavad-gI t A, we have mRgANAm ca mRgendr o' ham
vainat eyaSca pakshiNAM - Among beast s, I am t he lion, t heir king, and among
bir ds, I am Gar uDa, t he son of Vinat A (10.29). Thus, supar Na is int er pr et ed as
r ef er r ing t o His being t he Best of t he best in all t hat exist .
b) par Na means wings. Sobhana par Nat vAt supar Nah - supar Na means One
wit h auspicious and beaut if ul wings. He is supar Na because He car r ies His
devot ees t o t he ot her shor e of t he ocean of samsAr a.
c) I n t he upanishad-s, we have r ef er ence t o t wo beaut if ul bir ds sit t ing on t he
same t r ee - signif ying t he j I vAt mA and t he Par amAt mA dwelling in t he same
body. One (j I vAt mA) eat s t he f r uit s of act ions, and t he ot her (Par amAt MA)
j ust gazes on (sAkshI ). VishNu is t his all-exper iencing Pr inciple of
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Consciousness.
"dvA supar NA sayuj A sakhAyA samAnam vRksham par ishvaj At e
t ayor anyah pippalam svAdvant i, anaSnan anyo abhicAkaSI t i
- (mundakopanishad - 3.1)
- A pair of whit e-winged bir ds ext r emely f r iendly t o each ot her sit on one and
t he same t r ee; one eat s t he f r uit s, t he ot her eat s not and gazes on".
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i r ef er s t o one as t he gr eat enj oyer (pEr inbam), and
t he ot her as t he Gr eat Knower (pEr aRivu).
d) The nAma can also r elat e back t o t he pr evious nAma – The hamsa
incar nat ion wit h beaut if ul wings.
nAma 195. nAma 195. nAma 195. ¬=¬l¬P- ¬=¬l¬P- ¬=¬l¬P- -- - bhuj agOt t amah bhuj agOt t amah bhuj agOt t amah
The Mast er of t he Ser pent AdiSesha.
bhujagottamAya namah.
bhuj aga r ef er s t o t he species which navigat e using t heir shoulder s or ar ms -
bhuj ena gacchant i, r at her t han t hr ough t heir legs. Her e bhuj aga r ef er s t o
AdiSesha. ut t ama can r ef er t o ' one who is above' . Her e it r ef er s t o bhagavAn
who is r eclining on t op of t he AdiSesha. He is t he SeshI or t he Lor d of t he
Sesha. He is r eclining on anant a t he Ser pent as t he couch. Or t he name could
also r ef er t o bhuj agAnAm ut t amah - One who is t he best among t he ser pent s.
i.e., it can r ef er t o anant a - see bhagavad-gI t A 10-29 - anant aScAsmi
nAgAnAm.
Even t hough I am f inding t he int er pr et at ions of Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha t o
be on t he side of being unconvent ional, I am including t hem since he suppor t s
his int er pr et at ions wit h ext ensive suppor t f r om gr ammar , quot es f r om sr ut i-s
et c. Her e he st ar t s wit h t he dhAt u bhuj kaut ilye t o bend, t o cur ve. He point s
out t hat bhagavAn is bhuj agot t ama because He is t he best of all t hat bend and
move. This includes air , bir ds, et c. Wher ever anyt hing of t his cat egor y can
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r each, no mat t er how f ast t hey f ly or move, bhagavAn is t her e bef or e t hem.
Even t he man-made machines t hat f ly cannot go anywher e including ot her
planet s f ast er t han Him, since He is t her e bef or e t hem. Not only t hat , even
t he abilit y f or t hose t hat f ly et c. ar e given only by t he Gr ace of t he Lor d.
nAma 196. nAma 196. nAma 196. |r¹'4+l¬- |r¹'4+l¬- |r¹'4+l¬- -- - hir aNyanAbhah hir aNyanAbhah hir aNyanAbhah
One who suppor t s in His navel t he cr eat or , hir aNyagar bha.
hiraNya-nAbhAya namah.
Lit er ally t he wor d means "One who has a beaut if ul navel wit h a golden hue".
Her e it r ef er s t o t he navel t hat is gr eat by having cr eat ed t he cat ur -mukha-
br ahmA who is also well-ver sed in t he cat ur -veda-s. br ahmA get s his gr eat ness
because he cr eat es all t he beings t hus giving t hem t he oppor t unit y t o r eveal
t heir gr eat ness. This gr eat br ahmA was bor ne out of t he navel of vishNu, and
t hus t he gr eat ness of t he navel t hat bor e t he gr eat br ahmA is evident . J ust as
a nat ion t hat cr eat es gr eat people becomes known as a gr eat nat ion, so is t he
analogy her e, t o quot e t he dhar ma cakr am wr it er .
nAma 197. nAma 197. nAma 197. B69l- B69l- B69l- -- - sut apAh sut apAh sut apAh
a) One who is possessed of supr eme knowledge.
b) One wit h consist ent cr eat ive t hinking.
sutapAse namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t apas as knowledge, and gives t he f ir st int er pr et at ion
above.
Sr I Sankar a uses t he f ollowing f r om mahAbhAr at a - mansaScendr iyANAm ca
hyaikAgRyam par amam t apah - The concent r at ion of mind and senses is called
supr eme t apas - (MB 12.242.4).
Sr I chinmayAnanda gives t he f ollowing suppor t f r om t he upanishad - sa t apah
t apt vA idamet adasRj at (He t hought , and t hr ough t hought He cr eat ed all t his).
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The aut hor in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat t he st r engt h der ived f r om t apas
is mor e power f ul t han any ot her st r engt h, and gives t he example of how
viSvAmit r a' s ar my was power less agai nst vasishTha' s t apo-Sakt i. I t was
t hr ough t apas t hat viSvAmit r a ult imat ely at t ained br ahma-j ~nAna, and it was
t hr ough t apas t hat dhr uva at t ained t he immor t al posit ion. Lor d vishNu is
t apas-I ncar nat e (sut apAh), and t hus guides His devot ees in t he pat h of t apas.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha int er pr et s t ap t o mean t he abilit y t o bear (kleS kA
sahnA in Hindi). The example of a mot her bear ing t he st r ain of an unbor n child
f or 9 mont hs j ust so she can br ing out t he child t o t his wor ld is but a
r ef lect ion of bhagavAn' s su-t apa or His bear ing t he t ej as of t he likes of Sun
so t hat it can br ing out t he good f or t he beings of t his wor ld, wit hout bur ning
t hem wit h it s heat et c. So bhagavAn is t he mahA-t apasvI .
nAma 198. nAma 198. nAma 198. 9T+l¬- 9T+l¬- 9T+l¬- -- - padmanAbhah padmanAbhah padmanAbhah
a) One who has t he lot us emanat ing f r om his navel (car r ying br ahma)
b) One who r esides in t he cent er of ever yone' s hear t
padma nAbhAya namah.
This nAma had occur r ed ear lier as nAma 48. Ther e t he int er pr et at ion was t hat
t he lot us (t he cause of t he Univer se) emanat es f r om His navel. Anot her
explanat ion given by Sr I Sankar a f or t he cur r ent nAma is t hat bhagavAn is in
t he cent r e of ever yone' s hRdaya kamalam or hear t (nAbhI means also t he
cent r al par t , and padmam in t his cont ext is hear t ).
The aut hor in dhar ma cakr am enj oys t his nAma in var ious ot her ways. When
lot us (padmam) blossoms, it at t r act s t he bees and ot her insect s t owar ds it ; so
also, bhagavAn (padma-nAbhI ) at t r act s all t he j eevans t o Him. Lot us is t he
most beaut if ul and f r agr ant of f lower s; so also our padma-nAbha is t he
embodiment of beaut y. Lor d r AmA' s beaut y has been descr ibed by Sr i Kamban
- t AL kandAr t ALE kandAr . Unlike t he bodily beaut y which br ings down people
t o a lower level, t he beaut y of padma-nAbha can only elevat e people t o a higher
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level.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives addit ional insight int o t his nAma f r om yet
anot her per spect ive. Padmam also means knowledge - padyat e j ~nAyat e anena
padmam j ~nAnam. One who is t he Cent er or r eser voir of Knowledge, or One
who cont r ols and r ules over Knowledge is padmanAbha (t he aut hor uses t he
t er m j ~nAna-bandhanah as t he equivalent of padma-nAbha based on t his
explanat ion).
nAma 199. nAma 199. nAma 199. 9=l9|6- 9=l9|6- 9=l9|6- -- - pr aj Apat ih pr aj Apat ih pr aj Apat ih
The Lor d of beings.
prajApataye namah.
t at padmodbhava-pr abhRt I nAm pr aj AnAm pat ih - The Lor d of all beings
including br ahma bor n of t hat lot us. This per t ains t o t he cr eat ion and
dest r uct ion t hat t ake place per iodically. Pat i also means f at her , and since all
cr eat ur es have emer ged f r om Him, He is pr aj Apat i. He is t he Leader who
appear s whenever needed t o est ablish dhar ma.
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SlOkam 22
HP t4 FB4 †T HP t4 FB4 †T HP t4 FB4 †Tœœ œ |B r- B-¤l6l B|-¤Pl+ |F¤¹-· |B r- B-¤l6l B|-¤Pl+ |F¤¹-· |B r- B-¤l6l B|-¤Pl+ |F¤¹-·
H=l TP 9 T7HlF6l |4~ 6ltPl B ¹l|¹rl+ --+ H=l TP 9 T7HlF6l |4~ 6ltPl B ¹l|¹rl+ --+ H=l TP 9 T7HlF6l |4~ 6ltPl B ¹l|¹rl+ --+
amr ut yussar vadr uk simhah sandhAt A sandhiAn st hir ah |
aj O dur mar shaNas sAst A visr ut At mA sur aar ihA | |
nAma 200. nAma 200. nAma 200. HPt4- HPt4- HPt4- -- - amr ut yuh amr ut yuh amr ut yuh
One who is beyond deat h or decay.
amRtyave namah.
mRt yuh yasya na ast i it i amRt yuh. Bir t h, gr owt h, decay, disease, and deat h, ar e
t he f ive modif icat ions t hr ough which ever y f init e obj ect must pass. Ever yt hing
t hat is bor n is bound t o die. Since He is not bor n, He is beyond decay, deat h,
or ot her modif icat ions.
The aut hor in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat t his nAma should r emind us of
t he indest r uct ibilit y or deat hlessness of t he j ivAt mA, and should r emind us of
t he need t o mediat e on Him wit hout associat ing our selves wit h t his per ishable
body.
nAma 201. nAma 201. nAma 201. B4†Tœ B4†Tœ B4†Tœ -- - sar vadr uk sar vadr uk sar vadr uk
All-seeing.
sarva-dRSe namah.
He is t he Seer and Knower of ever yt hing at all t imes in all beings. He is t he
wit ness of all, and sees t hose who ar e well-disposed or host ile or indif f er ent
t o Him as t he Ruler of all and r ewar ds t hem accor ding t o t heir deeds. The
aut hor in dhar ma cakr am point s out t he concept t hat is simple but wor t h
r epeat ing - t hat t his nAma should r emind us t hat it is impor t ant t o be pur e in
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t hought , wor d, and deed, since He is ever wat chf ul of t hese in all beings at all
t imes. I t is easy t o swer ve f r om His pat h wit hout any human being being awar e
of it , but we should be awar e t hat He is t he All-seeing.
nAma 202. nAma 202. nAma 202. |B r- |B r- |B r- -- - simhah simhah simhah
a) The Lion
b) Dest r oyer
simhAya namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he nAma as one who has assumed t he body of man and
lion. Sr I Sankar a gives t he meaning t hat He is t he Dest r oyer (Lion) of sins. He
gives t he f ollowing et ymological der ivat ion "hinast i it i simhah" - hinast i
smar aNa mAt r eNa samast a pApAn it i simhah. Accor ding t o t his int er pr et at ion,
t he wor d himsa changes t o simha by t r ansposit ion of let t er s accor ding t o t he
gr ammat ical r ule "pRshodar AdI ni yat opadishTam" (PANini 6.3.109).
Sr I chinmayAnanda point s out t hat even t aking t he lit er al meaning "Lion" f or
simha, He is t he Lion at t he ment ion of whose name all t he animal passions f lee
f r om t he j ungle of t he mind. I n t he gI t A we have "mRgANAm ca
mRgendr o' ham - Among t he animals, I am t he king of animals - The Lion" - gI t A
10.30.
I n dhar ma cakr am, t he wr it er says t hat medit at ing on t his nAma wit h it s
meaning should give us t he vI r ya t o dest r oy t he evil in our t hought s, wor ds,
and deeds. I t is only a st r ong per sonalit y which can help us over come t he
negat ive f or ces ar ound us and help us r ealize Him. I t is necessar y t o be good
and t o be st r ong (nallavanAgavum vallavanAgavum as st at ed in t he t amizh
language).
nAma 203. nAma 203. nAma 203. B-¤l6l B-¤l6l B-¤l6l -- - sandhAt A sandhAt A sandhAt A
a) One who unit es His devot ees wit h Him
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b) One who unit es t he beings wit h t he f r uit s of t heir act ions
sandhAtre namah.
sandhat t a it i sandhAt A - One who unit es.
The f ir st meaning is given by Sr i Bhat t ar , giving t he example of pr ahlAda. The
second meaning is given by Sr I Sankar a. The nir ukt i gives t he descr ipt ion -
pr ahlAdAdyaih sandhAt A samSlesha-kar aNAcca sah - One who makes t he likes
of pr ahlAda j oin Him.
nAma 204. nAma 204. nAma 204. B|-¤Pl+ B|-¤Pl+ B|-¤Pl+ -- - sandhimAn sandhimAn sandhimAn
One who is always unit ed wit h His devot ees.
sandhimate namah.
sandhi is union. Sr I Bhat t ar gives t he explanat ion t hat t his name indicat es t hat
He is always unit ed wit h His devot ees, and so He is sandhimAn. Again, quot ing
t he nir ukt i, pr ahlAdAdyaih nit yasandhih yasya syAt sandhimAn smRt ah - One
who is in per manent union wit h t he likes of pr ahlAda.
nAma 205. nAma 205. nAma 205. |F¤¹- |F¤¹- |F¤¹- -- - st hir ah st hir ah st hir ah
One who is f ir m in His r elat ion t o His devot ees.
sthirAya namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He is st hir ah since He is f ir mly at t ached
t o His devot ees in spit e of any wr ongs by t hem - apacAr e' pi acAlyat vAt
sandhAne st hir a ucyat e. Sr I Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is st hir a
in t he sense t hat He is Const ant , being always t he same, f r ee f r om bir t h,
decay, et c. - sadaika r Upat vAt st hir ah.

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nAma 206. nAma 206. nAma 206. H=- H=- H=- -- - aj ah aj ah aj ah
a) Unbor n
b) Remover of obst acles
c) One who moves in t he hear t s of t he devot ees
d) One who r emoves t he ignor ance f r om t he hear t s of His devot ees
e) One who is t he r oot of all sound (akshar a "a")
ajAya namah.
We encount er ed t his nAma as nAma 96 ear lier . I t will r ecur also as nAma 524.
Please see t he explanat ions under nAma 96.
nAma 207. nAma 207. nAma 207. TP 9 T- TP 9 T- TP 9 T- -- - dur mar shaNah dur mar shaNah dur mar shaNah
The Unassailable.
durmarshaNAya namah.
dushkar am mar shaNam asya it i dur mar shaNah - One who cannot be over come
by His enemies. Sr I chinmayAnanda gives a ver y int er est ing per spect ive f or
t his nAma. We may swer ve f r om His pat h, and sat isf y our sensor y ur ges, but
af t er being bor n over and over , we ult imat ely have no choice except t o f ollow
His pat h. I n t he lesser levels of evolut ion, we may deny our selves t he peace
and j oy of living t he spir it ual values, but in t he end we will be seeking t he f eet
of vishNu f or r eal happiness and t r ue achievement . Thus, His is t he f inal
vict or y.
The r oot f r om which t his nAma is der ived is mRsh - sahane t o bear . Lit er ally
t his means One who is dif f icult t o bear (f or His enemies). Sr I sat yadevo
vAsishTha st ar t s wit h t his, and int er pr et s t he nAma t o mean t hat bhagavAn is
dur mar shaNa because His t ej as cannot be conf r ont ed in His f or ms such as t he
Sun. He also point s out t hat t his pr inciple is demonst r at ed by bhagavAn in
ever yt hing in t his wor ld - t he moon cannot st and t he t ej as of t he sun, t he
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br ight ness of t he st ar s is diminished by t he pr esence of t he moon, t he power
of agni is subdued by t hat of wat er , and wat er disappear s in t he pr esence of
agni.
Two ot her explanat ions f or which I could not cor r obor at e t he meanings f r om
t he dict ionar y et c. ar e included as well. One of t hese is by Sr I sat yadevo
vAsishTha. He gives t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion t hat dur mar shNa also means
one who cannot be easily under st ood, based on t he alt er nat e meaning f or
mar shit um = ~j NAt um - duhkhena mar shit um Sakyah dur mar shaNah.
The ot her int er pr et at ion is by t he dhar ma cakr am wr it er who gives t he
meaning t hat He is dur mar shaNah because He dest r oys t he evil asur a-s ( I
assume t his der ivat ion is based on based mR t o kill), and pr ot ect s t he deva-s.
Medit at ing on t his nAma wit h it s meaning in mind will help in dr iving away t he
evil t hought s f r om t he devot ee' s mind , and help t o develop t he good t hought s
t hat will lead t o r ealizat ion of Him. VAlmI ki who was ignor ant in t he beginning,
medit at ed on r Ama nAma, and t his led him in cour se of t ime t o t he r ealizat ion
of Him.
nAma 208. nAma 208. nAma 208. HlF6l HlF6l HlF6l -- - sAst A sAst A sAst A
The Teacher .
sAstre namah.
The wor d is der ived f r om SAsu - anuSishTau t o t each, t o gover n, t o cor r ect ,
t o advise. SAst i viSvam it i SAst A - One who t eaches t he veda-s t o t he wor ld
and gover ns is SAst A. (The wor ds Sast r a, SikshA et c. ar e der ived f r om t he
same r oot ). He is const ant ly t eaching us t hr ough our elder s, t hr ough sr ut i-s,
smRt i-s, wat ching us const ant ly by being t he obser ver in us, et c. Sr I Bhat t ar
gives t he meaning t hat He r ight eously punishes (t eaches a lesson t o?) t hose
who ar e hindr ance t o His devot ees, and so He is SAst A.

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nAma 209. nAma 209. nAma 209. |4~6ltPl |4~6ltPl |4~6ltPl -- - visr ut At mA visr ut At mA visr ut At mA
a) One whose exploit s ar e pr aised wit h wonder .
b) One who is called by special names (such as Tr ut h,Knowledge, et c).
c) One whose pr aise is sung in var ious f or ms.
d) One whose At mA is of a special Nat ur e.
The int er pr et at ions except t he last one r esult based on t he dif f er ent ways in
which t he vyAkhyAna kar t A-s have int er pr et ed t he "vi" in viSr ut At mA. Sr I
Bhat t ar gives t he int er pr et at ion vismayena - wit h wonder , Sr I Sankar a has
int er pr et ed it as viSesheNa - specially, and Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha has given
t he meaning vividhaih - t hr ough many f or ms.
Sr u Sr avaNe t o hear is t he second par t , and At mA is t he t hir d par t in t he
above nAma. Sr I Bhat t ar adds t hat t his pr aise in wonder is by all, at all t imes,
and at all places. Sr I Sankar a point s out t hat He is char act er ized t hr ough
special t er ms like t r ut h, wisdom, et c., and specially glor if ied in Sr ut i-s. Sr I
sat yadevo vAsishTha point s out t hat He is known t hr ough dif f er ent f or ms like
Sun, Moon, et c. He gives t he f ollowing cor r abor at ion f r om Sr ut i -
t adevAgnis-t adAdit yas-t advAyus-t adu candr amAh |
t adeva Sukr am t ad br ahma t A Apah sa pr aj Apat ih | | (yaj ur 32-1).
He is also viSr ut At mA since he is sung t hr ough var ious means such as gAnam,
ar canam, et c., and t hr ough sAma veda, yaj ur veda, et c.
I nt er pr et at ion (d) is based on viSesheNa Sr ut ah (~j nAt ah) At mA yena sa
viSr ut At mA -
One who is known t o be dif f er ent f r om t he j I vAt mA, One who is sar va~j na,
sar vaSakt a, sar va-niyant A.
His At mA is pur e shAdguNya par ipUr Na f or m, unassociat ed wit h an ext er nal
f or m, unimpact ed by t he ef f ect s of kar ma, et c.
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nAma 210. nAma 210. nAma 210. B¹l|¹rl B¹l|¹rl B¹l|¹rl -- - sur Ar ihA sur Ar ihA sur Ar ihA
The slayer of t he enemies of t he gods.
surArighne namah.
The nAma consist s of t he t hr ee wor ds sur a, ar i, and hA, wher e sur a r ef er s t o
gods, ar i is t he enemy, and hA is t he dest r oyer . Sr I Bhat t ar r eminds us of
bhagavAn' s dest r uct ion of hir aNyakaSipu in t his cont ext . Sr I chinmayAnanda
point s out t hat medit at ing on t his nAma' s meaning leads t o t he dest r uct ion of
t he enemies of our mind' s aspir at ion t o evolve, t he enemies being "t he
sensuous claims of t he f lesh, t he mild asser t ions of t he ego, t he noct ur nal
devils of desir es and passions". One who dr ives away all t he above inimical
negat ive t endencies is sur Ar uihA.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha has included t he Rg vedic mant r a 1.36.15 st ar t ing
wit h "pAhi no agne r akshasah" in his vyAkhyAna, and says t hat it is his own
per sonal exper ience t hat chant ing t his mant r a helps in war ding of f all evils or
evil-doer s. I have not included t he f ull mant r a because I am not sur e about t he
cor r ect pr onunciat ion et c. I f anyone has t he or iginal mant r a, please shar e it .
All t he nAma-s in t his Slokam have been int er pr et ed by Sr I Bhat t ar as
r elat ing t o t he descr ipt ion of t he guNa-s associat ed wit h t he nRsimha avat Ar a.
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SlOkam 23
¬ 6¬ 66Pl ¤lP Bt4FBt49¹l4P-· ¬ 6¬ 66Pl ¤lP Bt4FBt49¹l4P-· ¬ 6¬ 66Pl ¤lP Bt4FBt49¹l4P-·
|+|P9l 5|+|P9FU¹4l 4l¬F9|667l¹¤l-+ -°+ |+|P9l 5|+|P9FU¹4l 4l¬F9|667l¹¤l-+ -°+ |+|P9l 5|+|P9FU¹4l 4l¬F9|667l¹¤l-+ -°+
gur ur gur ut amO dhAma sat yas sat yapar Akr amah |
nimishO5nimishas sr agvI vAcaspat ir udAr adhI h | |
nAma 211. nAma 211. nAma 211. ¬6¬66P- ¬6¬66P- ¬6¬66P- -- - gur ur gur ur gur ur -- -gur u gur u gur u-- -t amah t amah t amah
The f or emost among t he pr ecept or s.
gurutamAya gurave namah.
gur u means ' spir it ual pr ecept or ' . Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he f ollowing phr ase
' gur u-t amah' as an adj ect ive f or gur u, i.e., t he gur u who is t he best of all gur u-
s. Sr I Sankar a views t his as t wo nama-s, gur u and gur u-t ama.
He is t he f or emost of pr ecept or s since he is t he one who gave t he veda-s t o
br ahma, who t hen is t he sour ce of t he veda-s t o t he r est of t he wor ld. yo
br ahmANam vidadhAt i pUr vam yo vai vedAnSca pr ahiNot i t asmai- He who
br ought br ahma int o exist ence and impar t ed t he veda t o him (Svet ASvat ar a
6.18). We also have "gur uh ka it i | gur uh sAkshAd-AdinAr AyaNah" - The
Ult imat e gur u is AdinAr AyaNa (t r ipAdvibhUt i mahAnAr AyaNopanishat - 8.15).
I n Sr I Sankar AcAr ya gur u pr ampar A, t he f ir st gur u is nAr AyaNa - Ar AyaNam
padmabhuvam vasisTham Sakt im ca t at put r a par ASar am ca vyAsam
Sukam ........Sr I Sankar AcAr yam. We all know t hat Sr I man nAr ayANa is t he
f ir st and f or emost in t he Sr I vaishNava gur u par ampar A.
I n dhar am cakr am, t he wr it er says t hat He is gur u-t ama because you don' t
have t o even go and look f or Him. He per vades ever yt hing and is ever ywher e,
and all we need t o get His t eaching is t o f eel t he need f or it . All t hat is needed
is t he t hir st f or His mer cy in or der f or us t o pr ogr ess in get t ing t r ue
knowledge inst ead of living t he lif e of a st one or t r ee.
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nAma 212. nAma 212. nAma 212. ¤lP ¤lP ¤lP -- - dhAma dhAma dhAma
a) The Place of Residence.
b) The Supr eme Light .
c) The Abode of all desir ed t hings.
dhAmne namah.
We encount er ed t he wor d dhAma when we looked at t he nAma t r i-kakud-
dhAma (nAma 62). Some of t he same t hought s pr esent ed t her e apply her e.
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he nAma-s st ar t ing wit h t he pr evious one as r ef er r ing
t o t he mat sya incar nat ion. Because of my a~j nAnam, I was not able t o
under st and t he connect ion wit h mat sya avat Ar a f or t he pr evious nAma. For
t he cur r ent one, he point s out t hat bhagavAn is dhAma because He is like t he
helmsman who st eer s t he boat car r ying t he seeds of all t he t r ansit or y moving
and non-moving obj ect s at t he t ime of pr alaya.
Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s t he nAma as being t he Supr eme Leading Light . Sr I
RAmAnuj a in his gI t A bhAshya f or slokam 10.12 (par am br ahma par am dhAma),
chooses t he meaning "Supr eme Light " in t hat cont ext f or t he wor d dhAma -
dhAma Sabdo j yot ir vacanah - par am j yot ih.
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am elabor at es f ur t her on t he t er m "Supr eme Light ".
The eye sees wit h t he light f r om t he Sun. But neit her t he Sun' s light nor t he
eye can see t he Ult imat e. For t hat you need t he light called bhagavAn' s Gr ace,
t he I nner Light . This is what mahA vishNu is, viz. dhAma t he Supr eme Light ,
which can r eveal what no ot her light can. I t is t he eye of int ense desir e t o
r each Him t hat can see t his light , and no ot her eye can.
Ot her int er pr et at ions given include "He is t he Abode of all desir ed obj ect s",
"He is t he Abode of all desir es", "He is t he Abode f or all kar ma-s", et c.
Sr I chinmayAnanda, in addit ion t o t he int er pr et at ion "Supr eme Light ", gives
t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion t hat He is dhAma because He is t he Ult imat e Goal
(dhAma = peak).
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nAma 213. nAma 213. nAma 213. Bt4- Bt4- Bt4- -- - sat yah sat yah sat yah
The Good.
satyAya namah.
This naAma has occur r ed pr eviously as nAma 107, and will r e-occur as nAma
873. Please r ef er t o t he explanat ion f or nAma 107.
I n t he cur r ent cont ext of mat sya avat Ar a, Sr I Bhat t ar point s out t hat He is
sat ya because He was good t o sat -pur usha-s such as Manu who sought His help
at t hat t ime.
At t he t ime I submit t ed t he explanat ion f or nAma 107, I did not have Sr I
sat yadevo vAsishTha' s vyAkhyAna. Now I am adding some ext r act s f r om t his
sour ce. Under nAma 107, one explanat ion given was - sat ya is One who is
' excellent ' in sat , based on t he pANini sUt r a 4.4.98. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha
r ef er s us t o t he Slokam in bhagavad gI t A (17.26 and 17.27) f or a def init ion of
' sat ' in Lor d KRshNa' s wor ds.
sad bhAve sAdhu bhAve ca sadit yet at pr ayuj yat e |
pr aSast e kar maNi t at hA sac-chabdah pAr t ha ucyat e | |
ya~j ne t apasi dAne ca st hit ih sadit i cocyat e |
kar ma caiva t adar t hI yam sadit yevAbhidI yat e | |
- (gI t A 17.26 and 27)
The wor d ' sat ' t hus r ef er s t o exist ence, goodness, good act s, f ir mness in
sacr if ice, aust er it ies, and gif t s, and any act s f or such pur poses. One who is
excellent in all t hese, or One who is excellent t o (i.e., suppor t s) t hose who do
act s along t hese lines, is sat ya.
nAma 214. nAma 214. nAma 214. Bt49¹l4P- Bt49¹l4P- Bt49¹l4P- -- - sat ay sat ay sat ay-- -par Akr amah par Akr amah par Akr amah
One of unf ailing valor .
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194
satyaparAkramAya namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar , cont inuing on his int er pr et at ion of t his sequence of nAma-s in
t er ms of maysa avat Ar a, gives t he example of bhagavAn per f or ming t r ut hf ully
t he cour ageous act s t owar ds Manu and ot her s. The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am
point s out t hat t her e can be t wo kinds of valor , one which is used f or t he good
of t he people, such as t hat of Sr I Rama, and t he ot her t hat is used f or
demonst r at ing power and f or hur t ing ot her s, such as RAvaNa' s. Medit at ing on
mahA vishNu gives us t he abilit y t o develop t he valor of t he f or mer kind.

nAma 215. nAma 215. nAma 215. |+|P9- |+|P9- |+|P9- -- - nimishah nimishah nimishah
One whose eyes ar e closed (t owar ds t he enemies of His devot ees).
nimishAya namah.
na I kshat e it i nimishah. His Gr acef ul Sight does not f all on t hose who ar e
opposed t o Him or His devot ees. Sr I Sankar a gives t he meaning t hat His eyes
ar e closed while He is in yoga-nidr A. Sr I RAdhAkRshNa Sast r i point s out t hat
He is nimisha (wit h closed eyes) because He does not need His eyes t o see, His
ear s t o hear et c. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat He of closed eyes
is seeing all because He is ever ywher e, in ever y one of us, all t he t ime, and is
wat ching all t hat happens ever ywher e even wit hout eyes. Those who can
cont emplat e on t he yoga-nidr A of vishNu can close t heir eyes and medit at e,
and over a per iod of t ime, will be able t o diver t t heir minds t owar ds Him in
t hat st at e (nor mally, whet her our eyes ar e open or closed, t hey wander in
wor ldly t hought s!).
nAma 216. nAma 216. nAma 216. H|+|P9- H|+|P9- H|+|P9- -- - animishah animishah animishah
One wit h eyes closed.
animishAya namah.
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Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t he nAma in t er ms of t he mat sya incar nat ion. I n His
celest ial Fish incar nat ion, He never closes His eyes and is ever -wat chf ul of His
devot ees (Fish do not have eyelids, and so never close t heir eyes). Sr I Sankar a
gives t wo addit ional explanat ions - He is ever awake because of His wisdom, or
He is At ma svar Upa, and At mA never sleeps.
The dhar ma cakr am aut hor gives t he signif icance of t his nAma as indicat ing
t hat one who cont emplat es on t his nAma will be always spir it ually awake, and
bad t hought s and t he wor ldly dist r act ions won' t ent er his mind. One is
r eminded of t ir uppANAzhvAr ' s concluding pASur am in amalanAdipir An "en
amudinaik kanDa kaNgaL maRRonRinaik kANAvE". While t he AzhvAr sang t his
when he was wit nessing t he beaut y of t he Lor d in t he t emple, t he st at ement
apt ly applies t o t he inner eyes as well.
nAma 217. nAma 217. nAma 217. FU¹4l FU¹4l FU¹4l -- - sr agvI sr agvI sr agvI
Ador ned wit h t he gar land (vaij ayant I ).
sragviNe namah.
sr ag means gar land. Accor ding t o PANinI ' s ashTAdhyAyI 5.2.121 - as mAyA
medhA sr aj o vinih - t he af f ix vin coming af t er sr aj indicat es ' associat ion wit h' .
So her e t he meaning is ' One who is associat ed wit h t he gar land always -
r ef er r ing t o t he vaij ayant I gar land of vishNu. Pr of . A. sr inivAsa r Aghavan
point s out t hat t he vaij ayant i is composed of t he f ive pr ecious gems - pear l,
r uby, emer ald, sapphir e, and diamond. Sr I Sankar a r ef er s t o t he vaij ayant i as
r ef er r ing t o t he gar land made of t he t anmAt r A-s or t he r udiment s of t he f ive
basic element s (t ast e, sight , sound, smell, and sensat ion) of t he pa~nca bhut a-
s. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa Sast r i gives t he r ef er ence t o vishNu pur ANa -
pa~nca svar UpA yA mAlA vaij ayant I gadA bhRt ah |
sA bhUt a het u sangAt A bhUt a mAlA ca vai dvij ah | | (1.2.72).
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am suggest s t hat we should diver t all our t an-mAt r a-
s t o t he ser vice of vishNu (he gives t he example of ANdAL who decor at ed
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her self wit h t he f lower gar land j ust t o make sur e it was good enough f or Lor d
RanganAt ha).
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha der ives t he meaning st ar t ing f r om sRj t o cr eat e or
set f or t h. Since all cr eat ions such as t he st ar s, Sun, et c., ar e Hiscr eat ions, He
is sr agvI . I n a gar land, t her e may be dif f er ent kinds of f lower s, but t hey lose
t heir ident it y as soon as t hey ar e par t of t he gar land. So also, all t hese
dif f er ent cr eat ions ar e t oget her t he sr agvI or bhagavAn vishNu. Or , j ust as it
is common pr act ice t o ident if y an impor t ant per son in our societ y by put t ing a
gar land ar ound t he neck, bhagavAn is dist inguished by t his unique gar land t o
indicat e His Lor dship and super ior it y.
nAma 218. nAma 218. nAma 218. 4l¬F9|6- 4l¬F9|6- 4l¬F9|6- -- - vAcaspat ih vAcaspat ih vAcaspat ih
The Lor d of Speech.
vAcaspataye namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He is vAcaspat i because it was He who
pr opounded t he knowledge of t he veda-s t hr ough Sr I mad mat sya pur ANa. I t is
t he power of expr ession in t he mat sya pur ANa t hat r eveals t he guNa of
vAcaspat i in Him.
Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s t his nAma and t he next one - udr Ar adhI h, as one
nAma, vAcaspat ir udAr adI h, meaning "The Lor d of vidyA, being of magnif icent
int ellect . All t he ot her int er pr et at ions I am using, except t hat of Sr I
sat yadevo vAsishTha, f ollow t his same line. The lat t er gives t he vyAkhyAna f or
t hese as separ at e nAma-s, but list s t he nAma as one, and point s out t hat t his
combining is done only t o make sur e t he count of t he nAma-s is exact ly 1000.
Sr I Bhat t ar does not have t he pr oblem since t her e ar e ot her places wher e t he
ot her s consider t wo separ at e names wher eas he combines t hem int o one (e.g.,
gur ur -gur u-t ama, t he f ir st nAma in t he cur r ent post ing).
Accor ding t o sat ya bhAshyam (t he name t hat Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha has
given t o his vyAkhyAnam), t he t er m vAcaspat i signif ies t hat bhagavAn
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pr ot ect s, or is t he Mast er of , vidyA or veda.
nAma 219. nAma 219. nAma 219. 77l¹¤l- 77l¹¤l- 77l¹¤l- -- - udAr adhI h udAr adhI h udAr adhI h
One wit h vast knowledge.
udAra-dhiye namah.
dhI her e means buddhi or int ellect . UdAr a means gener ous, noble, illust r ious,
et c. One who has a gener ous disposit ion t owar ds His devot ees, or one who has
an illust r ious or special int ellect t hat can capt ur e all t hings at all t imes, is
udAr adhI h. Sr I chinmayAnanda gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn has a
lar ge-hear t ed t oler ance t o appr eciat e t he weakness of His devot ees' hear t ,
and a gr eat sympat hy and inf init e kindness t owar ds sinner s in gener al. He has
enough pat er nal kindness t o over look our t r espasses, unlike t he laws of
physical nat ur e which ar e blind and uncompr omising.

