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LNG Technology

Dr. S. Madhavan
Global Director, Plant Services (Retd.) Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR), Inc. Houston, TX, USA

Presented in Dehra Dun 09 August 2010

Natural Gas Utilization
• Distribution by Pipeline • Liquefaction and Regasification • Compressed gas (CNG)

or
• • • • Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbons Conversion to Methanol Conversion to Fertilizer Conversion to Electric Power

The Hydrocarbon Trend
Hydrocarbon Ratio of Primary Energy
4 3 H/C 2 1 0 1700 1800 1900 Century 2000 2100

Stranded Gas and Major Consumer Markets

Legend
Stranded Gas Major Markets

Relative Costs of Gas Transportation
Pipeline vs. LNG
$5.00 $ /M M B T U $4.00 $3.00 $2.00 $1.00 $0.00 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 MILES Offshore Pipeline Onshore Pipeline LNG 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000

How not to transport gas !! .

How not to transport gas !! .

LNG Technology .

Feedstock for Ethylene Propane Total Butane+ Carbon Dioxide H2S.10.3.5.0 % 2.. COS LPG Petrochemical Feedstock .0 % 5.0 .0 .0 % Trace: Nitrogen Methane Ethane .0 .0 % 2.0 .2.4. Hg. R-SH.0 .0 % 1.95.Typical Natural Gas Composition Typical Composition at Inlet of LNG Plant 1.0 .0 % 85.

LNG Liquefied Natural Gas .161oC !! .

Typical LNG Product Specifications Component • Carbon Dioxide • Mercury • Nitrogen • Water Vapor • Benzene • Ethane • Propane • Butane • Pentane and heavier • High Heating Value Limits (maximum) 50 ppm 0.1 mol% =1050 Btu/SCF (Europe and USA) up to 1140 Btu/SCF (East Asia) .01 micrograms per normal m3 1 mol% 1 ppmv 1 ppmv < 6 – 8 mol% (Feedstock for Ethylene!) LPG < 3 mol% Petrochemical < 2 mol% Feedstock < 0.

5.LNG Train Capacities Train capacities • • • • • • • • Camel Plant.2.4 MTPA Sonatrach LNG.6 MTPA Bontang LNG Trains .0 MTPA Qatargas LNG.2004 ..1.8 MTPA Future Trains .2010 . Algeria . Algeria .4.2 .4 MTPA Malaysia LNG (Satu). Qatar .1980’s-90’s . Bintulu .1970’s .2 MTPA SEGAS LNG .1964 ..9.7.2007 .1.0 .6-3.0 MTPA .2.0 MTPA Woodside LNG .1..1983 .0.1980’s-90’s .

LIQUEFACTION C2 FUEL C4 BY PRODUCT GASOLINE FUEL HYDROCARBON FRACTIONATION NATURAL GAS FEED C2 C3 C4 LNG OFFSITE LNG STORAGE CO2 REMOVAL DEHYDRATION & MERCURY CHILLING LIQUEFACTION NITROGEN REJECTION REMOVAL REFRIGERATION SYSTEM REFRIGERATION SYSTEM .TYPICAL BLOCK DIAGRAM .

Typical Acid Gas Removal Scheme Reflux Condenser Acid Gas Treated Gas Lean Amine Lean Absorber Semi-Lean SemiAmine Amine Cooler Low-Pressure LowFlash Bulk Absorber Flash Gas Sour Gas HighHighPressure Flash Stripper Reboiler Rich Amine Lean/Rich Exchanger .

Typical Dehydration Scheme Process Flow Regeneration Gas Compressor Drier Precooler Regeneration Gas Knockout Drum Regeneration Cooler Water Saturated Natural Gas Driers (ABS) Water Hydrocarbon Liquid Driers (Regen) Regeneration Heater Filter Dry Gas To Liquefaction .

