You are on page 1of 52

LNG Technology

Dr. S. Madhavan
Global Director, Plant Services (Retd.) Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR), Inc. Houston, TX, USA

Presented in Dehra Dun 09 August 2010

Natural Gas Utilization


Distribution by Pipeline Liquefaction and Regasification Compressed gas (CNG)

or
Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbons Conversion to Methanol Conversion to Fertilizer Conversion to Electric Power

The Hydrocarbon Trend


Hydrocarbon Ratio of Primary Energy
4 3 H/C 2 1 0 1700 1800 1900 Century 2000 2100

Stranded Gas and Major Consumer Markets

Legend
Stranded Gas Major Markets

Relative Costs of Gas Transportation


Pipeline vs. LNG
$5.00 $ /M M B T U $4.00 $3.00 $2.00 $1.00 $0.00 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 MILES Offshore Pipeline Onshore Pipeline LNG 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000

How not to transport gas !!

How not to transport gas !!

LNG Technology

Typical Natural Gas Composition


Typical Composition at Inlet of LNG Plant
1.0 - 2.0 % 85.0 - 95.0 % 5.0 - 10.0 % 2.0 - 5.0 % 2.0 - 3.0 % 1.0 - 4.0 % Trace: Nitrogen Methane Ethane - - Feedstock for Ethylene Propane Total Butane+ Carbon Dioxide H2S, Hg, R-SH, COS
LPG
Petrochemical Feedstock

LNG
Liquefied Natural Gas

- 161oC !!

Typical LNG Product Specifications


Component
Carbon Dioxide Mercury Nitrogen Water Vapor Benzene Ethane Propane Butane Pentane and heavier High Heating Value

Limits (maximum)
50 ppm 0.01 micrograms per normal m3 1 mol% 1 ppmv 1 ppmv < 6 8 mol% (Feedstock for Ethylene!) LPG < 3 mol% Petrochemical < 2 mol% Feedstock < 0.1 mol% =1050 Btu/SCF (Europe and USA) up to 1140 Btu/SCF (East Asia)

LNG Train Capacities


Train capacities
Camel Plant, Algeria - 1964 - 0.4 MTPA Sonatrach LNG, Algeria - 1970s - 1.0 - 1.4 MTPA Malaysia LNG (Satu), Bintulu - 1983 - 2.6 MTPA Bontang LNG Trains - 1980s-90s - 1.6-3.0 MTPA Woodside LNG - 1980s-90s - 2.2 - 4.2 MTPA SEGAS LNG - 2004 - 5.0 MTPA Qatargas LNG, Qatar - 2007 - 7.8 MTPA Future Trains - - - - 2010 - 9.0 MTPA

TYPICAL BLOCK DIAGRAM - LIQUEFACTION

C2

FUEL

C4 BY PRODUCT GASOLINE FUEL

HYDROCARBON FRACTIONATION

NATURAL GAS FEED

C2

C3

C4 LNG OFFSITE LNG STORAGE

CO2 REMOVAL

DEHYDRATION & MERCURY CHILLING LIQUEFACTION NITROGEN REJECTION REMOVAL

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

Typical Acid Gas Removal Scheme


Reflux Condenser Acid Gas

Treated Gas Lean Amine Lean Absorber Semi-Lean SemiAmine Amine Cooler

Low-Pressure LowFlash

Bulk Absorber Flash Gas Sour Gas HighHighPressure Flash

Stripper

Reboiler

Rich Amine

Lean/Rich Exchanger

Typical Dehydration Scheme Process Flow


Regeneration Gas Compressor

Drier Precooler Regeneration Gas Knockout Drum

Regeneration Cooler

Water Saturated Natural Gas

Driers (ABS) Water Hydrocarbon Liquid

Driers (Regen) Regeneration Heater

Filter

Dry Gas To Liquefaction

Typical Mercury Removal Scheme Process Flow

From Acid Gas Removal Section

Mercury Removal Column

Outlet Gas Specification is generally 10 nanograms of Mercury per cubic meter of gas.