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SlOkam 24
H¤Tl¤l PTl- ~lPl+ -4l4l + 6l BPl¹T-· H¤Tl¤l PTl- ~lPl+ -4l4l + 6l BPl¹T-· H¤Tl¤l PTl- ~lPl+ -4l4l + 6l BPl¹T-·
BrUP ¤l |4HltPl BrUl¬FBrU9l6 + -v+ BrUP ¤l |4HltPl BrUl¬FBrU9l6 + -v+ BrUP ¤l |4HltPl BrUl¬FBrU9l6 + -v+
agr aNeer gr AmaNeeh sr I imAn nyAyO nEt A samI r aNah |
sahasr amUr dhA visvAt mA sahasr Akshassahasr apAt | |
nAma 220. nAma 220. nAma 220. H¤Tl- H¤Tl- H¤Tl- -- - agr aNeeh agr aNeeh agr aNeeh
One who leads f or war d.
agraNye namah.
agr e nayat i it i agr aNI h - One who leads f or war d is agr aNI h. Sr I Sankar a and
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et t he ' leading f or war d' as r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn' s guNa
of leading His devot ees t o moksha.
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am gives an elabor at e account of t he kind of people
whom He will lead t o moksha. The example compar es people t o f our st ages of
f ish in a r iver in which a f isher man cast s his net . The nit ya sUr i-s ar e like t he
f ish which do not get caught in t he net - i.e., t hey do not f all f or t he bait , and
r emain saf ely out side. The mukt a j iva-s ar e t hose who get caught in t he net ,
but wit h t heir best ef f or t , succeed in get t ing out . The mumukshu-s ar e like
t he f ish which keep t r ying t o get out , even t hough t hey have not succeeded in
escaping. The baddha j iva-s ar e like t he f ish who enj oy t he bait t he f isher man
has pr ovided, and r emain happily in t he net and become t he f ood f or t he
f isher man. Sr I vishNu' s guNa of agr aNI applies t o t hose who ar e t he
mumukshu-s, who const ant ly want t o get out of t his ocean of samsAr a by
devot ing t hemselves t o t he wor ship of Him. They ar e like t he f ish t hat has
been t aken out of wat er and t hat is desper at ely t r ying t o get int o t he wat er ,
or like t he man who has been t hr own int o wat er and dr owning and who is
desper at ely int er est ed in get t ing a br eat h of air . I t is t his kind of int ensit y in
seeking Him t hat will qualif y a per son f or t he agr aNI ' s dayA.
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Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha point s out t hat t his at t r ibut e of Sr I vishNu in
' moving ever yt hing f or war d' is const ant ly demonst r at ed in ever yone' s lif e -
i.e., we only keep moving f or war d, and can never go backwar ds in t ime, and t ime
lost is lost f or ever . Not only we ar e moving f or war d, but we ar e moving
f or war d accor ding t o His will. This is t r ue of t he Sun, t he moon, et c.
nAma 221. nAma 221. nAma 221. ¤lPTl- ¤lPTl- ¤lPTl- -- - gr AmaNeeh gr AmaNeeh gr AmaNeeh
Leader of t he host s of angels.
grAmaNye namah.
gr Amam samAj am nayat i it i gr AmanI h - One who leads t he gr oup (of devot ees).
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha point s out t hat gr Ama r ef er s t o any collect ion, e.g.,
of sever al houses ( a village), of sever al indir ya-s (t he body), of sever al musical
inst r ument s (sapt a svar As-t r ayo gr AmA - in nAr adI ya SikshA), or t he
collect ion of all cr eat ed beings. The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am int er pr et s t his
nAma in t he cont ext of t he devot ees who have uncondit ionally ent r ust ed
t hemselves in His car e t hat ar e led by Him t o moksha. He gives t he example of
one who is lost in a f or est (of samsAr a). I f t his per son goes and seeks help f or
get t ing out of t his f or est f r om ot her s (such as his r elat ives, his f r iends, et c.),
who ar e also lost in t his f or est , t his r equest f or help is going t o be f ut ile. But
if t hey seek t he help of vishNu who alone can lead us f r om t he bondage of
samsAr a, t hen and only t hen will t hey be able t o get out of t his f or est . I t is
t his cat egor y of people who ar e led by t his guNa of bhagavAn denot ed by t he
nAma gr AmaNI .
nAma 222. nAma 222. nAma 222. ~lPl+ ~lPl+ ~lPl+ -- - sr I mAn sr I mAn sr I mAn
a) One who is endowed wit h wealt h.
b) One who is f ull of all glor ies.
c) One who is r adiant .
d) The Lor d of MahAlakshmi
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e) One who has MahAlakshmi in his vaksha-st hala.
f ) One who is endowed wit h all t he power s.
SrImate namah.
This nAma occur r ed pr eviously as nAma-s 22 and 180. Under t hese names, t he
t r anslat or of Sr I Sankar a' s bhAshyam had added his own per sonal comment s,
which I had incor r ect ly at t r ibut ed t o Sr I Sankar a. So I am r evising t he wr it e-
up f or Sr I mAn t o cor r ect t his er r or as below.
Under nAma 22, I had incor r ect ly indicat ed t hat bot h Sr I Sankar a and Sr I
Bhat t ar int er pr et t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o t he beaut y of nRsimha avat Ar a.
Sr I Bhat t ar does int er pr et nAma 22 as r ef er r ing t o t he beaut y of nRsimha
incar nat ion. Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s nAma 22 as ' One who has lakshmi on His
vaksha-st halam' . A t r anslat or of Sankar a bhAshyam, Sr I anant a-kRshNa
SAst r i, has added his own not e t hat vishNu is Sr I mAn because t her e is no
diminut ion in His beaut y even t hough He has t he f or m of a man-lion. Pr obably
t his not e was added based on Sr I Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna. I had incor r ect ly
at t r ibut ed t he t r anslat or ' s not e t o Sr I Sankar a.
For nAma 180, Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s Sr I mAn as r ef er r ing t o t he beaut y of
t he Lor d decor at ed wit h celest ial or nament s, and Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s
Sr I mAn as r ef er r ing t o t he Lor d' s pr osper it y (Sr I ), and t he t r anslat or ' s not e
adds t hat t his r ef er s t o t he six kinds of pr osper it y (shADgunya
par ipUr Nat va).
For t he cur r ent nAma (222), Sr I Bhat t ar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn is
endowed wit h Sr I or wealt h. He makes r ef er ence t o t he "Lot us-eyed mat sya
mUr t i - mat syah kamala locanah", and indicat es t hat based on t his, t he mat sya
mUr t i f or m is none ot her t han Sr I mAn who is t he par amAt mA. Sr I Sankar a
int er pr et s Sr I as kAnt i or r adiance in t his inst ance, and gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat her e Sr I mAn r ef er s t o t he Lor d who is mor e r adiant or
r esplendent t han anyt hing else t hat exist s. Her e again, t he t r anslat or has
added a not e t hat t hough He incar nat ed as a f ish, His splendor was supr eme in
t hat f or m. Her e again, t he t r anslat or ' s not e is pr obably based on Sr i Bhat t ar ' s
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vyAkhyAna.
Sr I cinmayAnanda int er pr et s Sr I as Mot her lakshmi, who is t he t ot al
manif est ed power pot ent ial and st ands f or all power s or all glor ies. VishNu is
Sr I mAn because He has all t hese power s in Him or is cour t ed by all glor ies.
Sr I mAn also r ef er s t o Sr iyah pat i, or t he Lor d of Sr i or mahA-lakshmi.
BhagavAn' s beaut y is nat ur al t o Him because He has Sr I in his vaksha-st hala.
The dhar ma-cakr am aut hor int er pr et s t his nAma t o mean t hat t he pr akRt i and
pur usha ar e insepar able, j ust as Sr I and t he Lor d ar e insepar able, and ar e par t
of t he same par a-br ahmam.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he r oot as "Sr i -sevAyAm" - One who is f it t o
be ser ved. Sr I also means SobhA or beaut y or "kAnt i". He point s out t hat t he
beaut y t hat is seen all ar ound us in t he t r ees, t he bir ds, t he r iver s, t he
f lower s, t he Sun, t he Moon, t he st ar s, et c., should r emind us const ant ly of
bhagavAn, t he Sr I mAn whose Sr I is shining in ever yt hing. Sr I also means
wealt h. The wealt h t hat humans have is t r ansient , and can disappear any t ime.
BhagavAn is Sr I mAn whose wealt h is nit ya or per manent .
nAma 223. nAma 223. nAma 223. -4l4- -4l4- -4l4- -- - nyAyah nyAyah nyAyah
a) The J ust .
b) Logical ar gument s (t ar ka) and lines of cont emplat ion (yukt i) t hat help us in
ar r iving at t he absolut e exper ience.
nyAyAya namah
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his nAma as r ef er r ing t o t he Lor d' s guNa of ensur ing
t hat He does what ever is appr opr iat e f or His devot ees, and ensur es t hat
not hing f ault y or unwelcome happens t o t hem. Sr I Sankar a gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat He is nyAya because He is bot h t he t ar ka (logical
cont emplat ion) and yukt i (t he lines of cont emplat ion) r unning t hr ough all
sour ces of knowledge (pr amANAnugr Ahakah). The sense her e as expr essed by
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i is t hat He is nyAya because He is t he only one who
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can give what is good f or His devot ees in a r at ional and consist ent f or m t hat
cannot be r ef ut ed t hr ough count er -ar gument s (pr obably t hr ough t he veda-s?).
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am elabor at es on t his f ur t her , and point s out t hat
t her e ar e t hr ee t ypes of t ar ka (lines of ar gument ) - vAda, vit anDA, and j alpa.
Of t hese, vAda is done wit h t he pur pose of under st anding and ar r iving at t he
t r ut h, and is under t aken wit h humilit y and sincer it y. Vit anDA is t he ar gument
which is meant t o j ust conf use t he opponent , and is under t aken wit h a haught y
disposit ion and wit h ahankAr a. J alpa is t he line of ar gument wher e t he power
or posit ion is used t o subdue, f r ight en, insult and t hr eat en t he opponent . Of
t hese, vAda is t he most appr opr iat e way of ar gument , and will lead t o
enhancing under st anding. Devot ees who wor ship mahA-vishNu ar e blessed by
Him wit h t he abilit y t o analyze and under st and t he t r ut h t hr ough t he j ust
means, and t hey ar e saved f r om dest r uct ive t hought s and ar e led t owar ds self -
r ealizat ion. The example of Lor d KRshNa' s inst r uct ions t o ar j una is given t o
illust r at e t he inst ance t hat bhagavAn leads His devot ees t o t he t hought
pr ocess involving nyAya yukt i, wher eby ar j una' s t hought s become clear , his
at t achment s ar e r emoved, and he act s on t he r ight and j ust cour se of act ion.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha, in addit ion t o t he above explanat ion, der ives his
int er pr et at ion based on nI yat e pr Apyat e it i nyAyah - One who ensur es t hat
ever yt hing in t his wor ld is on it s r ight t r ack and r eaches it s dest inat ion is
nyAyah. The yant r a t hat is t his Univer se, wit h it s Sun, moon, st ar s, et c., is
f unct ioning under t he guidance of t he nyAya t hat is vishNu. So also t he
indr iya-s in our bodies ar e dir ect ed by t he Sar I r a-nyAya t hat is vishNu. The
wor d ' niyat i' , which means ' r ule' , is r elat ed t o t he wor d nyAya (nI yat e).
nAma 224. nAma 224. nAma 224. + 6l + 6l + 6l -- - nEt a nEt a nEt a
a) One who f ulf ills t he r equest s of His devot ees.
b) One who manages or r egulat es t he af f air s of t he cosmos.
netre namah.
a) niyukt am kar ot i it i net A (Sr I Bhat t ar ), or
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b) j agad-yant r a nir vAhakah net A (Sr I Sankar a).
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er gives t he analogy of obj ect s at t ached t o a r ot at ing
wheel. The obj ect s r ot at e because of t he movement of t he wheel. We ar e all
moving ar ound because of His Will which is analogous t o t he r ot at ing wheel.
However , we keep believing t hat it is we who ar e r esponsible f or our mot ion,
and f or get t hat it is He who is moving us as He wishes. Those who under st and
t his get out of t he f alse belief t hat we ar e t he ones who ar e achieving
ever yt hing ar ound us. ar j una t he j ivAt mA was sit t ing in t he char iot or t he
body, and Lor d kRshNa was dr iving bot h t he char iot and ar j una. The char iot
did not have any f eeling of r esponsibilit y f or it s mot ion, but ar j una believed
t hat his act ions wer e caused by his will. The Lor d did not t ake up weapons, but
was wit ness t o what was happening. Similar ly, in our case bhagavAn is in each
of us wat ching and wit nessing our act ions. This nAma indicat es t hat He is t he
Cont r olling For ce behind ever yt hing in t his Univer se.
nAma 225. nAma 225. nAma 225. BPl¹T- BPl¹T- BPl¹T- -- - samI r aNah samI r aNah samI r aNah
a) One who per f or ms act s which ar e delect able.
b) One who cont r ols all movement s (e.g., br eat h) in beings.
samIraNaya namah.
This nAma is der ived f r om t he r oot I r - t o move (I r aNa). Sr I Bhat t ar
associat es t his movement wit h t hat par t of t he mat sya incar nat ion wher e
bhagavAn dove deep int o t he Ocean t o r et r ieve t he veda-s f r om t he net her -
wor ld f r om t he asur a named hayagr I va. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i associat es
t he mot ion implied by I r aNa wit h t he act of bhagavAn leading t he boat wit h
t he seeds of cr eat ion dur ing t he pr alaya in His mat sya incar nat ion. The
f ollowing is f r om Sr I mad bhAgavat am skandam 8, chapt er 24, Slokam 33 -
t r ilokyAm lI yamAnAyAm samvar t Ambasi vai t adA |
apst hAsyat i nauh kAcit viSAlA t vAm mayA I r it A | |
"When all t he t hr ee wor lds disappear under t he Ocean, a lar ge boat will be
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st eer ed by Me t owar ds you" - not e t he use of t he wor d I r it A her e.
Sr I Sankar a associat es t he mot ion or movement wit h t he br eat h in living
beings. He is samI r aNa because He cont r ols t he f unct ioning of t he body
t hr ough t he br eat h. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha t akes t his concept of cont r ol
f ur t her , and point s out t hat t his cont r ol by bhagavAn is seen even in t he f act
t hat man has had 32 t eet h ever since cr eat ion, and will cont inue t o have t his
t ill t he end of t he kalpa, man get s t he t eet h t wice in his lif e, and t his is as it
has been since cr eat ion, and will cont inue t ill t he end of kalpa, et c., and so will
t he r ising and set t ing of t he Sun and t he moon and t he movement of t he
planet s et c.
nAma 226. nAma 226. nAma 226. BrUP¤l BrUP¤l BrUP¤l -- - sahasr amUr dha sahasr amUr dha sahasr amUr dha
The t housand-headed
sahasra-mUrdhne namah
nAma 228. nAma 228. nAma 228. BrUl¬- BrUl¬- BrUl¬- -- - sahasr Akshah sahasr Akshah sahasr Akshah
The t housand-eyed
sahasrAkshAya namah
nAma 229. nAma 229. nAma 229. BrU9l6 BrU9l6 BrU9l6 -- - sahasr apAt sahasr apAt sahasr apAt
The t housand-f oot ed.
sahasra-pade namah
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t hese t hr ee names t oget her , and point s out t hat t he
r ef er ence t o head, eyes, and f eet r eally includes all or gans of knowledge and
act ion, and t he r ef er ence t o a t housand signif ies ' innumer able' . What is
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r ef er r ed t o her e is t hat bhagavAn is endowed wit h inf init e capacit y t o know
and act , which ar e t he f unct ions of t hese or gans. Ref er ence is made t o t he
f ollowing sr ut i-s:
sahasr a SI r shA pur ushah sahasr Akshah sahasr a-pAt -(pur usha sUkt am)
sar vat ah pANi pAdam t at sar vat o' kshi Sir o-mukham (gI t A 13.13)
viSvat aScakshur ut a viSvat omukho viSvat o bAhur ut a viSvat spAt (t ait t ir I ya
Ar aNyaka 10.1)
aneka vakt r a nayanam anekAdbhut a dar Sanam (gI t A 11-10)
r upam mahat -t e bahu-vakt r a-net r am........bahu-bAhUr u pAdam (gI t A 11-23)
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat r ef er ence is made t o t he head f ir st
in t he above sequence of nAma-s because head is t he f ir st one t hat f or ms
when a child is f or med in t he mot her ' s womb, and head is t he par t of t he child
t hat appear s f ir st when t he child is bor n. Also, r ef er ence is made t o head,
eyes, and f eet because of t heir impor t ance in exer cising t he j ~nAna and kr iyA
Sakt i-s.
These t hr ee nAma-s also r emind us t hat He is ever ywher e, in ever yt hing, all-
power f ul, always obser ving ever yt hing in ever y one of us, et c. Many heads can
also r ef er t o His unlimit ed int ellect (Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha). We ar e all par t
of His body, and t hus all our heads ar e His heads, and so also He is
sahasr amur dhA. By t he f act t hat He is t he ant ar yAmi in all of us, and is always
obser ving all t hat we do and t hink f r om wit hin each of us, He is sahasr Akshah.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha adds t hat "One who is of many legs" also suggest s
t hat He has made his cr eat ions such t hat t hey can get ar ound by many means
e.g., as t wo legged humans, as f our -legged animals, as t he hundr ed-legged
cent ipedes, as mult i-legged millipedes, as no-legged ser pent s, as bir ds get t ing
ar ound by f lying, as f ish by swimming, et c. I n t his sense, sahasr apAt r eally
r eveals t hat He is anant a j ~nAnavAn, or of I nf init e I nt ellect , in having cr eat ed
and suppor t ed t his kind of immeasur able diver sit y. Not e t he similar it y in t he
vedic chant ing "sahasr a SI r shA pur ushah sahasr Akshah sahasr apAt ", including
t he sequence which is t he same as in Sr I vishNu sahasr a nAma.
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Sr i cinmayAnanda point s out t hat t he "many heads", "many eyes", and "many
legs" t oget her indicat e t hat t he One I nf init e Consciousness expr esses
ever ywher e in all f or ms and at all t imes t hr ough all t hese equipment s of
t hinking (head), per cept ion (eyes), and act ion (legs).
nAma 227. nAma 227. nAma 227. |4HltPl |4HltPl |4HltPl -- - visvAt mA visvAt mA visvAt mA
The ver y soul of t he Univer se; t he ver y inner Essence in all living cr eat ur es.
viSvAtmane namah.
viSvasya At mA viSvAt mA.
He is viSvAt mA because He per vades t he ent ir e Univer se by His knowledge
and st r engt h.
I n gI t A, Lor d KRshNa says: "ahamAt mA gudAkeSa! Sar va bhut a.... -
Ar j una! I am t he At mA t hat r esides in t he hear t of all beings" (gI t A 10.20).
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat t he t r ue signif icance in t his nAma
lies in our r ealizing t he unit y among all t he living beings, r at her t han seeing t he
dif f er ence in our out er appear ance or t he dif f er ence in our t hought s et c. By
seeing t he dif f er ence in our ext er nal appear ance or in our t hought s, only
kAma, kr odha, lobha, moha, mat ha, and mAt sar ya gr ow and develop in us. Only
when we lear n t o see t he unit y behind our inner selves, we will qualif y t o
r eceive His dayA. This is what sage yAg~nyavalkya t aught t o mait r eyi viz. t hat
when one loves one' s wif e, it is not her shape t hat should be loved, but it is t he
At mA in her t hat should be loved, et c. (na vA ar e j AyAyai kAmAya j AyA pr iyA
bhavat i, At manast u kAmAya j AyA pr iyA bhavat i et c.). That is t he t r ue meaning
of love.
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SlOkam 25
Hl46 +l |+4 ¬ltPl B 4 6FB 9P7 +-· Hl46 +l |+4 ¬ltPl B 4 6FB 9P7 +-· Hl46 +l |+4 ¬ltPl B 4 6FB 9P7 +-·
HrFB 46 Tl 4|ñ¹|+¬l ¤¹Tl¤¹-+ --+ HrFB 46 Tl 4|ñ¹|+¬l ¤¹Tl¤¹-+ --+ HrFB 46 Tl 4|ñ¹|+¬l ¤¹Tl¤¹-+ --+
Avar t anO nivr ut t At mA samvr ut as sampr amar danah |
ahassamvar t akO vahnir anilO dhar aNeedhar ah | |
nAma 230. nAma 230. nAma 230. Hl46+- Hl46+- Hl46+- -- - Avar t anah Avar t anah Avar t anah
He who t ur ns t he wheel of wor ldly lif e or samsAr a.
AvartanAya namah.
samsAr a-cakr am Avar t ayit um Silam asya it i Avar t anah. Avar t anam means
r epet it ion. BhagavAn is Avar t ana since He is t he Unseen Dynamism behind t he
ever -whir ling wheel of t ime and t he associat ed endless cycle of bir t h and
deat h. This is t he cycle of night and day, lif e and deat h, j oy and sor r ow,
cr eat ion and dest r uct ion, which ar e all His play - His mAyA. I n gI t A, bhagavAn
says t hat He r eveals t he way t o over come t his mAyA t o t hose who sur r ender
t o Him -
daivI hyeshA guNa-mayI mama mAyA dur at yayA |
mAmeva ye pr apadyant e mAyAm et Am t ar ant i t e | | (gI t A 7.14)
nAma 231. nAma 231. nAma 231. |+4¬ltPl |+4¬ltPl |+4¬ltPl -- - nivr ut At t mA nivr ut At t mA nivr ut At t mA
a) He whose nat ur e r ises above ot her t hings.
b) He whose mind is t ur ned away f r om wor ldly desir es.
c) He who is t he At mA of t hose who pr act ice nivRt t i dhar ma.
d) He who is beyond t he bonds of samsAr a.
nivRttAtmane namah.
This nAma occur s lat er as nAma-s 454, 604, and 780. This is anot her case
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wher e when t he same nAma occur s mor e t han once, t he int er pr et er s have given
dif f er ent int er pr et at ions f or each occur r ence. I t is a char act er ist ic of a
composit ion of qualit y t hat t her e is no r edundancy in expr ession of t hought s.
a) For t he f ir st int er pr et at ion, Sr I Bhat t ar gives t he f ollowing r ef er ences:
t r ipAdUr dhva udait -pur ushah - The Pur usha st ands eminent in t he par ama-
padawhich has t hr ice t he glor y of t he mat er ial wor ld" - pur usha sUkt a 4.
par At -par am yan-mahat o mahAnt am - He is gr eat er t han t he gr eat est , mor e
exalt ed t han t he most exalt ed. - t ait t i. nAr AyanI ya 1.5.
b) par ama vair Agya khyApanaAya vishayebhyah pr at yAhRt a-manAh
nivRt t At mA - To indicat e His pr of ound non-at t achment t o mat er ial obj ect s, He
has His mind wit hdr awn f r om t hem. About His medit at ion it is said -
ant ar nivishTa bhAvam ca -He who has His t hought s concent r at ed on Himself .
Also, At ma-dhyAna par AyaNAya -To Him who has His t hought s concent r at ed
wit hin Himself "; "hRd -admAr pit amAnasam - Him wit h His mind f ixed on t he
lot us-hear t ", et c.
c) One who is t he At mA of t hose who pr act ice t he nivRt t i dhar ma. (Ther e ar e
t wo kinds of dhar ma - t he pr avRt t i dhar ma and t he nivRt t i dhar ma. pr avRt i
dhar ma t akes us t o t he wor ld of t he pit R-s wher e we enj oy t he f r uit s of our
kar ma, and come back t o t his wor ld wit h t he balance of kar ma-s t o our cr edit ;
niv* t t idhar ma is t hat which leads one t o moksha).
d) samsAr a bandhAn nivRt t a At mA svar Upam asya it i nivRt t At mA. nivRt t a
means t hat which has r et r eat ed t ot ally, abst aining f r om wor ldly act s, et c. 09
Sr I cinmayAnanda point s out t hat in t he example of t he t wo bir ds sit t ing on
t he same t r ee t hat is r ef er r ed t o in t he munDakopanishad which has been
r ef er r ed t o ear lier in our wr it e-up, t he nivRt t At mA is t he one who is looking on
wit hout eat ing t he f r uit s of t he t r ee.
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat t he signif icance of t his nAma is
t o r ealize t hat we should live a lif e wit h det achment in mat er ial obj ect s in
or der t o r ealize t he Tr ut h, and medit at ing on t his nAma of mahA vishNu will
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help us live t hat kind of lif e. Medit at ing on t he Lor d who has no at t achment s
will lead us t o live a lif e wit hout at t achment . He gives t he lif e of Lor d Rama as
an example of t he lif e of nivRt t At mA.
Some int er pr et er s have ident if ied t he nAma it self as vimukt At mA or
anivRt t At mA in one or mor e of t he occur r ences of t his nAma lat er . We will
look at t he int er pr et at ions of t hese under t he lat er occur r ences.
nAma 232. nAma 232. nAma 232. B46- B46- B46- -- - samvr ut ah samvr ut ah samvr ut ah
He who r emains hidden.
samvRtAya namah.
samvRt at vAt samvRt ah. The r oot is vRn~j Avar aNe t o cover . He r emains
hidden f r om t he unenlight ened in whom t he t amo-guNa dominat es - t amsah
par ast At . I t is devot ion t o Him alone t hat can r eveal Him t o us. The dhar ma
cakr am wr it er quot es nammAzhvAr ' s pASur am "mayar vaRa madi-nilam ar uLinan
evan avan" - (We should wor ship t he One) who can bless us wit h t he j ~nAna and
bhakt i t hat can r emove t he ignor ance, doubt s, and vipar I t a j ~nAnam - count er -
pr oduct ive int ellect ?. J ust as t he sun cr eat es t he cloud which keeps t he sun
cover ed f r om us, t he a~j nAnam is cover ing us. J ust as t he sun' s lust r e is
unt ouched by t he cloud, His lust r e is unt ouched by our a~j nAna. I t is his dayA
alone which can r emove t his a~j nAna, and it is devot ion t o Him alone t hat can
help in t his.
nAma 233. nAma 233. nAma 233. B9P7+- B9P7+- B9P7+- -- - sampr amadar nah sampr amadar nah sampr amadar nah
The dispeller (of t he dar kness).
sampra-mardanAya namah.
The nir ukt i aut hor summar izes Sr I Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna by t he f ollowing
wor ds- t amaso vidyayA samyak mar danAt sampr amar danah - He is
sampr amar dana because He dispels t he enveloping dar kness by t he light of His
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knowledge. Sr I aNNangar AcAr ya gives t he meaning t hat He dispels t he mAyA
in His devot ees.
Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s t he nAma based on mar dana - t o dest r oy, and gives t he
meaning t hat He is sampr amar dana because of His act of dest r uct ion in t he
f or ms of r udr a, yama, et c. - samyak pr amar dayat i r udr a-kAlAdyAbhih
vibhUt ibhih it i sampr amar danah (see t he similar it y t o pr adar danah ear lier ).
Recall t hat Sr I Bhat t ar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat mar dana r ef er s t o dest r uct ion
of t he dar kness or mAyA. Sr I cinmayAnanda int er pr et s mar dana as r ef er r ing
t o t he act of dest r uct ion of t he evil-minded and sensuous and ext r over t -
r Akshasa-s.
The dhar ma cakr am aut hor int er pr et s mar dana in t he cont ext of t he act of
bhagavAn in helping us t o dest r oy t he pr ide and aham-kAr a in us and t o unit e
wit h Him. Lif e consist s of dest r oying cer t ain t hings and pr eser ving cer t ain
t hings. A good lif e is t hat wher e we under st and what is t o be pr eser ved and
pr eser ve t hose values, and dest r oy t hose t hat need t o be dest r oyed. I t is t hus
t hat Lor d r Ama had His kodanDam when He went t o t he f or est - t o help
pr eser ve t he Rshi-s and t o help dest r oy t he r Akshasa-s. Chant ing t he name of
r Ama was suf f icient t o t ur n vAlmI ki f r om t he ignor ant per son t hat he was t o
t he gr eat sage vAlmI ki. The nAma sampr amar dana should lead t o under st and
t he value of dest r oying t he evil qualit ies in us and t o develop t he good qualit ies
t hat will help us in r ealizing Him, which is nat ur ally accomplished when we
medit at e on t he guNa of bhagavAn expr essed by t his nAma.
nAma 234. nAma 234. nAma 234. HrFB46T- HrFB46T- HrFB46T- -- - ahas ahas ahas-- -samvar t hakah samvar t hakah samvar t hakah
The r egulat or of t he day (t ime); The Sun.
ahah-samvartakAya namah.
samyak ahnAm pr avar t anAt ahah-samvar t akah - He who r egulat es well t he
succession of day and night . He is t he cause f or t he r evolut ion of t he day and
ot her divisions of t ime. The division of t ime int o past , pr esent , and f ut ur e
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pr ovides t he knowledge of obj ect s as old or young. I t br ings about t he
separ at ion or union of pr akRt i and pur usha (Mat t er and Soul). I t is also t he
cause of t he six kinds of t r ansmut at ions of pr akRt i (viz. bir t h, gr owt h, change,
exist ence, decay, and f inal deat h).
Sr I cinmayAnanda gives r ef er ence t o t he f ollowing Sloka f r om gI t A -
yadAdit ya gat am t ej o j agad bhAsayat e' khilam |
yac-candr amasi yaccAgnau t at -t ej o viddhi mAmakam | |
- (gI t A 15.12)
Under st and t hat I am t he Light of t he Sun t hat illumines all ear t h; and t he
t ej as in t he moon and f ir e ar e all mine only". The one who dynamises t he day
and gives lif e t o all and lends ener gy t o t hem t o act , et c. is vishNu in t he f or m
of t he Sun.
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat j ust as we can see an obj ect close
t o us easily once t her e is light even t hough we can' t locat e it in t he absence of
light , bhagavAn is t he gener at or of light t hat helps us r ealize t he knowledge of
t he Self , and in t his sense also bhagavAn is ahah-samvar t akah (t he gener at or
of day). J ust as t he Sun causes all beings t o wake up when it r ises, mahA-
vishNu causes our desir e t o at t ain t his knowledge of t he Self t o wake up in us.
J ust as t he f all of t he r ays of t he Sun causes t he lif e f or ms t o become
r ej uvenat ed, t he t hought of vishNu r ej uvenat es t he j I vAt mA in us and makes
it shine. J ust as t he f all of t he r ays of t he Sun on obj ect s pur if ies t hem by
dest r oying t he disease-causing ger ms et c., t he t hought of bhagavAn kills t he
evil t hought s in us and pur if ies our t hought s. So vishNu is t he Sun f or our
inner self j ust as He is t he Sun f or t he ext er nal wor ld.
nAma 235. nAma 235. nAma 235. 4|ñ- 4|ñ- 4|ñ- -- - vahnih vahnih vahnih
The Bear er or The Car r ier ; The Fir e.
vahnaye namah.
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The r oot f r om which t his nAma is der ived is vah - t o car r y. Sr I Bhat t ar
int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o t he act of bhagavAn in suppor t ing t he
Univer se in t he f or m of space. Sr I aNNangar AcAr ya gives t he meaning t hat
He is t he bear er (suppor t er ) of ever yone. Vahni also r ef er s t o f ir e, since f ir e
is t he car r ier of t he oblat ions of f er ed in homa et c. Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s t he
nAma in t his cont ext - devebhyo havyam vaha nah pr aj Anan - One who, as f ir e,
car r ies t he oblat ions t o t he gods, or havir -vahanAt vahnih.
nAma 236. nAma 236. nAma 236. H|+¬- H|+¬- H|+¬- -- - anilah anilah anilah
a) The Giver of lif e-br eat h; The Air .
b) One who needs no goading t o Help His devot ees.
c) The Beginningless.
d) One who has no binding, unaf f ect ed by vir t ue and vice.
e) One who is beyond dissolut ion.
f ) One who is omniscient - All-Knowing.
g) Easily accessible t o His devot ees.
h) One who has no f ixed r esidence.
i) One who is not suppor t ed (by Ear t h et c).
j ) One who does not hide anywher e i.e., who is pr esent ever ywher e
k) One who is always awake.
anilAya namah.
This nAma occur s again as nAma 818.
t adevAgnih t ad-vAyuh - He is agni Himself and He is vAyu - (t ait t ir I ya
Ar aN.10), suppor t s t he int er pr et at ion of t his and t he pr evious nAma-s as agni
andvAyu r espect ively.
ananAt - uj j I vanAt anilah - Best ows t he lif e-br eat h on all.
Ko hyevAnyAt kah pr ANyAt - Whoever can br eat he and whoever can live if t he
AkASa (i.e., par amAt mA) wer e not t her e? - (t ait t ir I ya nAr AyaNa 7);
pr AnAt vAyur _aj Ayat a - The wind was bor n out of His br eat h (pur usha sUkt am
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14).
I n t he occur r ence of t he nAma as nAma 818, Sr I Bhat t ar der ives t he meaning
based on ila - t o ur ge, and so t he meaning given is - One who does not need t o
be goaded by any one t o ser ve His devot ees. I lat i pr er aNam kar ot i it i ilah,
t adr ahit at vAt anilah - One who does not need a pr oposer or inducer .
t adapyapr Ar t hit am dhyAt o dadAt i madhusUdanah - When medit at ed upon,
bhagavAn madhusudana best ows His blessings on His devot ee wit hout t he need
f or anyone else ur ging Him - vishNu dhar ma 74.42.
Sr I Sankar a and ot her int er pr et er s give sever al alt er nat e int er pr et at ions in
addit ion t o above t wo-
anAdit vAt anit i yo' asu anilah (c above) - Beginningless,
anAdAnAt anilah - One who has no binding,
ilat i svapit i it i ilah, t ad-vipar I t ah anilah - One who is ever awakened (f )
nilat er -gahanAr t hAt ka-pr at yayAnt At agahanah - anilah - One who is not
dif f icult t o access f or His devot ees (g)
anilayah anilah (h) - One who has no f ixed abode.
An int er pr et at ion f or t he occur r ence of t his wor d in amar akoSa is na vidyat e
nilah nilayam st hAnam yasya.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i adds t hat ila is Ear t h, and since He exist ed bef or e
t he Ear t h exist ed, He is not suppor t ed by t he Ear t h et c., and so He is anila (i).
An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion is na nilI yat e it i anilah - He is Omnipr esent ,
indest r uct ible, in t he f or m of anila - vAyu (j ).
Yet anot her int er pr et at ion is an AdAnAt anilah - One who has no binding (d).
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er gives us a view of how impor t ant t he medit at ion on
t his guNa of bhagavAn is f or our lif e. Wit hout f ood we can go on f or many
days; wit hout wat er we can sur vive f or a f ew days; but wit hout air , but a f ew
minut es. That is how impor t ant air is f or our living; so is t he medit at ion on
vishNu f or our spir it ual lif e. He quot es mahAt mA gAndhi in t his cont ext - t hat
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he can sur vive wit hout f ood f or sever al days (and hasn' t he pr oved it sever al
t imes!), but he cannot live wit hout pr ayer f or even a day. Anot her view
pr esent ed r elat es t o ar j una' s wor ds t o Lor d kRshNa t hat mind waver s like wind
and he can' t get it under cont r ol. BhagavAn, like vAyu, is spr ead ever ywher e,
and it is dif f icult t o get a gr asp of Him j ust as we can' t get t he mind under
cont r ol or keep t he air st at ic in one place wit hout a sealed cont ainer . But j ust
as man has lear ned t o cont r ol and cont ain air , he can lear n t o cont r ol his mind
by const ant medit at ion on vishNu. The uncont r olled mind is like a st or m, and it
can be t r ained t o becalm by medit at ion on vishNu.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion st ar t ing f r om ila - t o sleep.
Thus one meaning given is One who never sleeps, or One who is always awake -
j AgRvim vibhum - Rg veda. This is r ef lect ed in His f or ms as t he Sun, t he r est
of t he planet s, t he oceans, t he wind, et c. I n addit ion t o t his int er pr et at ion he
also gives t he int er pr et at ions a) and h).
I was amazed t o f ind t hat t his seemingly simple nAma of t wo syllables hast his
many int er pr et at ions.
nAma 237. nAma 237. nAma 237. ¤¹Tl¤¹- ¤¹Tl¤¹- ¤¹Tl¤¹- -- - dhar aNeedhar ah dhar aNeedhar ah dhar aNeedhar ah
The bear er of t he Ear t h.
dharaNI-dharAya namah.
dhar aNI m dhat t a it i dhar aNI -dhar ah - One who bear s t he Ear t h. Sr I Bhat t ar
t akes t his simple int er pr et at ion one level f ur t her , and gives t he signif icance
t hat He bear s t hose who bear ot her s, e.g., He bear s AdiSesha, bhUmi, et c. Sr I
Bhat t ar gives t he f ollowing suppor t ing quot es
sa dAdhAr a pRt hivI m dyAm ut emAm - He bor e t he Ear t h and all t he Heaven -
yaj ur 13.4
uddhRt A' si var AheNa - Thou (O Mot her Ear t h) hast been lif t ed up by var Aha -
t ait t . Ar aN. 10.8
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"pRt hivI m ca ant ar iksham ca dyAm caiva pur ushot t amah |
manasiava visRshTAt mA nayat i At mavaSam vaSI | |
' Pur ushot t ama, by His will, cr eat ed Ear t h, t he I nt er space and Heaven;
beingt he Supr eme Ruler , He keeps t hem all under His cont r ol.'
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ences t o sever al ot her nAma-s which
expr ess t he above idea - mahI -bhar t A (184), mahI -dhar ah (319, 371), t r iloka-
dhRt (757),dhar A-dhar ah (762). I n addit ion, some vyAkhyAna-kar t A-s have
int er pr et ed nAma240 (which we will cover next week) as viSva-dhRk - One who
r ules over t he wor lds, similar in pur por t t o t he cur r ent nAma.
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am br ings t he signif icance of t his nAma t o a level of
under st anding t hat is easier t o compr ehend. When we say bhagavAn is t he
bear er of t he Ear t h, what we mean is t hat dir ect ly or indir ect ly He is
suppor t ing all t he lif e f or ms by pr oviding f ood and shelt er t o all, ir r espect ive
of whet her we ar e devot ed t o Him or not , all t he good and t he bad. Eit her we
sur vive by dr awing on t he veget ables and ot her f ood t hat we dir ect ly get f r om
t he ear t h, or some beings sur vive by pr eying on ot her lif e f or ms which in t ur n
live by dr awing on t he dir ect pr oduce f r om t he ear t h. So t his nAma signif ies
t hat He suppor t s us physically in t he f or m of t he ear t h, and also sust ains us all
t hr ough t he f ood f r om t he ear t h.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha adds t hat a mot her bear s and pr ot ect s t he childr en,
t he husband pr ot ect s t he wif e, and He pr ot ect s ever yone, and so t he dhar aNi-
dhar at va guNa of bhagavAn is all ar ound us.
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SlOkam 26
B 9Bl7- 9B¬ltPl |4HB |¹4H¬ |¹4¬ -· B 9Bl7- 9B¬ltPl |4HB |¹4H¬ |¹4¬ -· B 9Bl7- 9B¬ltPl |4HB |¹4H¬ |¹4¬ -·
BtT6l BtT 6FBl¤ = ñ‚ +l ¹l4Tl +¹-+ -°+ BtT6l BtT 6FBl¤ = ñ‚ +l ¹l4Tl +¹-+ -°+ BtT6l BtT 6FBl¤ = ñ‚ +l ¹l4Tl +¹-+ -°+
supr asAdah pr asannAt mA vishvasr ug visvabhugvibhuh |
sat kar t A sat kr ut as sAdhu: j ahnur nAr AyaNO nar ah | |
nAma 238. nAma 238. nAma 238. B9Bl7- B9Bl7- B9Bl7- -- - supr asAdah supr asAdah supr asAdah
The Giver of good f avor s.
suprasAdAya namah.
Sobhanah pr asAdha dAt Rt vAt supr asAdah - For t hose who sur r ender t o Him
He conf er s all t hat is good. I n f act He goes f ur t her and conf er s t he good t o
t hose who ar e His enemies as well, as in t he cases of r AvaNa, SiSupAla,
dur yodhana, et c., by conf er r ing moksha on t hem ult imat ely. I n ot her wor ds,
what ever bhagavAn conf er s, it is f or t he good of t he r ecipient . This concept is
r epeat edly point ed by svAmi deSikan in t he dayA-Sat akam when he descr ibes
t he dayA aspect s of t he dif f er ent incar nat ions. Thus f or inst ance, in t he
par aSu-r Ama incar nat ion, when He dest r oyed t he evil kshat r iya kings, He
r eally got r id of t heir sins, and sent t hem t o moksha. I n t he kalki incar nat ion,
when He will dest r oy t hose at t he end of t he kali-yuga who ar e soaked in sin, it
is only t o wash t hem of t heir sins and r e-est ablish adhar ma-or ient ed kRt a yuga
wher e t heir j I va-s can f lour ish again t hat t his act of His is under t aken. The
wr it er in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat t her e ar e t hose of us who will do good
t o t hose who ar e bad t o us, in addit ion t o t hose who f ollow t he r ule of an eye
f or an eye, and wor se st ill, t her e ar e t hose who do bad t o t hose who ar e good
t o t hem. Sr I mahA-vishNu is one who does always what is good f or ever yone
ir r espect ive of how t hey ar e t owar ds Him. Medit at ion on Lor d vishNu wit h t his
guNa implied by t his nAma will give us t he r ight f r ame of mind t o f ollow t he
sAt t vic pat h.
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pr asanna venkat Achalapat i
nAma 239. nAma 239. nAma 239. 9B¬ltPl 9B¬ltPl 9B¬ltPl -- - pr asannAt mA pr asannAt mA pr asannAt mA
He wit h a clear mind; Of delight f ul nat ur e.
prasannAtmane namah.
He is of delight f ul nat ur e because He has no desir es and no want s since He has
r ealized all desir es - avApt a-sar va-kamat vAt . Or because He is ext r emely
mer cif ul by nat ur e - kar uNAr dr a-svabhAvAt . Or He is pr asannAt mA because
His mind is not cont aminat ed by passion (r aj as) and iner t ia (t amas). Sr I P.B.
aNNangar AcAr ya svAmi point s out t hat He has a clear mind because He is
unaf f ect ed by likes and dislikes. Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he int er pr et at ion
t hat He is All-Blissf ul because He is not af f ect ed by sor r ows r esult ing f r om
associat ion wit h mat t er and it s imper f ect ions (guNa-s). He is of a clear mind,
wit hout being af f ect ed by t he t amasic and r aj asic guNa-s. The dhar ma cakr am
wr it er gives t he example of t he t hr ee br ot her s, r AvaNa, kumbhakar Na, and
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vibhI shaNa, r espect ively dominat ed by r aj asic, t Amasic, and sat t vic guNa-s.
r AvaNa was indulging in non-r ight eous act s under t he inf luence of kAma, and
br ought self -dest r uct ion as a r esult . Kumbha-kar Na was inact ive under t he
inf luence of t amas. VibhI shaNa on t he ot her hand had t he clar it y of mind
aided by his sat t vic guNa. He could save Sr I lankA f r om dest r uct ion and could
at t ain t he gr ace of t he Lor d because of his clear t hinking. Medit at ing on t he
nAma pr asannAt mA will lead t o t he clar it y of mind t hat bhI shma could
command, when he advised dur yodhana pr ior t o t he st ar t of t he mahAbhAr at a
war t hat t hey won' t win a war f ought on immor al and unet hical gr ounds, and
t he suppor t of t he Lor d will be on t he side of dhar ma. pr asannat A r esult s out
of t he dominance of sat t va guNa.
nAma 240. nAma 240. nAma 240. |4HB T |4HB T |4HB T -- - visvasr ug visvasr ug visvasr ug
The Cr eat or of t he Univer se.
viSva-sRje namah.
viSvam sRj at i yo sa viSva-sRt . He cr eat ed t his Univer se out of kindness
unmindf ul of it s mer it s and def iciencies. I n Sankar apATham, t his nAma is
given as viSva-dhRg - The Over seer of t he cosmos. Pr of . Sr I nivAsa r Aghavan
point s in his wr it ings in Sr I nRsimha pr iyA t hat ot her pATha-s ar e viSva-sRshT
and viSva-sRg. I n t he cont ext of t he int er pr et at ion based on viSva-dhRg - t he
over seer or r uler of t he cosmos, t he dhar ma cakr am comment at or r het or ically
asks t he quest ion - Do we r ule our mind, or does our mind r ule us? I f we lear n
t o r ule over our mind, t hen we can r ule our f amily, our nat ion, et c., and also
know t he Ruler of ever yt hing. And we get t his condit ioning of our mind t hr ough
medit at ion on t he Lor d who isviSva-dhRg. Sr I sat yadevo vAsisshTha gives t he
meaning based on t he r oot dhRsh pr Agalbhye t o be bold, conf ident , pr oud, or
br ave. He isviSva-dRk because He has cr eat ed t his wor ld wit h skill (cAt ur ya),
pr ouldy, boldly. Ever yt hing He has cr eat ed, including t he dif f er ent seasons,
t he f lower s, t he dif f er ent f or ms of lif e, et c., ar e const ant ly displaying His
br illiance in t he dif f er ent ways t hey r epr oduce t hemselves, t he dif f er ent
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f or ms in which t hey appear , et c.
nAma 241. nAma 241. nAma 241. |4H¬|¹4¬- |4H¬|¹4¬- |4H¬|¹4¬- -- - visvabhugvibhuh visvabhugvibhuh visvabhugvibhuh
He who per vades all t hings and pr ot ect s t hem.
viSvabhug-vibhave namah.
vyApya bhunakt i - pAlayat i it i viSvabhug-vibhuh. Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his
phr ase as one nAma, wher eas Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s it as consist ing of t wo
nAma-s, viSva-bhuk and vibhuh. The int er pr et at ion f or viSva-bhuk is given as
viSvam bhu~nkt e -The Enj oyer of t he Cosmos, or ViSvam bhunakt i - The
Pr ot ect or . The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat He is t he Pr ot ect or f or
t he Univer se in it s expr essed f or m wit h all it s cr eat ed beings or in it s
unexpr essed or pr alaya f or m as well. This compar es wit h t he sit uat ion of
mor t als like us who cannot do any good in pr ot ect ing t his wor ld eit her in our
wakef ul st at e or in our sleep st at e. Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he int er pr et at ion
t hat He enj oys or swallows (bhuk) all exper iences (viSva). The Supr eme
Consciousness, appar ent ly condit ioned by t he mind and int ellect , is t he
exper iencer of j oys and sor r ows. Or , t he t er m can mean "One who absor bs all
names and f or ms unt o Himself at t he t ime of pr alaya". Sr I r AdhAkRshNa
SAst r i gives t he r ef er ence t o t iat t ir I ya Ar aNyaka 10.91 - pr abhuh pr I NAt i
viSva-bhuk. Sr I sat yadevovAsishTha gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion based
on bhuj kaut ilye t o bend, t o cur ve, and says t hat t he nAma can mean t hat He
est ablished t he wor ld by bending or ext ending it in all eight dir ect ions. Since
Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s vibhuh as a separ at e name, he gives t he meaning - One
wit h mult i-f or m - vividham bhavat i it i vibhuh. He became many f r om
Hir aNyagar bha downwar ds. Vividham bhAvayat i is anot her int er pr et at ion, again
r ef er r ing t o t he mult i-f or ms. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he meaning t hat
He is vibhu because He f ills ever yt hing ever ywher e - mahAnt am vibhum
At mAnam - kaThopanishad 2.22. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er elabor at es on t he
mult i-f or m by giving r ef er ence t o Lor dkRshNa' s wor ds in t he gI t A in Chapt er
10 st ar t ing wit h Slokam 21 and going up t o Slokam 38, wher e bhagavAn gives
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sever al examples of His vibhUt i-s, and t hen says in Slokam 40 t hat t her e is
r eally no limit t o His vibhUt i-s.
nAma 242. nAma 242. nAma 242. BtT6l BtT6l BtT6l -- - sat kar t A sat kar t A sat kar t A
He who honor s t he good.
satkartre namah.
sat kar ot i pUj ayat i it i sat kar t A - One who ador es t hose who ar e good and wise.
Sat kAr am is wor ship. Sr I r Ama was known as saj j anapr at i pUj akah - He who
wor ships t hose in r et ur n who ar e good t o Him. Sr I r adAdhAkRshNa SAst r i
gives t he r ef er ence t o r AmAyaNa - bahu-Sr ut AnAm vRddhAnAm
br AhmaNAnAm upAsit A (2-2-33) - He wor ships t hose who ar e lear ned, old in
age, and br AhmaNas. The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am point s out t he example of
Lor d r Ama pr aising hanumAn as soon as He saw him. The Lor d r ej oices t o f ind
t hosewho ar e in t his cat egor y. The lesson we should t ake f r om t his nAma
ist hat we should do act s t hat will make us f it f or t his kind of r ecognit ion. Act s
t hat f all in t his cat egor y ar e t hose t hat give peace of mind and inner happiness
t o t he doer . By cor ollar y, we should desist f r om act s which lead t o a f eeling of
self -cent er ed accomplishment , pr ide, et c. Our act s should be dir ect ed t o His
ser vice, and not f or t he sat isf act ion of t he human ego.
nAma 243. nAma 243. nAma 243. BtT6- BtT6- BtT6- -- - sat kr ut ah sat kr ut ah sat kr ut ah
He who is wor shipped by t he sAdhus (even by t hose who deser ve t o be
wor shipped).
satkRtAya namah.
The wor d sat kRt a means pUj it a - One who is wor shipped. He is t he Obj ect of
wor ship f or ever yone. The nir ukt i summar izes Sr I Bhat t ar ' s vyAkhyAna f or
t his nAma as ar cAdibhih saj j anaih yah pUj it ahsat kRt ah smRt ah. Pr of .
Sr I nivAsa r AghavAcAr ya svAmi in his comment ar y in nRsimha pr iyA point s out
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t hat when t he ekAnt ins who wor ship only mahA vishNu make t heir of f er ings t o
Him, no mat t er how small t he of f er ing is, He consider s it big by consider ing it
as wor t hy of His Supr eme St at us, and r eceives t hr ough His head what is
of f er ed at His f eet , and r eceives it per sonally and not t hr ough ot her
int er mediar y gods. As if t his is not enough, He t hen f eels t hat what ever He
does t o His devot ees is inadequat e in r et ur n (r ecall Lor d kRshNa' s f eeling of
being indebt ed t o dr aupat i f or ever when she cr ied out f or help and He helped
but not by coming in per son r ight away). The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out
t hat as a means of developing t his devot ion t o Him, our vedas ask us t o wor ship
our mot her , our f at her , our t eacher - mAt R devo bhava,pit Rdevo bhava,
AcAr ya devo bhava.
nAma 244. nAma 244. nAma 244. Bl¤- Bl¤- Bl¤- -- - sAdhuh sAdhuh sAdhuh
One who car r ies out (what ever His devot ees say).
sAdhave namah.
sAdhayat i it i sAdhuh - One who car r ies out , or sAdhnot i it isAdhuh - One who
makes it possible t o car r y out , t hr ough var ious means t hat He has pr ovided f or
t he benef it of t he beings t hat He has cr eat ed. Going as a messenger , act ing as
a char iot eer , et c. ar e examples of His car r ying out His under t aking. Even
t hough Lor d kRshNa was Himself a king like dur yodhana, He did not mind doing
t he wor k of a messenger , and did not mind doing t he wor k of a char iot eer
which is like t hat of a ser vant t o ar j una. Thus, sAdhu her e r ef er s t o His act of
car r ying out what ever He has t o do t o t ake car e of His devot ees. He t akes
sever al incar nat ions in which He suf f er s and get s insult ed by t he likes of
dur yodhana, SiSupAla, r AvaNa et c., and appear s as a f ish, a boar , et c., and
under goes suf f er ing and miser y as in t he case of t he r Ama incar nat ion, all
because He is a sAdhu, who car r ies out what He has t o in or der t o help His
devot ees. The nAma sAdhu has also been int er pr et ed as One who is r ight eous,
i.e., conduct s Himself accor ding t o t he code laid in t he Vedas. And because He
f ollows t he r ight eous pat h always, He accomplishes what ever He under t akes
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always. The lesson t o t ake her e is (dhar ma cakr am) t hat we should always
f ollow t he r ight eous pat h in ever yt hing we do, and t his will not only endear us
t o Lor d vishNu, but also lead t o success in our j ust endeavor s.
nAma 245. nAma 245. nAma 245. =ñ‚- =ñ‚- =ñ‚- -- - j ahnuh j ahnuh j ahnuh
The Concealer (of His gr eat ness f r om t he non-devot ees).
jahnave namah.
This nAma is der ived f r om t he r oot hA-t yAge t o f or sake. abhakt eshu At ma -
mAhAt myam apahnut e it i j ahnuh. j ahAt i avidushah j ahnuhis anot her der ivat ion
f or t he same meaning - He leads t hose devoid of devot ion away f r om t he
Supr eme. Sr I Bhat t ar gives t he f ollowing quot e f r om udyoga par va:
"cakr am t ad-vAsudevasya mAyayA var t at e vibhoh |
sApahnuvam pANdaveshu ceshTat e r Ahasat t amah | |
-(udyogapar va 6.7.2)
"That discus of t he Omni-pr esent vAsudeva act s by His will f or t he benef it of
t he pANdavas being invisible (t o t he eyes of ot her s), O Gr eat King!". Sr I
Sankar a gives an addit ional int er pr et at ion t hat He is j ahnu because He is t he
disint egr at or of t he Univer se at t he t ime of pr alaya - j anAn samhAr a-samaye
apahnut e apanayat i it i j ahnuh. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he incidence of
Sage J ahnu who hid t he Ganges when bhagI r at a br ought Ganges (j AhanavI ) t o
t he Ear t h. Similar ly bhagavAn hides t he Univer se dur ing pr alaya int o Himself ,
and so He is j ahnu. I n dhar ma cakr am, we f ind a descr ipt ion of how His act of
hiding some t hings f r om us is r eally devot ed t o helping us in our day-t o-day lif e
unt il we can r eally r ealize Him. Thus it is f or our benef it t hat we f or get some
of our bad exper iences of t he past , and do not know some of t he f ut ur e
incidences in our lif e ahead of t ime. I n f act , t his pr ocess of t hings being
hidden int er mit t ent ly is t he law of lif e, as f or inst ance t he child being hidden
in t he mot her ' s womb bef or e being bor n, t he seed being hidden under gr ound
bef or e it spr out s, t he t ime of our body' s demise being hidden f r om us t ill t he
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incident happens, t he out come of a cont est bet ween t wo compet ing t eams
being hidden f r om t hem t ill t he incident concludes, and t he same way, t he j iva-
s being hidden in Him bef or e t he wor ld is r e-cr eat ed af t er pr alaya. This nAma
should help us f or get t he wr ong-doings of ot her s, and r emember only t he good
t hings in lif e. This t r aining will help us r ealize Him in t he pr ocess, and t hen He
does not have t o use His act of hiding anyt hing f r om us. Sr I sat yadevo
vAsisshTha also st ar t s wit h t he r oot hA t yAge t o give up, and int er pr et s t he
nAma t o mean t hat He is j ahnu because He is devoid of t he def ect s such as
kAma, kr odha, lobha, moha, mada, and mAt sar ya, and is Suddha svar Upa.
Ganges is j AhnavI because Ganges washes away t he sins.
nAma 246. nAma 246. nAma 246. +l¹l4T- +l¹l4T- +l¹l4T- -- - nAr AyaNah nAr AyaNah nAr AyaNah
The Suppor t er of t he host s of souls.
nArAyaNAya namah.
All t he pr evious nAma-s r ef er r ed t o nAr AyaNa t hr ough His ot her incar nat ions
or t hr ough His many guNa-s. Now Sr I vyAsa gives t he name t hat only r ef er s t o
mahA-vishNu, and t hat is not used t o r ef er t o any ot her gods (such as t he
nAma-s r udr a, Siva et c., which also occur in t he Vishnu sshasr anAma t o r ef er
t o mahAvishNu). Sr I Bhat t ar point s out t hat t his nAma is spoken of in ever y
upanishad, and t he veda it self gives t he der ivat ion of t he name nAr AyaNa
t hus-
yacca ki~ncit j agat sar vam dRsyat e Sr Uyat epi vA |
ant ar -bahiSca t at -sar vam vyApya nAr AyaNah st hit ah | |
"What ever obj ect t her e is in t he Univer se t hat is seen or hear d, nAr AyaNa
r emains per vading all t hat , bot h inside and out side". Sr I Bhat t ar gives sever al
r ef er ences t o br ing out t he gr eat ness of t his nAma.
"nAr AyaNAya vidmahe vAsudevAya dhI mahi |
t anno vishNuh pr acodayAt | |
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- (t ait t i. nAr Aya. 6.1.28)
"nAr AyaNa par am br hma t at t vam nAr AyaNah par ah |
nAr AyaNa par o j yot ir -At mA nAr AyaNah par ah | |
- (t ait t . NAr Aya. 6.11)
"eko ha vai nAr AyaNa AsI t | na br hamA na I SAnah na Apah naagnishomi yau na
eme dyAvA pRt hvI na nakshat r ANina sUr yah na candr amAh|
- (mahopanishad)
et c. Sr I Sankar a gives t he f ollowing int er pr et at ion: nar a r ef er s t o At man;
nAr a r ef er s t o et her and t he ot her ef f ect s pr oduced f r om it ; He, as t heir
cause, per vades t hem and t hey ar e t hus His abode (ayana). Hence He is named
nAr AyaNa. He gives t he f ollowing quot e f r om mahAbhAr at a suppor t ing t his
int er pr et at ion:
"nar Aj j At Ani t at t vAni nAr ANI t i t at o vidhuh |
t Anyeva cAyanam t asya t ena nAr AyaNah smRt ah | |
- (anu.Par va. 13.1.2)
"The t at t va-s ar e called nAr a since t hey ar e spr ung f r om nar a (At man); He is
called nAr AyaNa as t hey ar e His abode". Anot her int er pr et at ion he gives is
"nar ANAm j I vAnAm ayanat vAt pr alaya it i vA -Whom t he j I va-s appr oach and
ent er (He is t he abode of t he beings dur ing pr alaya). This is suppor t ed by
' yat pr yant yabhisamviSant i' - Whom t hey appr oach and ent er - t ait t ir I ya
upanishad 3.1. Or He is nAr AyaNa since He is t he seat of t he nAr a-s or t he
t at t va-s - nAr ANAm ayanam yasmAt t asmAn-nAr AyaNah smRt ah -
br ahmavaivar t apur ANa. (Not e t hat t his t hir d int er pr et at ion is t hat He is t heir
seat , wher eas t he f ir st int er pr et at ion was t hat t hey ar e His seat ). Manu-smRt i
gives t he f ollowing def init ion -
"Apo nAr Ah it i pr okt Ah Apo vai nar asUnavah |
t A yadasyAyanam pUr vam t asmAn-nAr AyaNah smRt ah | |
- (manu-smRt i 1.10)
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"nAr a r ef er s t o wat er s (t he panca-bhUt a-s bef or e t hey int er -mixed and
became visible t hr ough f or ms et c.) which He cr eat ed. As t hey ar e His or iginal
abode (i.e., dur ing pr alaya), He is called nAr AyaNa". Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha
dr aws t he par allel bet ween t he wor ld being bor n out of t he wat er s in which
nAr AyaNa is f loat ing, and t he child t hat is bor n out of t he mot her ' s womb
af t er being suppor t ed by t he wat er s in t he mot her ' s body. I n nar asimha
pur ANa, we have t he f ollowing -
"nAr AyaNAya nama it yayameva sat yah samsAr a ghor a visha samhar aNAya
mant r ah |
SRNvant u bhavyamat ayo yat ayo' st ar AgA uccaist ar AmupadiSAmyaham Ur dhva-
bAhuh | |
- (nar asimha pur ANa18.31)
"This is t he r eal mant r a t hat dest r oys t he deadly poison of samsAr a -
nAr AyaNAya namah. This I pr oclaim loudly wit h uplif t ed hands; let t he
ascet ics, wit h passions cur bed and int ellect s clear , list en t ome". Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r eminds us t hat t he mant r a-devat A t hat we wor ship
t hr ough t he gAyat r i mant r a is Sr I man nAr AyaNa - dhyeyah sadAsavit Rmandala
madhyavar t I nAr AyaNah. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er r ef er s us t o divya-
pr abandham - "nalam t ar um Sollai nAn kaNdu koNdEn nAr AyaNAennum
nAmam" t o r emind us of t he gr eat ness of t his nAma j apam. I t is ver y
impor t ant t o not e Sr I Bhat t ar ' s concluding st at ement of his vyAkhyAnam on
t his nAma. He point s out t hat t he secr et of t his sacr ed mant r a should only be
pr oper ly lear ned by appr oaching an AcAr ya,and not by r eading t he explanat ions
like t he one pr esent ed. His wor ds ar e t hat he does not want t o say anyt hing
mor e on t his nAma because it s gr eat ness can only be lear ned f r om an AcAr ya,
and is t hus a mat t er t hat should be seen by f our eyes (t he t wo eyes of t he
disciple and t he t wo eyes of t he AcAr ya) and not by six eyes viz. he does not
want t o add his t wo eyes f ur t her . So no amount of explanat ion on paper can
br ing out t he gr eat ness of t his nAma.
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nAma 247. nAma 247. nAma 247. +¹- +¹- +¹- -- - nar ah nar ah nar ah
a) He who is imper ishable.
b) The Leader .
narAya namah.
Sr I Bhat t ar gives t he meaning t hat nar a r ef er s t o one wit h imper ishable
possessions, bot h sent ient and non-sent ient (bot h of which ar e et er nal by
nat ur e). Sr I Sankar a gives t he meaning "Leader " t o nar a, and gives t he quot e
f r om vyAsa (t he sour ce is not ident if ied in my book) - nayat i it inar ah pr okt ah
par amAt mA sanAt anah - Because He dir ect s ever yt hing, t he et er nal
par amAt man is called nar a. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha also st ar t s wit h t he r oot
as nR nayet o lead, and gives t he meaning as nayat i - One who leads, or nRNat i -
One who t akes t hings away. He is nar a since He t akes t his Univer se f r om kalpa
t o kalpa t hr ough many kalpa-s. nar a also r ef er s t o wat er or f luid, since t his
t akes t hings f r om one place t o anot her as it f lows. That t her e was only wat er
ever ywher e bef or e sRshTi t ook place is suppor t ed by t he f ollowing vedic quot e
- t ama AsI t t amasAgUDhamagr e' pr akRt am salilam sar vamA idam (Rg 10.129.3).
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat j ust as a mot her leads a child wit h
t he child' s welf ar e in mind, and does not mind disciplining t he child f or it s own
good when t he child goes and eat s dir t , or t he t eacher t r ies t o discipline a
st udent who is not lear ning t he knowledge f r om t he t eacher , so also nar a, viz.
mahAvishNu, leads us all f or our good even if He has t o met e out some
punishment occasionally t o get our ways st r aight ened out .
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SlOkam 27
HB HB HBŒŒ Œ« 4l 59P 4ltPl |4|H7|7H7T ¬7 |¬-· « 4l 59P 4ltPl |4|H7|7H7T ¬7 |¬-· « 4l 59P 4ltPl |4|H7|7H7T ¬7 |¬-·
|B&l¤ |FB&BT-9- |B|&7|FB|&Bl¤+-+ -÷+ |B&l¤ |FB&BT-9- |B|&7|FB|&Bl¤+-+ -÷+ |B&l¤ |FB&BT-9- |B|&7|FB|&Bl¤+-+ -÷+
asankhyEyO5pr amEyAt mA visishTas sishTakr uc chucih |
siddhAr t has siddhasankalpah siddhidas siddhisAdhanah | |
nAma 248. nAma 248. nAma 248. HB¹44- HB¹44- HB¹44- -- - asankhyEyah asankhyEyah asankhyEyah
One whose at t r ibut es, names, f or ms, et c. ar e I nnumer able.
asankhyeyAyanamah.
sankhyA is number . asankhyeya is One who cannot be quant if ied. I n gI t A,
ar j una descr ibes Lor d kRshNa as such -
aneka-bAhUdar a vakt r a net r am paSyAmi t vAmsar vat o' nant a r Upam |
nAnt am na madhyam punas-t avAdim paSyAmi viSveSvar aviSvar Upa | |
- (gI t A 11.16)
"O Lor d of t he Univer se! I see you wit h number less ar ms, st omachs, mout hs,
and eyes, of boundless f or ms on ever y side, and I do not see t he end or t he
middle or t he beginning". He is of inf init e knowledge, inf init e bliss, inf init e
manif est at ions, immeasur able st r engt h, et c.
nAma 249. nAma 249. nAma 249. H9P4ltPl H9P4ltPl H9P4ltPl -- - apr amEyAt mA apr amEyAt mA apr amEyAt mA
One who cannot beknown t hr ough knowledge, dir ect or indir ect .
aprameyAyanamah.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion "pr amANaih pr amAt um
aSakyah apr ameyah". pr ameya is anyt hing t hat can be known t hr ough int ellect .
apr ameya is one whose nat ur e cannot be gr asped by any of t he exist ing means
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of knowledge. We get an impr ession of an obj ect by seeing it wit h our eyes,
and it is t his vision of t he color , shape, or ot her at t r ibut es, or t he smell et c.,
t hat gives us a f eel f or an obj ect . BhagavAn is beyond our senses. Sr I
sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he quot e f r om yaj ur veda - na t asya pr at imA ast i
yasyanAma mahad-yaSah - yaj ur . 31.3. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out
t he similar it y bet ween t his nAma and t he nAma-s apr ameyah (46) and
ameyAt mA (103,181).
nAma 250. nAma 250. nAma 250. |4|H7- |4|H7- |4|H7- -- - visishTah visishTah visishTah
He who is Super ior .
viSishTAyanamah.
Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his nAma as signif ying t hat He is Super ior because He
does not have t o depend on anyt hing else and He excels in ever yt hing. Sr I
Sankar a gives t he meaning t hat He t r anscends ever yt hing. The dhar ma cakr am
wr it er point s out t hat super ior it y in lif e is not achieved by j ust wealt h, power
and f ame, but t r ue super ior it y r esult s only when we develop bhakt i t o t he Lor d.
The ot her super ior it ies do not give us t he pur it y of mind.
nAma 251. nAma 251. nAma 251. |H7T6 |H7T6 |H7T6 -- - sishTakr ut sishTakr ut sishTakr ut
He who makes His devot ees eminent .
SishTa-kRte namah.
Because of associat ion wit h Him, He makes His devot ees also super ior .
An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion given is t hat SishTa means discipline, good
manner s. I n t his sense, t he pr evious nAma would mean t hat He isviSishTa
because He is of Supr eme discipline, and t he cur r ent nAma would mean t hat He
helps His devot ees acquir e t his discipline t hr ough t he ment al st r engt h, et c.,
needed f or t his. SishTa also means Law, r ules, or commands. The
int er pr et at ion t hen becomes He is One who makes t he Law, One who
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commands, or One who pr ot ect s (t hough t he laws). The gr eat est and most
signif icant of t hese commands is Love, t hr ough which mahA-vishNu r ules over
us all, and t his is t he lesson t o be der ived f r om t his nAma (dhar ma cakr am).
nAma 252. nAma 252. nAma 252. H|¬- H|¬- H|¬- -- - sucih sucih sucih
Pur e.
Sucaye namah.
This nAma occur r ed ear lier (157). His pur it y is such t hat associat ion wit h Him
makes t hese devot ees pur e also. He is pur e by body, mind, act ion, and all, and
t his is what makes Him viSishTa and SishTa-kRt . One comment at or point s out
t hat He makes us shine consist ent wit h our devot ion. (dhar ma cakr am) - J ust
as we clean our body t o avoid diseases of t he body, we can develop cleanliness
in our wor ds t hr ough t he chant ing of bhagavan-nAma, and we can develop and
impr ove t he cleanliness of our t hought s t hr ough t he cont r ol of t he f ive senses,
which ar e t he means by which we get our input t o our t hought s f r om t he
ext er nal wor ld. Wor shipping t he Lor d in t he t emple, list ening t o t he sound of
t he bell dur ing t he wor ship, obser ving t he kar pUr a Ar at i, list ening t o t he
nAmasankI r t ana, list ening t o t he bhaj ans, of f er ing f r agr ant f lower s t o t he
Lor d, obser ving t he beaut y of His decor at ed mUr t i, smelling t he divine
f r agr ance of His pr esence in t he t emple, et c., ar e t he dif f er ent ways t hat t he
f ive indr iya-s ar e exposed t o oppor t unit ies f or cleansing our selves t hr ough
t hese indr iya-s. Simult aneously, we should do ever yt hing t o const ant ly diver t
t he mind f r om t hought s t hat ar e not conducive t o t he ser vice of Sr I man
nAr AyaNa. Deep medit at ion on t he Lor d is one way t o t r ain our mind. The
const ant t r aining of our body, mind, wor d, and deed t owar ds Him is t he lesson
we should t ake f r om t his nAma.
nAma 253. nAma 253. nAma 253. |B&l¤ - |B&l¤ - |B&l¤ - -- - siddhAr t hah siddhAr t hah siddhAr t hah
One who is in possession of all desir able t hings.
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230
siddhArthAya namah.
He alr eady possesses all t hat is desir able in Him nat ur ally and ef f or t lessly.
Sr I Sankar a gives t he passage "sat yakAmahsat ya-sankalpah" in chAdogya
upanishad (8.1) in suppor t of t his and t he next nAma. Sr I cinmayAnanda point s
out t hat t his name signif ies t hat bhagavAn has alr eady t he f our pur ushAr t ha-s
(dhar ma, ar t ha, kAma, and moksha) t hat ar e t he obj ect of at t ainment f or
mor t als. He has at t ained (siddha) all t hat is t o be at t ained (ar t ha).
nAma 254. nAma 254. nAma 254. |B&BT-9- |B&BT-9- |B&BT-9- -- - siddhasankalpah siddhasankalpah siddhasankalpah
One whose wishes ar e always f ulf illed.
siddha-sankalpAya namah.
One whose wishes ar e f ulf illed at t he ver y inst ance He wishes. Sankalpa means
int ellect ual willing and wishing. One who gains all t hat He wishes f or , or One
who immediat ely gains what He wills is calledsiddha-sankalpah. The r ef er ence
in chAndogya upanishad (see pr evious nAma) conveys t he same idea. Examples
in dhar ma cakr am f or His being asiddha sankalpah ar e t he decision t o make
sugr I va and vibhI shaNa t he kings of t heir r espect ive kingdoms, t he
dest r uct ion of vAli, t he sankalpam t o f ulf ill daSar at ha' s pr omise t o kaikeyi,
et c. The devot ion t o mahA-vishNu makes t he devot ees equally capable of
f ulf illing t heir sankalpa-s wit h His help. Thus, bhI shma made Lor d kRshNa
car r y ar ms in t he bat t le of mahA-bhAr at a (t her eby Lor d kRshNa pr oved t hat
He is t he ser vant of His devot ee, and will f ulf ill what ever t hey wish, even if it
involved His br eaking His vow not t o car r y ar ms), and hanumAn f ulf illed his
sankalpa t o f ind sI t A pir At t i. The way we become siddha sankalpa-sis t o
ent r ust our selves complet ely in His car e, and He t akes car e of t he r est f or us,
since what ever we wish will t hen be f or t he cause of dhar ma.
nAma 255. nAma 255. nAma 255. |B|&7- |B|&7- |B|&7- -- - siddhidah siddhidah siddhidah
The best ower of siddhi-s or super -human power s.
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siddhi-dAya namah.
Ther e ar e eight siddhi-s or power s t hat can be acquir ed by yogi-s who
medit at e on Him. These ar e aNimA (t he abilit y t o assume t he size of an at om),
mahimA (t he abilit y t o assume a ver y huge size), laghimA (t o make t he body
weight less like a cot t on ball), gar imA (t o assume heavy weight like an ir on
mass), pr Apt i (t o obt ain anyt hing desir ed), pr AkAmyam (t o at t ain any desir ed
bhoga), I Sit vam (t o be able t o assume r uler ship or Lor dship over anyt hing or
anyone), and vaSit vam (t o get anyone t o be under one' s cont r ol). Sr I Sankar a
int er pr et s t he nAma t o mean t hat He pr ovides benef it s or f ulf illment
accor ding t o our act ion.
nAma 256. nAma 256. nAma 256. |B|&Bl¤+- |B|&Bl¤+- |B|&Bl¤+- -- - siddhisAdhanah siddhisAdhanah siddhisAdhanah
One who makes t he means f or siddhi as pleasant as t he f r uit it self .
siddhi-sAdhanAya namah.
siddheh sAdhakat vAt siddhi-sAdhanah. He is t he pr omot er of achievement s.
He is t he ver y secr et f or ce which enables t he seeker t o diligent ly cont inue all
ef f or t s of his seeking. He is t he sAdhana or means f or all siddhi or f ulf illment ,
in par t icular t he moksha siddhi, which no one else can help achieve except
Sr I man nAr AyaNa. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat t he sequence
"siddhAr t ahsiddha-sankalpah siddhi-dah siddhi-sAdhanah" is a gr eat mant r a by
it self , and chant ing it will be ver y benef icial f or f ulf illment of our endeavor s
wit hout int er r upt ion when we under t ake a good deed and wor k t owar ds
at t aining t he desir ed goal. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat t he goal
t hat is at t ained by chant ing t his mant r a is t he cleansing of our minds f r om
wor ldly t hought s, lust , et c., and concent r at ing t he mind t owar ds t hought s
about Him. By chant ing t his mant r a, He ensur es t hat we at t ain our goal.
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SlOkam 28
4 9lrl 4 9¬l |4!T 4 994l 4 9l 7¹-· 4 9lrl 4 9¬l |4!T 4 994l 4 9l 7¹-· 4 9lrl 4 9¬l |4!T 4 994l 4 9l 7¹-·
4¤ +l 4¤ Pl+¾ |4|4±7~ |6Bl¬¹-+ -<+ 4¤ +l 4¤ Pl+¾ |4|4±7~ |6Bl¬¹-+ -<+ 4¤ +l 4¤ Pl+¾ |4|4±7~ |6Bl¬¹-+ -<+
vr ushAhI vr ushabhO vishNuh vr ushapar vA vr ushOdar ah |
var dhanO var dhamAnasca vivikt as sr ut isAgar ah | |
nAma 257. nAma 257. nAma 257. 49lrl 49lrl 49lrl -- - vr ushAhI vr ushAhI vr ushAhI
a) One who shines in t he f or m of dhar ma.
b) One who makes His devot ees shine like day because of t heir dhar ma.
c) One who makes t he day auspicious when t he devot ee appr oaches Him.
d) One who r eveals dhar ma.
e) One who is t he devat A f or t he vRshAha sacr if ice.
f ) One who has t he br ight ness of agni et c., or is t he cause of t he br ight ness of
all obj ect s
vRshAhiNe namah.
This nAma is int er pr et ed dif f er ent ly by dif f er ent vyAkhyAna-kar t As. The
nAma is composed of t wo wor ds, vRsha meaning dhar ma, and aha meaning day.
One int er pr et at ion is t hat He shines br ight like day because of His dhar ma. Or
He makes t hose who adher e t o dhar ma shine like day. Bot h t hese ar e given by
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i. Sr I Bhat t ar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He is vRshAhI
because t he day on which a devot ee appr oaches t he Lor d, is a day of
auspiciousness -dhar ma, i.e., He has t he day which is made auspicious because
of appr oaching Him. Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t his is vRshah dhar mah
t adeva Ahah - One who r eveals dhar ma. An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion he gives is
t hat vRshAha r ef er s t o a t en or t welve-day sacr if ice, and He is vRshAhI
because He is t he per f or mer or enj oyer as t he devat A f or t he sacr if ice. Sr I
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sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he meaning "f ir e" or "agni" t o t he t er m vRsha
based on vRsho agnih samidhyat e (Rg veda 3.27.14), and uses ahah t o mean
br ight ness or pr akASa, and so gives t he meaning t hat bhagavAn has t he
br ight ness of agni and so is called vRshAhI . He t hen gener alizes t his and says
t hat vRshAhI r eally r ef er s t o One who has t he br ight ness of anyt hing t hat is
br ight , such as t he Sun et c., or in ot her wor ds, t heir br ight ness is because of
Him. So is t he br ight ness r esult ing f r om knowledge, br ight ness of lif e because
of t he j I vAt mA, et c., which get t heir br ight ness f r om Him. He is t he only one
who has svayam-pr akASa.
nAma 258. nAma 258. nAma 258. 49¬- 49¬- 49¬- -- - vr ushabhah vr ushabhah vr ushabhah
a) He who shower s (His gr ace).
b) He who shines because of His dhar ma.
vRshabhAya namah.
var shat i esha bhakt ebhyah kAmAn it i vRshabhah. He gives blessing t o His
devot ees and pr ot ect s t hem f r om t he f ir e of samsAr a. He is also vRshbha
because He shower s all t hat is desir ed by His devot ees, e.g., glowing healt h,
bur ning devot ion, et c. vRshAt manA bhAt i - One who shines in t he f or m of
dhar ma, is t he explanat ion given by Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i. (dhar ma
cakr am): BhagavAn gives what ever is aspir ed by t he beings, accor ding t o t heir
ef f or t s. Of t hese, t he r eal wish should be t o r ealize Him. All ot her wishes,
while t hey will also be f ulf illed by Him f or t hose wish t hese lesser desir es, will
only r esult in sor r ow af t er t he int er im pleasur e is over . The desir e should be
"acyut A!amar ar ERE! Ayar t am kozhundE! ennum iccuvai t avir a yAn pOy
indir alOkam ALum acuvai per inum vEndEn".
nAma 259. nAma 259. nAma 259. |4!T- |4!T- |4!T- -- - vishNuh vishNuh vishNuh
One who per vades ever yt hing.
vishNave namah.
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This nAma occur r ed as nAma 2, and will r e-occur as nAma 663. The r oot f r om
which t his nAma is der ived is vish - t o per vade. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he meaning
t hat t his per vasion is in t he sense of associat ion such as bet ween f ir e and
smoke. Wher ever t her e is smoke t her e is f ir e, but when t her e is f ir e, smoke is
not necessar ily pr esent (e.g., in t he case of a r ed-hot piece of ir on). So also,
bhagavAn is t her e in associat ion wit h His bhakt a-s always, and r ender s all
kinds of help t o His devot ees as needed. I t was ment ioned in t he int r oduct or y
ar t icle t o t his ser ies t hat t he vyAkhyAna kar t A-s give dif f er ent
int er pr et at ions t o t he same nAma depending on t he cont ext . Since we ar e now
dealing wit h t he sequence of nAma-s which descr ibe t he Lor d' s guNa of
helping His devot ees in f ulf illing t heir desir ed wishes, t his new int er pr et at ion
is given.
nAma 260. nAma 260. nAma 260. 4994l 4994l 4994l -- - vr ushapar vA vr ushapar vA vr ushapar vA
He who has pr ovided t he st eps of dhar ma t o r each Him.
vRsha-parvaNe namah.
vRsha is dhar ma as has been not ed bef or e. Par vA r ef er s t o st eps. Sr I
BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He is vRsha-par vA because He has r evealed
t he st eps of var NASr ama dhar ma as t he means t o at t ain Him. Ot her
vyAkhyAna kar t A-shave included var ious st eps such as j ~nAna, bhakt i, et c. as
t he st eps t hat He has est ablished. These include Sr avaNam, mananam,
kI r t anam, sat -sangham, Sr addhA, et c. These ar e like t he st eps of a ladder t o
r each Him.
nAma 261. nAma 261. nAma 261. 49l7¹- 49l7¹- 49l7¹- -- - vr ushOdar ah vr ushOdar ah vr ushOdar ah
One who has dhar ma as His mid-r egion or belly.
vRshodhar Aya namah.
Dif f er ent int er pr et at ions ar e given f or t his nAma. One is t hat He is t he
r eceiver of all t he of f er ings t hr ough yag~na et c., and so He is t he one wit h t he
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udar a t hat r eceives all of f er ings of dhar ma. The ot her is t hat cr eat ions of
t hose who obser ve dhar ma such as Br ahma or iginat e f r om His belly. The t hir d
is t hat t his is wher e He keeps all t he beings at t he t ime of pr alaya, and t his is
wher e ever yt hing or iginat es at t he t ime of r e-cr eat ion. I n t his cont ext , t he
meaning "shower " is used f or t he wor d vRsha. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha
cont inues t o int er pr et all t he pr eviousnAma-s and t he cur r ent one using t he
meaning "agni" f or t he wor d "vRsha". Thus, He is t he One who has agni in His
st omach. This is known even f or humans t hat we have t he "agni" (t he acid) t hat
digest s our f ood, t her e is agni in t he cent r e of t he ear t h, in t he cent r e of t he
sun, t he Oceans, et c. These ar e r ef lect ions of t he pr inciple of bhagavAn as
vRshodar a.
nAma 262. nAma 262. nAma 262. 4¤+- 4¤+- 4¤+- -- - var dhanah var dhanah var dhanah
He who nour ishes.
vardhanAya namah.
var dhayat i it i var dhanah. One who augment s, incr eases, or nour ishes. Following
up on t he int er pr et at ion of t he pr evious nAma, Sr I Bhat t ar int er pr et s t his
nAma as One who keep t he beings in His womb like a mot her and nour ishes
t hem. Sr I P. B. aNNa~ngar AcAr ya svAmi gives t he meaning t hat he is
var dhana because he ' gr ows' t hose who have r esor t ed t o Him mor e and mor e
(t owar ds t he spir it ual pat h?). Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he example of
t he of f er of one handf ul of ' aval' - a f or m of compact ed r ice, by His f r iend
kucela, which was augment ed so much in r et ur n t hat kucela became r icher t han
kuber a. So is t he of f er of pat r am, phalam, pushpam, t oyam, et c. t hat we make
t o Him. Thus He is var dhana because an of f er of t he size of an at om t o Him
wit h devot ion r esult s in a mount ain of r et ur n and pr ot ect s His devot ees like a
mot her . The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat while ever yone t akes all t he
ef f or t s t o gr ow his body and his wealt h, t he r eal ef f or t should be in gr owing
t he j ~nAna and bhakt i, and He helps t hose who ar e devot ed t o Him in t his
ar ea, and so He is var dhana.
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nAma 263. nAma 263. nAma 263. 4¤Pl+ 4¤Pl+ 4¤Pl+ -- - var adhamAnah var adhamAnah var adhamAnah
He who gr ows.
vardhamAnAya namah.
I n t he pr evious nAma we saw t hat He makes t hings gr ow. I n t his nAma, it is
indicat ed t hat He Himself gr ows as a r esult or simult aneously. Sr I BhaTTar
int er pr et s var dhamAnah as one who gr ows happy as He sees His devot ees
gr ow. Or He keeps gr owing in spit e of His best owing all t hat anyone asks f or .
Sr I cinmayAnanda point s out t hat t his name is indicat ive of t he vAmana
incar nat ion in which He cont inued t o gr ow t o cover t he t hr ee wor lds. Sr I
Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion is "pr apa~ncar UpeNa vadhat e it i var dhamAnah - One
who gr ows or mult iplies Himself in t he f or m of t he Univer se". Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i indicat es t hat t he ' ca' at t he end of var dhamAnah is
because He gr ows at t he same f ast r at e at which t he Univer se is gr owing.
nAma 264. nAma 264. nAma 264. |4|4±- |4|4±- |4|4±- -- - vivikt ah vivikt ah vivikt ah
He who is unique.
viviktAya namah.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he r oot vij - pRt hakbhAve t o separ at e or t o
dist inguish as t he et ymological basis f or t his nAma. He gives a simple example
of a machinist who makes machines but is separ at e f r om it . So also bhagavAn
cr eat es all t he beings and keeps t hem in shape and in act ion, but is unique and
separ at e f r om t hem. He gives t he example of t wo bir ds in a t r ee, one enj oying
t he f r uit s and t he ot her wat ching and obser ving, which we have r ef er r ed t o
bef or e (dvA supar NAsayuj A sakhAyA et c. - Rg veda 1.164.20). This aut hor
(Sr I vAsishTha) has composed one Slokam of his own as t he explanat ion f or
each Slokam of sahasr anAma, and I am j ust shar ing one example her e:
"sRTvA j agat sar va-vidham vidhAt A svayam vivikt o hyaj ar o' mar ah sah|
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sahasr a-SI r shA sa sahasr a-dRshTih sa sar va-bandhuh sa pRt hak ca dRSyAt | |
BhagavAn is unique in many ways. He is unt ouched by t he ef f ect s of act ion
unlike His cr eat ions (nir lipt a). He is unique because His act ivit ies ar e ext r a-
or dinar y and super ior t o t hose of ot her s in t he wor ld (Sr I BhaTTar ). Or it may
mean t hat He r emains unique and dist inct even t hough He per vades t he
Univer se as descr ibed in pr evious nAma-s (Sr I Sankar a). He is also unique
because He is beyond our abilit y t o be r ecognized by our int ellect and logical
analysis alone (Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i; also r ecall t he I SAvAsyaupanishad
Slokam 4 - anej adekam manaso j avI yo ....).The dhar am cakr am wr it er point s out
t hat t his qualit y of being out side of , and unaf f ect ed by, our sur r oundings, is
t he t r ue basis of accomplishing our mission in lif e viz. r ealizing t he
par amAt mA. I f we do not get swayed by t he pa~nca indr iya-s, t hen in spit e of
living in t he midst of all t he noise and pleasur es ar ound us, we will be able t o
have cont r ol of our mind and diver t it t o t he ser vice of mahA vishNu. This is
t he signif icance and lesson t o t ake f r om t his nAma.
nAma 265. nAma 265. nAma 265. ~|6Bl¬¹- ~|6Bl¬¹- ~|6Bl¬¹- -- - sr ut isAkar ah sr ut isAkar ah sr ut isAkar ah
He who is t he sea wher e all veda-s t ake us.
Sr ut i-sAgar Aya namah.
Sr ut ayah sAgar a iva at r a nidhI yant e it i Sr ut isAgar ah. J ust as t he ocean is t he
f inal dest inat ion f or all t he r iver s, so also all t he veda-s lead us t o Him, and He
is t hus Ocean f or t he Sr ut i-s (Sr ut i-sAgar ah). Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s us t o
Sr I mad bhAgavat am (2.5.15)- nAr AyaNa par A vedAh - The veda-s only speak
of nAr AyaNa, and t o t he gI t A 15.15 - vedaiSca sar vaih ahameva vedyah - "I am
t he only one t hat is t o be r ealized t hr ough all t he veda-s".
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238
SlOkam 29
B ¬ =l T¤ ¹l 4l¹Pl Pr -ãl 4B 7l 4B -· B ¬ =l T¤ ¹l 4l¹Pl Pr -ãl 4B 7l 4B -· B ¬ =l T¤ ¹l 4l¹Pl Pr -ãl 4B 7l 4B -·
+ T-9l 4 rã 9|7H|9|47- 9TlH+-+ -°+ + T-9l 4 rã 9|7H|9|47- 9TlH+-+ -°+ + T-9l 4 rã 9|7H|9|47- 9TlH+-+ -°+
subhuj O dur dhar O vAgmI mahEndr O vasudO vasuh |
naikar UpO br uhadr Upas sipivishTah pr akAsanah | |
nAma 266. nAma 266. nAma 266. B¬=- B¬=- B¬=- -- - subhuj ah subhuj ah subhuj ah
One wit h maj est ic ar ms.
su-bhujAya namah
SobhanA bhuj Ah asya it i subhuj ah. Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he maj est y and
st r engt h of His ar ms t o always shoulder t he bur den of t hose t hat seek r ef uge
in Him. Sr I Sankar a ext ends t his t o r ef er t o t he pr ot ect ion of t he whole
wor ld. Sr I cinmayAnanda r ef er s t o t he beaut y of t he ar ms t hat always pr ot ect
and bless (abhaya and var a-da). Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i descr ibes t he
beaut y of t he ar ms t hat ar e always r eady wit h t he Ayudha-s f or t he
pr ot ect ion of t he devot ees lest t her e is any delay when t he need ar ises t o use
t hem -
pAt u pr aNat a r akshAyAm vilambam asahanniva, sadA pa~ncAyudhI m bibhr at sa
nah Sr I r a~nga nAyakah.
The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat t he t er m subhuj a r ef er s t o t he
hands of mahAvishNu t hat car r y t he Sa~nkha, cakr a, gadA and padma. The
Sankha r eminds us of t he pr aNava mant r a. The cakr a bot h pr ot ect s t hose t hat
f ollow t he pat h of dhar ma and dest r oys t hose who f ollow t he pat h of adhar ma.
The gadA f unct ions t o discipline t he evil, and t he padma shows His sweet
disposit ion t owar ds t hose who seek Him.