To Liquefaction Section .Typical Mercury Removal Scheme Process Flow From Acid Gas Removal Section Mercury Removal Column Outlet Gas Specification is generally 10 nanograms of Mercury per cubic meter of gas.

Removal of Trace Mercury Contaminants Mercury has to be removed from natural gas and its associated condensate to prevent: • corrosion in aluminum equipment Removal of mercury in the gas phase is by: adsorption on sulfur impregnated carbon or alumina carrier molecular sieve .

Refrigeration Cycles Types of Licensed Processes: • Propane Precooled Mixed Refrigerant Cycle (APCI) • Pure Component Cascade Cycle – Phillips Optimized Cascade • Dual Mixed Refrigerant Cycle – Technip & Snamprogetti • Single Mixed Refrigerant Cycle – PRICO • Linde Technology .

Basic Refrigeration .Simple PFD (Process Flow Diagram) Q High Temperature Condenser (Ambient) Work Air-cooled or water-cooled Compressor Refrigeration Loop Accumulator Suction Drum Heat Exchanger J-T Valve Q Low Temperature 8/19/2010 P. (Sub -19 Ambient) .

45 % Methane 30 .10 % Nitrogen 35 .15 % Propane .Propane Precooled Mixed Refrigerant Cycle Pure propane refrigerant cycle Ambient to -40oC Three or four pressure levels Mixed component refrigerant cycle -40oC to -160oC Typical MCR Composition: 2 .45 % Ethane 10 .

21 .Typical Propane Circuit Scheme Process Flow SW PC To MCHE MR SW Reinjection Chiller DC2 Condenser To Scrub Column Feed Gas Feed from Acid Gas Removal 8/19/2010 P.

APCI C3/MCR Process MR LIQ EXP MR LIQ EXP LOW BTU LOW BTU FUEL GAS FUEL GAS NRU HP HP CC3 3 MP MP C C33 LP LP C C33 LLP LLP C C33 LNG LNG EXP EXP LNG LNG RUNDOWN RUNDOWN MCHE MCHE REFLUX REFLUX DRUM DRUM HP HP MR MR TREATED TREATED FEED FEED GAS GAS MP MP MR MR LP LP MR MR LPG LPG REINJECTION REINJECTION DEHY/Hg DEHY/Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL HP HP C C33 MP MP C C33 LP LP C C33 LLP LLP C C33 SCRUB SCRUB COLUMN COLUMN To FRACTIONATION To FRACTIONATION 8/19/2010 P. 22 .

Thermal Efficiency .

Compressor Driver Selection • Economic driver selection possibilities: – Steam Turbines – Industrial Gas Turbines – Aeroderivative Gas Turbines – Electric Motors .

Typical LP MR Compressor Axial Compressor Rotor Lifted From Casing .

Propane Compressor Frame 6 Gas Turbine Propane Compressor driven by Frame 6 Gas Turbine .

Axial Compressor Frame 7 Cutaway Single Shaft Design Power Turbine Air Compressor .

COIL WOUND EXCHANGER CONSTRUCTION .

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Main Cryogenic Heat Exchanger (MCHE) .

LNG Tank Vapour Release Double Metal Wall LNG Storage Tank Design: To Boiloff Gas Recovery LNG Rundown Bottom Fill RV LNG to Ship Top Fill Carbon Steel Light LNG Heat Leak from Perlite Insulation Heavy LNG 9% Ni Steel 32 month Construction Insulation Schedule (Typical) Ambient .

Double Containment Tanks .

Full Containment Tanks .

LNG Storage Tank Selection Full Integrity Tank • For Spacing and Security Concerns Malaysia LNG Storage Tanks .

LNG Contractors Liquefaction Plants Top Tier • KBR/JGC • Chiyoda • Bechtel Next Tier • Technip • Foster-Wheeler • Snamprogetti .

LNG Shipping .

Typical LNG Ships .

