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Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar The Perforated Universe

Revision & Evidence
Hari Kumar

My last presentation titled, “The Perforated Universe” put forward a new and integrated hypothesis on the universe and its evolution. The new evolutionary model that I proposed attempted to explain most of the hitherto unexplained problems of astrophysics like the preponderance of matter over antimatter, the observed accelerated expansion, dark matter & dark energy through one elegant theory involving multiple dimensions. Since the release of “The Perforated Universe”, I had done more research, which has required me to revisit and revise some portions of this hypothesis. Also I have now come across, a somewhat similar work done by an Italian theoretical physicist, Massimo Villata, whose work actually precedes mine. But there are some very critical differences. As in my hypothesis, Villata too proposes gravitational repulsion originating from large voids in space, such as the Local Void, to be the primary cause of the observed accelerated expansion. But the critical difference is that he proposes antimatter in the heart of the void to be responsible for the repulsive gravity. The antimatter that he refers to is matter travelling backward in time. His theory, as far as I have understood it, does not take into consideration multiple dimensions. Also, as far as I understand, the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter is also attractive in nature. I believe there is some debate on this which has not been adequately resolved. That said, I do not discredit his theory in any way and do say that it could be plausible if, as he says, antimatter is defined as matter travelling backward in time. But my proposal, while borrowing from his original idea of repulsive gravity originating in voids, does not rely on backward-in-time antimatter to generate repulsive gravity. I have also come across more substantial evidence that supports my hypothesis. This presentation is about that evidence and also about some revisions, clarifications and additions to the hypothesis. Before I go into the clarifications and supporting evidence, I shall revisit briefly the main points of the Perforated Universe hypothesis. 1. The universe we live in started off as a continuous one dimensional emanation from a zero dimensional point. This universe, besides being spatially one dimensional, contains matter of the highest density and lowest entropy. 2. This zero dimensional point of origin is suspended in a boundless n-dimensional hyperspace. 3. For the preservation of Balance & Neutrality, an anti-universe of equal magnitude though containing only anti matter is also continuously ejected out of Nothingness, though in a different

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Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar
direction in the hyperspace substratum.

4. It is possible that there could be any number of such points of origin continuously churning out countless such matter/antimatter universes. 5. Eventually the one dimensional universe collides with its antimatter equivalent at the point of closure. The resulting explosion—or rather, a continuous burst that lasts for a certain period of time—releases enormous quantities of energy and also shatters the strings of matter and anti matter in the vicinity.

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Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar
6. This violent interaction between the matter and antimatter one dimensional universes also instantly ‘upgrades’ both to their two dimensional equivalents, since both universes close in on themselves at the point of contact. The coming together of the two universes could perhaps be due to the n-dimensional hyperspace substratum being uniformly curved. 7. The entropies of these newly forming two dimensional planar universes are significantly greater than the one dimensional universes they evolved from. The newly formed universe is also less dense and has obviously more energy than its preceding one dimensional ancestor. 8. Much of the shattered one dimensional strings of matter also close in on themselves becoming rings. These rings are like perforations in space of the two dimensional universe that has now come into being.

9. The perforations, due to their positive curvature with respect to the surrounding two dimensional universe, is gravitationally repelled by the nearby matter or anti matter. This repulsive gravity between the perforations and matter is what drives the accelerated expansion of the universe. How gravitational repulsion takes place between matter and nearby spatial perforations is explained in detail in my previous presentation, “The Perforated Universe.” 10. Eventually, the two planar universes of matter and antimatter also come in contact with each other resulting in another big bang or big burst. And again the universes go through a dimensional upgrade, this time from two dimensional to three dimensional. 11. The three dimensional universe so formed will be less dense, have more entropy and more energy than its two dimensional ancestor. The decrease in dimensional density will also cause a relatively higher gravitational force, with each successive dimensional upgrade. 12. Again it will be riddled with spatial perforations that will interact with its surrounding three dimensional space only through a repulsive gravitational force. 13. We are now in this three dimensional universe whose accelerating inflation is driven by the repulsive gravity of the spatial perforations that it contains. Somewhere in hyperspace, our universe’s opposite counterpart is also undergoing its accelerated expansion and is racing towards us.