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nAma 267. nAma 267. nAma 267. T¤¹- T¤¹- T¤¹- -- - dur dhar ah dur dhar ah dur dhar ah
a) The ir r esist ible.
b) One who is dif f icult t o compr ehend
c) One who is dif f icult t o hold in concent r at ion
d) One who cannot be suppor t ed by anyone or anyt hing else
durdharAua namah.
Recall t hat Sr I BhaTTar has int er pr et ed t he pr evious nAma in t er ms of t he
st r engt h of His ar ms. He cont inues wit h t hat t hought , and int er pr et s t he
cur r ent nAma as indicat ing t hat t he st r engt h is such t hat it is ir r esist ible like
t he f or ce of t he gushing wat er s of a gr eat ocean against a dam made of play
sand. Sr I Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is dif f icult t o be held, e.g.,
t he yogi-s f ind it dif f icult t o hold him in t heir t hought s dur ing t heir
medit at ion. An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion given by him is t hat not hing else can
suppor t Him who suppor t ed ever yt hing else. Sr I cinmayAnanda int er pr et s t he
nAma as one who is dif f icult t o compr ehend even by t he gr eat yogi-s. The
dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat we should develop a clean mind in or der
t o be able t o r et ain Him in our mind. For t his, r ecour se t o such t hings as nAma
pAr AyaNam ar e of help. Once t he mind becomes clean, t hought s of mahA
vishNu occupy our mind, and bad t hought s do not occupy our mind.
nAma 268. nAma 268. nAma 268. 4l¹Pl 4l¹Pl 4l¹Pl -- - vAgmI vAgmI vAgmI
a) He who has wor ds which ar e pr aise-wor t hy.
b) He who has power f ul wor ds.
c) He f r om whom t he veda-s or iginat ed.
vAgmine namah.
veda-s ar e but t he wor ds of bhagavAn. He also was power f ul in per suading
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240
ar j una t hr ough His wor ds (gI t A) in t he bat t lef ield when ar j una had laid down
his ar ms. He is vAgmI also because His wor ds ar e sweet and kind - buddhimAn
madhur AbhAshI pUr vabhAshI pr yam vadah - r Ama is wise and speaks sweet
wor ds; He is t he f ir st t o speak and also speaks kind wor ds - ayodhyA kANdam
1.13. A ver y good summar y of t he power of His wor ds is quot ed in dhar ma
cakr am f r om t he gI t A, r ef lect ing ar j una' s st at e of mind af t er list ening t o
Lor d kr * shNa' s wor ds -
nashTo mohah smr * t ir -labdhA t aaaat -pr sAdAn mayA acyut a |
st hit o' smi gat a-sandehah kar ishye vacanam t ava | |
(18-73) "acyut a! By your Gr ace (gI t opadeSam) my ignor ance has now gone; I
have r egained my memor y, and now I am st eady and f r ee f r om doubt and am
r eady t o act accor ding t o Your inst r uct ions"
nAma 269. nAma 269. nAma 269. Pr-ã- Pr-ã- Pr-ã- -- - mahEndr ah mahEndr ah mahEndr ah
a) He of gr eat wealt h.
b) The God of I ndr a and ot her gods.
mahendrAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t his nAma is der ived is idi - par amaiSvar ye - t o own gr eat
wealt h. Since He t hus per vades ever yt hing in many dif f er ent ways, He is t he
Lor d of ever yt hing. He is also mahendr a because He is t he Lor d of I ndr a, who
is t he r epr esent at ion of st r engt h, which is one of t he six qualit ies of Sr I man
nAr AyaNa. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives a second int er pr et at ion based indhI
- dI pt au t o shine, t o kindle. Thus He is mahendr a since He is t he one who
kindles t he light in ever y being or is t he light in all beings.
nAma 270. nAma 270. nAma 270. 4B 7- 4B 7- 4B 7- -- - vasudah vasudah vasudah
The Giver of wealt h.
vasudAya namah.
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vasu - dhanam dadAt i it i vasu-dah. One who best ows His wealt h t o t he
devot ees wit hout t heir asking f or it . He can give t he lor dship of t he t hr ee
wor lds t o a devot ee, or He can also give t he lesser r iches t o t hose who want it .
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha point s out t hat t his act of bhagavAn giving wealt h t o
ever yone is behind t he act of anyone giving anyt hing t o anyone. For inst ance,
when one does vast r a-dAnam, or anna-dAnam, or impar t s knowledge t o anot her ,
or any ot her act of giving, it is a demonst r at ion of t he guNa of Giver of mahA
vishNu.
nAma 271. nAma 271. nAma 271. 4B - 4B - 4B - -- - vasuh vasuh vasuh
He who is Himself t he wealt h sought by t hose who have r ealized t he Tr ut h.
vasave namah.
This nAma occur r ed ear lier as nAma 105, and will r e-occur as nAma 701. Please
r ef er t o t he pr evious wr it e-up as well. vAsudevah sar vam it i sa mahAt mA
sudur labhah - Rar e indeed is t he gr eat soul who has r ealized t hat t he ult imat e
obj ect t o be at t ained is vAsudeva, and t he means f or at t aining t his wealt h is
also vAsudeva (gI t A 7.19).>Fr om t he next nAma, Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he
nAma-s as illust r at ions of t he cosmic f or m or t he viSva-r Upa of t he Lor d.
nAma 272. nAma 272. nAma 272. +T-9- +T-9- +T-9- -- - naikar Upah naikar Upah naikar Upah
He of I nf init e f or ms (as seen in viSvar Upa).
naikarUpAya namah.
I n gI t A we have paSyAmi t vAm sar vat ah anant a r Upam - I see You ever ywher e
wit h Your endless f or ms - 11.16. Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he f ollowing quot e -
"j alam vishNuh st halam vishNuh vishNur _AkASam ucyat e |
st hAvar am j a~ngamam vishNuh sar vam vishNu-mayam j agat | |
Sr I r AdhAkr * shNa SAst r i expr esses his anubhavam of t his nAma by point ing
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out t hat t his guNa of assuming mult iple f or ms is consist ent wit h (almost
necessit at ed by) His r ole is t he Giver of wealt h t o ever yone. For giving wealt h
t o ever yone, He needed t o be in mult iple f or ms and at mult iple places at t he
same t ime.
nAma 273. nAma 273. nAma 273. 4 rã 9- 4 rã 9- 4 rã 9- -- - br uhadr Upah br uhadr Upah br uhadr Upah
He of an immense f or m.
br*had-rUpAya namah.
br * hat means mahat or big. Sr I T. S. Kr * shNamUr t i has t r anslat ed t his as
' myst er ious' . He is of an immense f or m. Sr I Sankar a has given t he example of
t he var Aha incar nat ion wher e He car r ied t he submer ged Ear t h wit h a f or m
which was big enough t o ensur e t hat t he Ear t h did not submer ge again as it
was car r ied. The t r ivikr ama incar nat ion is anot her example wher e His f or m
cover ed all t he t hr ee wor lds and t he skies. Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he
pur usha sUkt am passage - at yat ishThat daSA~ngulam - He is not only of t he
t ot al size and dimension of t he Univer se but He st ands beyond it by t en digit s.
The dhar ma cakr am aut hor point s out t hat t o "see" t his br * had-r Upam, t he
mor t al eyes ar e not suf f icient , and it is t hus t hat we do not j ust see Him but
have t o exper ience Him. The mor e we see t his immensit y of His Nat ur e and His
sar va vyApat it vam, t he mor e we will get out of t his "small" wor ld or our bodies
and our small pleasur es.
nAma 274. nAma 274. nAma 274. |H|9|47- |H|9|47- |H|9|47- -- - sipivishTah sipivishTah sipivishTah
He who per vades t he r ays.
Sipi-vishTAya namah.
The wor d Sipi has t wo meanings - r ays and animals. Thus t her e ar e t wo
int er pr et at ions. The f ir st is t hat He is Sipi-vishTa because He is in t he f or ms
of r ays f or example t he Sun' s r ays, t he r ays emanat ing f r om t he f ir e, et c. Sr I
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BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is Sipayah - r aSmayah, t An sampr avishTah -
vyApt avAn it i SipivishTah. He quot es Yaska f r om nir ukat a t o suppor t t his -
Sipayo r aSmayah ucyant e, t aih AvishTah. I n t he nir ukt i which is a summar y of
Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ions by an unknown aut hor , we have
Sipayo r aSmayah pr okt Ah vyApya t eshvapi var t anAt |
SipivishTah samAkhyAt ah sUr yendy-agnAdi r Upavat | |
I n mahAbhAr at a we have
Sipi-vhshTet i yaccAsya pI t am r omam ca yad-bhavet |
t enApi vishTam yat ki~ncit Sipi-vishTam hi t at -smr * t am | |
- (Sant i par va 343-41)
"He has t awny hair s on His body; wit h t hat body He has per vaded all ot her
t hings. So He is known as Sipi-vishTa." I n udyoga par va we have r oma kupeshu
ca t at hA sUr yasyeva mar I cayah - He who ent er s int o t he por es of t he body
like t he r ays of t he sun. lingAyat asUr in in his vyAkhyAna f or amar akoSa has
given t he f ollowing - Sipishu paSushu j aneshu vishTo vyApt a it i SipivishTah -
One who has per vaded all animals and humans is SipivishTah.
nAma 275. nAma 275. nAma 275. 9TlH+- 9TlH+- 9TlH+- -- - pr akAsanah pr akAsanah pr akAsanah
a) One who shows Himself t o His devot ees.
b) One who illumines ever yt hing.
prakASanAya namah.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma t o mean t hat BhagavAn shows His celest ial
f or m t o ar j una and ot her s who long t o see it . Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion is
t hat He is pr akASana because He illumines ever yt hing - pr akASayat i it i
pr akASanah. The dhar am cakr am wr it er point s out t hat t he illuminat ion He
pr ovides is t he pat h t hat leads t o His r ealizat ion.
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SlOkam 30
Hl =F6 =l H |6¤¹- 9TlHltPl 96l9+-· Hl =F6 =l H |6¤¹- 9TlHltPl 96l9+-· Hl =F6 =l H |6¤¹- 9TlHltPl 96l9+-·
+&FF97l¬¹l P¬¾-ãl H ¬l FT¹H |6-+ °¤+ +&FF97l¬¹l P¬¾-ãl H ¬l FT¹H |6-+ °¤+ +&FF97l¬¹l P¬¾-ãl H ¬l FT¹H |6-+ °¤+
Oj ast Ej O dyut idhar ah pr akAsAt mA pr at Apanah |
r iddhas spashTaakshar O mant r as candr Aamsur bhAaskar adyut ih | |
nAma 276. nAma 276. nAma 276. Hl=F6=lH|6¤¹- Hl=F6=lH|6¤¹- Hl=F6=lH|6¤¹- -- - Oj as Oj as Oj as-- -t Ej O t Ej O t Ej O-- -dyut i dyut i dyut i-- -dhar ah dhar ah dhar ah
One who is endowed wit h st r engt h, vigor and br illiance.
ojas-tejo-dyuti-dharAya namah.
Oj as means st r engt h or inher ent vit alit y, t ej as means r eput at ion or power t o
over come enemies, and dyut i means ef f ulgence or r adiance. Since bhagavAn
alone has all of t hese, He is oj as-t ej o-dyut i-dhar ah. Recall t hat we ar e now
going t hr ough t he nAma-s t hat descr ibe t he viSva-r upa. Sr I Sankar a gives t he
r ef er ence t o gI t A - t ej as-t ej asvinAmaham (7-10), and balam balavat Aam
cAham (7-11).
nAma 277. nAma 277. nAma 277. 9TlHltPl 9TlHltPl 9TlHltPl -- - pr akAsAt mA pr akAsAt mA pr akAsAt mA
He of a nat ur e t hat is well-known t o all.
prakASAtmane namah.
dhRt ar Asht r a was blind not only ext er nally but also in his mind. Even t o him,
bhagavAn made Himself known. I n mahAbhAr at a -udyoga par va, dhRt ar Asht r a
says -
"t vameva puNdar I kAksha! Sar vasya j agat ah pr abhuh |
t asmAt t e yAdava-Sr eshTha! Pr asAdam kar t umar hasi | |
"Oh Lot us-eyed One! You ar e t he Pr ot ect or of all t he wor lds. Ther ef or e, t he
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f or emost among t he yAdavas! You should t ake pit y on me. "Anot her
int er pr et at ion is t hat He has a f or m whose nat ur e is of r adiance. The wr it er in
dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat t he pr akASa or light f r om t he sun and st ar s
can r eveal ext er nal obj ect s, but none of t hese can r eveal t he Absolut e Tr ut h.
This can be r evealed only by mahAvishNu t he pr akASAt mA, who gives t he
ext er nal light t o t he sun and st ar s in t he f ir st inst ance.
nAma 278. nAma 278. nAma 278. 96l9+- 96l9+- 96l9+- -- - pr at Apanah pr at Apanah pr at Apanah
He who scor ches (His enemies).
pratApanAya namah.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t his nAma in t he cont ext of t he gI t A wher e ar j una
says t hat he is unable t o st and t he sight of t he magnif icent viSva-r Upa
dar Sanam when Lor d KRshNa r eveals t hat t he enemies in t he kaur ava side ar e
f alling int o t he f ier y mout h of t he Lor d and being scor ched t o t heir end -
t ej obhir ApUr ya j agat samast ambhAsast avogr Ah pr at apant i vishNo (gI t A
11.30). Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat t his can also r ef er t o t he
t ime of pr alaya when t he Lor d scor ches t he Ear t h wit h t he pr layAgni. Sr I
Sankar a gives t he explanat ion t hat He is pr at Apana because He heat s t he
wor ld t hr ough power manif est at ions like t he Sun.
nAma 279. nAma 279. nAma 279. +&- +&- +&- -- - r iddhah r iddhah r iddhah
He who is f ull in all r espect s.
RddhAya namah.
The r oot f r om which t his wor d is der ived is Rdh vRddhau - t o pr osper , t o
incr ease. He is f ull of guNa-s like dhar ma, knowledge, dispassion, et c.