To Liquefaction Section

Removal of Trace Mercury Contaminants

Mercury has to be removed from natural gas and its associated condensate to prevent: corrosion in aluminum equipment

Removal of mercury in the gas phase is by:


adsorption on sulfur impregnated carbon or alumina carrier molecular sieve

Refrigeration Cycles
Types of Licensed Processes:
Propane Precooled Mixed Refrigerant Cycle (APCI) Pure Component Cascade Cycle
Phillips Optimized Cascade

Dual Mixed Refrigerant Cycle


Technip & Snamprogetti

Single Mixed Refrigerant Cycle


PRICO

Linde Technology

Basic Refrigeration - Simple PFD


(Process Flow Diagram)
Q High Temperature
Condenser
(Ambient)

Work

Air-cooled or water-cooled

Compressor

Refrigeration Loop
Accumulator

Suction Drum Heat Exchanger J-T Valve

Q Low Temperature
8/19/2010 P. (Sub -19 Ambient)

Propane Precooled Mixed Refrigerant Cycle Pure propane refrigerant cycle


Ambient to -40oC Three or four pressure levels

Mixed component refrigerant cycle


-40oC to -160oC Typical MCR Composition:
2 - 10 % Nitrogen 35 - 45 % Methane 30 - 45 % Ethane 10 - 15 % Propane

Typical Propane Circuit Scheme Process Flow


SW

PC

To MCHE MR SW

Reinjection Chiller DC2 Condenser To Scrub Column Feed Gas Feed from Acid Gas Removal

8/19/2010

P. 21

APCI C3/MCR Process


MR LIQ EXP MR LIQ EXP

LOW BTU LOW BTU FUEL GAS FUEL GAS NRU

HP HP CC3 3

MP MP C C33

LP LP C C33

LLP LLP C C33

LNG LNG EXP EXP

LNG LNG RUNDOWN RUNDOWN

MCHE MCHE

REFLUX REFLUX DRUM DRUM

HP HP MR MR TREATED TREATED FEED FEED GAS GAS

MP MP MR MR

LP LP MR MR

LPG LPG REINJECTION REINJECTION

DEHY/Hg DEHY/Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL HP HP C C33 MP MP C C33 LP LP C C33 LLP LLP C C33

SCRUB SCRUB COLUMN COLUMN

To FRACTIONATION To FRACTIONATION
8/19/2010 P. 22

Thermal Efficiency

Compressor Driver Selection


Economic driver selection possibilities:
Steam Turbines Industrial Gas Turbines Aeroderivative Gas Turbines Electric Motors

Typical LP MR Compressor
Axial Compressor Rotor Lifted From Casing

Propane Compressor

Frame 6 Gas Turbine

Propane Compressor driven by Frame 6 Gas Turbine

Axial Compressor

Frame 7 Cutaway
Single Shaft Design

Power Turbine Air Compressor

COIL WOUND EXCHANGER CONSTRUCTION

Main Cryogenic Heat Exchanger (MCHE)

LNG Tank

Vapour Release

Double Metal Wall LNG Storage Tank Design:


To Boiloff Gas Recovery LNG Rundown Bottom Fill
RV

LNG to Ship

Top Fill

Carbon Steel Light LNG Heat Leak from Perlite Insulation Heavy LNG 9% Ni Steel 32 month Construction Insulation Schedule (Typical) Ambient