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Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar
14. Some time in future, our universe and its anti matter counterpart will close up and collide in hyperspace, triggering a dimensional upgrade from the current three dimensional state to a spatially four dimensional state. 15. Just as in previous upgrades, the new four dimensional universe will be much less dense, filled with more energy, and thus more light, and its entropy will be higher. 16. The process will continue until all matter in both universes is converted to neutral energy or light. Properties of Spatial Perforations Spatial Perforations are closed two dimensional or three dimensional perforations in three dimensional space, containing two dimensional or three dimensional matter or anti matter. They can be likened to extremely small bubbles or holes in 3 dimensional space. It must be emphasized that they are not holes in matter, but holes in space itself. Essentially, there are two types of perforations in our 3 dimensional universe. This is a change from my last version, where I have discussed only one type. The first type, called the hole type perforation, is a closed two dimensional void in our three dimensional space. It can be imagined like a bubble in 3d space, though the inside of the bubble does not form part of our universe. The inside is the n-dimensional hyperspace. The surface of the bubble which is 2 dimensional contains matter or anti matter.

The second type, called the bubble type, is a closed 3 dimensional shell containing 3 d matter or anti matter, wrapped around n-dimensional hyperspace. This 3 dimensional shell containing matter/anti matter and the n-dimensional hyperspace that it contains is not a part of our universe. It could be separated from our universe by a closed m-brane of two dimensions. This is hard to imagine and hence an equivalent in 2d universe is shown in the following illustration. 4 | © Hari Kumar

Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar

Both the hole type and the bubble type, would cause a positive curvature to the surrounding 3d space of our universe, whereas normal matter would cause a negative curvature. This is the reason why matter or anti matter in our universe would exert a repulsive force on these perforations. Although the typical size of a Spatial Perforation would be in the subatomic range, it is possible for larger perforations also to exist. But generally, the bulk of the perforations are in the subatomic scales, with respect to their size. Spatial Perforations have similar properties as those attributed to Dark Matter, except with the additional property that they are repelled by matter and antimatter alike. They are invisible and cannot be detected by any instruments except indirectly by their gravitational effects and lensing of light, when they clump together in sufficiently large quantities. They do not interact with other Spatial Perforations. That is, they neither attract nor repel their own kind. Due to this they can be clumped together pretty tightly. Although they can be brought very close together, they cannot be merged to form larger Perforations. This puts an upper limit on the positive space-time curvature across large clumps, of hundreds of thousands of light years in thickness, of Perforations. The space-time curvature is soft and generally constant for mature clumps of Perforations across the universe. Mature clumps of Spatial Perforations are those clumps that are tightly packed with perforations as possible. Mature clumps can continue to grow at the peripheries as more and more Perforations continue to deposit there, thereby increasing the shell thickness.

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Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar

Structure of a typical spiral Galaxy

Typically, the shell of Spatial Perforations are in the region just beyond the Galactic Halo, as shown above. The region between the visible galaxy and the halo will also contain Perforations that are moving towards the outer shell. The motion of these Perforations is driven by the repulsive gravitational effect of inner visible galaxy. Thus the outer shell continues to grow. This shell growth at the galactic and cluster levels, forces greater separation between the galaxies and clusters, thus driving the accelerated inflation of the universe. Some Clarifications and Revisions to my earlier hypotheses 6 | © Hari Kumar

Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar
Pioneer Anomaly In my last presentation, “The Perforated Universe”, I had mentioned that the Pioneer Anomaly can perhaps be due to the repulsive effect of spatial perforations in the periphery of our solar system. While I still believe that this could be a cause, I understand there are alternative explanations. Interaction between perforations I had mentioned in my last presentation that the perforations, besides exerting a repulsive gravitational force on the surrounding matter, also repels against each other. On further analysis, I think my belief that perforations repel against each other was wrong. They do not exert any force between each other. When two or more perforations come together, they can come as close as the surrounding space can allow them without them merging into each other. Dark Matter & Dark Energy In “The Perforated Universe”, I had explained Dark Matter as due to the difference in dimensional densities between the underlying hyperspace substratum and our 3 dimensional universe, causing an added “sag” for larger collections of cosmic stuff such as stars in galaxies and galaxies in galactic clusters. While this could indeed be a factor, I think I overlooked a more important cause that holds together the galaxies and their larger clusters. To understand this we must trace the history of our own three dimensional universe from the point of our last big burst up until now. Science has proved that the last Big Bang that brought forth the three dimensional universe that we live in occurred around 13.7 billion years ago. During the earliest inflationary phase of the universe the spatial perforations were too small and evenly distributed to have any effect on the expansion. The matter-antimatter interaction of the colliding two dimensional universes continued to inject more energy and spatial perforations into our emerging three dimensional universe. This fuelled the first rapid expansion of our universe. The energy cooled and condensed to the basic particles of matter, which later led to the first atoms and molecules. Although the bulk of the perforations still were too fine and evenly distributed, there began to appear larger clusters and clumps of perforations due to the gravitational repulsion from the surrounding matter, which too began to clump due to their own mutual gravitational attraction. Thus as matter too slowly began to clump into gravitationally significant bodies such as the early stars & galaxies, the perforations, with their positive space-time curvature, began to be effected by the increasing repulsive force these large bodies exerted on them. This made them migrate beyond the gravitational peripheries of the stars, which led to more closely bound clusters among the perforations as they snowballed outwards. Thus these stars each had a shell of perforations, the diameter of which depended on the mass of the star. The perforations were much like a gentle force field around the stars. They were invisible since their positive spatial curvature was too gradual to 7 | © Hari Kumar

Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar
have any effect on light. Moreover, light and other radiations pass through the spatial gaps between the perforations, although they could be subject to a certain drag. Space could be considered ‘foamy’ in a cluster of perforations. Thus the space that the shell of perforation around a star or a galaxy occupies would have a certain foaminess. But they manage to deflect or keep out larger bodies of lower momentum from coming into the vicinity of the star. At the galactic level the shell formed by the perforations are much thicker, though the curvature gradient still evened out to be around the same as stellar shell gradients. For galaxies, this invisible shell was what kept the stars within it from flying off. This thick but ‘soft’ shell of perforations acted as a kind of levee or embankment that kept much of the stars of the galaxies circling within its boundaries. The repulsive force exerted by this foamy shell of perforations would be proportional to the mass of the approaching object, such as a star.

So ‘Dark Matter’ is not so much an invisible mass within the galaxy exerting an extra attractive force that kept the stars in their paths, but rather a thick shell of perforations at the outer periphery of the galaxy that exerted a soft repulsive force on the outer bodies keeping them within the galactic boundaries. The same can be said of clusters of galaxies that are bound together by vast shells enveloping them that are millions of light years thick. 8 | © Hari Kumar

Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar
Thus these shells of perforations enveloping stars, galaxies and galactic clusters can be crudely likened to cosmic ‘packing material’. Or layers and layers of bubble wrap! Now, these soft shells of perforations at the galactic and the cluster boundaries continue to grow even today as more and more of the finer perforations ‘bubble up’ (due to the repulsive forces of the surrounding matter) and clump up with them. As the galactic and cluster shells become thicker and thicker, they force greater separation between the neighboring galaxies and clusters due to the repulsive forces. This is the ‘Dark Energy’ that fuels the observed accelerated expansion of the universe.

Thus, unlike the current understanding that there are two distinct mechanisms: ‘Dark Energy’ behind the observed accelerated expansion, and ‘Dark Matter’ as what keeps galaxies and clusters 9 | © Hari Kumar

Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar
together, the Perforated Universe Hypotheses posits a single elegant mechanism responsible for both. Observed Evidence for Spatial Perforations Much of the evidences for spatial perforations are the same as those found for ‘Dark Matter’ and ‘Dark Energy’ for obvious reasons. Yet the observed evidence for spatial perforations goes well beyond that as well. Let us look into the observed evidence for Spatial Perforations. 1. ‘Gravitational’ lensing The thick and foamy shell around galaxies and clusters, could also act as a lens for light from objects behind them. The spatial gaps between the layers of perforations, would act in much the same way as optical fiber cables in directing the light smoothly around the galaxies giving rise to a lensing effect. Though, in a strict sense, the lensing is not due to gravity but due to the layering of perforations. To light, the region of perforations that can carry light would seem like glass of varying refractive index.

2. The Bullet Cluster The Bullet Cluster is considered to be the best observable evidence of Dark Matter. The Bullet Cluster is one of the hottest known clusters of galaxies and consists of two colliding clusters of galaxies about 3.4 billion light years away. Strictly speaking, the name Bullet Cluster refers to the smaller subcluster, moving away from the larger one. Observed from Earth, the subcluster passed through the cluster center 150 million years ago creating a "bow-shaped shock wave located near the right side of the cluster" formed as "70 million degree Celsius gas in the subcluster plowed through 100 million degree Celsius gas in the main cluster at a speed of about 6 million miles per hour". A clear separation can be observed in the gas clouds seen in the image, 10 | © Hari Kumar

Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar
which is believed to be due to dark matter. The blue portions of the image is also believed to be separated dark matter.