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nAma 280. nAma 280. nAma 280. F97l¬¹- F97l¬¹- F97l¬¹- -- - spashTa spashTa spashTa-- -akshar ah akshar ah akshar ah
He of clear wor ds (t hr ough t he veda-s).
spashTAksharAya namah.
The r ef er ence her e is t o t he veda-s. Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He
is spaTAkshar ah because He r evealed Himself t hr ough t he let t er s of t he
veda-s ver y clear ly. Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He has t his nAma
because He is clear ly indicat ed by t he supr eme sound of Pr aNavam. Sr I
cinmayAnanda gives t he r ef er ence t o gI t A in suppor t of t his int er pr et at ion -
mit yekAkshar am br ahma vyAhar an mAm anusmar an |
Yah pr ayAt i t yaj an deham sa yAt i par amAm gat im| |
"One who chant s my name (Pr aNavam) and leaves his body at t he t ime of deat h
t hus r emember ing Me, he shall go t o t he Supr eme st at e". Sr I sat yadevo
vAsishTha gives a ver y dif f er ent int er pr et at ion. He uses t he r oot spaS
bandhane - t o t ie t oget her , and akshar a t o mean t hings t hat don' t disappear
but r eappear again and again unt il (and even af t er ?) pr alaya - he uses t he
wor ds Apr alaya st hAyI nakshat r Adi in Hindi), viz. t he nakshat r a manDala et c.
Thus he int er pr et s t his nAma' s meaning as r ef er r ing t o mahA vishNu who has
t hus t ied t oget her and is holding t oget her t his Univer se wit h it s const ellat ion
of t he heavenly bodies.
nAma 281. nAma 281. nAma 281. P¬- P¬- P¬- -- - mant r ah mant r ah mant r ah
The myst ic wor d (He who pr ot ect s t hose who medit at e on His name).
mantrAya namah.
t an-mant Ar am t r Ayat e it i mant Ar ah, or mananAt t r Ayat e it i mant r ah -mant r a
is t hat which pr ot ect s him who medit at es on it . I n Br ahmA pur ANa, BhagavAn
says -
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t hRshNA t oya samAkI r NAt ghor At samsAr a sAgar At |
apAr At pAr amApnot i yo mAm smar at i nit yaSah | |
"He who t hinks of me always, will cer t ainly cr oss t his vast and f r ight f ul sea of
samsAr a which is f illed wit h t he wat er s of gr eed and avar ice". Sr I BhaTTar
also gives t he r ef er ence t o t he var Aha car ama Sloka-s f r om var Aha pur ANa -
st hit he manasi susvst he Sar I r e sat i yo nar ah |
dhAt u-sAmye st hit he smar t A viSva-r Upam ca mAma aj am | |
t at ast am mr iyamANam t u kAshTha pAshANa sannibham |
aham smar Ami mad-bhakt am nayAmi par amAm gat im | |
"The man who, when his mind is in nor mal condit ion, when t he body is not
shat t er ed, and when t he element ar y const it uent s of his body (dhAt u-s) ar e in
per f ect equipoise, medit at es on Me who has t he wor ld as My body and who am
not subj ect o bir t hs due t o kar mA - when t hat man lies like a log of wood or a
piece of st one in his dying moment s, I t hink of t his devot ee of Mine and lead
t o at t ain t he Supr eme Abode". Sr I Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He
is t he Sacr ed f or mula in t he f or m of t he t hr ee veda-s. The wr it er in dhar ma
cakr am gives t he per spect ive on t he impor t ance of mant r a-s in our scheme of
lif e. J ust as we t ake ext er nal bat h f or keeping our bodies clean, mant r a-s ar e
t he means t o keep our minds clean. This can be done eit her t hr ough const ant
r epet it ion of t he mant r a-s (j apam), t hr ough deep and const ant cont emplat ion
(medit at ion), t hr ough musical singing (bhaj ans) et c. Recall t ir umangai AzhvAr -
nalamt ar um Sollai nAn kaNDu koNDEn nAr AyaNA ennum nAmam - per ia
t ir umozhi1-1-9).
nAma 282. nAma 282. nAma 282. ¬-ãlH- ¬-ãlH- ¬-ãlH- -- - candr Aamsuh candr Aamsuh candr Aamsuh
He who is possessed of t he ef f ulgent r ays like t hose of t he moon.
canDrAmSave namah.
The wor d canDr a is der ived f r om t he r oot cadi AhlAde dI pt au ca - t o delight ,
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t o shine. He br ings delight t o t he minds of t hose who ar e scor ched by t he heat
of samsAr a. He also nur t ur es t he veget able kingdom wit h nut r it ion -
paushNAmi caushadI h sar vA somo bhUt vA r asAt makah - gI t A15-13. I t is
known in exper ience also t hat t he cool r ays of t he moon ar e soot hing. BhavAn
is like t he r ays of t he moon f or His devot ees.
nAma 283. nAma 283. nAma 283. ¬lFT¹H |6- ¬lFT¹H |6- ¬lFT¹H |6- -- - bhAaskar adyut ih bhAaskar adyut ih bhAaskar adyut ih
He who has t he ef f ulgence of t he sun.
bhAskara-dyutaye namah.
This ef f ulgence is such t hat it shat t er s and t hr ows His enemies in all
dir ect ions. Recall t he r ef er ence t o Lor d r Ama as r Ama-divAkar a -
Sar a j AlAmSumAnSUr ah kape! RAma-divAkar ah |
Sat r u-r akshomayam t oyam uapSosham nayishyat i | |
- (sundar a kANdam 37-18)
"O Monkey (HanumAn)! The sun-like r Ama, who is valiant and who has heaps of
r ay-like ar r ows, will cer t ainly dr y up t he wat er of t he inimical r Akshasa-s. "The
r ef er ence t o Sr I AndAl' s t ir uppAvai (kadir madiyam pOl mugat t An) is r elevant
in t his cont ext . Dr . V. V. r AmAnuj an in his vishNu shasr anAma bhAshyam
point s out t he signif icance of t he t wo nAma-s - candr AmSuh and bhAskar a-
dyut ih occur r ing side by side. I t is unique t hat BhagavAn has at t he same t ime
t he comf or t ing coolness of t he moon and t he scor ching heat of t he sun in Him
- He is soot hing t o His devot ees and bur ning t o His enemies. The descr ipt ion of
t he viSva-r Upam cont inues, and we know f r om ar j una' s descr ipt ion t hat t he
t ej as of t he viSva-r Upam is scor ching and f r ight f ul. An inst ance of t his
simult aneous exist ence of t he soot hing and bur ning guNa-s of His t ej as is t he
nRsimha incar nat ion, wher e His f or m t er r or ized hir aNyakaSipu, and but was
divinely pleasing t o pr ahlAda. He is bhAskar a-dyut ih also because He is t he
cause f or t he dyut i or br ight ness of bhAskar a or t he sun, or f or t hat mat t er ,
t he br ight ness in ever y one of us. We can see t he br ight ness of t he sun but we
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cannot seet he br ight ness of mahA vishNu. His ef f ulgence is explained by
sanj aya in t he gI t A -
divi sUr ya sahasr asya bhaved yugapadut t hit A |
yadi bhAh sadRSI sA syAd-bhAsas-t asya mahAt manah | |
- (gI t A 11-12)
"I f simult aneously t housands of suns appear in t he sky shining br ight , t he
t ej as or ef f ulgence t hat is seen can be compar ed t o a f r act ion of t he t ej as of
par amAt mA".


One who has t he ef f ulgence of t he sun

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SlOkam 31
HP 6l H T4l ¬l+ 7HH|4-TFB ¹ H¹-· HP 6l H T4l ¬l+ 7HH|4-TFB ¹ H¹-· HP 6l H T4l ¬l+ 7HH|4-TFB ¹ H¹-·
Hl 9¤ =¬6FB 6 - Bt4¤P 9¹l4P-+ °°+ Hl 9¤ =¬6FB 6 - Bt4¤P 9¹l4P-+ °°+ Hl 9¤ =¬6FB 6 - Bt4¤P 9¹l4P-+ °°+
amr ut AmsUdbhavO bhAnus sasabindus sur Esvar ah |
aushadham j agat assEt us sat yadhar ma par Akr amah | |
nAma 284. nAma 284. nAma 284. HP6lHT4- HP6lHT4- HP6lHT4- -- - amr ut AmsUdbhavah amr ut AmsUdbhavah amr ut AmsUdbhavah
The sour ce of nect ar -r ayed moon.
amRtAmSUdbhavAya namah.
This nAma consist s of t hr ee wor ds - amRt a, amSu, and udbhavah. amRt a means
immor t al or lif e-giving, amSu r ef er s t o r ays, and udbhavah is one who cr eat ed.
Bot h Sr I BhaTTar and Sr I Sankar a have int er pr et ed t his as r ef er r ing t o t he
cr eat ion of t he moon by t he Lor d dur ing t he chur ning of t he Milky Ocean. This
is gener ally t he int er pr et at ion t hat most ot her aut hor s have accept ed. Sr I
cinmayAnanda gives r ef er ence t o t he gI t A t o point out how t he moon' s r ays
ar e lif e-giving t o t he plant s - pushNAmi caushadhI h sar vAh somo bhUt vA
r asAt makah - I become t he lif e-giving r ays of t he moon and make all t he plant s
gr ow and f lour ish. Sr I sat yadevo vASishTha has given an independent
int er pr et at ion. He uses t he meaning liquid or "j alam" f or t he wor d amRt a, and
t he meaning "dist r ibut e" f r om amSu - vibhAj ane t o dist r ibut e, and gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat t he name means t hat He cr eat ed t he lif e-f or ms by
dist r ibut ing t he wat er s or amRt a. He gives t he example of how t he lif e-f or m is
cr eat ed in t he mot her ' s womb f loat ing in t he wat er s, and how t he physical
body is kept healt hy and well-nour ished by dr inking t he wat er and eat ing t he
f ood.

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nAma 285. nAma 285. nAma 285. ¬l+ - ¬l+ - ¬l+ - -- - bhAnu bhAnu bhAnu
The lust r ous Sun or One who is Radiant .
bhAnave namah.
BhAt iit i bhAnuh - That which shines or One who shines. BhagavAn is t he
sour ce of r adiance t o t he Sun it self . The passage f r om muNDakopanishad -
t ameva bhAnt amanubhAt i sar vam, t asya bhAsA sar vamidam vibhAt i -(muNda -
2.2.10). He illumines Himself , and illumines ever yt hing else in t his wor ld as well,
including t he Sun, whose lust r e is one-t housandt h of His lust r e. Sr I sat yadevo
vAsishTha also point s out t hat He is t he lust r e in all of us by being t he agni or
f ir e in all bodies. As long as t his agni is lit in our body, we ar e healt hy; when
t he f ir e subsides, t he body is non-f unct ional (deat h of t he body occur s). So He
is t he bhAnu in all of us. The dhar ma cakr am aut hor r eminds us t hat t he light
of t he Sun can only give ext er nal light , but cannot help in r evealing t he
par amAt mA or t he Supr eme Soul. This can be done only by t he par amAt mA or
bhAnu.
nAma 286. nAma 286. nAma 286. HH|4-T- HH|4-T- HH|4-T- -- - sasabinduh sasabinduh sasabinduh
a) He who disowns t he evil-minded.
b) The Moon
c) One who cont r ols t he pat hs of t he planet s and t he st ar s.
SaSabindave namah.
Sr I BhaTTar der ives t he int er pr et at ion f r om SaSa - plut a gat au - t o swer ve or
j ump f r om t he r ight pat h, and bindu der ived f r om bidi - t o disown. Sr I Sankar a
has int er pr et ed t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o t he moon. The int er pr et at ion given is
- One who has t he mar k of a har e - viz. t he moon. This is based on t he wor ds
SaSa meaning har e, and bindu meaning a dot . Since t he moon has a mar k which
looks like a har e, t his int er pr et at ion is given. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha has
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used t he nAmaas SaSa-vinduh inst ead of SaSa-binduh. He uses t he meaning
f or SaSa as t hat which leaps or moves ar ound, f r om t he r oot SaS - plut a-
gat au. For vindu he der ives t he meaning f r om t he r oot vid - j ~nAne - t o know
( based on t he pANinisUt r a vindur icchuh - 3.2.167) - vinduh = vedana SilAh -
int elligent . Thus f or t he nAma SaSavinduh, t he meaning given is One who knows
(cont r ols) t he pat hs of all t he planet s and st ar s (t he Sun, t he moon, et c.).
nAma 287. nAma 287. nAma 287. B¹H¹- B¹H¹- B¹H¹- -- - sur Esvar ah sur Esvar ah sur Esvar ah
The Lor d of t he gods.
sureSvarAya namah.
Sur ANAm I svar ahsur eSvar ah - One who is t he Leader of all t he gods. J ust as
He disowns t hose who go in t he wr ong pat h (pr evious nAma), t his name says
t hat he is t he Leader of t hose who t r ead t he good pat h. The wor d sur a it self
is composed of su - Sobhana,and r A - dAnah i.e., one t hat br ings or best ows
auspicious or good t hings. One who is t he Lor d of t hose who best ow
auspiciousness or do good in plent y is sur eSvar a. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er
r eminds us t hat t he signif icance of t his nAma is t hat by wor shipping mahA
vishNu who is t he sur eSvar a, we will move t owar ds t he pat h of t he sur a-s.
nAma 288. nAma 288. nAma 288. Hl 9¤P Hl 9¤P Hl 9¤P -- - aushadham aushadham aushadham
The Medicine.
aushadhAya namah.
He is t he Ult imat e Medicine f or t he poison of samsAr a, and t her e is no ot her
medicine f or t his. I n mahAbhAr at a we have "devA devar shayaScaiva yam viduh
duhkha bheshaj am"-The gods and t he celest ial sages know Him t o be t he
r emedy f or dist r ess - Sant i par vA 79-22. Anot her quot e in Sr I BhaTTar ' s
vyAkhyAnam (t he sour ce is not given) is "ekAgr at A mUlya balena labhyam
bhavaushadham t vam bhagavan! kilaikah"- Oh BhagavAn! Thou alone ar t ver ily
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t he r ecipe f or t he samSAr a, and can be obt ained by t he high pr ice of t he
concent r at ion of t he mind on Thee". Dr .V.V. r AmAnuj an has given t he f ollowing
r ef er ence f r om divya pr abandham in suppor t of t he int er pr et at ion of t his
nAma - "t E~ngOda vaNNan var u nar agamt I r kkum mar undu" - 3r d t ir uvandAdi -
3. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat BhagavAn who is Nat ur e
I ncar nat e is aushdham in day-t o-day lif e as well since inhaling t he f r esh air of
nat ur e, eat ing f ood which is not synt het ic, et c., lead t o a healt hier lif e.
nAma 289. nAma 289. nAma 289. =¬6FB6- =¬6FB6- =¬6FB6- -- - j agat assEt u j agat assEt u j agat assEt u
a) The bar r ier f or t he wor ld.
b) The br idge f or cr ossing t he ocean of samsAr a.
c) One who binds and keeps in-t act all t hat moves in t his wor ld.
jagatah-setave namah.
He is t he bar r ier t hat ensur es t hat t her e is or der in t he dif f er ent t hings in
t his wor ld, by making sur e t hat t he good and bad do not mix t oget her in a
chaot ic way. He ensur es t hat t her e is no ef f ect f or t he kar ma t hat is not
under t aken, t her e is always ef f ect f or t he kar ma t hat has been under t aken.
Those who do good get t he benef it f or t heir good and t hose who indulge in bad
deeds get t he benef it of t heir bad deeds, et c. The passage f r om bRhadAr aNya
upanishad is given in suppor t of t his int er pr et at ion - eshahset uh vidhar aNa
eshAm lokAnAm asambhedAya - 6.4.22 (He is t he br idge t hat suppor t s all t he
wor lds so t hat t hey may not get int o conf usion). Sr I Sankar a gives an
addit ional int er pr et at ion, viz. t hat He is t he br idge f or cr ossing t he ocean of
samsAr a. Sr I sat devo vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat BhagavAn t ies
t oget her all t hat exist s in t his wor ld. This includes t he f unct ion of holding
t oget her t he dif f er ent bones, ner ves, and muscles in t he body, as well as t he
syst em of st ar s and planet s. J agat is der ived f r om gat i - t hat which moves,
and set u - t hat which binds. He is t he set u in all bodies, and in addit ion holds
all t hese bodies and ot her t hings t hat exist in t his wor ld t oget her in or der ,
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and t hus He is hagat ah-set u. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er gives t he example of a
r iver which is bound by it s banks and kept in cont r ol, or t he ocean which is
bound by t he land sur r ounding it and kept under cont r ol. So also, BhagavAn has
kept t he j I vAt mA under cont r ol by limit ing it t o t he indr iya sukham and t he
ocean of samsAr a. I t is only mahA vishNu who can help t his j I vAt mA out of
t hese bounds, and it is by medit at ing on Him t hat t he j I vAt mA can get
liber at ed and cr oss t he ocean of samsAr a.
nAma 290. nAma 290. nAma 290. Bt4¤P9¹l4P- Bt4¤P9¹l4P- Bt4¤P9¹l4P- -- - sat yadhar mapar Akr amah sat yadhar mapar Akr amah sat yadhar mapar Akr amah
One whose qualit ies and valor ar e always t r ue.
satya-dharma-parAkramAya namah.
Her e dhar ma r ef er s t o t he auspicious qualit ies of BhagavAn, and par Akr ama
r ef er s t o His valor . One in whom t hey ar e never f ailing (sat ya) is sat ya-
dhar ma-par Akr amah. Sr I cinmayAnanda int er pr et s t he nAmat o mean t hat
BhagavAn is one who embodies sat ya (t r ut h), dhar ma (r ight eous), and
par Akr ama (her oism). I n vAlmI ki r AmAyaNa Sr I r Ama is r ef er r ed t o assat ya-
par Akr amah - One whose par Akr ama is never in vain, and is always used f or t he
good of t he wor ld. The wr it er in dhar ma cakr am point s out t hat t he nAma t ells
us t he impor t ance of living a lif e of t r ut h, r ight eousness, and t he valor
r esult ing f r om t his kind of lif e. Those who live a lif e along t hese lines ar e
bound t o succeed in what t hey do, as evidenced by t he lives of HanumAn,
BhI shma, et c.
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SlOkam 32
¬ 6¬-4¬4¬l¤- 94+- 9l4+l 5+¬-· ¬ 6¬-4¬4¬l¤- 94+- 9l4+l 5+¬-· ¬ 6¬-4¬4¬l¤- 94+- 9l4+l 5+¬-·
TlPrl TlPT tTl-6- TlP- TlP97- 9¬ -+ °-+ TlPrl TlPT tTl-6- TlP- TlP97- 9¬ -+ °-+ TlPrl TlPT tTl-6- TlP- TlP97- 9¬ -+ °-+
bhUt abhavya bhavannAt hah pavanah pAvanO5nalah |
kAmahA kAmakr ut hkAnt ah kAmah kAmapr adah pr abhuh | |
nAma 291. nAma 291. nAma 291. ¬6¬-4¬4¬l¤- ¬6¬-4¬4¬l¤- ¬6¬-4¬4¬l¤- -- - bhUt abhavya bhUt abhavya bhUt abhavya-- -bhavannAt hah bhavannAt hah bhavannAt hah
The Lor d of all in t he past , pr esent and f ut ur e.
bhUta-bhavya-bhavan-nAthAya namah.
Sankar a dist inguishes t he meanings of t he t wo nAma-s by int er pr et ing t he
f ir st one as "The Lor d of Past , Pr esent , and Fut ur e", or t hat He is beyond
t ime, and t he cur r ent one as "The Lor d of all beings in t he Past , Pr esent , and
Fut ur e". I n ot her wor ds, t he f ir st int er pr et at ion r ef er s t o His being Timeless,
and t he second r ef er s t o His being t he Lor d of all beings in all t ime.
nAma 292. nAma 292. nAma 292. 94+- 94+- 94+- -- - pavanah pavanah pavanah
He who moves about (Wind).
pavanAya namah.
Pavat a it i pavanah. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion based on t he r oot
pavi - t o move about . He moves about in all places at al t imes wit h no
const r aint s. The wind' s abilit y t o do t his is but a f r act ion of His abilit y in t his
r egar d. pavat Am pavanah asmi (gI t A 10-31) - Among t hose t hat move about , I
am t he wind.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he meaning f or t his nAma as One who is Pur e,
and f or t he next nAma he gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat in addit ion t o His being
Pur e (pavanah), He also pur if ies ever yt hing else -pAvanah).
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nAma 293. nAma 293. nAma 293. 9l4+- 9l4+- 9l4+- -- - pAvanah pAvanah pAvanah
He who pur if ies ever yt hing.
pAvanAya namah.
pAvayat i it i pAvanah. pAvanah sar va-lokAnAm t vameva r aghu-nandana -Oh
Scion of r aghu r ace! You alone ar e t he pur if ier of all t he wor lds -r AmAyaNam -
ut t ar a kANDam - 32.9. The power of Ganges t o pur if y anyone f r om all sins is
because of it s cont act wit h His Sacr ed Feet . We have in Sr I vishNu
sahasr anAmam "pavit r ANAm pavit r am yo mangalAnAm camangalam - He is t he
Pur est of t he pur e, and t he Most Auspicious among t hose t hat ar e auspicious".
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives t he r ef er ence f r om t ir uvAi-mozhi (2-8-5) - devAdi-
deva per umAn en t I r t hanE - t I r t han her e means Pur e. Anot her r ef er ence he
has given is - kar am nAngudaiyAn pEr Odi t I r t hakar ar Amin (ir aNDAm
t ir uvandAdi - 14) - Let us become pur e by chant ing t he name of t he One wit h
Four Hands.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha point s out t hat it is mahA-vishNu' s pAvana Sakt i
t hat is at play when t he ef f ect of t he poison of a cr ab bit e is r emoved f r om
t he body of a per son by dr opping t he j uice of r ed chile in t he ear s of t hat
per son. He gives sever al ot her examples as well.
nAma 294. nAma 294. nAma 294. H+¬- H+¬- H+¬- -- - aa analah nalah nalah
One who is never sat isf ied (in His Mer cy or dayA).
analAya namah.
alam means "t o be sat isf ied". analam is t he condit ion of never being sat isf ied.
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o per iya t ir uvandAdi - unaDiyAr kku en
Seyvan enRE ir ut t i nI (53) - "Always t hinking about what You can do next f or
Your devot ees". He is t he One who helped dr aupadi dur ing her t ime of dist r ess
and t hen f or ever f elt t hat He did not do enough f or her because He did not
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per sonally appear in t he palace when she called f or Him, and when He
ult imat ely depar t ed f or Sr I vaikunTham, st ill f elt t hat He was indebt ed -
RNam pr avRt t am idam me hRdayAt nApasar pat i.
analam lit er ally r ef er s t o f ir e (since f ir e is never sat isf ied, and will keep
consuming mor e and mor e t hings if lef t uncont r olled). A cer t ain amount of heat
is necessar y in t he body f or t he body t o cont inue alive. Since He is t he f ir e
t hat suppor t s lif e in t he body, He is called anala. The insat iable nat ur e of His
dayA has been sung by Sr I deSika in dayASat akam, wher e we f ind t hat no
mat t er what gr eat sins we have commit t ed, His dayA will consume (f or give) all
t hose when we sur r ender t o Him wit h devot ion and sincer it y. The hunger of
His dayA will not be easily quenched even by t he enor mous sins commit t ed by
us, and He will f or give all t hese if we adopt t he simple st ep of Sar aNAgat i t o
Him (Slokam 29 of dayASat akam). He is like t he f ir e t hat will bur n all our sins
wit hout limit . So He is analah in t his sense as well.
nAma 295. nAma 295. nAma 295. TlPrl TlPrl TlPrl -- - kAmaha kAmaha kAmaha
The Dest r oyer of desir es.
kAma-ghne namah.
He r emoves t he desir es in wor ldly mat t er s in t he minds of His devot ees. Sr I
cinmayAnanda gives an analysis of why it is necessar y t hat desir e should be
dest r oyed. When desir e ar ises, t her e ar e t wo possibilit ies -eit her t he desir e is
f ulf illed, or it is not . I f it is f ulf illed, t he r esult is t he desir e f or mor e - gr eed.
I f it is not f ulf illed, t he out come is anger and f r ust r at ion. So f or inner calm,
desir e needs t o be dest r oyed, and it is only His Gr ace which can cause t his t o
happen.
Someone who has successf ully climbed a ver y high hill will not desir e t o
conquer a smaller hill. So also, one who has developed a desir e f or t he
par amAt mA will not desir e anyt hing less or anyt hing else. He iskAma-hA in t he
sense t hat desir e in Him will aut omat ically dest r oy t he desir e in lesser obj ect s.
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nAma 296. nAma 296. nAma 296. TlPT 6 TlPT 6 TlPT 6 -- - kAmakr ut h kAmakr ut h kAmakr ut h
One who cr eat es desir able t hings, and also f ulf ils t he desir es.
kAma-kRte namah.
He f ulf ils what ever is desir ed, be it t owar ds bhoga or moksha. Sr I sat yadevo
vAsishTha gives t he explanat ion - kAmAn kar ot i pUr ayat i it ikAma-kRt - One
who f ulf ils t he desir es. I t is nat ur al t hat a per son wit h less wealt h goes t o a
per son wit h mor e wealt h f or f ulf illing his need. The only one who can ult imat ely
f ulf ill t he desir es of anyone is t he One who has ever yt hing, vishNu t he kAma-
kRt . kAma-kRt can also mean One who cr eat es desir es; in t his sense, He
cr eat es t he good desir es, j ust as He dest r oys t he undesir able desir es (kAma-
hA).
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er f r om mANikka vAcakar "vENDat t akkadu aRivOy nI ,
vENDa muzhudum t ar uvOy nI , vENDum par iSu onRu uNDu enil aduvum
undanvir uppanRE". He also quot es t ir umangai AzhvAr in t his cont ext -
kulamt ar um Selvam t andiDum, aDiyAr padDum t uyar Ayina ellAm nilam
t ar amSeyyum nI L viSumbum ar uLum ar uLODu per u nilam aLikkum, nalam
t ar umSollai nAn kaNDu konDEn nAr AyaNA ennum nAmam. He gives t he lesser
obj ect s t o t hose who desir e t his, and t he ver y ut t er ance of His nAma can give
moksham also.
nAma 297. nAma 297. nAma 297. Tl-6- Tl-6- Tl-6- -- - kAnt ah kAnt ah kAnt ah
He who is char ming.
kAntAya namah.
This nAma will r e-occur as nAma 660 lat er . kAnt a also means at t r act ion. I n
t amizh, t his wor d is used t o r ef er t o magnet . The dhar ma cakr am wr it er
descr ibes t he dif f er ent kinds of at t r act ion, involving t he f ive senses, as well
as t he at t r act ion involving t hought and t he one involving good behavior or
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char act er . BhagavAn is kAnt ah because He is t he One r esponsible f or all t he
dif f er ent t ypes of at t r act ions, and in addit ion He is also at t r act ive in ever y
one of t hese.
nAma 298. nAma 298. nAma 298. TlP- TlP- TlP- -- - kAmah kAmah kAmah
The Lovable (or manmat ha).
kAmAya namah.
People in t his wor ld ar e af t er dhar ma, ar t ha, kAma or moksha. For all t hese
f our , He is t he one who is sought af t er . The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out
t hat t hose who desir e wealt h or physical obj ect s and ar e af t er sensuous
at t r act ion lower t hemselves, wher eas t hose who desir e bhagavAn elevat e
t hemselves. Those who desir e t he ult imat e liber at ion know t hat t he most
desir able is bhagavAn vishNu. kAma also r ef er s t o manmat ha, who is
consider ed t he god of desir e. manmat ha' s abilit y t o be desir able is but a
f r act ion of bhagavAn' s.
nAma 299. nAma 299. nAma 299. TlP97- TlP97- TlP97- -- - kAmapr adah kAmapr adah kAmapr adah
The Gr ant or of wishes.
kAma-pradAya namah.
He gr ant s t he wishes of t hose who desir e Him as well as t hose who ar e af t er
t r if les. For t hose who desir e not hing ot her t han Him, He f ulf ils t heir desir e by
being in t heir mind const ant ly. He makes Himself available in any f or m t hat is
desir ed. I n kaThopanishad we have "ekobahUnAm yo vidadhAt i kAmAn (2.5)" -
The One who f ulf ils t he desir es of t he many.
nAma 300. nAma 300. nAma 300. 9¬ - 9¬ - 9¬ - -- - pr abhuh pr abhuh pr abhuh
One who has t he supr eme power t o at t r act t he minds of all t owar ds Himself ;
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One who sur passes all in being.
prabhave namah.
Power t o at t r act ever yone' s mind t owar ds Him t hr ough His ext r eme loveliness.
Sr I Sankar a bhAshyam f or t his nAma is pr akar sheNa bhavanAt pr abhuh - One
who sur passes all in being. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er gives examples of how
bhagavAn sur passes all in being: by not slipping f r om t he r ight pat h (acyut a),
by always having t he indr iya-s under cont r ol (hRshI -keSah), by est ablishing
dhar ma over adhar ma (par it r ANAyasAdhUnAm vinASAya ca dushkRt Am), by
being t he dest r oyer of t he evil asur a-s (madhu-sUdana, keSi-sUdana, kamsa
cANUr a mar dana, et c.)...
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SlOkam 33
St ar t ing f r om t his, up t o nAma 313, ar e int er pr et ed by Sr I BhaTTar as
r ef er r ing t o t he vat a-pat r a-SAyI avat Ar a or t he incar nat ion as a Child on t he
banyan leaf .
4 ¬l|7T H ¬l46l + TPl4l PrlH+-· 4 ¬l|7T H ¬l46l + TPl4l PrlH+-· 4 ¬l|7T H ¬l46l + TPl4l PrlH+-·
H†74l -4±6-9¾ BrU|=7+-6|=6 + °°+ H†74l -4±6-9¾ BrU|=7+-6|=6 + °°+ H†74l -4±6-9¾ BrU|=7+-6|=6 + °°+
yugAdikr ut ugAvar t O naikamAyO mahAsanah |
adr usyO vyakt ar Upasca sahasr aj idanant aj it | |
nAma 301. nAma 301. nAma 301. 4¬l|7T6 4¬l|7T6 4¬l|7T6 -- - yugAdikr ut yugAdikr ut yugAdikr ut
The Cr eat or at t he beginning of a yuga.
yugAdi-kRte namah.
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion "yugasya ant e' pi Adim kar ot i" - Even at
t he end of a yuga, He makes t he beginning of anot her . Even at t he dissolut ion
of t he Univer se, He saves it f r om t he dist r ess of Deluge by beginning t he
Univer se again; even at t he end of t he Univer se t hr ough pr alaya, He begins
Cr eat ion again.
Sr I Sankar a gives t he der ivat ion:
yugAdeh kAla-bhedasya kar t Rt vAt yugAdi-kRt
- He is called yugAdi-kRt because He is t he cause of per iods of t ime such as
yuga.
Accor ding t o Sr I cinmayAnanda, Adi her e r ef er s t o ot her divisions of t ime
such as cent ur ies, year s, mont hs, days, et c.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i suggest s t hat t hr ough t hese divisions of t ime, like
t he day and night f ollowing each ot her , He gives a meaning of cont inuit y t o
t ime which is ot her wise a never -ending cakr a or cir cle wit h no beginning or end.
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The wor d yuga is der ived f r om t he r oot yuj - yoge - t o unit e. He cr eat es t he
cont inuit y or connect ivit y bet ween one yuga and anot her by ensur ing t hat t he
lif e-f or ms ar e r e-cr eat ed accor ding t o t heir kar ma-s.
A r elat ed alt er nat e int er pr et at ion given by Sr I Sankar a is yugAnAm
AdimAr ambham kar ot i it i yugAdi-kRt - The I nst it ut or of t he yuga et c. I t may
be r ecalled t hat t her e ar e f our yuga-s, kRt a, t r et A, dvApar a, and kali.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha int er pr et s yuga as kAla-cakr a, Adi as beginning, and
t he t er m yugAdi as r ef er r ing t o t he Sun, who is t he cause of t he division of
t ime as day and night et c. He t hen int er pr et s yugAdi-kRt as t he One who
cr eat ed t he Sun or One who cr eat ed t he kAla-cakr a.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out s t he limit ed nat ur e of our body and our
lif e in t his wor ld in t he cont ext of t his huge, immeasur able, and unending, kAla
or t ime. I nst ead of wast ing it on pet t y goals, and wor r ying about t he past
which is gone or t he f ut ur e on which we have no cont r ol, we should lear n t o
medit at e on Him in t he pr esent , over which we have cont r ol.
nAma 302. nAma 302. nAma 302. 7¬l46- 7¬l46- 7¬l46- -- - ugAvar t ah ugAvar t ah ugAvar t ah
He who r evolves t he yuga-s or aeons.
yugAvartAya namah.
Avar t a r ef er s t o r evolut ion or r ot at ion. Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat
He is yugAvar t a because He makes t he kRt a and ot her yuga-s go r ound again
and again wit h t heir r espect ive dhar ma-s. (I t is said t hat if t he ext ent of
dhar ma in t he societ y in kRt a yuga is 100%, t hat in t r et A yuga is75%, in
dvApar a yuga is 50%, and t hat in kali yuga is 25%. kRt a yuga is also called sat ya
yuga based on t his). This r ot at ion is seen in a dimension wher e we can r elat e t o
it easily in t he f or m of day and night , mor ning, af t er noon, and evening, t he f our
seasons wit h t heir const ant at t r ibut es (r ain, snow, heat , et c.,) r epeat ing again
and again. He is not only t he Cr eat or of Time as we saw in t he pr evious nAma,
but He is also t he Administ r at or of Time as we see in t his nAma.
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nAma 303. nAma 303. nAma 303. +TPl4- +TPl4- +TPl4- -- - naikamAyah naikamAyah naikamAyah
He of mult if ar ious wonder s.
naika-mAyAya namah.
This is one of t he nAma-s f or which t he int er pr et at ion of Sr I BhaTTar and
Sr I Sankar a ar e pur ely based on t he r espect ive philosophies (viz.,
viSishTAdvait a and advait a r espect ively) t o which t hey subscr ibed.
Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat mAyA her e r ef er s t o knowledge or wonder f ul
t r ut hs, and should not be int er pr et ed as illusion. He is naika-mAya because of
His innumer able and wonder f ul exploit s. He gives sever al examples t o point out
t he use of t he wor d not as illusion but as t r ut h, knowledge, et c.
"mAyAm t u pr akRt im vidyAt " - Know t hat mAyA is pr akRt i or Pr imor dial
Mat t er .
"mAyA vayunam j ~nAnam" - all signif y knowledge, accor ding t o nir ukt am.
I n vishNu pur ANa, t her e is ment ion of Lor d vishNu dest r oying t he t housands
of mAya-s of Sambar Asur a wit h His discus. I f mAyA her e r ef er s t o illusion,
t hen a discus was not needed t o dest r oy it ; so obviously her e mAyA r ef er s t o
r eal obj ect s.
Sr I Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t his nAma r ef er s t o His assuming
many f or ms of illusion.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha der ives t he meaning f r om t he r oot mA - mAne - t o
measur e, and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t his nAma means t hat He has
innumer able dimensions t o Him.
nAma 304. nAma 304. nAma 304. PrlH+- PrlH+- PrlH+- -- - mahAsanah mahAsanah mahAsanah
He who is a vor acious eat er .
mahASanAya namah.
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264
mahat aSanam yasya sah mahASanah. The r oot is aS - bhoj ane - t o eat . The
r ef er ence her e is t o His swallowing t he seven wor lds. Recall t he pASur am
"ulagam uNDa per u vAyA". Also we have f r om t ir uvAi mozhi- "kAr Ezh kaDalEzh
malai Ezh ulagu uNDum Ar A vayiRRAnai aDa~ngap piDit t EnE" - 10-8-2.
Sr I Sankar a r ef er s t o His act of consuming ever yt hing dur ing t he t ime of
pr alaya.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives anot her addit ional der ivat ion f or t his nAma
based on aS - vyApt au sa~nghAt e ca - t o per vade, t o accumulat e. So in addit ion
t o t he meaning t hat His f ood is huge, he also gives t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion
t hat His per vasion or vyApt i is lar ge or ext ensive.
nAma 305. nAma 305. nAma 305. H†74- H†74- H†74- -- - adr usyah adr usyah adr usyah
He Who cannot be seen.
adRSyAya namah.
BhagavAn' s act s ar e inscr ut able. I n mahAbhAr at am, we have
kat ham nu ayam SiSuh Set e loke nASam upAgat e |
t apasA cint ayanScApi t am SiSum nopalakshaye | |
- (vana par va -191-94)
"When t he ent ir e wor ld has met wit h dest r uct ion, how come t his child is alive
and lying down (on a leaf )? Even t hough I t r y t o under st and t his t hr ough t he
power of my aust er it ies, I am unable t o under st and t he t r ue nat ur e of t his
child".
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o nammAzhvAr -
"kat kilI unnaik kANumARu ar uLAi- t ir uvAi mozhi 7.2.3.
kat kilI her e means One who cannot be seen t hr ough our nor mal vision.
I n t he upanishad-s we have
"adr eSyam agr Ahyamagot r am...." (muNdakopanishad 1.1.6),
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" adRSyam avyavahAr yam agr Ahymal akshaNam...SAnt am Si vam
advait am..." (mAnDUkya 1.7).
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat He is adRSyah because He cannot
be r ecognized t hr ough t he f ive senses, nor by logical analysis. For t hat mat t er ,
it is only His Gr ace t hat can make Him be r ealized.
nAma 306. nAma 306. nAma 306. -4±6-9- -4±6-9- -4±6-9- -- - vyakt a vyakt a vyakt a-- -r Upah r Upah r Upah
He of a manif est f or m.
vyakta-rUpAya namah.
His celest ial f or m is easily visualized by t he sages such as mAr kaNDeya.
at asI -pushpa samkASah Sr I -vat sa kRt a lakshNah |
sAkshAt lakshmyA iva AvAsah sadA pr at ibhAt i me | |
- (bhAr at a - vana188.96)
"He, who is like t he blue lily f lower in color , and who is ador ned by t he
Sr I vat sa mole, appear s t o me always as t he abode of Lakshmi".
t asya t Amr a-t alau t At a! car aNau supr at ishThit au |
suj At a-mRdu-r akt Abhih a~ngulI bhih alamkRt au | |
pr aNat ena mayA mUr dhnA gRhI t vA hyabhivandit au | |
- (bhAr at a - vana188.13)
"O Dear ! His t wo f eet wit h r ed sur f ace ador ned by t he lovely sof t and r ed
t oes, wer e f ir mly placed on my head when I bowed wit h bent head and
wor shipped Him". Not ice t hat j ust in t he pr evious nAma we had seen Him t o be
adRSya, and now we encount er Him as vykat a-r Upa. The dif f er ence is t hat in
t he pr eviousnAma we saw t hat He cannot be seen t hr ough t he nor mal means of
per cept ion. I n t he cur r ent nAma we see t hat He is easily per ceived by His
devot ees who have t r anscended t he inf luence of t he f ive senses.
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266
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat t he ca in t he Slokam - vyakt a
r UpaSca - indicat es t hat even while being adRSya, He is of vykat a-r Upa or
manif est f or m t o His devot ees, t hr ough so many incar nat ions et c.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat t he pr evious nAma r evealed
vishNu' s at t r ibut e which is beyond our per cept ion, and t he cur r ent nAma
r eveals His at t r ibut e of being pr esent in ever yt hing as ant ar yAmi.
nAma 307. nAma 307. nAma 307. BrU|=6 BrU|=6 BrU|=6 -- - sahasr aj it sahasr aj it sahasr aj it
The Conquer or of t housands.
sahasra-jite namah.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he ' t housands' her e as r ef er r ing t o t housands of
aeons or Time which He conquer s by being in yoga-nidr A while ever yt hing else
is dissolved in pr alaya.
Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s it as r ef er r ing t o His conquer ing t housands of enemies
or asur a-s in bat t le.
nAma 308. nAma 308. nAma 308. H+-6|=6 H+-6|=6 H+-6|=6 -- - anant aj it anant aj it anant aj it
One whose vict or y is endless, limit less, count less.
ananta-jite namah.
He is anant a-j it because He has ever yt hing t hat exist s under His cont r ol. I n
ever y incar nat ion He alone wins in t he end.
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat His mahimA or gr eat ness is beyond
compr ehension.
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267