Double Containment Tanks

Full Containment Tanks

LNG Storage Tank Selection


Full Integrity Tank
For Spacing and Security Concerns Malaysia LNG Storage Tanks

LNG Contractors Liquefaction Plants

Top Tier
KBR/JGC Chiyoda Bechtel

Next Tier
Technip Foster-Wheeler Snamprogetti

LNG Shipping

Typical LNG Ships

Shipping and Typical Ship Parameters


Ship Size = 125,000 - 135,000 m3 nominal capacity Design Speed = 18 - 20 knots Boil-off rate = 0.15% of contents per day Length = 300 m ; Breadth = 50 m Draft = 11 m Cost = $160 MM (highly dependent on market) To ship 5 MMTPA a distance of 3500 miles, approximately 6 x 135,000 m3 ships are needed

LNG Receiving Terminals

LNG Terminal Flow Diagram


Boil-Off Gas Compressor

Vapor Return Line

LNG Unloading Arm Recondenser LNG Tanker Fuel Gas Vaporizer To Pipeline

1st Stage Sendout Pumps LNG Storage Tanks 2nd Stage Sendout Pumps

Open Rack Type

Features
Low running cost. Sea water used as heat source. Easy to operate and maintain. Tube Panels--made of aluminum alloy, coated outside with zinc alloy to provide corrosion resistance from sea water. Return sea water is 4-5 deg. C cooler. Environmental consideration.

Cove Point Terminal

LNG Projects in India


Dahej LNG Terminal, Gujarat Started up in Jan 2004 Kochi LNG Terminal 2.5 MM Tonnes/Yr capacity Hazira LNG Terminal, Gujarat is a JV of Shell and Total Ratnagiri LNG Terminal at Dabhol (Ex-Enron) will start shipping pipeline gas starting from 2010 Many proposed LNG Terminals may be shelved due to competition from new gas finds/fields offshore in K-G Basin and Cauveri Basin New LNG Terminals and new pipeline construction will need to be developed in tandem.

1997 World LNG Trade


Major Producers
Pacific Rim
Indonesia Malaysia Brunei Australia Alaska 47.7% 26.5% 11.0% 12.7% 2.1%

83.8 Mmt/y
67.5%

Middle East
Qatar Abu Dhabi 28.2% 71.8%

9.3% 23.2%
94.9% 5.1%

Atlantic Basin
Algeria Libya Trinidad Nigeria

1997 World LNG Trade


Major Consumers
Pacific Rim
Japan Taiwan Korea China India 76.4% 5.0% 18.6%

83.8 Mmt/y
75.2%

Atlantic Basin
France Belgium Greece Italy Spain Turkey USA 33.2% 16.8% 6.7% 24.0% 11.1% 8.2%

24.8%

LNG Producing Countries


Operating LNG Plants 1. Algeria 2. Libya 3. Egypt 4. Nigeria 5. Qatar 6. Oman 7. UAE 8. Malaysia 9. Brunei 10. Indonesia 11. Australia 12. USA 13. Trinidad Plants Under Construction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Nigeria Qatar Indonesia Australia Norway Russia Equatorial Guinea Trinidad Oman Plants on the Drawing Board 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Algeria Egypt Nigeria Qatar Australia Russia Angola

10. Yemen

A Clear Picture of the Future

Floating LNG Chain


22,000 MT topsides FPSO for LNG
on field location

Offshore LNG Transfer 4,000 MT topsides


to shuttle LNG carriers

FPSO Receiving Terminal


Gas distribution grid

Flare

Acid Gas Solvent Regenerator

Pantograph LNG Unloading Arm Acid Gas Absorber

Accommodations appr. 100 people

Refrig. Compressors

Main Cryogenic Heat Exchanger

Power Generation Fractionation Dehydration Knock Out Drums

Internal Turret & Risers

Typical Service Crane

Inlet Compressor

LNG FPSO

LNG Plant on a Ship

--Modularization LNG plant on a barge---BLUE MARTIN STAT OIL Norway [154 METERS LONG AND 60 METERS WIDE AND 50 METERS HEIGHT-- 350,000 TONS ] 50

Source: The LNG Business: How Fast Will it Grow? By Theo Oerlemans, Poten & Partners, presented at Gastech 2005.

Thank You

Questions - Discussion