000 m3 ships are needed .15% of contents per day • Length = 300 m . approximately 6 x 135.20 knots • Boil-off rate = 0.135.000 .Shipping and Typical Ship Parameters • Ship Size = 125. Breadth = 50 m • Draft = 11 m • Cost = $160 MM (highly dependent on market) • To ship 5 MMTPA a distance of 3500 miles.000 m3 nominal capacity • Design Speed = 18 .

LNG Receiving Terminals .

LNG Terminal Flow Diagram Boil-Off Gas Compressor Vapor Return Line LNG Unloading Arm Recondenser LNG Tanker Fuel Gas Vaporizer To Pipeline 1st Stage Sendout Pumps LNG Storage Tanks 2nd Stage Sendout Pumps .

Open Rack Type Features – Low running cost. – Return sea water is 4-5 deg. – Tube Panels--made of aluminum alloy. – Easy to operate and maintain. C cooler. . Environmental consideration. coated outside with zinc alloy to provide corrosion resistance from sea water. Sea water used as heat source.

Cove Point Terminal .

LNG Projects in India • • • • • Dahej LNG Terminal. Gujarat – Started up in Jan 2004 Kochi LNG Terminal – 2.5 MM Tonnes/Yr capacity Hazira LNG Terminal. • . Gujarat is a JV of Shell and Total Ratnagiri LNG Terminal at Dabhol (Ex-Enron) will start shipping pipeline gas starting from 2010 Many proposed LNG Terminals may be shelved due to competition from new gas finds/fields offshore in K-G Basin and Cauveri Basin New LNG Terminals and new pipeline construction will need to be developed in tandem.

0% 12.5% 11.8% 9.7% 26.2% 94.8 Mmt/y 67.3% 23.5% Middle East Qatar Abu Dhabi 28.9% 5.2% 71.1% 83.7% 2.1% Atlantic Basin Algeria Libya Trinidad Nigeria .1997 World LNG Trade Major Producers Pacific Rim Indonesia Malaysia Brunei Australia Alaska 47.

2% Atlantic Basin France Belgium Greece Italy Spain Turkey USA 33.6% 83.7% 24.0% 11.2% 16.0% 18.8% 6.8% .1% 8.1997 World LNG Trade Major Consumers Pacific Rim Japan Taiwan Korea China India 76.2% 24.8 Mmt/y 75.4% 5.

Libya 3. Oman 7. Brunei 10. 6. Nigeria Qatar Indonesia Australia Norway Russia Equatorial Guinea Trinidad Oman Plants on the Drawing Board 1. 6. Qatar 6. Nigeria 5. Indonesia 11. 3. 7. 5. 8. Algeria Egypt Nigeria Qatar Australia Russia Angola 10. 7. Trinidad Plants Under Construction 1. Malaysia 9. 4. 2. UAE 8. 3. 4. 5. Yemen . Algeria 2. 2. Australia 12. 9. Egypt 4.LNG Producing Countries Operating LNG Plants 1. USA 13.

A Clear Picture of the Future .

Floating LNG Chain 22.000 MT topsides to shuttle LNG carriers FPSO Receiving Terminal Gas distribution grid .000 MT topsides FPSO for LNG on field location Offshore LNG Transfer 4.

Flare Acid Gas Solvent Regenerator Pantograph LNG Unloading Arm Acid Gas Absorber Accommodations appr. Compressors Main Cryogenic Heat Exchanger Power Generation Fractionation Dehydration Knock Out Drums Internal Turret & Risers Typical Service Crane Inlet Compressor LNG FPSO . 100 people Refrig.

350.000 TONS ] 50 .LNG Plant on a Ship --Modularization LNG plant on a barge---BLUE MARTIN – STAT OIL Norway [154 METERS LONG AND 60 METERS WIDE AND 50 METERS HEIGHT-.

presented at Gastech 2005. Poten & Partners.Source: “The LNG Business: How Fast Will it Grow?” By Theo Oerlemans. .

Discussion .Thank You Questions .