ishTah
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268
SlOkam 34
²7l 5|4|H7|7H7 7 |7HG'7l +r 9l 4 9-· ²7l 5|4|H7|7H7 7 |7HG'7l +r 9l 4 9-· ²7l 5|4|H7|7H7 7 |7HG'7l +r 9l 4 9-·
4l ¤rl 4l ¤T tT6l |4H4lr P rl¤¹-+ °v+ 4l ¤rl 4l ¤T tT6l |4H4lr P rl¤¹-+ °v+ 4l ¤rl 4l ¤T tT6l |4H4lr P rl¤¹-+ °v+
ishTO5visishTas sishTEshTas sikhaNDee nahushO vr ushah |
kr OdhahA kr Odhakr ut hkar t A visvabAhur mahI dhar ah | |
nAma 309 nAma 309 nAma 309. . . ²7- ²7- ²7- -- - ishTah ishTah ishTah
a) One who is liked by ever yone.
b) One who is wor shipped in ishTi or sacr if ice.
ishTAya namah.
He is ishTa because He is liked by ever yone and t his is because He is t he
Supr eme Bliss. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er emphasizes t hat t her e is not hing
else t hat is wor t h liking and going af t er , because not hing else is Per manent
Bliss. We should lear n t o conver t t he desir e t hat we have f or mat er ial obj ect s
t o t he desir e f or under st anding At mA, and ult imat ely t o t he desir e f or
par amAt mA. The second int er pr et at ion is self -explanat or y, and is r elat ed t o
t he t er mishTi which means sacr if ice.
nAma 310. nAma 310. nAma 310. H|4|H7 H|4|H7 H|4|H7- - - -- - aa avisishTah visishTah visishTah
a) He who is impar t ial t o ever yone.
b) He who cannot be dist inguished.
c) He who has no equal.
aviSishTAya namah.
He pr ot ect s ever yone j ust as a mot her pr ot ect s all of her childr en wit hout
par t ialit y. Anot her int er pr et at ion is t hat He is aviSishTa because He cannot
be dist inguished by vir t ue of t he f act t hat He is t he ant ar yAmi in ever yt hing.
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269


I t is unclear f r om t he sour ces I have on whet her Sr I BhaTTar had
int er pr et ed309 and 310 t oget her as one nAma - aviSishTah ishTah - meaning
He is one who does not dist inguish bet ween beings and t r eat s t hem all alike
like a mot her her childr en. Two of t he f our sour ces I have t hat f ollow Sr I
BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAna t r eat t he t wo t oget her as one nAma. I n t he ver sions
which t r eat t hese as t wo nAma-s, t her e is a f ur t her var iat ion f or nAma 310 -
viSishTa inst ead of aviSishTa - One who is Special and Unique - One who is t he
noblest and most sacr ed. This ver sion is used by Sr I cinmayAnanDa.
nAma 311. nAma 311. nAma 311. |H77- |H77- |H77- -- - sishTEshTa sishTEshTa sishTEshTa
a) He who is dear even t o eminent per sons.
b) He who dear ly loves t he eminent per sons
SishTeshTAya namah.
a) SishTAnAm ishTah SishTeshTah or
b) SishTA ishTA asya it i SishTeshTah.
Sr I Sankar a gives r ef er ence t o bhagavad-gI t A - "pr iyo hi j ~nAnino
at yar t hamaham sa ca mama pr iyah (7.17)" - I am dear t o a j ~nAni beyond
descr ipt ion; and he is also ver y dear t o Me. A j ~nAni her e r ef er s t o one who
has r ealized t hat t he one goal t hat is wor t h st r iving f or is He, and not hing
else; t hus, by his ver y nat ur e, t he only t hing dear t o him is BhagavAn. Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o t ir uppAvai - "veLLat t ar avil t uyilamar nda
vit t inai uLLat t ukkoNDu munivar gaLum yOgigaLum".
nAma 312. nAma 312. nAma 312. |HG'7l |HG'7l |HG'7l -- - sikhaNDee sikhaNDee sikhaNDee
a) He who has t he plume (or ef f ulgence) of Lor dship
b) He who wear s a peacock f eat her
SikhanDine namah.
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270
The wor d SikhanDa means a t uf t of hair or t he plume of a peacock. Sr I
BhaTTar uses t he meaning ' cr est ' t o mean t hat He is at t he cr est or peak of
Lor dship. Sr I Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat t his nAma r ef er s t o Lor d
KRshNa as a cowher d boy, wit h t he peacock f eat her in His head.
nAma 313. nAma 313. nAma 313. +r9- +r9- +r9- -- - nahushah nahushah nahushah
One who binds (t he j iva-s by His mAyA).
nahushAya namah.
nahyat i it i nahushah. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat
He binds all beings t hr ough His beaut y and soulabhyam. Sr I sat yadevo
vAsishTha int er pr et s t his t o mean t hat He binds (cont r ols) all beings and so
He is nahushah. This binding ext ends in t he wor ld we obser ve even t o t he
dif f er ent par t s of t he body being bound appr opr iat ely so t hat t hey f unct ion as
a unit . So also t he dif f er ent planet s ar e bound t oget her so t hat t her e is
or der .
nAma 314. nAma 314. nAma 314. 4 9- 4 9- 4 9- -- - vr ushah vr ushah vr ushah
a) He who dr enches (t hose who ar e scor ched by t he heat of samsAr a).
b) He who shower s His devot ees wit h all t hat is asked f or
c) He who is t he embodiment of dhar ma.
vRshAya namah.
The wor d is der ived f r om t he r oot vRsh - t o dr ench or t o shower . He also
shower s what ever is asked f or on His devot ees, and so He is vRshah in t hat
sense as well - kAmAnAm var shaNAt vRshah - Sr I Sankar a. He also gives t he
f ollowing ver se f r om mahAbhAr at a -
vRsho hi bhagavAn dhar mah smRt o lokeshu bhAr at a|
naighanTuka padAkhyAnaih viddhi mAm vRsha it yut a| |
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- (SAnt ipar va 330.23)
"O ar j una! vRsha is explained by t he lexicogr apher s and likewise known in t his
wor ld as sacr ed dhar ma. Hence know Me as vRsha". Thus, vRsha and dhar ma
ar e synonyms. Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t he next 8 nAma-s as r ef er r ing t o
par aSur Ama or bhAr gava r Ama incar nat ion.
nAma 315. nAma 315. nAma 315. 4l¤rl 4l¤rl 4l¤rl -- - kr OdhahA kr OdhahA kr OdhahA
a) He who gave up His anger .
b) He who dest r oys t he anger in sAdhu-s.
krodha-ghne namah.
kr odham hant i it i kr odha-hA. Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion: At t he mer e
r equest of KASyapa mahAr shi, He gave up His anger which had pr eviously
r esult ed in t he dest r uct ion of 21lineages of kshat r iya-s. Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an
gives r ef er ence t o divya pr abandham in suppor t of t his int er pr et at ion:
"mazhuvi nAl avani ar aSai mUvezhu-kAl maNi -muDi poDi paDut t u
udir akkuzhuvAr punalil kuLit t u ven-kopam t avir ndavan" - per iya t ir umozhi 8-1-
6.Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat t his nAma indicat es t hat BhagavAn
can cont r ol His anger j ust at t he mer e t hought of cont r olling it . I n His
incar nat ion as Lor d r Ama, we f ind t hat He became int ensely angr y at t imes
(r osham AhAr ayat t I vr am - 3-30-19), (kr odhasya vaSameyivAn - 6-59-136),
but only He can also get r id of t his anger at will in an inst ant . A lesson
applicable in t his cont ext t o r eal lif e is given by t he dhar ma cakr am wr it er who
quot es Sr I par amahamsa on how t o handle sit uat ions which may r equir e one t o
be angr y - "Hiss but don' t bit e". I n ot her wor ds, do not ever let your anger
get t o a point wher e you cause har m t o ot her s. Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion:
He is kr odha-hA since He helps t he sAdhu-st o over come anger . Anger is a
r esult of unf ulf illed desir es, and when desir e is over come, anger is also
over come.
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272
nAma 316. nAma 316. nAma 316. 4l¤T6 4l¤T6 4l¤T6 -- - kr Odhakr ut kr Odhakr ut kr Odhakr ut
He who developed anger .
krodha-kRte namah.
I n His incar nat ion as par aSur Ama, He got angr y at kAr t a-vI r ya and his
kshat r iya r ace and dest r oyed 21 gener at ions of t hem, bef or e giving up His
anger as ment ioned in t he pr evious nAma. Sr I Sankar a gives t he meaning t hat
He cr eat es anger in people who ar e wicked or bad - asAdhushu kr odham kar ot i
it i kr odha-kRt , and t hey cause t heir own dest r uct ion because of t his anger .

par asur Ama
nAma 317. nAma 317. nAma 317. T6l T6l T6l -- - kar t A kar t A kar t A
He who slays.
kartre namah.
Cont inuing his int er pr et at ion of t he sequence of nAma-s as descr ibing par aSu-
r Ama incar nat ion, Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t his nAma as r ef er r ing t o t he
slaying of kAr t a-vI r ya. Sr I Sankar a gives t he meaning t hat He is kar t A or
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Cr eat or of t he Univer se - kr iyat a it i kar ma j agat t asya kar t A. Sr I Sankar a
gives t he int er pr et at ion f or 316 and 317 as individual nAma-s, and also
suggest s t hat t he can be consider ed as one nAma t oget her -kr odha-kRt -kar t A
- One who dest r oys t hose who demonst r at e anger viz. t he asur a-s. For t he
pur poses of account ing f or 1000 nAma-s, 316 and 317 as t r eat ed as one nAma
in Sr I Sankar a bhAshyam, and as t wo in Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam.
krodha-kRt-kartre namah.
The int er pr et at ion in t his case is kr odha-kRt Am dait yAdI nAm kar t A
chedakait i ekam nAma. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion -
kr odhamkar ot i it i kr odha-kRt kr odha-kRt am kRnt at i chinat t i hant i vA
sakr odha-kRt -kar t A.
nAma 318. nAma 318. nAma 318. |4H4lr- |4H4lr- |4H4lr- -- - visvabahuh visvabahuh visvabahuh
He who has ar ms f or t he good of t he wor ld.
viSva-bAhave namah.
Bhagavan uses His ar ms f or r emoving t he t hor ns (evil-doer s) f or t he good of
t he wor ld. Hence He is called viSva-bAhuh. Again t he cont ext in which Sr I
BhaTTar int er pr et s t he nAma is wit h r espect t o par aSur Ama incar nat ion, and
t hus t he r ef er ence her e is t o t he dest r uct ion of 21 gener at ions of r Akshasa-s.
Sr I Sankar a gives t he meaning in a mor e gener al sense. He is viSva-bAhu since
He has ar ms t hat ar e endless in number t o suppor t t he wor ld, and ext end
ever ywher e f or t he same cause. I n Svet ASvat ar a upanishad, we have
r ef er ence t o viSvat o-bAhuh ( 3.3). Ever yt hing depends on Him, and in t his
sense also He is viSva-bAhuh. Thus, He has inf init e ar ms f or bot h dest r oying
t he evil-doer s (Sr I BhaTTar ), and f or helping His devot ees (Sr I Sankar a). I n
bot h cases, His act ions ar e always f or t he good of t he wor ld. The dhar ma
cakr am wr it er point s out t hat as we use our hands in per f or ming our kar ma-s,
BhagavAn per f or ms t he act s of cr eat ion, pr ot ect ion, et c. of t he wor ld, and in
t his sense He is viSva-bAhu. The nAma should also r emind us t hat t hese hands
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of our s ar e f or doing good t o ot her s.
nAma 319. nAma 319. nAma 319. Prl¤¹- Prl¤¹- Prl¤¹- -- - mahI dhar ah mahI dhar ah mahI dhar ah
The Suppor t er of t he wor ld.
mahI-dharAya namah.
mahI m dhat t e it i mahI -dhar ah. He suppor t s t he wor ld by r emoving t he evil-
doer s or wicked people in t he wor ld. Sr I Sankar a bhAshyam is t hat mahI
means bot h pUj A (mahat va) and ear t h. He is mahI -dhar a because He accept s
t he of f er ings f r om devot ees or because He suppor t s t he wor ld. Sr I
cinmayAnanda gives an example t o explain t he meaning of ' suppor t ' . This is
like t he cot t on suppor t ing t he clot h, t he gold suppor t ing t he or nament , or t he
clay suppor t ing a clay pot . I n t his sense, His suppor t ing t he wor ld is t he same
as saying t hat t he wor ld and He ar e insepar able and same, and t he wor ld is one
of His manif est at ions.
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acyut an

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SlOkam 35
H¬4 6- 9|¤6- 9lT- 9lT7l 4lB4l+ =-· H¬4 6- 9|¤6- 9lT- 9lT7l 4lB4l+ =-· H¬4 6- 9|¤6- 9lT- 9lT7l 4lB4l+ =-·
H9l|¬|¤ ¹|¤Ul+P9P¬- 9|6|U6-+ °-+ H9l|¬|¤ ¹|¤Ul+P9P¬- 9|6|U6-+ °-+ H9l|¬|¤ ¹|¤Ul+P9P¬- 9|6|U6-+ °-+
acyut ah pr at hit ah pr ANah pr ANadO vAsavAnuj ah |
apAnnidhi r adhishThAna mapr amat t ah pr at ishThit ah | |
nAma 320. nAma 320. nAma 320. H¬46- H¬46- H¬46- -- - acyut ah acyut ah acyut ah
He who does not f all f r om His st at us.
acutAya namah.
This nAma occur r ed pr eviously (nAma 101).
The dif f er ent int er pr et at ions have been cover ed t her e. The addit ional
mat er ial below was not cover ed ear lier . Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an adds t he f ollowing
r ef er ence f r om r AmAyaNa - "mit r a-bhAvena sampr Apt am na t yaj eyam
kat hancana dosho yadyapi t asyasyAt " - "No mat t er what f laws a per son has, if
he has come t o Me seeking My f r iendship, t her e is no way t hat I will abandon
him under any cir cumst ance". Sr I r AmAnuj an also gives t he r ef er ence t o divya
pr abandham - "kAr t igaiyAnum kar i-mugat t Anum kanalum mukkaN-mUr t iyum
mODiyumveppum mudugiTTu" - t he r ef er ence her e is t o t he st or y of
bANAsur a who was abandoned by t he ot her devat A-s when he appr oached
t hem f or pr ot ect ion. Not so wit h bhagavAn - na me bhakt ah pr aNaSyat i - "My
devot ee will never per ish" - gI t A. Anot her meaning f or acyt a is One who does
not slip f r om His posit ion - nacyut a it i acyut ah. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er
point s t o t he passage in muNDakopanishad which descr ibes t he t wo bir ds
sit t ing in dif f er ent br anches of t he t r ee, one t ast ing t he f r uit and t he ot her
j ust wat ching t he bir d t hat is t ast ing t he f r uit (of kar ma). This has been
descr ibed in a pr evious wr it e-up. BhagavAn is t he acyut a, f r om His super ior
posit ion, wat ching t he j I vAt mA which is t ast ing t he f r uit s of kar ma in t his
case.
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nAma 321. nAma 321. nAma 321. 9|¤6- 9|¤6- 9|¤6- -- - pr at hit ah pr at hit ah pr at hit ah
One who is f amous, One who is of gr eat r eput at ion.
prathitAya namah.
The nAma is der ived f r om t he r oot pr at h - t o become f amous (pr at h -
pr akhyAn - pr asiddhi). This f ame can be associat ed wit h t he pr evious nAma -
His guNa of being acyut a, or on account of His cr eat ion, sust enance, et c. of
t he Univer se. Suppor t s f or t he int er pr et at ion ar e:
"t asya nAma mahad-yaSah" -t ait t ir I ya nAr Aya... 1.9;
"yaSasaSca eka bhAj anam" - r AmAyaNa - kishkindA ..15.19;
per umai uDiaya pir AnAr - t ir uvAi mozhi - 1-6-9;
nagar -il- pugazhAi -t ir uvAi mozhi - 6-10-10.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat t he f ame t hat is der ived f r om
t hings such as wealt h, posit ion in lif e, et c. ar e imper manent and disappear as
soon as t he under lying cause t hat r esult ed in t his f ame disappear s. This is not
t he case when t he f ame r esult s f r om adher ence t o dhar ma, and in t his case
t he f ame is per manent . This is as evidenced by t he cases of har iS-canDr a, t he
pANDava-s, pr ahlAda, hanumAn, et c. BhagavAn is pr at hit ah f or t he same
r eason i.e., He is sat ya-par Akr ama, sat ya, sat ya-kAma, sat ya-samkalpa, sat ya-
vr at a, et c., and so He is pr at hit ah.
nAma 322. nAma 322. nAma 322. 9lT- 9lT- 9lT- -- - pr ANah pr ANah pr ANah
The Lif e-Br eat h.
prANAya namah.
He is pr ANa f or t hose who r esor t t o Him (Sr I BhaTTar ). He is also t he lif e-
ener gy f or all beings (Sr I Sankar a) - pr ANo vA aham asmi - ait ar eyaAr aNyaka
2.2.3). Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o pr abandham - ulagukkEOr
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uyir umAnAi - t ir uvAi mozhi 6-9-7. The next 11 nAma-s ar e int er pr et ed by Sr I
BhaTTar as descr ibing t he kUr ma (Tor t oise) incar nat ion.
nAma 323. nAma 323. nAma 323. 9lT7- 9lT7- 9lT7- -- - pr ANadah pr ANadah pr ANadah
The Lif e-Giver .
prANadAya namah.
Since He gave t he st r engt h t o t he deva-s t o chur n t he Milky Ocean, He
ispr ANa-dah (Sr I BhaTTar ). Sr I Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is
t he Lif e-giver t o ever yone (deva-s and asur a-s), and also gives an addit ional
int er pr et at ion using t he meaning dyat i - cut s - He cut s t he st r engt h of asur a-
s. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he f ollowing explanat ion - pr ANan dadAt i
dyat i khaNDayat i va sa pr ANa-dah - BhagavAn bot h gives lif e t o all beings, and
t akes away t he lif e of all beings when t he t ime comes, and so He is pr ANa-dah
in bot h senses. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat t he dif f er ent
aspect s of our lif e and body - such as our t hought s, our wor ds, et c., ar e all
dif f er ent r ef lect ions of t he pr ANa in us. Wit hout pr ANa, our lif e will cease t o
exist , and our body will cease t o f unct ion. But by cont r olling t his pr ANa, we
can cont r ol our body and all it s act ions. Ther e is no limit t o what can be
achieved by having cont r ol over our pr ANa or br eat h. This nAma of
mahAvishNu should t each us t hat t he pr ANa t hat has been given t o us by Him
should be used f or good pur pose.
nAma 324. nAma 324. nAma 324. 4lB4l+ =- 4lB4l+ =- 4lB4l+ =- -- - vAsavAnuj ah vAsavAnuj ah vAsavAnuj ah
The younger br ot her of vAsava or indr a.
vAsavAnujAya namah.
Sr I BhaTTar says in his vyAkhyAna t hat t his nAma r ef er s t o BhagavAn being
bor n as t he younger br ot her of indr a in or der t o help him get t he nect ar which
he wishes t o have. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an point s out t hat t he r ef er ence in t his
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nAma is NOT t o upendr a or vAmana (nAma 153). I am unable t o explain what
t his incar nat ion is. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives an int er pr et at ion which
does not involve a r ef er ence t o indr a. He int er pr et s vAsavAnuj ah t o mean One
who has ent er ed int o ever yt hing in t his wor ld -
vasat i sar vat r a vast e sar vam it i vA vAsuh I Svar ah;
vAsohidam vAsavam sar vam j agat ;
vAsavam j agat anuj At o = anupr avishTovAsavAnuj ah.
nAma 325. nAma 325. nAma 325. H9l |+|¤- H9l |+|¤- H9l |+|¤- -- - apAm apAm apAm-- -nidhi nidhi nidhi
The Sust ainer of t he wat er s of t he ocean.
apAm-nidhaye namah.
Sr I BhaTTar cont inues his int er pr et at ion of t his nAma based on t he kUr ma
incar nat ion, and point s out t hat t his name indicat es t hat He sust ained t he
gr eat Ocean when it was being chur ned. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o
t ir uvAi mozhi - appanE! Azh-kaDalaik kaDaindat uppanE! (4.7.5). Sr I Sankar a
gives t he meaning "The Ocean" t o t his nAma based on "Apo yat r anidhI yant e
sah apAm-nidhih - The place wher e t he wat er s get collect ed in abundance". He
also gives r ef er ence t o t he gI t A - sar asAm asmi sAgar ah -Among lakes I am
t he Ocean - gI t A 10.24. Sr I cinmayAnanda point s out t hat t he glor y and
might of t he oceans ar e but a t iny r ef lect ion of bhagavAn' s glor y divine. Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i t akes t he anubhavam of t his nAma a st ep f ur t her and
point s out t hat j ust as t he wat er s of all t he r iver s and canals ult imat ely r each
t he ocean and lose t heir ident it y, so also t hose who wor ship BhagavAn become
one wit h Him. I n t his sense He is apAm-nidhih, or t he Ocean wher e ever ybody
mer ges in t he end. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat j ust as t he
ocean is t he beginning and t he end f or t he wat er (by evapor at ion of t he wat er s
of t he ocean, t he vapor r ises, condenses and comes back in t he f or ms of r ain,
which t hen f or ms t he r ivulet s and r iver s, and t hese in t ur n go back t o t he
ocean), so also t he beings of t his wor ld or iginat e f r om Him, and ult imat ely
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280
mer ge back int o Him. J ust as t he good wat er as well as t he dir t y wat er get s
int o t he ocean but t hen lose t heir ident it y and get mer ged int o t he ocean, so
also t he j I vAt mA-s at t ain equalit y wit hout dist inct ion when t hey r each Him.
Unlike t he bounds which man can place f or t he lesser bodies of wat er , t her e is
no bound t hat he can place f or t he ocean - anot her r ef lect ion of BhagavAn
asapAm-nidhih or Ocean. Though t he ext er nal sur f ace of t he ocean is f ull of
waves, it s deep inside is peace incar nat e, and in t his sense also He is apAm-
nidhih.
nAma 326. nAma 326. nAma 326. H|¤Ul+P H|¤Ul+P H|¤Ul+P -- - adhishThAnam adhishThAnam adhishThAnam
The Suppor t .
adhishThAnAya namah.
Sr I BhaTTar int er pr et s t his as r ef er r ing t o His suppor t ing t he mandar a
mount ain in His kUr ma incar nat ion. He gives r ef er ence t o vishNu pur ANa in
suppor t -
"kshI r oda-madhye bhagavAn kUr ma-r UpI svayam har ih |
mandar Adr eh adhishThAnam bhr amat o' bhUt mahA-mune | |
- (1.9.88)
BhagavAn nAr AyaNa Himself , in t he f or m of kUr ma, suppor t ed t he mandar a
mount ain in t he middle of t he Milk Ocean when t he mount ain was r evolving (at
t he t ime of chur ning)". Sr I Sankar a gives t he mor e gener al meaning t hat He is
adhishThAnam because He is t he basis or suppor t f or ever yt hing in t his
Univer se - adhit hishThant ibhUt Ani.
nAma 327. nAma 327. nAma 327. H9P¬- H9P¬- H9P¬- -- - apr amat t ah apr amat t ah apr amat t ah
The Vigilant .
apramattAya namah.
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He is ext r emely at t ent ive in t he pr ot ect ion of t hose who ar e in dist r ess (Sr I
BhaTTar ). pr amat t a r ef er s t o one who is car eless or inat t ent ive. apr amat t a
r ef er s t o His guNa of ext r eme vigilance in pr ot ect ing t hose who have
sur r ender ed t o Him - ASr it a-r akshakan. Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat
He is vigilant in awar ding t he ef f ect s of kar ma t o t hose who ar e ent it led t o
t hem. Sr I cinmayAnanda point s out t hat pr amada r ef er s t o one who makes
er r or s in j udgment , and apr amat t a is One who does not make er r or s in
j udgment . Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat t he vigilance her e could
also r ef er t o bhagavAn being ver y car ef ul and vigilant in dist r ibut ing t he
nect ar t hat came out of t he chur ning of t he Milk Ocean t o t he appr opr iat e
per sons. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat t he lesson we should t ake
f r om t his nAma is t hat we should always be vigilant about t he t hought s t hat
ent er our mind, and ensur e t hat our t hought s do not st r ay t owar ds t he
pleasur es of indr iya-s but inst ead medit at e on Him const ant ly. J ust as a t hief
would not ent er a house wher e people ar e awake, negat ive t hought s won' t
ent er one' s mind when one is awake and vigilant in t he t hought of bhagavAn.
Whenever negat ive t hought s ent er one' s mind, one should diver t t hose
t hought s t o posit ive ener gy by chant ing bhagavAn' s nAma inst ead. This is t he
lesson one should t ake f r om t his nAma.
nAma 328. nAma 328. nAma 328. 9|6|U6- 9|6|U6- 9|6|U6- -- - pr at ishThit ah pr at ishThit ah pr at ishThit ah
He who is self -dependent .
pratishThitAya namah.
One who is suppor t ed and est ablished in His own gr eat ness, wit hout any
suppor t f r om ext er nal sour ces. The f ollowing upanishadic quot e echoes t his
explanat ion almost ver bat im -
"sa bhagavah kva pr at ishThit a it i | sve mahimni" - (chAndogya7.24.1)
To t he quest ion "Wher e is bhagavAn f ir mly est ablished?", t he r eply is "I n His
own gr eat ness". I n vishNu dhar ma (72.2), we have a similar st at ement - "sve
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mahimni st hit amdevam" - "The Lor d who r est s on His own gr eat ness". One who
suppor t s t he r est of t he Univer se obviously is not suppor t ed by somet hing
ext er nal, since t hen His suppor t will depend on somet hing else. We get our
gr eat ness f r om our wealt h, our f ame, et c., which ar e all imper manent ; not so
wit h bhagavAn - His gr eat ness is not dependent on imper manent t hings. Sr I
cinmayAnanda explains t his nAma in t er ms of cause and ef f ect . Ever yt hing
else in t his Univer se has it s cause, and t hus ever yt hing else is an ef f ect .
Unlike t his, bhagavAn is t he Ult imat e Cause. The lesson we should t ake f r om
t his guNa of bhagavAn is t hat we should lear n t o depend on t he One who is
Per manent in t his Univer se, and not be dependent on all t he imper manent
t hings such as wealt h, f ame, et c. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er gives t he example
of pANdava-s and kaur ava-s. We ar e const ant ly r eminded of t he imper manent
t hings in lif e by t he occur r ence of aging, deat h, loss of f ame, f r iend becoming
enemy, et c., and all t hese should t each us t hat t he lif e t hat is t o be led is by
medit at ing on t he One who is Per manent , viz. bhagavAn.
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SlOkam 36
FT-7FFT-7¤¹l ¤ 4l 4¹7l 4l4 4lr+-· FT-7FFT-7¤¹l ¤ 4l 4¹7l 4l4 4lr+-· FT-7FFT-7¤¹l ¤ 4l 4¹7l 4l4 4lr+-·
4lB 7 4l 4 rTl+ ¹l|77 4- 9 ¹-7¹-+ °°+ 4lB 7 4l 4 rTl+ ¹l|77 4- 9 ¹-7¹-+ °°+ 4lB 7 4l 4 rTl+ ¹l|77 4- 9 ¹-7¹-+ °°+
skandas skandadhar O dhur yO var adO vAyuvAhanah |
vAsudEvO br uhadbhAnu: AdidEvah pur andar ah | |
nAma 329. nAma 329. nAma 329. FT-7- FT-7- FT-7- -- - skandah skandah skandah
He who dr ies up (dest r oys).
skandAya namah.
skandayat i Soshayat i it i skandah - One who dest r oys t he asur a-s and ot her
evil-doer s (Sr I BhaTTar ). skanda also can mean One who melt s like but t er
when it comes t o helping His devot ees, or f lows like nect ar in t he t hought s of
His bhakt a-s - skandat i it i skandah (This is one int er pr et at ion t hat Sr I
Sankar a gives). Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ence t o gI t A -
senAnI nAmaham skandah (gI t A 10.24) - I am skanda among t he chief s of
ar mies. Her e skanda r ef er s t o subr ahmaNya, who is consider ed t he chief
among t he chief s of ar mies.
nAma 330. nAma 330. nAma 330. FT-7¤¹ FT-7¤¹ FT-7¤¹- - - -- - skanda skanda skanda-- -dhar ah dhar ah dhar ah
The Suppor t er of skanda.
skanda-dharAya namah.
(Sr I BhaTTar ) - BhagavAn is t he suppor t er of skanda, t he commander -in-chief
of t he ar my of gods. The above quot e f r om gI t A t hus st at es t hat skanda is
apar t of bhagavAn' s vibhUt i or glor y. Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion f or t he
t er m skanda is "r ight eous pat h - dhar mapat ham", and so t he vyAkhyAna he
gives is t hat bhgavAn is t he upholder of t he pat h of dhar ma.
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nAma 331. nAma 331. nAma 331. ¤4 ¤4 ¤4 - - - -- - dhur yah dhur yah dhur yah
The Suppor t er .
dhuryAya namah.
One of t he meanings f or t he wor d ' dhur ' is load. He bor e t he weight of t he
mandar a mount ain in His kUr ma incar nat ion, and so He is t he Suppor t er . He is
also t he Suppor t er of t he Univer se - bhuvana-bhRt e. Sr I sat yadevo
vAsisshTha gives an alt er nat e meaning also f or t he wor d "dhur " - t he f r ont
par t of an obj ect , and int er pr et s t he nAma t o mean t hat bhagavAn is t hem
Ar ga-dar Si or one who shows t he pat h f or ever yone.

