Structural Analysis III

Structural Analysis III Moment Distribution

2007/8

Dr. Colin Caprani

1

Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

1. Introduction
1.1 Overview

Background

Moment Distribution is an iterative method of solving an indeterminate structure. It was developed by Prof. Hardy Cross in the US in the 1920s in response to the highly indeterminate skyscrapers being built.

Description

If we first consider a two-span beam with only one possible rotation. This beam is subject to different loading on its two spans. The unbalanced loading causes a rotation at B, θ B , to occur, as shown:

To analyse this structure, we use superposition. We will make the structure more indeterminate first, and then examine what happens to the extra unknown moment introduced as a result. The following diagrams show this:

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Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

The newly introduced fixed support does not allow any rotation of joint B. Therefore a moment results at this new support – a moment that ‘balances’ the loading, M Bal .

Returning to the original structure, we account for the effect of the introduced restraint by applying M Bal .

The moment M Bal ‘goes into’ each of the spans AB and BC. The amount of M Bal in each span is M BA and M BC respectively. That is, M Bal splits itself into M BA and

M BC . We next analyse each of the spans separately for the effects of M BA and M BC .
This is summarized in the next diagram: 3 Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

The balancing moment arises from the applied loads to each span. By preventing joint B from rotating (having placed a fixed support there), a moment will result in the support. We can find this moment by examining the fixed end moments (FEMs) for each fixed-fixed span and its loading:

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Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

Both of these new “locked” beams have fixed end moment (FEM) reactions as:

And for the particular type of loading we can work out these FEMs from tables of FEMs:

Note the sign convention:

Anti-clockwise is positive

Clockwise is negative

From the locked beams AB and BC, we see that at B (in general) the moments do not balance (if they did the rotation, θ B , would not occur). That is:

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Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

2 wL1 PL2 − + + M Bal = 0 12 8

And so we have:

M Bal

2 PL2 wL1 = − 8 12

In which the sign will depend on the relative values of the two FEMs.

The balancing moment is the moment required at B in the original beam to stop B rotating.

Thus we find the difference in the two FEMs at the joint and apply it as the balancing moment in the opposite direction.

Next we need to find out how the balancing moment splits itself into M BA and M BC .

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Dr. C. Caprani

We find this for the beams of interest.e. we have: To solve this structure.e. i. i. by Mohr’s Second Theorem: 7 Dr. δ B = 0 and so since the tangent at A is horizontal.Structural Analysis III 2. Fixed-Pinned For a fixed-pinned beam. ∆ BA = 0 . Development 2. we can calculate [ ∆ BA ]I as: [ ∆ BA ]I = [ ∆ BA ]II + [ ∆ BA ]III where the subscript relates to the structures above. Thus we have. C. subject to a moment at the pinned end. Caprani . the vertical intercept is also zero.1 Carry-Over The carry-over is a factor relating the moment applied at one end of a beam to the resulting moment at the far end. we note first that the deflection at B in structure I is zero. Using superposition.

Caprani .Structural Analysis III ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡ L⎤ ⎡1 ⎤ ⎡ 2L ⎤ EI ∆ BA = ⎢ M B L ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − ⎢ M A L ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ = 0 ⎣2 ⎦⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎣2 ⎦⎣ 3 ⎦ And so. M B L2 M A L2 = 6 3 3M B = 6 M A 1 MA = + ⋅ MB 2 The factor of + 1 2 that relates M A to M B is known as the carry-over factor (COF). The positive sign indicates that M A acts in the same direction as M B : We generalize this result slightly and say that for any remote end that has the ability to restrain rotation: COF = + 1 for an end that has rotational restraint 2 8 Dr. C.

Caprani .Structural Analysis III Pinned-Pinned As there can be no moment at a pinned end there is no carry over to the pinned end: We generalize this from a pinned-end to any end that does not have rotational restraint: There is no carry-over to an end not rotationally restrained. C. 9 Dr.