Let us take a relook at the Bullet Cluster considering Spatial Perforations instead of Dark Matter. As we have seen earlier, galactic clusters are enveloped by thick shells of spatial perforations. The shell thickness of a cluster like the bullet cluster could perhaps extend to thousands of light years. A plausible scenario when considering spatial perforations in the context of colliding galactic clusters is given below:

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As the Bullet Cluster approaches the larger galactic cluster at great speed, the Spatial Perforations at the outer periphery of both clusters, nearest to the point of impact collide and slip between each other. The stars and gases closest to the point of impact, due to their great momentum, penetrate into the shell.

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As these stars penetrate deeper into the shell, the repulsive gravity of the perforations gradually cancel out the attractive gravity of the stars, thus destroying the perforations in the stars path at the same time releasing the hot matter within the stars from their gravitational pull. This opens up a path for stars at the tail end of the Bullet cluster to pass into and through the larger cluster.

A part of the surviving stars again get ‘dissolved’ as they pass through the spatial perforations at the further end of the larger cluster The hot gases released from the dissolved stars get trapped in the central region and the perforations that were at the tail end of the bullet cluster.

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Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar
Thus a better and clearer explanation is obtained on the Bullet Cluster when considering Spatial Perforations instead of Dark Matter. 3. Train Wreck Cluster (Abell 520) The train wreck is another cluster formed out of the collision and merger of other galactic clusters. But this one cannot be explained by conventional Dark Matter theories, due to the presence of a large void in the centre that is devoid of galaxies but has a gravitational lensing effect. This is where Spatial Perforations can provide a satisfactory explanation when the theory of Dark Matter fails. The central void could be composed of a large clump of Spatial Perforations that got disjointed from the many galactic clusters after their multiple collisions. The clump of perforations is centrally located due to the shell of galactic matter that is around it. How lensing of light happens due to the Spatial Perforations is explained earlier. 4. Voids and Super Voids The observations of enormous voids in space are a telling proof of the existence of Spatial Perforations. These voids cannot be explained by any of the current conventional theories in Astrophysics. They are extremely large regions of seemingly empty space. They are the largest structures in the universe. Some are more than 300 million light years across. Examples of these voids are the Local Void, Bootes Void, Northern & Southern Local Supervoid, Capricornus void and something called the Eridanus supervoid, which, if exists, is suspected to be more than 500 million light years across. Voids can be explained as the large scale clumping of Spatial Perforations.

5. Hot gases in the peripheries of Galaxies and Galactic Clusters The presence of vast quantities of hot gases that envelope galaxies and galactic clusters can be explained when considering thick shells of Spatial Perforations bounding these massive structures. The hot gases are observed as halos around galaxies. They are remnants of stars that strayed into the shell due to their high velocity and momentum. As a star penetrates the shell of Perforations due to its high momentum, the repulsive gravity between the star and the surrounding Perforations gradually neutralizes the attractive gravity that holds the star together. Due to this it rapidly begins to lose its mass in the form of its hot gases escaping its declining gravitational pull. The Perforations that come too close to the star also pops out of existence, releasing X-rays & Cosmic radiation. Galactic halos have also been observed to be a source of X-rays & Cosmic rays.

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Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar

The constant repulsive force between the perforations and the rapidly shrinking star push the star back within the bounds of the galaxy. Sometimes the star does not survive its passage through the shell of perforations and gets completely dissolved into a big blob of gas. The chances of it surviving depend on the angle of approach, the mass and momentum of the star. If it does survive, by the time it exits the shell of perforation, it would have lost some mass. The hot gas that is released also gets eventually pushed back into the galactic space, where it spreads and forms part of the galactic halo.

The cavity that was formed by the star’s passage through the shell of perforations also gets ‘repaired’ by the perforations in the vicinity that rapidly move into the space due to the repulsive pressure of the galaxy and newer perforations that are constantly bubbling outward. An important additional factor that sweeps out the Perforations in the Galaxy outwardly towards the thickening shell of Perforations is the Galactic wind.

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Perforated Universe—Revision & Evidence / © Hari Kumar
6. Anomalous motion of the “Local Sheet” Scientists recently observed an anomalous motion of the “Local Sheet” group of galaxies, which comprises of our Milky Way. One of the three components of this motion could not be explained as due to the gravitational pull of any nearby clusters. Massimo Villata, proposed that this is probably due to the repulsive gravity of dark matter in a void on the opposite side. He had proposed antimatter as causing this repulsive effect, though I think it is due to spatial perforations. Thus there is overwhelming observational evidence of Spatial Perforations.

Please watch the video version on youtube ( that complements this through additional slides.

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This is only a hypothesis and may have many errors. Your informed and critical feedback is welcome and would be much appreciated. Although careful research has been conducted to ensure the ideas described here are original, I make no such guarantees. Please feel free to comment, however, please be respectful.

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