gr ant or of boons

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nAma 332. nAma 332. nAma 332. 4¹7 4¹7 4¹7- - - -- - var adah var adah var adah
The Gr ant or of boons.
varadAya namah.
var Ah abhI psit ah ar t hah, t am dadAt i it i var a-dah. var am also means "t he
best ", and so One who gives t he best t o t hose devot ees who pr ay t o Him wit h
det achment is var a-da. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er r eminds us t hat t he best
f or us is "nalam t ar um Sollai nAn kaNDu konDEn nAr AyaNA ennum nAmam" per
t ir umangai AzhvAr . Needless t o say what one get s by chant ing t he nAma of
nAr AyaNa - "kulam t ar um Selvan t andiDum aDiyAr paDu t uyar Ayina ellAm
nilamt ar am Seyyum.... peRRa t Ayinum Ayina Seyyum".
nAma 333. nAma 333. nAma 333. 4l44lr+ 4l44lr+ 4l44lr+- - - -- - vAyu vAyu vAyu-- -vAhanah vAhanah vAhanah
He who has vAyu as His vehicle.
vAyu-vAhanAya namah.
BhagavAn r ides on and dr ives vAyu, t he lif e-br eat h of t he wor ld.
I nt ir uvezhukkURRir ukkai, we have - mEdagum aim-per um bhUt amum nI yE - He
cont r ols t he pa~nca bhUt a-s such as air et c. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s
out t hat while air is ver y impor t ant f or us t o live, t his nAma should r emind us
t hat mahA vishNu who makes t he air move is j ust as impor t ant t o us, and t hus
we should lear n t o medit at e on Him. Sr I Sankar a gives t he vyAkhyAna t hat
bhagavAn cont r ols t he at mospher e in t he seven r egions of space. Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i descr ibes in det ail about t hese seven r egions which ar e
cont r olled by seven dif f er ent sons of kaSyapaand dit i, because of t he power s
given t o t hem by bhagavAn. They ar e called t he sapt a-mar ut a-s. Six of t hese
r egions ar e list ed by many of t he aut hor s. These r egions ar e: t he space
bet ween ear t h and t he clouds, t hat bet ween t he clouds and t he sun, t hat
bet ween t he sun and t he moon, t he moon and t he st ar s, t he st ar s and t he
planet s, and t he planet s and t he sapt a-RshimanDala. I t is said t hat it is
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because of t he pr essur e exer t ed by t hese r egions of air t hat t he var ious
st ellar obj ect s keep f r om colliding wit h each ot her . The next 12 nAma-s ar e
int er pr et ed by Sr I BhaTTar as r ef er r ing t o adhyAt mavAsudeva or par a
vAsudeva f or m of bhagavAn. Pr of . A. Sr I nivAsa r Aghavan not es t hat
coincident ally, t he vAsudeva mant r a also has 12 akshar a-s in it .
nAma 334. nAma 334. nAma 334. 4lB7 4 4lB7 4 4lB7 4- - - -- - vAsu vAsu vAsu-- -dEvah dEvah dEvah
He who per vades and spor t s.
Vasu-devAya namah.
This nAma occur s again as nAma 701. The name indicat es t hat bhagavAn is
vAsu and He is deva. vAsu is der ived f r om vas - t o r eside and t o envelope.
sar vam vasat i - ever yt hing lives in Him, and sar vat r a vasat i - He lives
ever ywher e. He is vAsu since He lives in t he wor ld making it live wit hin
Himself like a mot her and also pr ot ect s it by cover ing it like a bir d t hat
pr ot ect s it s young ones wit h it s out -spr ead wings. He is deva because He
plays, wishes t o conquer , and shines. He also pr ot ect s t he beings as descr ibed
above (vAsu) as a leelaa, and so He is vAsu-deva. The wor d devais der ived
f r om div - kr I DAyAm - t o play. So all His act s ar e leelaa-s. The f ollowing
quot es ar e given by Sr I Sankar a and Sr I BhaTTar t o suppor t t he
int er pr et at ion:
"chAdayAmi j agad-viSvam bhUt yA sUr ya ivAmSubhih |
sar va-bhUt Adhi-vAsaSca vAsu-devah t at ah smRt ah | |
- (moksh dhar ma 12-328-36)
"Like t he sun wit h his r ays, I am cover ing t he whole univer se, and also I am
r esiding in all beings; hence I am called vAsudeva".
"vasanAt sar va-bhUt AnAm vasut vAt deva-yonit ah |
vAsudevast at o j ~neyah yogibhis_t at t va dar Sibhih | |
- (udyoga69-3)
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"I am t he abode of all beings, and wit h a divine f or m I live in all of t hem.
Ther ef or e I am known as vAsudeva by t he yogi-s who have r ealized t he t r ut h".
"sar vat r Asau samast am ca vasat yat r et i vai yat ah |
t at ah sa vAsudevet i vidvadbhih par ipaThyat e | |
- (vishNupur ANam 1.2.12)
"Lear ned men declar e t hat bhagavAn is called vAsudeva because He abides in
all t hings, and al t hings abide in Him".
"sar vANi t at r a bhUt Ani vasant i par amAt mani |
bhUt eshu ca sa sar vAt mA vAsudevast at ah smRt ah | |
- (vishNu pur A.6.5.80)
"All beings r emain in t he par amAt man, and He is in all beings; hence t he
omnipr esent is called vAsudeva". Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an point s out t hat bhagavAn
got t his name also by His incar nat ion as t he son of vAsudeva. The dhar ma
cakr am wr it er br ings out t he subt le point t hat bhagavAn is in ever yt hing and
ever ywher e, and yet successf ully conceals Himself f r om all except His
devot ees. He successf ully conceals Himself while being pr esent in ever yt hing
as t he ant ar yAmi, cont r olling t he air , t he sun, t he planet s, et c., having svayam-
pr akASa, et c. Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat like t he nAma nAr AyaNa, t his
nAma is also ar ahasyam whose meaning should be lear nt f r om an AcAr ya, and
so is not discussed in f ur t her det ail.
nAma 335. nAma 335. nAma 335. 4 rTl+ - 4 rTl+ - 4 rTl+ - -- - br uhad br uhad br uhad-- -bhAnu: bhAnu: bhAnu:
He of pr of use lust er .
bRhad-bhAnave namah.
bRhat means huge, ver y lar ge. bhAnu means r ays. Sr I Sankar a gives t he
f ollowing r ef er ence:
"bRhant o bhAnavo yasya candr a sUr yAt igAminah |
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t air -viSvam bhAsayat i yah sa bRhad-bhAnur ucyat e | |
- (udyoga70.4)
"He, whose gr eat r ays sur pass t he sun, moon, and ot her s, and He who
illuminat es t he univer se t hr ough t hem, is called bRhad-bhAnuh". Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he suppor t f r om muNDakopanishad -
na t at r asUr yo bhAt i na candr a t Ar akam nemA vidyut o bhAnt i kut o' yamagnih |
t amevabhAnt am anubhAt i sar vam t asya bhAsA sar vamidam vibhAt i (2.2.10).
The sun and moon get t heir lust er f r om Him. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s
out t hat while t he sun gives light t o t he ext er nal wor ld, BhagavAn gives light
t o t he Sun as well as t he light needed f or us t o r ealize our int er nal self .
nAma 336. nAma 336. nAma 336. Hl|774 Hl|774 Hl|774- - - -- - Adi Adi Adi-- -dEvah dEvah dEvah
The Fir st Deit y.
Adi-devAya namah.
That He spor t s wit h t he wor lds as He pleases is indicat ed by t he nAmaAdi-
devah. As was seen ear lier in "vAsu-devah", t he t er m deva r ef er s t o His leelA
or spor t in cr eat ion, pr ot ect ion, and dest r uct ion of all t he beings. He plays
wit h t he act of cr eat ion et c. j ust like a child playing on t he seashor e by
building and smashing sand-cast les (Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an). "akhilabhuvana j anma
st hema bhangAdi leele" - I t is His spor t t o go t hr ough t his cycle of cr eat ion,
pr ot ect ion and dest r uct ion. Sr I Sankar a' s vyAkhyAnam is "Adih kAr aNam" -
The Fir st Cause. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he def init ion f r om nir ukt am
- "devo dAnAdvadI panAdvA dyot anAdvA dyust hAno bhavat i (7.25) - deva is
one who gives in plent y, one who shines and makes ot her s shine, and one who
dwells in space". BhagavAn is Adi-deva in t his sense.
nAma 337. nAma 337. nAma 337. 9 ¹-7¹ 9 ¹-7¹ 9 ¹-7¹- - - -- - pur andar ah pur andar ah pur andar ah
a) The Dest r oyer of t he cit ies.
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b) The Dest r oyer of t he suf f er ings f r om t he Adi-daivika causes
c) He who helps t he devot ee in t r anscending t he at t achment t o st hUla,
sUkshma and kAr aNa Sar I r a-s
d) He who br ings an end t o t he bodies of all beings
purandarAya namah.
Pur am dAr ayat i it i pur andar ah - One who dest r oyed t he cit ies.
a) bhagavAn was t he ant ar yAmi of r udr a in dest r oying t he t hr ee cit ies as
r ef er enced by nammAzhvAr in t ir uvAimozhi 1.1.8 (Sr I v.v. r AmAnuj an). The
second half of t he pASur am is:
"pur am or u mUnr u eRit t u amar ar kkum aRivu iyandu ar an ayan ena ulagu
azhit t u amait t u uLanE".
"Emper umAn is t he One who dest r oyed t he t hr ee cit ies in t he f or m of r udr a,
gave t he knowledge of t he veda-s t o t he deva-s in t he f or m of br ahma, and
per f or ms t he f unct ions of cr eat ion, pr ot ect ion and dest r uct ion". Sr I
kRshNadat t a bhAr advAj gi ves t he ex pl anat i on - pur ANi
Sambar AdI nAmasur ANAm nagar ANi dRNAt i it i pur andar ah. He gives
r ef er ence t o t he Rgvedic mant r a 7.99.5 - indr AvishNU dRgmhit A Sambar asya
nava pur o navat imca Snat hishTham - Ye have dest r oyed, t hou, I ndr a, and t hou,
vishNu,Sambar a' s nine-and-ninet y f enced cast les. Sr I Samkar a vyAkhyAnam
is "sur a Sat r UNAm pur a dAr aNAt pur andar ah" - Because He is t he Dest r oyer
of t he cit ies of t he enemies of t he gods, He is called pur andar ah.
b) Sr I BhaTTar : asur apur Ani dAr ayat i it i pur andar ah - The dest r oyer of t he
cit ies of asur a-s. This indicat es t he r emoval of f ear f r om asur a-s, piSAca-s,
t hunder and light ning, planet s and ot her t r oubles which go by t he name "Adi-
daivika" - t hose t hat pr oceed f r om t he gods. Pur am in t his sense r ef er s t o t he
"dwellings of asur a-s".
c) Sr I cinmayAnanda t alks of t he "cit ies" r ef er r ing t o t he f ields of
exper iences - waking, dr eam and deep-sleep. Since bhagavAn helps in
t r anscending t he Gr oss, Subt le, and Causal bodies (st hUla, suKshma, and
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kAr aNa), and t hen exper ience t he self , at t hat moment t he t hr ee "cit ies" ar e
bur ned down or pillaged or blast ed. Wit hout over coming t he at t achment t o
t he st hUla, sUkshma, and kAr aNa Sar I r a-s, we cannot exper ience t he self .
The dar ma cakr am wr it er gr aphically explains t hat if we consider t he st hUla
Sar I r a as belonging t o bhagavAn and sur r ender it in His ser vice, t hen He helps
in over coming our at t achment t o t he st hUla Sar I r a. I f we dedicat e t he mind
t o His ser vice and t o medit at ion on Him, He helps us over come our act ions
being cont r olled by our mind. I f we have mahAviSvAsam in Him and sur r ender
t o Him uncondit ionally, He r elieves us f r om t he const r aint s of t he
kAr aNaSar I r am as well. This is when we ar e able t o exper ience t he self .
Since bhagavAn is t he cause of t he dest r uct ion of t he t hr ee sAr I r a-s t hat ar e
st anding in t he way of our exper iencing t he self , He is called pur andar ah.
d) Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha st ar t s wit h t he meaning "body" f or t he wor d pur a,
and gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat since bhagavAn put s an end t o t he body, He
is pur andar ah - pur am dAr ayat i it i pur andar ah.
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SlOkam 37
HHl TF6l¹TF6l¹ 7H ¹7Hl |¹= + H¹-· HHl TF6l¹TF6l¹ 7H ¹7Hl |¹= + H¹-· HHl TF6l¹TF6l¹ 7H ¹7Hl |¹= + H¹-·
H+ T ¬7H6l46 - 9Tl 9T|+¬ ¬T-+ °÷+ H+ T ¬7H6l46 - 9Tl 9T|+¬ ¬T-+ °÷+ H+ T ¬7H6l46 - 9Tl 9T|+¬ ¬T-+ °÷+
asOkast Ar aNast Ar as sUr assaur ir j anEsvar ah |
anukUlassat Avar t ah padmI padmanibhEkshaNah | |
nAma 338. nAma 338. nAma 338. HHlT HHlT HHlT- - - -- - asOkah asOkah asOkah
The dispeller of sor r ows.
a-SokAya namah
Sr I Sankar a and Sr I BhaTTar give dif f er ing but equally enlight ening
vyAkhyAna-s f or t his. Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat bhagavAn has t his nAma
because He is t he dispeller of t he t r oubles such as sor r ow, delusion, hunger ,
et c. Sr I Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is devoid of def ect s
such as sor r ow, delusion, hunger , et c., and so He has t his nAma. I n Sr I
BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAna. t his nAma is associat ed wit h His r emoving t he sor r ows
of t he adhyAt mika kind. The next nAma will be int er pr et ed in t er ms of Adi-
bhaut ika. nAma 336, pur andar ah, which was cover ed last week, cover ed t he
cat egor y of sor r ows designat ed as Adi-daivika. Thus, t he sequence of nAma-s
pur andar ah, aSokah, t Ar aNah, and t Ar ah, ar e int er pr et ed as His guNa of
pr ot ect ing us f r om all t he dif f er ent kinds of f ear s.
nAma 339. nAma 339. nAma 339. 6l¹T- 6l¹T- 6l¹T- -- - t Ar aNah t Ar aNah t Ar aNah
He who t akes ot her s t o t he ot her shor e (a boat ).
tAraNAya namah.
t Ar ayat i it i t Ar ah - One who helps in cr ossing. The int er pr et at ion t hat Sr I
BhaTTar gives, cont inuing on t he vyAkhyAna he gave f or pur andar a and aSoka,
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is t hat t his name r ef er s t o His assist ing us in over coming t he f ear s gr ouped as
Adi-bhaut ika. Sr I BhaTTar r eser ves t he explanat ion t hat He helps in cr ossing
t he ocean of samsAr a f or t he next nAma, t Ar a, wher eas Sr I Sankar a
associat es t he cur r ent nAma wit h t his guNa of bhagavAn. Sr I cinmayAnanda
seems t o make a subt le suggest ion t hat t Ar aNa r ef er s t o bhagavAn "helping"
ot her s cr ossing t he ocean of samsAr a, wher eas t he next nAma "t Ar a" r ef er s
t o His saving ot her s Himself . I wonder if t he dif f er ence is one of t hr owing a
st ick t o someone who is dr owning but t r ying t o swim, vs. pulling out t he
dr owning per son when he has given up swimming. This is t he kind of dist inct ion
t hat is made somet imes bet ween how t he per son who is pur suing t he bhakt i
mAr ga f or at t aining moksha is helped by bhagavAn vs. one who is f ollowing t he
pr apat t i mAr ga.
nAma 340. nAma 340. nAma 340. 6l¹ 6l¹ 6l¹- - - -- - t Ar ah t Ar ah t Ar ah
The Savior .
tArAya namah.
Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion is t hat He is t Ar ah because He makes His
devot ees cr oss over t he ocean of samsAr a. The f ollowing quot e f r om at har va-
Si r as (4) - "gar bha-j anma-j ar A-mar aNa- samsAr a sAgar a mahA
bhayAt t Ar ayat i t asmAt ucyat e t Ar ah" - One who t akes His devot ee acr oss t he
gr eat f ear of t he ocean of samsAr a consist ing of gar bha-vAsa or concept ion,
bir t h, aging, and deat h.
nAma 341. nAma 341. nAma 341. H¹- H¹- H¹- -- - sUr ah sUr ah sUr ah
The Valiant .
SUrAya namah.
This nAma is der ived f r om t he r oot "Su" t o go, and signif ies t he ur ge f or
vict or y. Per haps t o emphasize t he "go" aspect of t his nAma, Sr I
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v.v.r AmAnuj an gives examples f r om divya pr abandham which illust r at e t he "go-
get " nat ur e of His vict or ies. "SenRu a~ngu t en ila~ngai SeRRAn" -t ir uppAvai;
"SenRu a~ngu vANanai Ayir am t Ozhim t enRit t iSai t iSai vI zhaccheRRAi" -
per iYAzhvAr t ir umozhi 5.3.4 (Not e t he choice of t he wor d "SenRu" in bot h
examples). The dhar ma cakr am wr it er illust r at es t he signif icance of t his nAma
f or our day-t o-day lif e. He point s out t hat whenever t her e is bat t le bet ween
t he deva-s and asur a-s, t he asur a-s invar iable win f ir st , and t hen t he deva-s
seek t he help of mahA vishNu who t hen helps t hem def eat t he evil asur a-s.
Our lif e is a r eplay of t his scenar io, wit h t he const ant bat t le bet ween t he bad
qualit ies in us and t he good in us. I nvar iably, t he bad will win out unless we
seek t he help of mahA vishNu by chant ing His nAma. This is what we should
lear n f r om t his nAma.
nAma 342. nAma 342. nAma 342. Hl|¹ Hl|¹ Hl|¹- - - -- - saur ih saur ih saur ih
a) The son of valiant people like vasudeva, dasar at ha, et c.
b) The gr andson of SUr a, t he name of vasudeva' s f at her .
c) The descendant of t he gr oup of people called SUr a-s in t he yAdava r ace.
Sauraye namah.
The above dif f er ent int er pr et at ions ar e f ound f or t his nAma based on t he
dif f er ent vyAkhyAna-s. The f ir st is f r om Sr I par Asar a BhaTTar and ot her
wr it er s who base t heir vyAkhyAa-s on Sr I BhaTTar . The second is f r om Sr I
Sankar a. The t hir d is f r om Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i. I n suppor t of t he f ir st
int er pr et at ion, Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an point s out t he valor of nandagopan -ODAda
t OL valian nadagOpan kumar an, t he valor of dasar at ha - dayar aRkkumaganAit
t OnRi - bor n as t he son of t he valiant dasar at ha, et c. Sr I Sankar a' s
int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn in His incar nat ion as kRshNawas bor n as t he
son of vAsudeva, whose f at her ' s name was SUr a. SUr asyagot r Apat yam
pumAn Saur ih or SUr a kulodbhavAt Saur ih. Sr I r AdhAkRshNaSAst r i point s
out t hat among t he yAdava-s, t her e was a gr oup who wer e called t he SUr a-s.
Since vasudeva was f r om t his gr oup, kRshNa is Saur ih.
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nAma 343. nAma 343. nAma 343. =+H¹- =+H¹- =+H¹- -- - j anEsvar ah j anEsvar ah j anEsvar ah
The Lor d of t he people.
janeSvarAya namah.
j anAnAm j ant UnAm I Svar ah j aneSvar ah - The Lor d of all t hings t hat ar e bor n
or cr eat ed. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat bhagavAn is t he Leader
of ever yt hing by guiding t hem always as appr opr iat e. When t her e is suf f er ing,
t hose t hat medit at e on Him benef it by t hose suf f er ings by r eaching higher
levels, and t hose t hat don' t benef it f all t o lower level st ill t hey r each a point
when t hey f eel t hey need t o seek Him. At t his point He guides t hem
appr opr iat ely t o t he higher levels. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat He is j aneSvar ah because He gives aiSvar ya or wealt h t o
people.
nAma 344. nAma 344. nAma 344. H+T¬- H+T¬- H+T¬- -- - anUkulah anUkulah anUkulah
One who is wit hin bounds.
anukUlAya namah.
kUlam means shor e. kUlam anuvar t at e it i anukUlah - One who is const r ained by
t he limit s. Lor d r Ama had gr eat valor , but was not was conscious and wonder -
st r uck about t hat - "vI r yavAn na ca vI eyeNa mahat A svena vismit ah". Sr I P.B.
aNNa~ngar AcAr ya svAmi explains t hat in spit e of His enor mous and unbounded
gr eat ness, He is easily accessible t o t hose who seek Him. He is bound by
bhakt i, and t his is His AnukUlya svabhAva or abilit y t o be wit hin bounds. Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj an point s out t he incident of His being bound by yaSodA - being
wit hin t he bounds of what a child is supposed t o be -kaNNI nUN Sir ut t AmbinAl
kat t uNNap paNNiya per u mAyan. Aycci kaNNI kkayiRRinAl kaTTat t An
kaTTuNDir undAn - mUnRAm t ir uvant Adi - 91. Wit hout knowing His ident it y,
YasodA challenges Him - Make your self f r ee if you can! - "yadi Saknoshi gaccha
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t vam at i ca~ncala ceshTit a!" - and He j ust r emains t ied, because He is
anukUlah. Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is anukUlah
because He always goes along wit h what ever anyone does. Thus a mur der er
commit s his mur der , and anot her helps humanit y, and bhagavAn j ust is t he
Obser ver in bot h cases. He keeps Himself wit hin His bounds. Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives t he meaning t hat anukUla means going t owar ds t he
shor e, based on kUla= shor e. bhagavAn is anukUla because He helps His
devot ees go t owar ds t he shor e when t hey t r y t o cr oss t he ocean of samsAr a.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat bhagavAn is always act ing His r ole
as an anukUlah t o ever yone (including t he mur der er in t he above par a) by being
t he int er nal conscience of ever yone and t elling t hem what is r ight . The inner
conscience is always point ing t o what is r ight and what is wr ong. Those who
obey t heir inner conscience do not do anyt hing t hat will be negat ive t o t heir
pat h of pr ogr ess t owar ds Him, and t hose who disobey t heir inner conscience
det er ior at e and move away f r om Him. But He does His j ob of being t he
anukUlah in ever yone' s case all t he t ime by being t heir inner conscience.
nAma 345. nAma 345. nAma 345. H6l46- H6l46- H6l46- -- - sat Avar t ah sat Avar t ah sat Avar t ah
a) He who has sever al incar nat ions t o sust ain dhar ma
b) He whose wealt h is bubbling but not over f lowing (like vor t ices)
c) He who maint ains and manages sever al cycles - t he cycle of samsAr a f or all
t he beings, t he cakr a-s of gr aha-s, nakshat r a-s et c.
SatAvartAya namah.
Sat a means hundr ed. Her e it means innumer able. For t he pr ot ect ion of
dhar ma in t he wor ld, He t akes inf init e var iet ies of f or ms or incar nat ions, and
so He is called Sat Avar t a (Sr I Sankar a). Recall "dhar amasamst hApanAr t hAya
sambhavAmi yuge yuge". Anot her int er pr et at ion, also by Sr I Sankar a, is t hat
it r ef er s t o t he 100 nADi' s or vessels t hat pr oceed f r om t he hear t and
maint ain pr ANa or lif e in t he body - nADI -Sat e pr ANar UpeNa var t at a it i vA.
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dhar ma cakr am: Ther e ar e sever al examples which illust r at e His guNa of
Sat Avar t a. He appear s in t he f or m of t he sun ever yday in or der t o sust ain lif e
in t his wor ld. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he r ef er ence t o at har va veda -
sUr yasya AvRt am anvAvar t e - 10.5.37. His r epeat ed incar nat ions inhuman
f or m t o pr ot ect dhar ma in t his wor ld is anot her example. His pr ot ect ion of
pAnDava-s and dr aupadi r epeat edly when t hey wer e in dist r ess is anot her
example. He pr ot ect ed dr aupadi f r om dur yodhana' s evil act of st r ipping her in
public, f r om dur vAsa' s cur se when he t est ed her by appear ing in her house and
asking f or f ood af t er she had cleaned t he akshayapAt r a, et c. He pr ot ect ed
pr ahlAda f r om all cr uelt ies met ed out t o him byhir aNyakaSipu. He did many
wonder s by pr ot ect ing t he yAdava people in His incar nat ions as kRshNa. Avar t a
also means vor t ex. Since His r iches (aiSvar ya) ar e so enor mous t hat t hey keep
expr essing t hemselves wit hout over f lowing like hundr eds of whir lpools, He is
called Sat Avar t a (Sr I BhaTTar ). I n spit e of t his, He is easily accessible t o
His devot ees. This cor r obor at es t he Mant r a of t he par a-aspect of t he Lor d -
SAnt odit a vij ~nAna pr ANAya - Unt o Him of t r anquil and ever -gr owing
knowledge and lif e. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha uses t he meaning "many" f or
Sat a, and cycle (cakr a) f or Avar t a, and gives t he explanat ion t hat bhagavAn
has t his nAma because He r ot at es or cycles t he lives t hr ough cycles of
samsAr a. Anot her way t o look at t his nAma is t hat He cont r ols dif f er ent
kinds of cycles - nakshat r a cakr a, r ASi cakr a, gr aha cakr a, et c. The aspect s of
par a-vAsudeva wit h r ef er ence t o His qualit ies have been descr ibed so f ar
(f r om t he 334t h nAma - vAsudeva). Now begins t he r Upa or f or m of par a-
vAsudeva in Sr I BhaTTar ' s int er pr et at ion.
nAma 346. nAma 346. nAma 346. 9Tl 9Tl 9Tl -- - padmI padmI padmI
He who car r ies t he lot us in His hand. padmam is what He car r ies in one of His
f our hands (Sankha, cakr a, and gadAar e in t he ot her t hr ee hands). The lot us
signif ies t he sAt t vic qualit ies of bhagavAn viz. dhar ma, j ~nAna, vair Agya, and
aiSvar ya (Sr I r AdhAkRshNaSAst r i). He r ef er s us t o Sr I mad bhAgavat am -
it ar eNa dhunAnam abj am - wit h t he ot her hand He is playing wit h t he lot us
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(10.23.22). The padmam is suggest ive of His always being r eady t o welcome
anyone who comes t o Him. Sr I cinmayAnanda point s out t hat bhagavAn f ir st
blows His conch and invit es us t o of f er His "knowledge" - signif ied by His
padma, and if t hey don' t list en t o t his, He uses His gadA t o give a gent le
knock, and if t his does not yield r esult s, t hen t her e is t he cakr a, which
annihilat es t he evil and r est or es or der again. One is r eminded of sAma, dAna,
bheda, and danDa. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha uses t he meaning "knowledge" f or
t he wor d padma, and suggest s t hat one who gives Tr ue Knowledge or one who
has Tr ue Knowledge is padmI .
nAma 347. nAma 347. nAma 347. 9T|+¬¬T- 9T|+¬¬T- 9T|+¬¬T- -- - padma padma padma-- -nibhEkshaNah nibhEkshaNah nibhEkshaNah
One who has eyes which r esemble t he lot us.
padama-nibhkshaNAya namah.
This nAma descr ibes t he cool, benevolent , kind, invit ing, consoling, appear ance
of His eyes, which look like t he lot us f lower s. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an pr ovides
r ef er ences f r om pr abandham - "un mugam maiyyal ERRimayakkum mAya
mandir am t An kolO? ceyya t Amar aik kaNNinAi" - nAcciAr t ir umozhi 2-4;
"uvagaiyAl ne~nj am uLLur ugi un t Amar aik kaN vizhigaLin agavalaip paDuppAn" -
t ir uvAi mozhi 6.2.7. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat t he sequence of
nAma-s anukUlahSat Avar t ah padmI padma-nibhekshaNah all r ef er t o t he
qualit y of bhagavAn' s helping nat ur e when one seeks His help. The dhar ma
cakr am wr it er r eminds of t he saying "The f ace is t he index of t he mind". I n
t his case, bhagavAn' s lot us-eyes ar e conveying t o us His I nner Nat ur e. The
equivalent of t his nAma in t amizh is "t Amar aik kaNNan".
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SlOkam 38
9T+l¬l 5¹|4-7l¬- 9T¬¬ 7H¹l¹¬ 6 · 9T+l¬l 5¹|4-7l¬- 9T¬¬ 7H¹l¹¬ 6 · 9T+l¬l 5¹|4-7l¬- 9T¬¬ 7H¹l¹¬ 6 ·
Pr|& + &l 4 &ltPl Prl¬l ¬67\4=-+ °<+ Pr|& + &l 4 &ltPl Prl¬l ¬67\4=-+ °<+ Pr|& + &l 4 &ltPl Prl¬l ¬67\4=-+ °<+
padmanAbhO5r avindAkshah padma gar bhas sar I r abhr ut h |
mahar ddhir r iddho vr uddhAt mA mahAkshO gar uDadhvaj ah | |
nAma 348. nAma 348. nAma 348. 9T+l¬- 9T+l¬- 9T+l¬- -- - padma padma padma-- -nAbhah nAbhah nAbhah
One wit h a lot us-like navel.
padmanAbhAya namah
This nAma has occur r ed t wice ear lier . I n t he cur r ent cont ext wher e t he
beaut y of t he celest ial f or m of par a-vAsudeva is descr ibed, t he nAma means
One wit h a lot us-like navel. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ences t o
pr abandham t o suppor t t his int er pr et at ion - "ayanaip paDait t a ezhil
undiazhagu" - amalanAdippir An; t Amar ai undit t anip per u nAyagan -
t ir uvASir iyam. The ot her int er pr et at ions - One who r esides in t he cent er of
t he hear t -lot us of ever y one, and One f r om whose navel, t he Univer se spr ung
f or t h in t he f or m of an eight -pet alled lot us wit h t he mer u mount ain as t he
per icap, have been explained pr eviously. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha' s vyAkhyAna
is again unique in not f ollowing t he ot her int er pr et at ions. He int er pr et s padma
as "f lower " or somet hing t hat displays color f ully, and nabh as somet hing t hat
does not expr ess it self as br illiant ly. Thus, he int er pr et s padma-nAbha as one
who at t he same t ime is t he t wo ext r emes. He is t he knowledge in t he lear ned
and t he lack of knowledge in t he not -lear ned; t he one who r eveals Himself t o
His devot ees and hides Himself f r om t he non-devot ees, like t he lot us t hat
blossoms in t he pr esence of t he sun and t he same lot us t hat f olds it s pet als
when t he sun disappear s.

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ar avindAkshan
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nAma 349. nAma 349. nAma 349. H¹|4-7l¬- H¹|4-7l¬- H¹|4-7l¬- -- - ar avindAkshah ar avindAkshah ar avindAkshah
The Lot us-eyed.
aravindAkshAya namah.
ar avinda sadRSe akshiNi asya it i ar avindAkshah. izahai koLSOdic-cendAmar aik
kaN pir An - t ir uvAi mozhi 6-5-5; Sevvar iyODi nI NDaapper iavAya kaNgaL -
amalanAdi pir An - 8; and r Amah kamala pat r Akshah (sundar a kANDa) ar e given
as r ef er ences by Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an. The meaning is similar t o t hat of
puNDar I kAkshah - nAma 40.Sr I cinmayAnanda br ings t he similar it y t o t he
lot us in t hat His eyes open t o His devot ees (like t he sun opening up in t he
pr esence of t he br ight sun), and closes t o t he non-devot ees (when it get s
dar k). Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha der ives t he meaning f r om t he wor d "ar " which
meansgat i, and vindat i - pr Apnot i or One who has, and t hus gives t he meaning
"candr a and sUr ya" t o ar avinda. Thus he der ives t he meaning "One who has
candr a and sUr ya as His t wo eyes" f or t he nAma ar avindAksha.
nAma 350. nAma 350. nAma 350. 9T¬¬- 9T¬¬- 9T¬¬- -- - padma padma padma-- -gar bhah gar bhah gar bhah
He who is inst alled in a lot us.
padma-garbhAya namah.
He is medit at ed upon as being seat ed on a lot us r eplet e wit h f r agr ance and
delicacy suit ed t o Him. The wor ds "sar asij Asana sannivishTah" is all t oo
f amiliar t o us. An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion is t hat He is seat ed in t he hear t -
lot us of t hose t hat medit at e on Him - dahar am vipApmam par a-veSmabhUt am
yat -puNDar I kam - The lot us (i.e., hear t ) which is subt le, f lawless, and which is
t he seat of t he Supr eme Being. Sr I r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o t ir uvAi
mozhi - t aNDAmar ai Sumakkum pAdap-per umAn - 4.5.8. Sr I Sankar a gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat He is f it t o be wor shipped in t he middle of t he hear t -lot us,
and so He is called padma-gar bhah - padmasyamadhye upAsyat vAt padma-
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gar bhah.
nAma 351. nAma 351. nAma 351. H¹l¹¬6 H¹l¹¬6 H¹l¹¬6 -- - sar I r abhr ut h sar I r abhr ut h sar I r abhr ut h
The Pr ot ect or of t he bodies of ever yone t hr ough f ood and lif e-ener gy.
SarIra-bhRte namah.
He is t he Sust ainer of t he bodies of t hose who medit at e on Him, since it is His
guNa-s on which t hey medit at e t hat sust ains t hem. sva-SAr I r a-
bhUt amupAsakam pushNAt i it i Sar I r a-bhRt - He consider s t heir bodies as His,
and pr ot ect s t hem (Sr I BhaTTar ). Or , He pr ot ect s all t he beings in t his
Univer se t hr ough f ood and lif e-ener gy- poshayan anna r UpeNa pr ANa r UpeNa
vA Sar I r iNAm Sar I r ANi dhAr ayat i it iSar I r a-bhRt (Sr I Sankar a). Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives yet anot her int er pr et at ion - He suppor t s (bear s)
dif f er ent bodies in dif f er ent incar nat ions f or t he pr ot ect ion of dhar ma and
eliminat ion of adhar ma. Next t he magnif icence of bhagavAn is descr ibed.
nAma 352. nAma 352. nAma 352. Pr|&- Pr|&- Pr|&- -- - mahar ddhih mahar ddhih mahar ddhih
He of immense r iches.
maharddhaye namah.
mahat I Rddhih vibhUt ih asya it i mahar ddhih - One who has enor mous
pr osper it y ( Sr I Sankar a). Sr I cinmayAnanda point s out t hat Rddhi r ef er s t o
t he combinat ion of pr osper it y and power . He has boundless r iches which can
br ing about t he well-being and pr ot ect ion of His devot ees - t ad-yogakshema
nissI ma vibhUt ih (Sr I BhaTTar ). Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives t he r ef er ence t o
t ir uvAi mozhi - vI RRir undu Ezh ulagum t anik-kOl Sella ALumammAn (4.5.1).The
dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat wealt h is of t wo kinds - t he mat er ial
wealt h (por uL Selvam) and t he wealt h of benevolence and Mer cy (ar uLSelvam).
Mat er ial wealt h can be f ound bot h in t he good and bad; but t he wealt h of
kindness and benevolence is f ound only in t he good. bhagavAn is f ull of bot h
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kinds of wealt h, and so He is mahar ddhih. Those who medit at e on mahA
vishNu' s nAma of mahar ddhih will be blessed wit h t hese kinds of wealt h.
nAma 353. nAma 353. nAma 353. +&- +&- +&- -- - Riddhah Riddhah Riddhah
One who keeps gr owing; Pr osper ous.
RddhAya namah.
He gr ows when His devot ees gr ow. He cr owned vibhI shaNa and as a r esult He
became happy and void of any wor r y; so He gr ows happy when His devot ees
gr ow. Sr I Sankar a point s out t hat He is Rddhah because He is t he expanse in
t he f or m of t he Univer se - pr apa~nca r UpeNa var dhamAnat vAt Rddhah. The
dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat He gr ows beyond t he r each of t he
knowledge of beings. I t is only by medit at ing on His guNa-s t hat one can r each
Him. Thus He is Rddhah.
nAma 354. nAma 354. nAma 354. 4&ltPl 4&ltPl 4&ltPl -- - vr uddhAt mA vr uddhAt mA vr uddhAt mA
One who is f ull-gr own.
vRddhAtmane namah.
vRddha means old. Since He is t he oldest or t he most ancient Self or At mA,
He is called vRddhAt mA. A nat ur al gr owt h cycle f or human beings is
descr ibed by t he dhar ma cakr am wr it er . A cycle of t his in samsAr a st ar t s
f r om t he womb, being bor n, gr owing up t o be a child, a boy/ gir l, an older
per son, and I F t he per son medit at es on bhagavAn and leads t he lif e t hat leads
t o moksha, and r eaching Sr I vaikunTham at t he t ime of t he deat h of t he body.
This last st age is t he culminat ion of t he f ull gr owt h in t his cycle. bhagavAn
was in t he f ull-gr own st at e bef or e anyt hing exist ed, wit hout going t hr ough t his
cycle, and so He is vRddhAt mA. He was t he Self bef or e all cr eat ion.
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nAma 355. nAma 355. nAma 355. Prl¬- Prl¬- Prl¬- -- - mahAkshah mahAkshah mahAkshah
a) He wit h a (vehicle of ) power f ul axle.
b) One wit h Gr eat Eyes.
mahAkshAya namah.
aksha means axle. Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat in t his case t his r ef er s t o a
char iot , by means of a f igur e of speech wher e a par t is used t o r ef er t o t he
whole. So mahAkshah means One who has a vehicle wor t hy of r ever ence. This
vehicle is gar uDa, t he embodiment of veda-s. aksha also means eyes. Sr I
Sankar a uses t his meaning in his int er pr et at ion- mahat I akshiNI asya it i
mahAkshah - One who has gr eat eyes. They ar e gr eat in t he sense t hat t hey
can see not only t he ext er nal obj ect , but can see t hr ough ever yt hing
ever ywher e inside and out side wit hout except ion, and not hing is hidden f r om
t hem. These eyes see t hr ough all t hat is happening deep wit hin t he bosom of
all cr eat ur es (Sr I cinmayAnanda). Sr I Sankar a also gives an alt er nat e
int er pr et at ion - mahAnt yakshAni asya it i mahAkshah -The possessor of divine
senses unat t ached t o obj ect s (Sr I anant akRshNaSAst r i' s t r anslat ion), or One
who has many glor ious eyes (Sr I T. S.kRshNamUr t i' s t r anslat ion). The dhar ma
cakr am wr it er point s out t hat t he Gr eat ness of His Eyes r ef er s t o t heir power
t o r emove t he dar kness of aj ~nAna when t hey f all on His devot ee. Medit at ing
on t his nAma of mahA vishNu will give t he abilit y t o see t hings wit h t he eye of
det achment and af f ect ion r at her t han wit h t he eye of desir e and gr eed, and in
opening t he eye of j ~nAna in t he devot ee. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha uses t he
meaning "one who leads" t o t he wor d aksha (t his is also r elat ed t o t he meaning
axle or vehicle), or one t hat helps in moving. So mahAkshah is one who shows
t he pat h t o ever yone.
nAma 356. nAma 356. nAma 356. ¬67\4=- ¬67\4=- ¬67\4=- -- - gar uDa gar uDa gar uDa-- -dvaj ah dvaj ah dvaj ah
One who has gar uDa in His banner .
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garuDa-dvajAya namah.
bhagavAn has t he unique symbol of gar uDa as His banner , j ust as He has t he
unique associat ion wit h t ulasi, wit h Goddess Lakshmi, et c. I n addit ion t o being
His vAhanam, gar uDa is His banner as well. Sr I cinmayAnanda point s out t hat
t he eagle soar s high in t he sky and can see even t he minut est obj ect on t he
gr ound and pur if ies t he land by r emoving t he impur it ies such as t he car r ion
et c. Similar ly, t he Lor d never allows any negat ive t hought s in t he hear t of His
devot ees, and hence t he eagle is consider ed as His symbol. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa
SAst r i r ef er s t o mahA bhAr at am wher e gar uDa r equest ed Sr I man nAr AyaNa
f or per mission t o st and on t op of Him when gar uDa had t o f et ch amRt a f or
secur ing t he r elease of his mot her . bhagavAn made him His banner t o gr ant
t his r equest , and He also asked gar uDa t o be His vehicle. This is how gar uDa
is bot h t he f lag and t he vehicle. I do not have a copy of mahA bhAr at am wit h
me t o f ur t her elabor at e on t his r ef er ence. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s
out t hat gar uDa being t he vAhana f or bhagavAn symbolizes t hat t he j ivAt mA
exist s f or t he ser vice of t he par amAt mA, and t he case of j aTAyu illust r at es
t hat when t he j I vAt mA devot es it s lif e in t he ser vice of t he par amAt mA,
moksham is t he nat ur al culminat ion. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha point s t o t he
power f ul eagle moving f ast while r emoving t he poisonous ser pent s at sight ,
similar t o bhagavAn r emoving t he sins of His devot ees.
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SlOkam 39
H6 ¬- H¹¬l ¬lP- BP4¬l r|4r |¹-· H6 ¬- H¹¬l ¬lP- BP4¬l r|4r |¹-· H6 ¬- H¹¬l ¬lP- BP4¬l r|4r |¹-·
B4 ¬¬T¬¬'4l ¬÷Pl4l+ B|P|6V4-+ °°+ B4 ¬¬T¬¬'4l ¬÷Pl4l+ B|P|6V4-+ °°+ B4 ¬¬T¬¬'4l ¬÷Pl4l+ B|P|6V4-+ °°+
at ulah sar abhO bhI mah samayaj n~O havir har ih |
sar valakshaNa lakshaNyO lakshmI vAn samit inj ayah | |
nAma 357. nAma 357. nAma 357. H6¬- H6¬- H6¬- -- - at ulah at ulah at ulah
The I ncompar able.
atulAya namah
Reader s may be f amiliar wit h t he wor d "t ulA", which is used t o r ef er t o a
balance. at ulah is One who has no equal. t ulopamAnam asya na vidyat a it iat ulah
- Ther e is not hing known t hat is compar able t o Him. Sr I Sankar a gives t he
f ollowing r ef er ences - "na t asya pr at imA ast i yasya nAma mahadyaSah" - For
Him whose name is Gr eat Glor y, t her e is no likeness -SveTasva. upa. 4.19; "na
t vat -samo' st i abhyadhikah kut o' nyah" - gI t A 11.43- Ther e is no one equal t o
You, wher e is t he quest ion of someone exceeding You? Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an
r ef er s t o t ir uvAi mozhi - t an oppAr il appan -6.3.9.The dhar ma cakr am wr it er
r eminds us t hat t he One who should be pr aised by us is mahA vishNu, and not
people ar ound us f or t he benef it of some f avor . Those who do t he f or mer
r aise t o t he level t hat t hey pr aise Him, and t hose who do t he lat t er f all
f ur t her f r om wher e t hey ar e. This is t he signif icance of t his nAma f or r eal
lif e.
nAma 358. nAma 358. nAma 358. H¹¬- H¹¬- H¹¬- -- - sar abhah sar abhah sar abhah
a) The Dest r oyer (of t hose who t r ansgr ess t he bounds of et hics).
b) One who shines as t he I nner Self .
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SarabhAya namah.
a) SRNAt i it i Sar abhah (Sr I BhaTTar ).
The int er pr et at ion is based on t he ver b SR - t o inj ur e, t o dest r oy.
b) Sar a means body f or t he f ollowing r eason - Seer yaMANAt Sar ah - That
which is per ishable. BhA means t o shine. .Sar abhah t hus r ef er s t o One who
shines in t he body (Sr I Sankar a, Sr I cinmayAnanda et c.). Sr I r AdhAkRshNa
SAst r i r ef er s us t o Sar abhopanishat (30) -
Sar A j I vAs-t adan~ngeshu bhAt i nit yamhar ih svayam | br ahmaiva Sar abha
sAkshAt .
Sr I SAst r i also gives an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion - Sar a r ef er s t o an ar r ow,
but if t his body is aimed at bhagavAn, t hen even t he per ishable body shines,
because He shines in t hat body.
nAma 359. nAma 359. nAma 359. ¬lP- ¬lP- ¬lP- -- - bhI mah bhI mah bhI mah
The For midable.
bhImAya namah.
bibhyat i it i bhI mah. The nAma is der ived f r om t he ver b bhI - t o f ear . The
whole wor ld oper at es in an or der ly way in f ear of violat ion of His will.
bhI shA' smAt vAt ah pavat e - The wind does not t r ansgr ess it s bound out of f
ear f r om Him (t ait t ir I ya Ar aN 8). Also f r om kaThopanishad we have -
"bhayAdeva agnist apat i bhayAt t apat i sUr yah |
bhayAt indr aSca vAyuScamRt yur -dhAvat i pa~ncamah | | (2.6.3)
- Only out of f ear f r om Him t he f ir e bur ns, t he sun blazes, indr a and vAyu
dischar ge t heir dut ies, and deat h, as t he f if t h, r uns (per f or ms it s dut ies). The
same idea is expr essed in t he br ahma sUt r a 1.3.40 - kampanAt . Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o t he t er r or He cr eat ed in t he hear t of
hir aNyakaSipu. We have in t ir uvAi mozhi 7.6.8 - ar i kAN nar iyAi
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ar akkar ULaiyiTTu anRu ila~ngai kaDandu pilambukkoLippa - He made t he
r Akshasa-s in lankA r un and hide f or cover like t he wolves on seeing a lion. The
dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat as long as t her e ar e beings who do not
have God r ealizat ion, t he only t hing t hat keeps t hem under cont r ol is f ear , and
once t hey have r ealized Him, t hey do not have anyt hing t o f ear . Sr I Sankar a
has also consider ed an alt er nat e pATham - viz. abhI ma - One who causes no
f ear t o t hose who f ollow t he pr oper pat h.
nAma 360. nAma 360. nAma 360. BP4¬- BP4¬- BP4¬- -- - samayaj n~ah samayaj n~ah samayaj n~ah
The Knower of t he convent ions.
samayaj~nAya namah.
He is samayaj ~na since He est ablishes t he r ules e.g., t hat when t he f ir e bur ns,
t he f lame goes upwar ds, and also at t he t ime of cr eat ion af t er t he pr alaya, He
est ablishes t he pat h of t he Sun, t he moon and t he planet s -sUr yA-candr amaso
dhAt A yat hApUr vam akalpayat (t ai. nAr A. 1). Sr I Sankar a r ef er s t o His
knowing t he met hods and t iming of t he act s of cr eat ion, pr eser vat ion, and
dissolut ion of t he Univer se. Anot her way he has int er pr et ed t his nAma is as
sama yaj ~nah - One who has t he yaj ~na or obser vance of t r eat ing ever yone
equally wit hout showing pr ef er ent ial t r eat ment . He gives r ef er ence t o vishNu
pur ANam - samat vam Ar Adhanamacut asya (1.17.90).Sr I BhaTTar also of f er s
an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion - He knows t he pr oper t ime when He should of f er
Himself t o t he devot ees, or t he pr oper t ime when He should f ulf ill t he vow of
pr ot ect ion He has t aken. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o t he incidence of
nRsimha avat Ar a, wher e bhagavAn knew exact ly when t o appear in t he pillar -
ir aNiyan t UN puDaippaa~ngu appozhudE avan vI yat t OnRiya en Si~ngap-pir An -
t ir uvAi mozhi - 2.8.9. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i descr ibes six kinds of
st r at egies t hat a king is supposed t o adopt in war f ar e, including when t o f ight ,
when t o compr omise, when t o seek anot her ' s help, when t o let t wo adver sar ies
collide wit h each ot her and t hus weaken t hemselves, when t o at t ack, and when
t o wait f or t he at t ack. He point s out t hat Lor d kRshNa amply demonst r at ed
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t hese dif f er ent t echniques when He guided t he pANDava-s in t heir war wit h
t he kaur ava-s, and t his is an explanat ion f or t his nAma. Sr I sat yadevo
vAsishTha gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn is t he only one who knows
t he past , pr esent and f ut ur e, t he changes in climat e, t he pat h of t he planet s,
when t he beings will be bor n and in what body, when t his body will die, et c.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er adds mor e dimension t o t he anubhavam of t his
nAma by point ing out t hat bhagavAn knows when He needs t o appear among us
in His incar nat ions (dhar ma samst hApanAr t hAya sambahavAmi yuge yuge). He
also knew when t o send kunt i t o kar Na t o get him t o pr omise t hat he won' t
at t empt t o kill any pANDava ot her t han ar j una, et c.
nAma 361. nAma 361. nAma 361. r|4r|¹- r|4r|¹- r|4r|¹- -- - havir havir havir -- -har ih har ih har ih
Har i who is t he r ecipient of t he havis of f er ed in t he yaj ~na.
havir-haraye namah
This nAma has been consider ed as t wo separ at e nAma-s by some vyAkhAna-
kar t A-s. So we will look at t he int er pr et at ion f or havir -har ih, havih, and har ih.
havis is t he name given t o t he of f er ing in a yAga. So one int er pr et at ion f or
t his nAma is Har i or vishNu who is t he ult imat e accept or of t he of f er ings -
yaj ~neshu havir -bhAgam har at i it i havir -har ih. Sr I Sankar a gives r ef er ence t o
t he gI t A - aham hi sar va yaj ~nAnAm bhokt A ca pr abhur evaca (9.24). The
wor d havis is der ived f r om t he r oot hu, which means bot h "t o accept " and "t o
of f er ". He bot h enj oys His devot ees, and is t he subj ect of enj oyment by His
devot ees, and t hus again He is havir -har ih. The wor d "har ih" is der ived f r om
t he r oot hR - t o obt ain. One who is obt ained by of f er ing of havis ishavir -har ih.
Also we have in mahA bhAr at a -
hr Amyagham ca smar t R* NAm havir bhAgam kr at ushvaham|
var NaSca me har idvet i t asmAd har ir _aham smRt ah| |
- (SAnt i par va 330.3)
"I dest r oy t he sins of t hose who r emember Me, and also r eceive t he oblat ions
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in sacr if ices; My complexion also is blue; hence I am named Har i". har ih also
means one who r emoves t he obst acles - har ir har at i pApAni. The f ollowing
nAma-s, up t o 379, ar e int er pr et ed by Sr I BhaTTar in t he cont ext of t he
lakshmI -pat it vam (vishNu as t he Consor t of Lakshmi) of bhagavAn par a-
vAsudeva.
nAma 362. nAma 362. nAma 362. B4¬¬T¬¬'4- B4¬¬T¬¬'4- B4¬¬T¬¬'4- -- - sar va sar va sar va-- -lakshaNa lakshaNa lakshaNa-- -lakshaNyah lakshaNyah lakshaNyah
a) He who is t he abode of all t he auspicious qualit ies
b) He who is t he ult imat e def init ion of all good qualit ies
c) He who is point ed t o as t he Ult imat e Tr ut h t hr ough all analysis
d) He who r eveals Himself t hr ough ever yt hing ar ound us
sarva-lakshaNa lakshaNyAya namah.
Sr I BhaTTar gives t he f ollowing dhyAna Sloka t hat ident if ies some of t hese
dist inguishing mar ks.
"dhyAyet kamala-gar bhAbham devam lakshmI -pat im t at ah|
kamalAlaya het I Sa vibhUshit a kar a-dvayam| | "
One should medit at e on t hat Deit y who is t he Consor t of Lakshmi, who has t he
splendor of t he inner par t of a lot us, and whose t wo hands ar e ador ned by t he
lot us which is t he abode of Lakshmi and cakr a which is t he lor d of all weapons".
He also gives r ef er ence t o t he mant r a "puNDar I kAksha! sakala-sukha
saubhAgyavAr idhe!" - Oh t he Lot us-eyed Lor d! The Sea of Bliss and Good
For t une! Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o ot her examples f r om divya
pr abandham - alar mEl ma~ngai uRai mAr bA! nigar -il pugazhAi! ulagam mUnRu
uDaiyAi!;t ir uvin maNALan - t ir uvAi mozhi 1.9.1. He also r ef er s us t o vishNu
pur ANam- paSyat Am sar va-devAnAm yayau vaksha-st halam har eh - When t he
nect ar byname Lakshmi came out of t he Milky Ocean when it was chur ned, She
chose t he vaksha-st halam of mahA vishNu st r aight out of t he Ocean even
t hough all t he deva-s wer e st anding t her e; such ar e His lakshaNa-s or
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at t r ibut es. Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion is He is t he lakshaNya or end r esult
t hat is obt ained t hr ough all lakshaNa-s or pr amANa-s. i.e., all means of
invest igat ion ult imat ely lead t o Him as t he Supr eme Knowledge or t he Ult imat e
Tr ut h. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat bhagavAn is t he ult imat e
def init ion f or each and ever y lakshaNa or at t r ibut e, and so He is sar va-
lakshaNalakshaNyah. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s t o f our t ypes of
pr amANa-s which ar e used f or r ecognizing somet hing. These ar e: pr akyaksha
pr amANa (r ecognit ion t hr ough our senses, such as t ast e, t ouch et c.), yukt i
pr amANa (r ecognit ion t hr ough indir ect evidence - such as r ecognizing f ir e
t hr ough smoke), SAst r apr amANa (what is laid down in scr ipt ur es, and anubhava
pr amANa (what we exper ience our selves, e.g., head ache). He gives t he
example of r AmakRshNapar amahamsa who r ecognized God as t he Only Tr ut h
t hr ough all t he sepr amANa-s. He could t alk t o God, he could not live wit hout
t he t hought of God j ust as we can' t live wit hout air , he r ecognized him t hr ough
t he SAst r a-s, and in essence he r ecognized God as t he ult imat e Tr ut h t hr ough
all t he pr amANa-s. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha descr ibes t his nAma' s
signif icance by point ing out t hat He is sar va-lakshaNa lakshaNya since
ever yt hing t hat we see point s t o Him as t he r eason behind it . He def ines
Himself t hr ough ever yt hing t hat we can see or ot her wise r ecognize.
nAma 363. nAma 363. nAma 363. ¬÷Pl4l+ ¬÷Pl4l+ ¬÷Pl4l+ –– – lakshmI vAn lakshmI vAn lakshmI vAn
He who is always wit h Lakshmi.
lakshmIvate namahProf.
Sr I nivAsa r Aghavan, in his t r anslat ion of Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAna, adds a
per sonal not e t hat t his t at t vam, viz. t he associat ion bet ween bhagavAn and
Lakshmi, should be lear ned t hr ough an AcAr ya. I am st ill adding t he f ew wor ds
t hat I am picking up f r om t he t r anslat ion. Ther e ar e t wo t hings t hat ar e
et er nal and always exist ed and will always exist , wit hout beginning or end. One
is bhagavAn. The ot her is pr akRt i, t he Pr imor dial Mat t er t hat is t he mat er ial
f r om which all t he t hings in t his Univer se ar e cr eat ed. This Pr imor dial Mat t er
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signif ies Lakshmi, t he Univer sal Mot her . The Univer se is a r esult of t he Union
of t hese t wo. Neit her exist s wit hout t he ot her . Ther e is change in t he
svar Upam of t he pr akRt i depending on t he pr opor t ion of t he t hr ee guNa-s viz.
sat t va, r aj as and t amas, but pr akRt i does not end at t he t ime of pr alaya, nor
does it begin at t he beginning of t he wor ld. The mUla-pr akRt i which is
beginningless and endless j ust like bhagavAn, is none ot her t han Lakshmi. Sr I
BhaTTar has given t he f ollowing Sloka in suppor t -
"dvayam devI -par iNaye leelayaiva samar payan |
pr akASayan anAdit vam At manA pr akRt he saha | |
mat -kar aih anuviddheyam pr akRt ih pr AkRt aih aham |
yat o' ham ASr it aSca asyA mUr t ih mayi et at At mikA | |
"At t he t ime of my mar r iage wit h Lakshmi, I in a playf ul mood, r evealed t he
secr et t o all t hat t he Supr eme Realit y is a couple, and not nAr AyaNa alone, nor
Lakshmi alone. Then I also r evealed t hat like Myself Lakshmi is also
beginningless (i.e. et er nal). This pr akRt i was embr aced by My hands, and I by
Her hands; wher ef or e I have r esor t ed t o Her , and She, in Her t ur n, has
r esor t ed t o Me. (So we ar e always t oget her ". Sr I cinmayAnanda echoes t he
same spir it t hr ough t he f ollowing wor ds: "He is t he Spir it (pur usha) t hat
t hr ills t he ent ir e wor ld-of -mat t er (pr akRt i). Mat t er t hr illed wit h t he spir it is
t he dynamic wor ld t hat we see ar ound. Thus, t he manif est ed Lor d is ever
wedded t o Lakshmi".
nAma 364. nAma 364. nAma 364. B|P|6V4 B|P|6V4 B|P|6V4- - - -- - samit inj ayah samit inj ayah samit inj ayah
He who is vict or ious in bat t les.
samiti~njayAya namah.
One meaning f or t he wor d samit i is bat t le. samit im yuddham j ayat i
it isamit i~nj ayah - He who conquer s t he war s or bat t les (Sr I Sankar a). He is
t he dest r oyer of all pain in all t he devot ees. He helps over come t he f eeling of
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independence f r om Him in t he j I vAt mA-s, and t hus br ings t r ue happiness t o
t hem by winning over t heir minds (Sr I BhaTTar ). Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i
uses t he meaning "gat her ing" or "assembly" f or t he wor d samit i, and gives t he
meaning t hat bhagavAn wins over t he samit i no mat t er how lar ge it is, if it is
ganged up against Him.
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SlOkam 40
|4¬¹l ¹l |r6l Pl¬l r 6 7l Pl 7¹FBr-· |4¬¹l ¹l |r6l Pl¬l r 6 7l Pl 7¹FBr-· |4¬¹l ¹l |r6l Pl¬l r 6 7l Pl 7¹FBr-·
Prl¤¹l Prl¬l¬l 4 ¬4l+|P6lH+-+ v¤+ Prl¤¹l Prl¬l¬l 4 ¬4l+|P6lH+-+ v¤+ Prl¤¹l Prl¬l¬l 4 ¬4l+|P6lH+-+ v¤+
vikshar O r Ohit O mAr go hEt ur dAmOdar as sahah |
mahI dhar o mahAbhAgO vEgavAnamit Asanah | |
nAma 365. nAma 365. nAma 365. |4¬¹- |4¬¹- |4¬¹- -- - vikshar ah vikshar ah vikshar ah
He who never wanes.
viksharAya namah
Sr I Sankar a bhAshyam is "vigat ah kshar ah (nASo) yasya asau vikshar ah" - One
who has no decay. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat bhagavAn' s love
f or His devot ees never diminishes, and He is vikshar a by t his r eason.366.
r ohit ah - He who is of r ed complexion.
rohitAya namah.
kamala gar bhAbat vAt r ohit ah - He who has t he r ed color of t he inside of a
lot us. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o t ir uvAimozhi - 8.4.7: "t ir ucceyya
kamalak kaNNum Sev-vAyum SevvaDiyum Seyya kaiyum t ir uc-ceyya
kamalaundiyum Seyya kamala mAr bum". Seyya her e means r eddish color ed,
kamala means lot us. r ohit a also r ef er s t o a species of f ish, and Sr I Sankar a
has given t he alt er nat e int er pr et at ion t hat it can r ef er t o His mat sya
incar nat ion, in t he f or m of a r eddish hued f ish. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha
der ives t he meaning f r om t he r oot r uh - bI j a j anmanipr Adur bhAve ca - t o
gr ow, t o incr ease, t o r ise, t o r each, and gives t he int er pr et at ion
"pr Adur bhavat i it i r ohit ah - One who expr esses Himself or One who causes all
beings t o expr ess t hemselves is r ohit ah.

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nAma 366. nAma 366. nAma 366. ¹l |r6- ¹l |r6- ¹l |r6- -- - rOhitah rOhitah rOhitah
He Who is of r ed complexion. He is r Ohit a, because He has t he r ed colour of
t he inside of a lot us
nAma 367. nAma 367. nAma 367. Pl¬- Pl¬- Pl¬- -- - mAr gah mAr gah mAr gah
He who is sought af t er .
mArgAya namah.
mAr gyat e it i mAr gah - He is mAr gah because He is always sought af t er by His
wor shipper s. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o t ir uvAi mozhi
nURRandAdi91 - "t AL aDaindAr t a~ngat ku t AnE vazhit -t uNaiyAm kALa-
megat t ai" - He accompanies and shows t he way t o t hose who have sur r ender ed
t o Him. Sr I Sankar a gives an addit ional int er pr et at ion - He is mAr ga because
He shows t he way f or t he at t ainment of Supr eme Bliss. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa
SAst r i gives anot her aspect - Af t er t he Univer se disappear s at t he t ime of
pr aLaya, it is He who is t he way f or t he wor ld' s r e-appear ance.
nAma 368. nAma 368. nAma 368. r6- r6- r6- -- - hEt uh hEt uh hEt uh
The Cause.
hetave namah.
He is t he cause f or t he r ealizat ion of t he desir es of His devot ees. Sr i
Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is bot h t he inst r ument al and mat er ial
cause of t he Univer se. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er nicely dist inguishes bet ween
bhagavAn t he Cause, and bhagavAn t he ef f ect s. He point s out t hat in gener al
we see t he ef f ect s, but we don' t see t he cause behind t he ef f ect s as easily.
This is t r ue in t he dif f er ent aspect s of lif e - we use t he Univer se, but we
don' t under st and bhagavAn who is t he Cause of t he Univer se. We see t he
body, but we don' t see t he f ive element s which ar e t he const it uent s of t his
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body. He is visible only t o t he yogi-s and t he j ~nAni-s as t he Cause of t he
Univer se.
nAma 369. nAma 369. nAma 369. 7lPl 7¹- 7lPl 7¹- 7lPl 7¹- -- - dAmOdar ah dAmOdar ah dAmOdar ah
1) He who has t he wor lds in His belly.
2) One who was t ied ar ound His waist by r opes by YaSodA
3) One who has happiness f or His devot ees
4) One who is at t ained by obser vances such as damA.
dAmodarAya namah.
The wor d dAma can r ef er t o a r ope, t he wor lds, happiness, et c. The wor d
dar am means belly. Based on t hese, t her e ar e dif f er ent int er pr et at ions.
1) udar e dAmAni asya it i dAmodar ah - One who has all t he wor lds in His belly.
This int er pr et at ion is suppor t ed by vyAsa' s wor ds:
"dAmAni loka nAmAni t Ani yasya udar a ant ar e |
t ena dAmodar o devah Sr I dhar ah Sr i-samASr it ah | |
(at t r ibut ed t o vyAsa but no r ef er ence given)
2) dAmnA udar e baddha it i dAmodar ah - One who was t ied ar ound His waist
wit ha cor d. The suppor t f or t his int er pr et at ion is f r om br ahma pur ANa:
"t ayor madhya-gat am baddham dAmnA gADham t ayodar e |
t at aSca dAmodar at Am sa yayau dAma bandhanAt | |
- (br ahmapuRaNa 76.14)
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o divya pr abandham -
veNNei vi zhu~nga veguNDuAi cci kaNNi k kayi RRi nAl kaTTat t An
kaTTuNDir undAn - mUnRAm t ir uvant Adi.
Sr I A. Sr I nivAsa r AghavAcAr ya svAmi in his int er pr et at ion in t amizh in Sr I
nRsimha pr iyA point s out t hat t he act of bhagavAn willingly get t ing Himself
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t ied ar ound wit h a r ope j ust demonst r at es t hat He becomes abhakt a-par a-
t ant r an i.e., He subj ect s Himself t o His devot ees' wishes. I n t his case, He
subj ect ed Himself t o yaSodA' s wish t hat He be const r ained by t he r ope. He
even shed t ear s when He was t ied in or der t o please her .3) Sr I BhaTTar gives
an addit ional int er pr et at ion based on "devAnAm sukhasamSit vAt dAmAt
dAmodar am viduh" (udyoga par va 71.9)- They know Him as dAmodar a because
He has "dAma" or j oy, indicat ing happiness f or t he gods.4) Sr I Sankar a has
given t he addit ional int er pr et at ion - damAdi sAdhanenaudar A (ut kRshTA)
mat ih (yA t ayA gamyat a) it i dAmodar ah - One who is known t hr ough t he mind
which is pur if ied (udar A or ut kRshTA) by means of self -cont r ol (dama) and
ot her qualit ies. He gives t he suppor t f r om mahAbhAr at a - damAt dAmodar o
viduh (udyoga par va 5.69.8). The dhar ma cakr am wr it er ver y nicely r emar ks
t hat t he One who was t ied by t he r ope can be known only by "t ieing" or
cont r olling t he pa~nca indr iya-sand dir ect ing t hem t owar ds Him and His
ser vice. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat t his nAma has t he
gr eat ness t hat at t he same t ime it shows t he gr eat ness of bhagavAn in having
t he whole Univer se inside Him and t he simplicit y of being t ied by a r ope and
cont ained by His devot ee.
nAma 370. nAma 370. nAma 370. Br- Br- Br- -- - sahah sahah sahah
He who has pat ience.
sahAya namah.
sahat e it i sahah. Sr I BhaTTar links t his nAma t o t he pr evious one by point ing
t hat He pat ient ly accept ed being t ied by t he r ope as dAmodar a. nammAzhvAr
sings t his pat ience of Lor d kRshNa - et t it Ram! ur alinODuiNaindir undu E~ngiya
eLivE (t ir uvAimozhi 1.3.1) - r ef er enced by Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an. Sr I Sankar a
vyAkhyAna is t hat He f or gives t he lapses of His devot ees - sahat e sar vAn
abhibhavat i it i sahah. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat He bear s t he
bur den of t he Univer se f or t he sake of t he welf ar e of t he cr eat ur es in t he
Univer se. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat He pat ient ly wait s t ill we
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at t ain t he mat ur it y needed t o r each Him and be unit ed wit h Him. He also
r ef er s t o t he incident wher e He put up wit h SiSupAla' s abusive wor ds mor e
t han a hundr ed t imes and had given wor d t o SiSupAla' s mot her t o t hat ef f ect .

mahI dhar an
nAma 371. nAma 371. nAma 371. Prl¤¹- Prl¤¹- Prl¤¹- -- - mahI dhar ah mahI dhar ah mahI dhar ah
The Suppor t er of t he Ear t h.
mahIdharAya namah.
This nAma occur r ed ear lier as nAma 319. Ther e t he meanings given wer e t hat
He suppor t s t he ear t h by r idding it of evil-doer s, or t hat He accept s t he pUj A
f r om t he devot ees. Under t he cur r ent nAma, Sr I Sankar a gives t he
int er pr et at ion t hat He bear s t he Ear t h in t he shape of mount ains. He gives
r ef er ence t o vishNu pur ANa -vanAni vishNur gir ayo diSaSca - (2.12.37) - The
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f or est s, mount ains, and dir ect ions ar e all vishNu. He bear s t he ear t h by
pr opping it up in t he f or m of mount ains. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o His
bear ing t he Ear t h bet ween His t eet h in His var Aha incar nat ion - eyiRRu iDai
maN koNDa endai - per iyAzhvAr t ir umozhi 5.2.3.
nAma 372. nAma 372. nAma 372. Prl¬l¬- Prl¬l¬- Prl¬l¬- -- - mahAbhAgah mahAbhAgah mahAbhAgah
He who is ext r emely For t unat e.
mahA-bhAgAya namah.
Sr I BhaTTar explains t hat Lor d kRshNa has t he good f or t une (mahA bhAgya)
of being chosen f or ser vice as t heir Lor d by t he cowher dess nI La, sixt een
t housand celest ial damsels, r ukmiNi, sat yabhAmA, j Ambavat i, and ot her s. Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t ir uvAimozhi - vaDivu iNai illA malar -magaLmaRRum
maN-magaL piDikkum mel-aDiyAn - 9.2.10. Sr I Sankar a gives t he vyAkhyAna
t hat He is f or t unat e in being able t o t ake any f or m He likes, or He who get s
t he best of ever yt hing in His incar nat ions. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s
out t hat He is mahAbhAgah because He get s t he maj or (mahA) por t ion
(bhAga) of any of f er ing as He likes. He r ef er s us t o t he incident of t he
of f er ing by t he gopa-s t o t he govar dhana gir i inst ead of t o indr a at t he
insist ence of kRshNa. Lor d kRshNa appear ed at t he t op of t he govar adhana
mount ain and accept ed all t he of f er ings.
nAma 373. nAma 373. nAma 373. 4¬4l+ 4¬4l+ 4¬4l+ -- - vEgavAn vEgavAn vEgavAn
He who is quick.
vegavate namah.
Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat even when He was child kRshNa, His act ions wer e
displaying His ir r esist ible supr emacy and Lor dship. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s
us t o t he incident of pUt anA, SakaTAsur a, lif t ing of govar dhana gir i at t he t ip
of t he f inger , et c. t ir uvAi mozhi 6.4 is f ull of t hese incident s. Sr I
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r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s t o t he incident of r ukmiNi svayamvar am as an
example of t he quickness of act ion t hat He displays. Sr I cinmayAnanda gives
t he int er pr et at ion t hat He r eaches His devot ees f ast t he moment t hey t hink
of Him because He is ever ywher e and all-per vading. Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s
t he nAma in t er ms of t he I Sopanishad declar at ion (4) "anej adekam manso
j avI yah - He is unmoving, but at t he same t ime f ast er t han t he mind". The
cont ext her e is t hat He is inside us, but no amount of r easoning wit h our mind
can decipher Him and f igur e Him out . He cannot be under st ood by r eason and
logic alone, since even a lif et ime of r easoning wit h t he mind t hat is f ast er t han
anyt hing t hat is known will not r esult in r ealizing Him.
nAma 374. nAma 374. nAma 374. H|P6lH+- H|P6lH+- H|P6lH+- -- - amit Asanah amit Asanah amit Asanah
a) The vor acious Eat er .
b) He who gives unlimit ed supply of f ood t o His cr eat ions.
amiTaSanAya namah.
amit am aSnAt i it i amit ASanah - One who eat s huge quant it ies. Sr I BhaTTar
point s out t hat Lor d kRshNa displayed His gr eat ness, among ot her act s, by
swallowing t he unlimit ed quant it y of f ood of f er ed t o govar dhana gir i, making
t he cowher ds exclaim in wonder - "devo vA dAnavo vA t vam" - "Who ar e you - a
deva or an asur a?" - vishNu pur ANam 5.13.121. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o
di vya pr abandham - aTTuk- kur uvi SORRup- par uppadamum t ayi r
vAviyumneyyaLar um aDa~ngap poTTat t uRRu - One who in a f r act ion of a
second consumed a huge amount of r ice heaped like a mount ain, a huge amount
of cur d t hat looked like a canal, ghee t hat was pour ed like a big puddle, plent y
of veget ables, et c. (per iyAzhvAr t ir umozhi 3.5.1), and t o "kAr Ezh
kaDalEzhmalai Ezhulagu uNDum Ar A vayiRRAn - t ir uvAi mozhi 10.9.2. This
nAma is similar t o nAma 304 - mahASanah. Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s t he nAma
in t er ms of His swallowing t he whole Univer se at t he t ime of pr aLaya. Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat t her e is not hing t hat He cannot digest ,
since He is t he j ATar Agni t hat digest s t he f ood t hat ever y being consumes -
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aham vaiSvAnar o bhUt vA ....pacAmyannam cat ur vidham (gI t A 15.14). The
dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat we can neit her live and gr ow wit hout
eat ing, nor live wit hout digest ing t he f ood we eat , and bot h ar e made possible
by Him, and t his is signif ied by t his nAma. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he
above int er pr et at ion, as well as an alt er nat e int er pr et at ion - amit An pr ANinah
ASayat i = bhoj ayat i it iamit ASanah - He is amit ASanah because He gives
unlimit ed supply of f ood t o His cr eat ion, which is it self immeasur able.
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SlOkam 41
7T4- ¬l ¬Tl 7 47~l¬¬ - 9¹P H¹-· 7T4- ¬l ¬Tl 7 47~l¬¬ - 9¹P H¹-· 7T4- ¬l ¬Tl 7 47~l¬¬ - 9¹P H¹-·
T¹T Tl¹T T6l |4T6l ¬r+l ¬ r-+ v°+ T¹T Tl¹T T6l |4T6l ¬r+l ¬ r-+ v°+ T¹T Tl¹T T6l |4T6l ¬r+l ¬ r-+ v°+
udbhavah kshObhaNO dEvas sr I gar bhah par amEsvar ah |
kar aNam kAr aNam kar t A vikar t A gahanO guhah | |
nAma 375. nAma 375. nAma 375. 77 7T4 T4 T4- - - -- - udbhavah udbhavah udbhavah
a) He who r emoves t he bondage.
b) He who is beyond t he bondage of samsAr a.
c) He who is t he or igin of t he Univer se.
udbhavAya namah
One who r emoves t he bondage of samsAr a of t hose who medit at e upon Him.
Sr I BhaTTar point s out t hat t hose who medit at e on t he incident of His being
bound by t he r ope (kaNNinuN Sir ut -t AmbinAl kaTTuNNap paNNiya
per umAyan) will be r emoved f r om t he bondage of samsAr a - udbhavo bhavah
asmAt it i udbhavah. Sr I Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion is t hat He is f r ee
f r om t he bondage of exist ence, and so He is udbhavah - udgat o bhavAt
samsAr At it i udbhavah. Sr I Sankar a' s alt er nat e int er pr et at ion is t hat He is
t he Or igin of t he Univer se - pr apa~nca ut pat t i upAdAna kAr aNat vAt
udbhavah.
nAma 376. nAma 376. nAma 376. ¬l¬T- ¬l¬T- ¬l¬T- -- - kshObhaNah kshObhaNah kshObhaNah
The Cr eat or of a commot ion.
khshobaNAya namah.
The nAma is der ived f r om t he r oot kshub - sa~ncalane t o cause mot ion or
dist ur bance. kshobayat i it i kshobaNah. Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam
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isbandhAr hAn kshobayat i it i kshobhaNah - One who cr eat es t umult in t he
minds of t hose who ar e f it t o be bound in samsAr a. Sr I Sankar a' s vyAkhyAna
is t hat He cr eat es vibr at ion and agit at ion in pur ur sha and pr akRt i
(consciousness or j iva-s and pr imor dial mat t er ) at t he t ime of cr eat ion by
ent er ing t hem. He r ef er s us t o vishNu pur ANa in suppor t -
"pr akRt im pur usham caiva pr aviSya At meccayA har ih|
kshobhayAmAsa sar ga-kAle vyayAvyayI | | (V.P. 1.2.29)
An alt er nat e int er pr et at ion, suppor t ed by Sr I sat yadevo vAsisshTha, Sr I
cinmayAnada, et c., is t hat He is kshobaNah because He keeps t he beings in t he
Univer se vibr ant by being t heir ant ar yAmi and const ant ly keeping t hem in
mot ion.
nAma 377. nAma 377. nAma 377. 74- 74- 74- -- - dEvah dEvah dEvah
He who spor t s Himself .
devAya namah.
dI vyat i kr I Dat i it i devah. He plays wit h t he j iva-s by binding t hem wit h mAyA
or pr akRt i. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o divya pr abandham - palapala mAya
mayakkukkaLAl inbur um iv-viLaiyATTuDaiyAn (t ir uvAimozhi 3.10.7). A similar
concept is expr essed in nAma 312 (nahushah), 335 (Adidevah), et c. Sr I
cinmayAnanda point s out t hat t he t er m dI vyat i means "t o shine' , ' t o conquer ' ,
' t o pr aise' , et c. Sr I Sankar a includes t he play of cr eat ion, t he desir e t o
conquer t he enemies of gods, f unct ioning in all beings, shining in all beings,
being pr aised by t he holy men, per vading all, et c., as t he r easons f or His being
t he only deva. He quot es t he Svet Asvat Ar aupanishad - eko devah sar va
bhUt eshu gUDhah (6.11) - Ther e is only one God who is hidden in all t hings t hat
exist - in suppor t .

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nAma 378. nAma 378. nAma 378. ~l¬¬- ~l¬¬- ~l¬¬- -- - sr I sr I sr I -- -gar bhah gar bhah gar bhah
a) He who has Lakshmi always wit h Him in His play as devah.
b) He who has Lakshmi in Him in t he f or m of t he Univer se.
c) He who is t he abode of all auspicious qualit ies (Sr I ).
SrI-garbhAya namah.
He is insepar ably unit ed wit h Lakshmi. I n His play as t he deva He has Lakshmi
always as His companion. vishNoh eshA anapAyinI - She is ever insepar able
f r om vishNu - vishNu pur ANa - 1.9.144. Sr I BhaTTar ' s vyAkhyAnam is "bhoga-
kr I DA sahAyat vena var dhanI yA asya Sr I h it i Sr I -gar bhah - He is insepar able
f r om Sr I or Lakshmi in His spor t s. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o divya
pr abandham - kOla malar p pAvaikku anbAgiya en appan - t ir uvAimozhi10.10.7.
Sr I Sankar a gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He has Lakshmi or aiSvar ya in His
belly in t he f or m of t he Univer se. Sr I cinmayAnanda gives t he int er pr et at ion
t hat He has all t he glor ies (Sr I ) in Himself , and so He is Sr I -gar bhah. The
dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat j ust as t he wealt h t hat a mot her
pr ot ect s car ef ully is t he child in her womb, a st ingy per son pr ot ect s his
wealt h, and a j ~nAni pr ot ect s his knowledge, so also mahAvishNu pr ot ect s t he
Univer se. J ust as t he child cannot live independent of t he mot her , so also t he
Univer se can' t exist wit hout bhagavAn. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha point s out
t hat bhagavAn is t he ant ar yAmi inside ever yone in t his Univer se (Sr I ), and t his
is as if He is in t he gar bha of t he Univer se, and so He is called Sr I -gar bhah.
nAma 379. nAma 379. nAma 379. 9¹PH¹- 9¹PH¹- 9¹PH¹- -- - par amEsvar ah par amEsvar ah par amEsvar ah
The Supr eme Ruler .
parameSvarAya namah.
aiSvar ya means Lor dship. BhagavAn is par ameSvar ah because He is t he Lor d
of all, including mahA Lakshmi - t ir uvukkum t ir uvAgiya SelvA - t ir umozhi
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7.7.1.Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i der ives t he meaning f r om par A mA - par amA -
mahAlakshmi, One who is above all Sakt i-s. This par amA volunt ar ily seeks t he
place in His vaksha-st hala and ser ves Him; t hus He is par amAyAh I Svar ah-
par ameSvar ah. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er indicat es t hat j ust as a human being
does well in r uling over himself if he has f ull cont r ol of his indr iya-s, BhagavAn
is in f ull cont r ol of al t he beings as t he par ameSvar ah or Ruler of t he Univer se.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives an int er pr et at ion based on mA - SobhA.
par ameSvar ah t hus indicat es One who has Supr eme SobhA. One who has
Supr eme SobhA, who is t he Lor d of t his and also has f ull cont r ol of t his, and
at t r act s and cont r ols ever yt hing because of t his, is par ameSvar ah -
par A mAyasya sa par amah. sa ca asau I Svar ah par ameSvar ah.
nAma 380. nAma 380. nAma 380. T¹TP T¹TP T¹TP -- - kar aNam kar aNam kar aNam
The Means.
karaNAya namah.
nAma 381. nAma 381. nAma 381. Tl¹TP Tl¹TP Tl¹TP -- - kAr aNam kAr aNam kAr aNam
The Cause - He who causes ot her s t o act .
kAraNAya namah.
The t wo nAma-s ar e being looked at t oget her her e because of t heir close
r elat ion. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he der ivat ion kr iyat e anena it i
kar aNam -That by which or t hr ough whom an act is done. BhagavAn is t he only
means f or at t aining Him. The eyes, ear s, et c. which ar e t he means of
knowledge ar e all aspect s of t his power of bhagavAn. kAr aNam is t he Cause
t hat makes t he beings act using t he kar aNa-s. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an point s us t o
pANini' s wor ds - sAdhaka-t amam kar aNam -kar aNam is t hat which is t he best
among means or sAdhana-s. He also r eminds us of t he nAma "hRshI keSa" in
t his cont ext - He who is t he eeSa or Lor d of t he indr iya-s (t he eyes, ear s, et c.
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ar e t he j ~nAnendr iya-s, and t he legs, hands, et c. ar e t he kar mendr iya-s).
Beyond t hese indr iya-s, t her e ar e t he ant ah-kar aNa-s which ar e t he cit t a, t he
mind, buddhi, and ahamkAr a, which ar e also cont r olled by bhagavAn. The
dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat f or us t o cont r ol t he j ~nAnemdr iya-s,
t he kar mendr iya_s, t he ant ah-kar aNa-s, et c., medit at ion on mahA-vishNu is
t he means. He also r ef er s us t o t he gI t A t o point out t hat t he way t o achieve
t his cont r ol is f ir m det er minat ion (vair Agya) and r epeat ed t r aining (abhyAsa).
Following Sr I Sankar a' s vyAkhyAna, Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i dist inguishes
kar aNam f r om t he next nAma - kAr aNam, by int er pr et ing kar aNam as "pr imar y
cause", and kAr aNam as t he supplement ar y causes. BhagavAn is bot h t he
pr imar y cause as well as t he supplement ar y causes in t he cr eat ion. He gives
t he example of t he cr eat ion of a mud pot f r om clay. Bot h t he clay and some
addit ional inst r ument s ar e needed in t his pr ocess. But t hese alone will not
r esult in t he mud pot , unless t her e is t he involvement of t he maker of t he pot .
BhagavAn is t he r eason f or not only t he pr imar y cause but t he ot her causes as
well. Sr I cinmayAnanda explains kar aNam as "He f r om whom t he Univer se
ar ises", and kAr aNam as "He who causes t he Univer se t o ar ise".
nAma 382. nAma 382. nAma 382. T6l T6l T6l -- - kar t A kar t A kar t A
The Agent .
kartre namah.
This nAma occur r ed ear lier as nAma 317. Ther e t he int er pr et at ion by Sr I
BhaTTar was based on par aSur Ama incar nat ion, as t he one who slayed t he
demon kAr t a-vI r ya. I n t he cur r ent inst ance his int er pr et at ion is t hat
bhagavAn is t he Agent who causes ot her s t o act . Sr I cinmayAnanda quot es
pANini - svat ant r ah kar t A - One who f r eely and independent ly per f or ms t he
f unct ions of cr eat ion, pr ot ect ion and dest r uct ion, is t he "Doer ". Sr I
r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i point s out t hat He is kar t A because wit hout Him, t he
mer e exist ence of t he pa~nca bhUt a-s et c. could not have r esult ed in t he
Univer se, j ust as t he pr esence of clay et c. wit hout t he pr esence of a pot -
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maker could not have r esult ed in t he cr eat ion of a pot . Even t hough t he
j I vAt mA-s may t hink t hat t hey ar e independent in t heir act s, not hing
f unct ions wit hout His Will - avan anRi Or aNuvum aSaiyAdu. BhagavAn is t he
only svat ant r a kar t A - One who act s independent ly of ever yt hing else. Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o t ir uvAimozhi 5.6.4 -
"SeikinRa kidi ellAm yAnE enRum
SeivA ninRanagaLum yAnE enRum
Seidu mun iRandavum yAnE enRum
Seiyap payan uNbEnum yAnE ennum
SeivAr gaLaic ceivEnum yAnE ennum .....
BhagavAn j ust does not st op wit h being t he Agent , He also f eels t he ef f ect s
of t he act ions of t he j I vAt mA-s as if t hey wer e His own.
vyasaneshumanushyANAm bhRSam bhavat i duhkhit ah ut saveshu ca sar veshu
pit evapar it ushyat i - When t he people suf f er ed, RAma suf f er ed mor e t han t hey
did, and when t hey wer e happy, He f elt happy like a f at her . Af t er cr owning
vibhI shaNa, Lor d r Ama f elt ver y f ulf illed - kRt a kRt yah pr amumoda ha.
nAma 383. nAma 383. nAma 383. |4T6l |4T6l |4T6l -- - vikar t A vikar t A vikar t A
a) He who under goes modif icat ions.
b) He who cr eat ed t he wor ld of var iet ies.
vikartre namah.
a) vikur vANah vikar t A. I n t r ut h bhagavAn does not under go any modif icat ions.
He is avikAr a. However , since t he Univer se is an ext ension of Him, and since
t he Univer se under goes modif icat ions const ant ly, it can be said t hat He
under goes modif icat ions. He has no j oy or sor r ow t hat r esult s f r om His own
act ; but since He consider s ot her s' act s as His own and f eels one wit h t he j oys
and sor r ows of His cr eat ions, t he r esult ing vikAr a or modif icat ion and f eeling
of j oy and sor r ow is f or t he sake of His cr eat ion. Lor d r Ama did not
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exper ience j oy when He was t o be cr owned, no did He f eel sor r ow t he next day
when He lost it .
b) Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion is t hat bhagavAn is t he cr eat or of t his var ied
Univer se - vicit r am bhuvanam kRt avAn it i vikar t A. Sr I r AdhakRshNa SAst r i
point s out t hat His cr eat ion is vicit r a because it is beyond compr ehension, and
He did it out of His leelA. No t wo t hings in His cr eat ion ar e ident ical. The
dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s t hat in addit ion, no t wo minds ar e same, no t wo
f aces ar e t he same. We don' t know our past , we don' t know wher e we go af t er
we pass away, nor how many mor e bir t hs we will have t o go t hr ough. We go
t hr ough bir t h af t er bir t h, and in each bir t h we lear n t hat t he ext er nal
pleasur es ar e not r eal pleasur es, but we don' t car r y t his memor y and
exper ience t o t he next bir t h. Time does not leave anyone behind, but we
ignor e t his and t r y t o immer se our selves in t he pleasur es of our indr iya-s. All
t hese ar e t he vicit r a-s of His cr eat ion.
nAma 384. nAma 384. nAma 384. ¬r+- ¬r+- ¬r+- -- - gahanah gahanah gahanah
He who is deep and inscr ut able.
gahanAya namah.
He is beyond our int ellect and r easoning. He is inside all of us, and yet we
don' t know Him. yah pRt hivyAs t ishThan yam pRt hivI na veda --He who is in
t he ear t h but whom t he ear t h does not know - bRhadAr aNya upanishad 5.7.3.
He is in all t he gods but t he gods don' t know Him - viNNavar kkueNNal ar iyAn -
t ir uvAimozhi 1.9.2 (v.v.r AmAnuj an). He is bot h t he eye and t he obj ect t o be
seen - cakshuSca dr ashTavyam ca nAr AyaNah. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i
r ef er s us t o kaThopanishad - t am dur dar Sam gUDhamanupr avishTam
guhAhit am gahvar eshTham pur ANam - 1.21. Sr I Sankar a point s out t hat He is
Unknowable in r egar d t o His Nat ur e, capabilit y or act s. The dhar ma cakr am
wr it er t akes us t hr ough sever al inst ances in young child kRshNa' s leelA-s t o
illust r at e t his point . The gopikA vast r Apahar aNam, t he inst ance of pUt anA,
t he lif t ing of t he govar dhana gir i, t he episode of be ingt ied by yaSodA by a
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r ope, et c., illust r at e our inabilit y t o under st and Him t hr ough our logic and
r at ionale. The only way t o under st and Him is t hr ough devot ion.
nAma 385. nAma 385. nAma 385. ¬ r- ¬ r- ¬ r- -- - guhah guhah guhah
a) The Savior .
b) One who hides Himself ef f ect ively f r om non-devot ees.
guhAya namah.
gUhat i r akshat i it i guhah. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives r ef er ence t o t ir uvAimozhi
- kAkkum iyalvinan kaNNa per umAn - 2.2.9. This is Sr I BhaTTar ' s
vyAkhyAnam. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i adds t hat t his pr ot ect ion is like t hat
of a child pr ot ect ed by t he mot her when t he child is in her womb. Sr I Sankar a
int er pr et s t he nAma based on gUhat e samvRNot i - He who hides His Nat ur e,
and gives t he r ef er ence t o gI t A - nAham pr akASah sar vasyayogamAyA
samAvRt ah - 7.25. Sr I cinmayAnanda gives r ef er ence t o vishNubhAgavt a
10.37.11 - gUDho guhASayah sAkshI mahA pur usha I Svar ah - This Lor d, t he
Gr eat Pur usha, t he wit ness who dwells in t he vase most secr et ively.
MuNDakopanishad descr ibes Him as "nihit am guhAyAm. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa
SAst r i r ef er s us t o kaThopanishad 3.12 - esha sar veshu bhUt eshu gUDhAt mA
napr akASat e, and t o gI t A -
avaj Anant i mAm mUDhA mAnushI m t anuASr it am |
par am bhAvamaj Anant o mama bhUt a maheSvar am | | 9.11
Yet anot her int er pr et at ion, given by Sr I R. anant akRshNa SAst r i, is t hat He
r eclines in t he hear t (guhah) of all.
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SlOkam 42
-44Bl4l -44F¤l+FB F¤l+FF¤l+7l ¤ 4-· -44Bl4l -44F¤l+FB F¤l+FF¤l+7l ¤ 4-· -44Bl4l -44F¤l+FB F¤l+FF¤l+7l ¤ 4-·
9¹|& - 9¹PF97- 6 7- 9 7- H ¬ ¬T-+ v-+ 9¹|& - 9¹PF97- 6 7- 9 7- H ¬ ¬T-+ v-+ 9¹|& - 9¹PF97- 6 7- 9 7- H ¬ ¬T-+ v-+
vyavasAyO vyavast hAnas samst hAnas st hAnadO dhr uvah |
par ar ddhih par amaspashTah t ushTah pushTah subhEkshaNah | |
nAma 386. nAma 386. nAma 386. -44Bl4- -44Bl4- -44Bl4- -- - vyavasAyah vyavasAyah vyavasAyah
a) The Pivot (of t he planet s).
b) One wit h a f ir m and r esolut e mind, One wit h Tr ue Knowledge about Self .
vyavasAyAya namaha
t iSayena sI yat e (badhyat e) asmin j yot iScakr am it i vyavasAyah - The cir cle of
planet s is t ight ly bound and closely f ast ened t o bhagavAn, and so He is called
vyavasAyah. Space which is t he suppor t f or t he st ar s and planet s is t he body
of bhagavAn, and so He is t ied t o t hem t ight ly. Sr I cinmayAnanda r ef er s us t o
t wo Sloka-s in t he gI t A wher e t he t er m vyavasAya occur s. Sr I r AmAnuj a in
his gI t A bhAshya (2.41) int er pr et s t he wor d as r ef er r ing t o "unshakable
convict ion" (about t he t r ue nat ur e of t he self ) - vyavasAyo niScayah. The
same int er pr et at ion is given in gI t A 2.44.So vyavasAyah can r ef er t o One wit h
a r esolut e mind, or One who has Tr ue Knowledge of t he self .
nAma 387. nAma 387. nAma 387. -44F¤l+- -44F¤l+- -44F¤l+- -- - vyavast hAnah vyavast hAnah vyavast hAnah
The basis.
vyavasthAnAya namah.
The basis f or t he nAma is t he r oot st hA (st hit i). vyavast hAnam kar ot i
it ivyavast hAnah, or asmin vyavast hit ih sar vasya it i vyavast hAnah. One who
est ablishes ever yt hing, or One on whom t he basis of ever yt hing r esides; or
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One who r egulat es ever yt hing in t he Univer se and t he associat ed f unct ions.
vyavast hA is given t he meaning "det er minat ion, decision, set t lement " in Apt e' s
dict ionar y, and vyavast hit means ' est ablished' . One who det er mines
ever yt hing is t hus vyavast hAnah, and One who est ablishes ever yt hing in t heir
r espect ive places or posit ions is vyavast hAnah. Sr I BhaTTar associat es t his
basis wit h kAla or t ime, which is t he basis f or ever yt hing t hat happens in t his
wor ld. This again is det er mined by t he movement of t he planet s, of which
dhr uva is t he pole or t he pivot . Sr I Sankar a associat es t he nAma wit h
bhagavAn being t he One who divides and r egulat es ever yone including t he
dif f er ent pr ot ect or s of t he wor ld, var ious t ypes of beings, t akes car e of t heir
sur vival and sust enance, et c.
nAma 388. nAma 388. nAma 388. BF¤l+- BF¤l+- BF¤l+- -- - samst hAnah samst hAnah samst hAnah
The f inal end.
samsthAnAya namah.
sar vam et asmin sant hishThat e - samApyat e it i samst hAnah. One in whom all
t hings have t heir ult imat e end is samst hAnah. Anot her int er pr et at ion, given
by Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an, is samApyat e it i samst hAnah - One who t er minat es
ever yt hing at some st age is samst hAnah. Sr I Sankar a gives an addit ional
int er pr et at ion - samI cI nam st hAnam asya it isamst hAnah - He who has t he
supr eme place. This is elabor at ed by Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i as r ef er r ing
t o t he Milky Ocean, t he sUr ya maNDala, t he hear t of t he yogis et c., or His
posit ion as dhr uva in t he dhr uva maNDala.
nAma 389. nAma 389. nAma 389. F¤l+7- F¤l+7- F¤l+7- -- - st hAnadah st hAnadah st hAnadah
The Giver of t he Supr eme Abode.
sthAnadAya namah.
st hAnam dadAt i it i st hAna-dah. da is "t o give". Ther e ar e many nAma-s t hat
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end wit h t he af f ix -da, and all of t hese can be under st ood based on t his suf f ix.
Ot her examples ar e pr ANa-dah, mAna-dah, SAnt i-dah, Sr I -dah,dar pa-dah,
sar va-kAma-dah, and svast i-dah. st hAna-dah is One who gives t he best of t he
st hAna-s, par amapadam. Sr I Sankar a gives a mor e gener al int er pr et at ion as
One who gives st at us t ot he beings as t hey deser ve - dhr uvAdI nAm
kar mAnur Upam st hAnam dadAt i it ist hAna-dah. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i
point s out t hat bhagavAn is t he One who gave t he posit ion t o dhr uva which is
unlike all t he ot her st ar s viz. dhr uva is f ixed in posit ion compar ed t o t he
ot her s who ar e in const ant mot ion. Sr I cinmayAnanda gives r ef er ences t o
kat hopanishad (yat hAkar mam yat hASr ut am- 2.5.7), and quot es "kar ma phala
dAt A nAr AyaNah" t o suppor t Sr I Sankar a' s int er pr et at ion. The dhar ma
cakr am wr it er gives r ef er ence t o t ir ukkur aL t osuppor t t he same int er pr et at ion
-
"vagut t An vagut t a vagai allAl kODi t ogut t Ar kkum t uyt t al ar idu".
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha comment s t hat bhagavAn gives t he posit ion t o t he
st ar s in space, t o t he devas in t he ant ar iksha loka, t o t he wat er -living
cr eat ur es in t he Oceans, et c. At a lower level, He has even cr eat ed
appr opr iat e places in our bodies f or t he r ef use t hat r esult s f r om t he bodily
f unct ions.
nAma 390. nAma 390. nAma 390. ¤4- ¤4- ¤4- -- - dhr uvah dhr uvah dhr uvah
The St at ionar y (Fixed).
dhruvAya namah.
The r oot dhr u means t o be st eady. He conf er r ed a st at us on dhr uva t hat is as
per manent as Sr I vaikunTham. Since He can make any place as per manent as
His abode viz. Sr I viakunTham, t he signif icance her e is t hat He is ever ywher e.
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i comment s t hat bhagavAn conf er r ed on dhr uva t hat
which is only His Nat ur e - viz. t he indest r uct ible st at us, and so dhr uva is
bhagavAn Himself . The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat in t he midst of
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t he cycle of cr eat ion and pr alaya wher e ever yt hing t hat has been cr eat ed
mer ges in Him and t hen r eappear s, He is t he only per manent or f ixed one, and
so He is dhr uva. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha t akes t he meaning "cer t ain" f or
dhr uva, and point s out t hat even t hough ever yt hing except Him in t his
Univer se is a dhr uva, by His Nat ur e of dhr uvat va He gives a sense of cer t aint y
t o ever yt hing - t hus t he r ising of t he sun and t he set t ing of t he sun ar e dhr uva
or cer t ain, bir t h and deat h ar e cer t ain, et c. Next begins t he st or y of Sr I
r Ama. The next 16 nAma-s ar e int er pr et ed by Sr I BhaTTar in t he cont ext of
r AmAvat Ar a. Sr I BhaTTar t it les t his sect ion as "The st or y of Sr I r Ama
which r esuscit at es even t he dead". Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an point s out t he "bias"
t hat Sr I BhaTTar has f or t his incar nat ion shows in t he vr yAkhyAnam t hat he
gives f or t hese nAma-s. The t it le is j ust t he beginning.
nAma 391. nAma 391. nAma 391. 9¹|&- 9¹|&- 9¹|&- -- - par ar ddhih par ar ddhih par ar ddhih
He who is f ull of noble and auspicious qualit ies.
paraddhaye namah.
Rddhih means vibhUt i or manif est at ion. par A Rddhih yasya sa par ar ddhih -One
who has a super -abundance of auspicious qualit ies or kalyANa guNa-s.Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj an comment s t hat it is not an exagger at ion t o say t hat in no ot her
incar nat ion do we f ind t he per f ect ion of auspicious qualit ies as in t he r Ama
incar nat ion. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o r AmAyaNa wher e some of
t hese qualit ies ar e descr ibed in Sloka-s 1.1.8 t o 1.1.18 by sagenAr ada t o
vAlmI ki. The last t wo Sloka-s ar e given her e as examples:
"samudr a iva gAmbhI r ye dhair yeNa himavAniva |
vishNunA sadRSo vI r ye somavat pr iyadar Sanah| |
kAlAgni-sadRSah kr odhe kshamayA pRt hivI samah|
dhanadena samst yAge sat ye dhar ma ivApar ah| |
"r Ama has gAmbhI r ya like an ocean, dhair ya of himavAn, vI r ya of vishNu, t he
sweet appear ance of t he moon, anger compar able t o t hat of pr alaya agni,
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pat ience of Mot her Ear t h, t yAga of kuber a, and sat ya of dhar madevat A". Sr I
r AmAnuj an gives an addit ional int er pr et at ion: par eshAm Rddhir evaRddhih
yasya - One who consider s par a samRddhih or t he f ulf illment of ot her s as His
own. Af t er cr owning vibhI shaNa, Lor d r Ama f elt happy by t he sheer act of
f ulf illing His wor d - kRt a kRt yah t at hA r Amah. He also quot es "ut saveshu ca
sar veshu pit eva par it ushyat i" - When t he cit izens ar e happy, He f eels happy
like a f at her who f eels pleasur e at t he happiness of t he child".
nAma 392. nAma 392. nAma 392. 9¹PF97- 9¹PF97- 9¹PF97- -- - par ama par ama par ama-- -spashTah spashTah spashTah
He whose gr eat ness is explicit .
parama-spashTAya namah.
spashTa (pr at yaksha, dRshTA) pAr amyah par ama-spashTah. His gr eat ness is
explicit ly obvious. Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s us t o r AmAyaNa - vyakt ameshamahA-
yogI par amAt mA sanAt anah - (yuddha kANDam - 114.4). These ar e
mandodar i' s wor ds when she sees r Ama af t er He slays r AvaNa in t he
bat t lef ield. Similar ly, t Ar A, vAli' s wif e, r ecognizes r Ama' s divine nat ur e as
soon as she sees Him -
t vam apr ameyaSca dur AsadaSca.....manushyadehAbhyudam vihAya divyena
dehAbhydayena yukt ah (r AmAyaNa 4.24.31-32).
Lor d r Ama' s only goal and f ir m det er minat ion (mahA-yogi) in t his incar nat ion
was pr ot ect ion of t he wor ld, and His gr eat ness can be clear ly cognized by
means of dir ect per cept ion. sumit r A' s wor ds ar e: "sUr yasyApi bhavet
sUr yah" - He shines even br ight er t han t he Sun, and He is t he One who gives
br ight ness t o t he Sun. Ot her r ef er ences t o Lor d r Ama' s explicit gr eat ness
ar e His being called "pumsAm dRshTi cit t ApahAr iNam", "r Upa samhananam
lakshmI m t adRSur vismit AkAr Ah", et c. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out
t hat it is t his explicit gr eat ness t hat caused bhar at a t o t hr ow away t he
kingdom t hat was of f er ed t o him and inst ead be devot ed t o r Ama, lakshmaNa
t o ser ve r Ama f or 14 year s wit hout f ood and sleep, and hanumAn t o sur r ender
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t o r Ama as soon as he met him and ser ve Him f or t he r est of his lif e. Sr I
sat yadevo vAsishTha gives an independent int er pr et at ion based on t he r oot
spaS - t o bind ( spaSat i - badhnAt i), and gives t he meaning "One who binds
ever yt hing in a super b way" f or par ama-spashTa. The example of t he complex
human body, which r et ains it s beaut if ul appear ance in spit e of it s int er nal
complexit y, is given as an example. He gives t he f ollowing quot es in suppor t :
asya spaSo na nimishant i (r g 9.73.4), divah spaSah pr acar ant i(at har va 4.16.4),
et c.
nAma 393. nAma 393. nAma 393. 6 7- 6 7- 6 7- -- - t ushTah t ushTah t ushTah
He who is f ull of happiness.
tushTAya namah.
I nst ead of being in Sr I viakunTham wher e only a chosen f ew could be wit h Him,
He decided happily t o choose dasar at ha, a human, as His f at her , and be bor n in
t his wor ld so t hat He was wit hin r each of ever yone. When t he deva-s
appear ed bef or e Him in His r Ama incar nat ion and pr aised Him as bhagavAn, He
t old t hem t hat He was happy t o consider Himself as a human, t he son of
dasar at ha - At mAnam mAnusham manye r Amam daSar at hAt maj am. As we saw
bef or e, He is one who was happy like a f at her of an accomplished child when
His cit izens wer e happy - pit eva par it ushyat i, and who at t ained unbounded j oy
by j ust f ulf illing His wor d t o vibhI shaNa and cr owning him as t he king of
lankA- pr amumoda ha. Sr I Sankar a int er pr et s t he nAma as r ef er r ing t o His
being The Supr eme Bliss. Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t hat He is t ushTa - One
who becomes happy even wit h t he smallest of of f er ings. He r ef er s us t o
"pat r am pushpam phalam t oyam yo me bhakt yA pr ayacchat i|
t adaham bhakt yupahRt am aSnAmi pr ayat At manah | |
"I accept even if one of f er s some leaf or f lower , f r uit , or spoon of wat er ,
happily, if it is of f er ed in love". The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat
bhagavAn is t ushTa because He is not subj ect t o t he pains and pleasur es t hat
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ot her beings ar e subj ect t o. r Ama did not f eel inst ant happiness when He was
going t o become king, nor was He sad when He was asked t o go t he f or est f or
14 year s. kRshNa only smiled when gAndhAr i cur sed t hat t he yAdava r ace
should come t o an end f or ever . bhagavAn is only t he wit ness t o all event s, and
is not inf luenced in any way by any event , which f or t he out sider s is deemed
good or bad, happy or sad et c. This nAma should t each us t hat t he pr oper way
t o r ealize bhagavAn is t o be t ushTa always, and be wit ness t o t he event s
ar ound us but not be at t ached t o t hem, and t r ain t o be a yogi - sant hushTah
sat at am yogI .
nAma 394. nAma 394. nAma 394. 9 7- 9 7- 9 7- -- - pushTah pushTah pushTah
He who is f ull of noble qualit ies.
pushTAya namah.
pUr Nat vAt pushTah. He is complet e in ever y r espect , and so t her e is no r oom
f or likes and dislikes, want s and desir es. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er r ef er s us
t o vaLLuvar r ef er r ing t o bhagavAn as "vENDUdal vENDAmai ilAn". Medit at ing
on t he signif icance of t his nAma will lead us t o move t owar ds t his st at e wher e
we over come likes and dislikes. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha ext ends t his meaning
t o also suggest t hat He ispushTa because He keeps all his cr eat ions f ulf illed by
making available t he means f or t hem t o be f ulf illed - pushNAt i it i pushTah.
nAma 395. nAma 395. nAma 395. H ¬ ¬T- H ¬ ¬T- H ¬ ¬T- -- - subhEkshaNah subhEkshaNah subhEkshaNah
He who has auspicious eyes.
SubhekshaNAya namah.
We have seen t he nAma-s padmanibhekshaNah (346) and ar avindAkshah (348)
ear lier . Sr I BhaTTar r ef er s us t o ayodhyA kANDam -
"yaSca r Amam na paSyet t u yam ca r Amo na paSyat i |
nindit ah sa vaset loke svAt ma' pi enam vigar hat e | |
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- (ayodhyA 17.14)
"Whoever has not seen r Ama or whomsoever r Ama has not seen, t hat per son
st ands condemned by all people in t his wor ld, and even his own self condemns
him". Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s us t o amalanAdipir An - kar iyavAgip-puDai
par andumiLir ndu Sevvar iyODi nI NDa ap-per ivAya kaNgaL, sung by
t ir uppANAzhvAr . subhRUh Ayat a t Amr Akshah sAkshAt vishNur iva svayam -
He wit h such beaut if ul br ows and br ight long r ed eyes - He is none ot her t han
vishNu, is t he pr aise of t he cit izens of ayodhyA. hanumAn descr ibes r Ama t o
sI t Adevi as "r Amahkamala pat r Akshah sar va sat t va manor at hah - wher e he
descr ibes t he gr eat ness of seeing His eyes as well as being seen by His eyes.
sI t A pir ATTi her self descr ibes Her Lor d r Ama t hus - t am padma daLa
pat r Aksham .. dhanyAh paSyant ime nAt ham - Those who ar e blessed see t he
beaut if ul lot us-like eyes of mynAt ha. Sr I Sankar a elabor at es on t he power of
t he beaut y of His eyes t hus:
"I kshNam dar Sanam yasya Subham Subhakar am nar ANAm,
mumukshUNAmmokshdam, bhogAr t hinAm bhogadam, pApinAm pAvanam, sar va
sandeha vicchedakAr aNam, hRdaya-gr ant her vicchedakar am, sar vakar mANAm
kshpaNam, avidyAyAScanivar t akam sah SubekshaNah".
"His mer e sight is so auspicious and best ows good on all beings; it gives
moksham t o t he spir it ually minded, enj oyment s t o t hose t hat desir e t hem,
cleanses sinner s, r emoves all doubt s, bur ns up all t he kar ma-s, and r emoves all
ignor ance". He quot es t he Sr ut i
"bhidhyat e hRdaya-gr ant hih chidyant e sar va samSayAhkshI yant e cAsya
kar mANi t asmin dRshTe par Avar e"
- (muNDakppanishad 2.2.8)
-The knot s of t he hear t ar e cut ....Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives us sever al
r ef er ences t o t he Sr ut i. I kshANam also r ef er s t o t he det er minat ion by
bhagavAn t hat He will become many f r om One. This samkalpam became t he
auspicious decision which r esult ed in t he cr eat ion of t his Univer se. Since He is
t he One wit h t he Subha I kshaNa or samkalpa, He is SubhekshaNa. Sr I SAst r i
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gives t he f ollowing quot es t o suppor t t his int er pr et at ion: t adaikshat a bahu
syAm pr aj Ayeyet i (chAndogya6.2); sa I kshat a lokAnnusRj A it i (ait ar eya 1.1.1);
sa I kshAm cakr e (pr aSno6.3); seyam devat aikshat a hant AhamimAh t isr o
devat A anena j I venaAt mA' nupr aviSya nAmar Upe vyAkar avANi (chAndogya
6.3).The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out sever al examples of individuals who
benef it ed by t he mer e sight of bhagavAn f alling on t hem. ar j una asked Lor d
kRshNa t o bless him wit h His Mer cif ul glance; as soon as t his happened, all of
ar j una' s doubt s wer e clear ed, and he r ealized t he t r ue nat ur e of his soul
immediat ely. guha, hanumAn, par aSur Ama, and Sabar i ar e j ust among some of
t he examples of people who gained immensely f r om t he mer e sight of Lor d
r Ama.
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r Amah

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SlOkam 43
¹lPl |4¹lPl |4¹6l ¹lPl |4¹lPl |4¹6l ¹lPl |4¹lPl |4¹6l (( (=l =l =l )) ) Pl¬l + 4l +4l 5+4-· Pl¬l + 4l +4l 5+4-· Pl¬l + 4l +4l 5+4-·
4l¹7H|±P6l ~ Ul ¤Pl ¤P |4T¬P-+ v°+ 4l¹7H|±P6l ~ Ul ¤Pl ¤P |4T¬P-+ v°+ 4l¹7H|±P6l ~ Ul ¤Pl ¤P |4T¬P-+ v°+
r AmO vir AmO vir at O (j O) mAr gO nEyO nayO5nayah |
vI r as sakt imat Am sr EshThO dhar mO dhar mavidut t amah | |
nAma 396. nAma 396. nAma 396. ¹lP- ¹lP- ¹lP- -- - r Amah r Amah r Amah
a) He who delight s ot her s.
b) He in whom ever yone delight s.
rAmAya namah
Ther e ar e t wo obvious int er pr et at ions f or t his nAma. One is t hat all t he yogi-s
r evel in His char m - r amant e yoginah asmin it i r Amah. Sr I Sankar a gives
r ef er ence t o pAdmapur ANa - r amant e yoginah anant e nit yAnande cidAt mani-
The yogins r evel in Him who is Et er nal Bliss, Pur e Consciousness and Endless.
The ot her is t hat He who has a compelling char m about Himself and He who is
most Handsome - r amayat i it it r Amah. Sr I BhaTTar gives sever al r ef er ences.
r Amo r amayat Am Sr eshThah - r Ama is t he f or emost among t hose who delight
t heminds of all people (r AmAyaNa - ayodhyA 53-1); guNAbhir Amam r Amam ca
- r Ama who is f illed wit h kalyANa guNa-s (mahAbhAr at a sabhA 58-42);
t at hAsar va-pr aj A kAnt aih pr I t i sanj ananaih pit uh |
guNaih vir ur uce r Amah dI pt ahsUr ya iva amSubhih | |
- r Ama who is liked by His cit izens, who br ings happiness t o His f at her , and
who is f ull of klayANa guNa-s, shone like t he Sun wit h it s int ense and br ight
r ays - ayodhyA 1.33. I n t ir uppAvai, ANDAL calls Him manat ukku iniyAn. His
f or m is such t hat even His enemies get at t r act ed t o it . Even t hough mandodar i
and vAli' s wif e ar e not in t he cat egor ies of enemies of r Ama, t hey wer e bot h
r ealized His divine Nat ur e when t hey saw Him wit h t heir husbands dying or
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340
dead. Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj anr ef er s t o SUr panakA' s descr ipt ion of r Ama and
lakshmaNa - t ar uNau r Upasampannau sukumAr au - puNDar I ka viSAlAkshau....
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha and Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an bot h r ef er t o t he r oot r amu -
kr I DAyAm - He who der ives pleasur e out of His leelA-s, or He who makes
ever yone happy because of His kr I DA as par t of His kr I DA, is r Ama. The
dhar ma cakr am wr it er adds t hat t her e ar e t wo kinds of delight - delight s of
t his wor ld which have sadness associat ed wit h t hem always as a consequence,
and t he delight per t aining t o t he enj oyment of par a br ahmam which has pur e
last ing happiness associat ed wit h it . r Ama is t he sour ce of t he lat er kind. The
wr it er r ef er s us t o Sabar i' s holding on t o lif e only t o have t he dar San of
r Ama, t he Rshi-s who delight ed t hemselves in t he sight of r Ama, and t he gopi-
s and gopAla-s who had bhagavad-anubhavam by being wit h kRshNa in
Ayar pADi. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r eminds us t hat it is sage vasishTha, t he
kula gur uof daSar at ha' s f amily, t hat gave t he name r Ama t o daSar at ha' s f ir st
son.
nAma 397. nAma 397. nAma 397. |4¹lP- |4¹lP- |4¹lP- -- - vir Amah vir Amah vir Amah
a) He bef or e whom all become power less.
b) He who is t he f inal goal of ever yone.
virAmAya namah.
Sr I BhaTTar has explained t he nAma as f ollows: vir amyat e asmin
var apr adai hbr ahmAdi bhi h, var ai Sca avadhyAdi bhi h, l abdha- var ai Sca
r AvaNAdibhih it ivir Amah - Bef or e r Ama all become power less, including t he
likes of br ahma who gr ant t he boons, t he boons t hemselves of indest r uct ibilit y
even by deat h, and people like r AvaNa who acquir ed t he boons by t heir
aust er it ies. He quot es r AmAyaNa in t his cont ext - br ahmA svayambhUh
cat ur Anano vA ...(Sundar a kANDa 51.45), wher e hanumAn advises r AvaNa t o
under st and r Ama' s pr owess. Sr I Sankar a gives t he explanat ion t hat He is t he
f inal r est ing place or goal of all beings - vir Amah avasAnam pr ANinAm asmin it i
vir Amah. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r ef er s us t o r AmAyaNa wher ein we f ind
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t hat t hose who have seen r Ama or have diver t ed t heir t hought s on Him do not
even t r y t o get out of t his mode.
na hi t asmAt manah kaScit cakshushI vA nar ot t amAn |
nar ah Saknot yapAkr ashTum at ikr Ant e abhi r Aghave | |
- (r AmA 2.18.13)
Sr I cinmayAnanda explains t hat He is t he f inal r est ing place because having
r eached Him t her e is no r et ur n int o t he r ealm of exper iences. He also point s
out t hat some vyAkhyAna kar t A-s int er pr et t he meaning as "He in whom t he
wor ld of plur alit y mer ges dur ing t he deluge or pr alaya". The dhar ma cakr am
wr it er comment s t hat unt il t he soul r eaches Him i.e., at t ains moksha, t her e is
always r e-bir t h, and He is t he f inal r est ing place, at t aining which alone one can
r est f inally. So t his nAma should r emind us t hat t he f inal goal is mahA vishNu,
and t each us t o medit at e on Him. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha nicely r elat es t he
t wo nAma-s, r Ama and vir Ama. r amant e asmin it i r Amah, vir amant i asmin it i
vir Amah - One in whom people delight is r Ama, and One in whom people f ind
f inal SAnt i is vir Ama. The sour ce of delight is also t he end of delight - yat r a
r amaNam t at r a r amaNaavasAnam. He is t he Cr eat or and He is also t he one
who ends t he cr eat ion.This is t he same pr inciple involved in t he body being
f or med f r om t he pa~ncabhUt a-s and dissolving back int o t he pa~nca bhUt a-s,
t he sun r ising in t imeand set t ling back in t ime, et c. He gives numer ous
r ef er ences t o t heSr ut i-s t o suppor t t his int er pr et at ion:
t asmin idam sam ca vicait i sar vam sa ot ah pr ot aSca vibhuh pr aj Asu(yaj ur 32.8)
yo mAr ayat i pr ANayat i yasmAt pr ANant i bhuvanAni viSvA (at har va13.3.3)
kAlenodet i sUr yah kAle niviSat e punah (at har va 19.54.1)
yat r AmRt am ca mRt yuSca pur ushe' dhi samAhit e (at har va 10.5.17)
nAma 398. nAma 398. nAma 398. |4¹6- |4¹6- |4¹6- (( (|4¹=l Pl¬- |4¹=l Pl¬- |4¹=l Pl¬-) ) ) -- - viratah (virajO mArgah) viratah (virajO mArgah) viratah (virajO mArgah)
One who shows t he f ault less pat h.
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viratAya namah
- The Unat t ached
mArgAya namah
- He who is sought af t er
virajo-mArgAya namah
- He who shows t he f lawless pat h
Ther e is some conf usion her e as t o whet her t his is t o be int er pr et ed as one
nAma (vir aj o-mAr gah), or as t wo separ at e nAma-s. Sr I Sr I nivAsar Aghavan
discusses t he t er ms vir at ah and mAr gah separ at ely but list s t hem under t he
same number , and also indicat es t hat vir aj o-mAr gah is t he f or m when t he
nAma is consider ed as one nAma. Sr I aNNa~ngar AcAr ya and Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj an list vir at ah (vir aj ah) and mAr gah as t wo separ at e nAma-s. The
dif f er ence in number ing which st ar t ed wit h Slokam 34 (ishTo' viSishTah vs.
ishTah andaviSishTah) bet ween t hese t wo set s of int er pr et at ions cont inues up
t o t his nAma, wher e it synchr onizes again. bhagavAn is vir at ah because t he
spir it of det achment is nat ur al t o Him. vigat am r at am asya vishayasevAyAm it i
vir at ah - One in whom t he desir e f or pleasur e in obj ect s has ceased. When He
lost t he kingdom it did not depr ive Him of His splendor j ust as t he night
cannot t ake away t he loveliness of t hecool-r ayed of t he moon.
"na cAsya mahat I m lakshmI m r Aj ya nASo' pakar shat i |
loka-kAnt asya kAnt at vam SI t ar aSmer iva kshapA | |
- (ayodhyA 19.32)
sI t A pir ATTi' s own wor ds ar e:
"When Sr I r Ama abandoned t he kingdom under t he plea of dhar ma, and led me
t o t he f or est wher e I had t o move on f oot , t her e was neit her disappoint ment
nor gr ief , nor f ear in r Ama".
"dhar mApadeSAt t yaj at aSca r Aj yam |
mAm cApyar aNyam nayat ah padAt im | |
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- (sundar a 36.29)
Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an point s out t hat anot her inst ance of t his det achment is t hat
He did not have t he f aint est desir e t o have any par t of Sr I lankA f or Himself
which he won in t he bat t le wit h r AvaNa. He also gives r ef er ences t o
pr abandham:
pAr ALum paDar Selvam bhar at a nambikkE ar uLi ar um kAnamaDaindavan
- (per umAl t ir umozhi 8.5);
ir u nilat t ai vENDAdE vir ainduvenRimaivAyakaLir ozhindu t Er ozhindu
mAvozhindu vanamE mEviya em ir Aman
- (per umAL t ir umozhi 9.2).
Some ver sions have t his nAma as vir aj ah (r aj o-r ahit ah). Sr I cinmayAnanda
gives t he int er pr et at ion t hat He is wit hout t he r aj as or agit at ion of t he mind,
and so He is vir aj ah (passionless). He is t he embodiment of Pur e sat t ava guNa.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t hat t he dif f er ence bet ween us and
bhagavAn is t his - t hat we ar e at t ached and He is det ached. He r ef er s us t o
t ir ukkur aL:
paRRuga paRRaRRAn paRRinai appaRRaip-
paRRuga paRRu viDaRkku.
The signif icance of t his nAma is t hat we should lear n t o be det ached by
medit at ing on t his nAma of bhagavAn. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha has composed
one Slokam f or each nAma t o explain t he nAma' s signif icance, and t hus t her e
ar e 1000 Sloka-s of his own in explanat ion of t he 1000 nAma-s. I am including
his Slokam f or t he cur r ent nAma as an example:
"r aj o na t asmin na t amSca t asmin, sat t va-svabhAvo hi sa vishNur ukt ah|
so' st i svabhAvAt amit a-pr akASo, deve' st i gI t ah t amasah par ast At | |
mAr gah -
He who is sought af t er .
mArgAya namah.
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mAr gyat e it i mAr gah. The wor d is der ived f r om t he r oot mRj U Suddhau, t o
cleanse. He is t he pat h f or t hose who lead a lif e as laid down in t he SAst r a-s.
Sr I BhaTTar r emar ks t hat even sages like bhar advAj a sought af t er Him. He
is also t he mAr ga because He is t he only means (upAya) t o at t ain Him. Sr I
Sankar a quot es t he t ait t ir I ya upanishad - nAnyah pant hAvidyat eyanAya (3.13).
Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives r ef er ence t o bRhadAr aNya upanishad - esha
pant hA br ahmaNA hAnuvit t ah - 4.4.9). The dhar ma cakr am wr it er gives
examples of par aSur Ama, vAli, r AvaNa, et c., wher e bhagavAn was t he means
f or t heir r ealizat ion of Him. Sr I BhaTTar also r emar ks t hat vir aj o-mAr gah is
t he ver sion when t he t wo wor ds ar e combined as one nAma, and t he meaning is
t hat He is t he One who shows t he f lawless pat h. Sr I sr I nivAsar Aghavan uses
t he nAma asvir at o-mAr gah and gives t he meaning t hat He is t he pat h t hat is
sought af t er even t hough He Himself is unat t ached.
nAma 399. nAma 399. nAma 399. +4- +4- +4- -- - nEyah nEyah nEyah
He who let s Himself be gover ned (by His devot ees)
neyAya namah.
net A r ef er s t o one who leads. neyah is one who is led. Sr I BhaTTar gives t he
der ivat ion - niyoga ar hat vAt neyah. niyogah means or der . One who is t o f it t o
be ent r ust ed wit h t he r esponsibilit y t o command is also neyah. Sr I BhaTTar
gives t he f ollowing r ef er ences: "Ag~nyApyo' ham t apasvinAm" - I am agr eeable
t o be commanded by t hose who pr act ice aust er it ies - (r AmAyaNa Ar aNya
6.22); niyunkshva cApi mAm kRt ye sar vam kar t Asmi t e vacah - KRshNa' s wor ds
t o yudhisThir a - You may ask me t o do what ever you want ; I shall cer t ainly
car r y out your behest s (mahAbhAr at a anuSAsana 33.25);
"ayam asmi mahAbAho br Uhi yat t e vivakshit am|
kar ishyAmI ha t at sar vam yat t vam vakshyat i bhAr at a! | |
- O Long-ar med scion of t he r oyal dynast y of bhar at a! I am her e r eady t o do
what ever you want ; I shall car r y out your commands (mahA udyoga 71.5). Sr I
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sat yadevo vAsishTha der ives t he meaning as "One who is f it t o be sought "-
pr Apyah pr Apt um yogyah, or "One who is not at t ainable t hr ough any pr amANa
except by cont empl at i on, medi t at i on, and devot i on" - sar va
pr mANaavishayat vAt sa manasA net um ar hah = mant um yogyah mananI yo
bhavat i. The key phr ase is net um ar hah neyah.
nAma 400. nAma 400. nAma 400. +4- +4- +4- -- - nayah nayah nayah
He who dr aws ever yone t owar ds Himself .
nayAya namah.
nayat i it i nayah - One who dr aws ever yone t owar ds Himself ; one who leads
ever yone in t heir spir it ual illuminat ion. When r Ama r eached
daNDakAr aNyam,t he Rshi-s t her e wer e dr awn t o Him, and t hey ent r ust ed
t heir pr ot ect ion solely t o Him, even t hough t hey had t heir t apo-balam. Sr I
v.v.r AmAnuj anr ef er s us t o bhagavAn' s wor ds in His var Aha incar nat ion -
nayAmi par amAmgat im - I will lead ever yone t o t he Ult imat e, viz. moksham.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er point s out t he examples of ar j una being led in t he
r ight pat h by bhagavAn t hr ough t he gI t opadeSam. Medit at ion on t his nAma of
bhagavAn should r eveal t o us t hat t he pat h t o moksahm is t o be dr awn t owar ds
Him and t o f ollow His lead.
nAma 401. nAma 401. nAma 401. H+4- H+4- H+4- -- - anayah anayah anayah
He who cannot be spir it ed away.
anayAya namah.
Sr I bhaTTar gives t he example of t he f ut ile ef f or t of r AvaNa t o lif t and
car r y away lakshmaNa when he was lying on t he bat t legr ound af t er being
st r uck by t he Sakt i weapon by r AvaNa. He also gives an alt er nat e
int er pr et at ion based on ayah - t he means which br ings pr osper it y; an-ayah
t hen means He wit hout whom t her e is no pr osper it y. Sr I Sankar a' s
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int er pr et at ion t hat He is one who is not led by anyone, unlike He who leads
ever yone in t he spir it ual pat h. Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives t he examples of
bhagavAn being t he opposit es simult aneously. One meaning he gives f or nayah
is One who moves. anayah is One who does not move. He gives r ef er ence t o
' t adej at i t anaij at i' ,anej adekam manaso j avI yo (I SAvAsya upanishad), ar am
kAmAya har ayovadhanvir e st hir Aya hinvan har ayo har I t ur A (Rg veda 10.96),
et c. The dhar ma cakr am wr it er nicely illust r at es how r Ama always act ed in t he
pat h of dhar ma wit hout anyone having t o lead Him. When he had t o go t he
f or est , ot her s including sage vasishTha t r ied t o per suade Him t o accept t he
kingdom inst ead and r ule, but r Ama did not swer ve f r om t he pat h of dhar ma
and adopt ed t hat pat h wit hout having t o be t old by anyone. When He r et ur ned
back f r om t he f or est and became t he king, some cit izens comment ed t hat
sI t Adevi had been in anot her per son' s house and should not occupy t he t hr one
wit h Sr I r Ama. Because r Ama want ed t o set an example t o His cit izens, He
sent her inst ead t o vAlmI ki' s ASr amam, and showed t hem t he pat h of dhar ma
of t he king. Thus, He never needed t o be led by anyone, anayah.
nAma 402. nAma 402. nAma 402. 4l¹- 4l¹- 4l¹- -- - vI r ah vI r ah vI r ah
Valiant (See 664).
vIrAya namah.
He is vI r a because He dest r oys at once t hose who ar e a sour ce of suf f er ing t o
t he pious by dischar ging His weapons which ar e ever r eady t o car r y out His
commands. He is a sour ce of t er r or t o His enemies. Sr I Sankar a bhAshyam is
"vikr amaSAlit vAt vI r ah - One who is valor ous". Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an point s out
t hat vI r a, saur Ya, and par Akr ama ar e among t he mahA-guNa-s of bhagavAn,
and t he r ef er ence t o vI r ya her e by bhI shma can be t aken t o r ef er t o all t hr ee
guNa-s. vI r ya is t he qualit y of inducing t er r or in t he hear t s of t he enemies;
Saur ya is der ived f r om t he wor d SUr a - t he abilit y t o cause havoc among t he
enemies' r anks by single-handedly penet r at ing t heir r anks; and par Akr ama is
t he abilit y t o cause enor mous damage t o enemies' side while not being even
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slight ly hur t Himself . r Ama is r ef er r ed t o as mahAvI r a in r aghu-vI r a-gadyam
(The st ar t ing line is j aya j aya mahA-vI r a!). Sr I bhaTTar give as r ef er ence t o
t he f ollowing: mAr I ca t ells r AvaNa about r Ama -
"vRkshe vRkshe ca paSyAmi cI r a kRshNAj inAmbar am |
gRhI t a dhanusham r Amam pASa hast amiva ant akam | |
- (r AmAAr aNya 39.14)"
"I n ever y t r ee I see r Ama dr essed in t r ee bar k and black deer -skin and His
bow dr awn as t hough He is t he god of deat h wit h t he r ope in hand".
"br ahma-daNDa pr akASAnAm vidyut -sadRSa var casAm |
smar an r Aghava-bANAnAn vivyat e r AkshaseSvar ah | |
- (yuddha 60.3)"
"r AvaNa, t he king of r Akshasa-s, became uneasy when he even t hought of t he
ar r ows of r Ama, which had t he lust er of t he club of br ahma and t he glit t er of
t he light ning".
"mAt a~nga iva simhena gar uDeneva pannagah |
abhibhUt o' bhavad-r Aj A r AghaveNa mahAt manA | |
- (yuddha 60.2)"
"The king (r AvaNa) was over power ed by t he power f ul r Ama like t he elephant
by t he lion, and t he ser pent by gar uDa". Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an gives sever al
r ef er ences t o pr abandham:- I n t ir uccanda vir ut t am, t ir umazhiSai sings - "anRu
ila~ngai nI Ru SeiduSenRu konRu venRi koNDa vI r aNAr ";- in per umAlt ir umozhi
we have "ve~nkadir On kulat t ukkOr viLakkAit -t OnRi viNmuzhudum uyyakkoNDa
vI r an t annai" (10.1); mazhu vAL Endi vevvar i naRcilaivA~ngi venRi koNDu vEl
vEndar pagai t aDinda vI r an t annai (10.3);- pollA ar akkanaik kiLLik
kaLaindAanai" in t ir uppAvai, r ef er r ing t o t he ease wit h which r Ama f inished
r AvaNa whose power was unhear d of ;- "vennar akam Ser A-vagaiyE Silai
kunit t An - t ir uma~ngai in SiRiya t ir umaDal r ef er r ing t o r Ama' s act of
t or t ur ing kar a and dUshaNa dur ing t heir f ight t o t he point t hat t hey did not
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need a separ at e anubhavam of living in nar akam.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsishTha gives r ef er ences t o t he Sr ut i:
SRNve vI r o vindamAno vasUni mahad-devAnAm asur at vam ekam (Rg3.55.10)
sa ghA vI r o na r ishyat i yamindr o br ahmaNaspat ih somo hinot i mar t yam (Rg
2.28.4)
Sr I r AdhAkRsNa SAst r i gives a beaut if ul descr ipt ion of His vI r a. The sour ce
is not ident if ied, but t he descr ipt ion is wor t h r epeat ing her e:
"yasmat sva-mahimnA sar vAn lokAn sar vAn devAn sar vAn At manah
sar vANibhUt Ani vir amat i vir Amayat i aj ast r am sRj at i visRj at i vAsayat i, yat o
vI r ahkar maNyah sudRksho yukt a-gr AvA j Ayat e deva-kAmah t asmAt ucyat e
vI r am it i".
He cannot be opposed, cannot be conquer ed, and His skills will be self -evident
and will subdue His enemies aut omat ically.
nAma 403. nAma 403. nAma 403. H|±P6l ~U- H|±P6l ~U- H|±P6l ~U- -- - sakt imat Am sr EshThah sakt imat Am sr EshThah sakt imat Am sr EshThah
The Gr eat est among t he power f ul.
SaktimatAm-SreshThAya namah.
Sakt imat Amapi Sakt imat t vAt Sakt imat Am Sr eshThah. He is t he most
pr aisewor t hy among t he power f ul gods and ot her s. He is mor e power f ul t han
t he likes of br ahma t he Cr eat or . The likes of indr a could not dest r oy r AvaNa,
and t hey sur r ender ed t o bhagavAn as a r esult seeking His pr ot ect ion. r Ama
wit h t he axe (i.e., par aSur Ama) says t o Sr I r Ama: "aakshayyammadhu-
hant Ar am j AnAmi t vAm syr eSvar am - I know t hat you ar e indest r uct ible; You
ar e t he slayer of madhu (t he asur a), and You ar e t he Lor d of all t he
gods" (r AmAyaNa bAla 76.17). Sr I bhaTTar also gives r ef er ence t o
hanumAn' s wor ds t o r AvaNa -
"devASca dait yASca niSAcar endr a! gandhar va vidyAdhar a-nAga-yakshAh|
r Amasya lokat r aya-nAyakasya st hAt um na Sakt Ah samar eshu sar ve| | "
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- (sundar a 51.44)
"O King of t he r Akshasa-s! The gods and t he asur a-s, gandhar va-sand
vidyAdhar a-s, nAga-s, and yaksha-s - all t hese cannot st and against r Ama, t he
Lor d of t he t hr ee wor lds, in t he bat t le".
nAma 404. nAma 404. nAma 404. ¤P - ¤P - ¤P - -- - dhar mah dhar mah dhar mah
Vir t ue I ncar nat e.
dharmAya namah.
Sr I sat yadevo vAsisshTha der ives t he meaning f r om t he r oot dhR~nj -
dhAr aNet o suppor t ; dhAr ayat i it i dhar mah - t hat which suppor t s is dhar mah,
dhAr yat evA yena j agat it i dhar mah - He by whom t his Univer se is suppor t ed is
dhar mah. Sr I bhaTTar point s out t hat He is Vir t ue I ncar nat e because He
sust ains all beings by conf er r ing pr osper it y and salvat ion on t hem. I n yuddha
kANDa br ahma says of Lor d r Ama - lokAnAm t vam par amo dhar mah - Thou ar t
t he Supr eme Dhar ma in all t he wor lds. I n mahAbhAr at a we have "sAkshAt
devahpur ANO' sau sa hi dhar mah sanAt anah - He is ancient God Himself and
also t he et er nal dhar ma incar nat e". About kRshNa incar nat ion -
"ye ca vedavido vipr Ah ye ca adhyAt mavido j anAh |
t e vadant i mahAt mAnam kRshNam dhar am sanAt anam | |
"Those br Ahmins who ar e well-ver sed in veda-s, and t hose who r ealized t he
Br ahman, declar e in one voice t hat t he gr eat Sr I kRshNa is t he et er nal dhar ma
incar nat e". Sr I v.v.r AmAnuj an r ef er s t o mAr I ca' s wor ds about r Ama - r Amo
vit gr ahavAndhar mah - r Ama is dhr ama incar nat e. He also point s t hat ANDAL
calls Him "dhar umam aRiyAk kur umban" in nAcciAr t ir umozhi, obviously out of
t he sheer int ense liber t y she has t owar ds her Lor d, and out of her int ense
f ondness t o Him. Sr I cinmayAnanda discusses in some det ail t he signif icance
of t his t er m "dhar ma". By example, he point s out t hat t he dhar ma of sugar is
sweet ness, t he dhar ma of f ir e is heat , et c., and t hus t he dhar ma of an t he
individual in t his sense is t he soul, wit hout which t he individual does not exist .
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Since bhagavAn is t he one Self t hat suppor t s all t he individuals, He is t he
Ult imat e Dhar ma. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i r eminds us of "dhar mo r akshat i
r akshit ah, dhar ma evahat o hant i" - dhar ma pr ot ect s t hose who pr ot ect it , and
dest r oys t hose who dest r oy it . dhar ma is like t he guides on bot h sides of t he
r oad; if we f ollow t hem, we r each our dest inat ion saf ely; if we go out side t he
limit , or if we collide wit h t he guides, we encount er suf f er ing. bhagavAn is t his
guide f or t hose who want t o f ollow it . Those who don' t f ollow it pay dear ly.
The dhar ma cakr am wr it er gives sever al examples of wher e dhar ma has
pr ot ect ed t hose who f ollowed it , and dest r oyed t hose who t r ied t o ignor e it .
I n t he f or mer cat egor y ar e har iScandr a, t he pANDava-s, et c. I n t he lat t er
cat egor y ar e r AvaNa, dur yodhana, et c. BhI shma t r ied his ver y best t o advise
dur yodhana t hat no one who f ollows dhar ma can be def eat ed in t he end, no
mat t er how many bhI shma-s t r y t o help dur yodhana. But he won' t list en, and
ult imat ely paid t he pr ice f or adhar ma. Same was t he case wit h r AvaNa, who
would not list en t o vibhI shaNa-s advice. Medit at ion on t his nAma of
mahAvishNu should t each us t he basic lesson t hat dhar ma pr ot ect s t hose who
f ollow it , and adhar ma will have no end ot her t han self -dest r uct ion.
nAma 405. nAma 405. nAma 405. ¤P |4T¬P- ¤P |4T¬P- ¤P |4T¬P- -- - dhar mavid dhar mavid dhar mavid-- -ut t amah ut t amah ut t amah
The f or emost among t hose who ar e conscious of dhar ma.
dhar ma-vid-ut t amAya namah.
No f ur t her evidence is needed f or t his t han t hat sages such as vasishTha,
vAmadeva, and mAr kaNDeya who wer e t he gur u-s f or r Ama r esor t ed t o Him
f or a knowledge of dhar ma (Sr I BhaTTar ). The dhar ma cakr am wr it er r emar ks
t hat it is not easy t o r ecognize what is dhar ma and what is not dhar ma.
bhagavAn has cr eat ed t he Sr ut i-s as His commandment s t o explain t o us what
is dhar ma. To r ealize what is dhar ma, medit at ion on mahAvishNu is t he pat h.
For t his, a clean mind is necessar y. This is what is t aught in t ir ukkur aL -
manat t uk-kaN mASilan Adal anait t u aRan. Sr I Sankar a point s out t hat all
Sr ut i-s and smRt i-s ar e His commandment s, and hence He is called t he
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gr eat est of t he knower s of dhar ma. Sr I r AdhAkRshNa SAst r i gives
r ef er ence t o vishNu dhar mot t ar a - Sr ut is-smRt I mamaivA~gnye (76.31).
(To be Continued in Volume II)
-dAsan kRshNamAcAr yan