These are got from standard solutions: MA Configuration P MA A MA A MB MB + PL 8 L/2 w L L/2 B MB B − PL 8 wL + 12 2 wL2 − 12 P Pab 2 + 2 L MA A a L P MB b B − Pa 2b L2 + 3PL 16 MA A MA A L/2 w L L/2 B - + wL 8 2 B - P Pab ( 2 L − a ) + 2 L2 MA A a L b B - 10 Dr. all spans are fixed-fixed and the moment reactions (FEMs) are required.2 Fixed End Moments Direct Loading When the joints are initially locked. C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III 2.

To allow for this we consider two cases: Fixed-Fixed Beam Consider the following movement which imposes moments on the beam: At C the deflection is ∆ 2 .Structural Analysis III Support Settlement The movement of supports is an important design consideration. C. especially in bridges. Using Mohr’s Second Theorem. hence we must have FEM AB = FEM BA . Caprani . as the movements can impose significant additional moments in the structure. the vertical intercept from C to A is: ∆ ≡ ∆ CA 2 2 ⎡ 1 L FEM AB ⎤ ⎡ 2 L ⎤ FEM AB L =⎢ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = EI ⎥ ⎢ 3 2 ⎥ 12 EI ⎣2 2 ⎦⎣ ⎦ 6 EI ∆ ∴ FEM AB = 2 = FEM BA L 11 Dr.

Structural Analysis III Fixed-Pinned Beam Again. C. the support settlement imposes moments as: Following the same procedure: FEM AB ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎤ FEM AB L2 ⎡1 ∆ ≡ ∆ BA = ⎢ ⋅ L ⋅ ⋅L = 3EI EI ⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦⎣ ⎦ 3EI ∆ ∴ FEM AB = 2 L In summary then we have: MA Configuration MA A L B MB MB + 6EI ∆ L2 + 6EI ∆ L2 + 3EI ∆ L2 MA A L B ∆ ∆ - 12 Dr. Caprani .

when a moment is applied to the end of a beam.Structural Analysis III 2. M B : 13 Dr. a rotation results. Similarly. For example. Fixed-Pinned Beam To find the rotational stiffness for this type of beam we need to find the rotation. and so we also have: M = Kθ ⋅ θ Note that Kθ can be thought of as the moment required to cause a rotation of 1 radian. Caprani . θ B .3 Rotational Stiffness Concept Recall that F = K δ where F is a force. K is the stiffness of the structure and δ is the resulting deflection. for an axially loaded rod or bar: F= EA ⋅δ L And so K = EA L . for a given moment applied at the end. We next find the rotational stiffnesses for the relevant types of beams. C.

Caprani .Structural Analysis III We break the bending moment diagram up as follows. is zero: dθ AB = θ B − θ A = θ B Thus we have: 1 1 EIθ B = M B L − M A L 2 2 M L M L = B − B 2 4 M L = B 4 L MB θB = 4 EI And so. θ A . MB = 4 EI θB L And the rotational stiffness for this type of beam is: Kθ = 4EI L 14 Dr. using our knowledge of the carry-over factor: The change in rotation from A to B is found using Mohr’s First Theorem and the fact that the rotation at the fixed support. C.

we have: ⎡1 ⎤⎡2 ⎤ EI ∆ AB = ⎢ M B L ⎥ ⎢ L ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦⎣3 ⎦ M L2 EIθ B L = B 3 L MB θB = 3EI And so: MB = 3EI ⋅θB L Thus the rotational stiffness for a pinned-pinned beam is: Kθ = 3EI L 15 Dr. C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III Pinned-Pinned Beam For this beam we use an alternative method to relate moment and rotation: By Mohr’s Second Theorem. and the fact that ∆ AB = θ B L .

M BC . we now find how the balancing moment is split. C. We are considering a general case in which the lengths and stiffnesses may be different in adjacent spans: So from this diagram we can see that the rotation at joint B. M BA of it causes span AB to rotate θ B whilst the remainder. causes span BC to rotate θ B also: 16 Dr.Structural Analysis III 2. is the same for both spans.4 Distributing the Balancing Moment Distribution Factor Returning to the original superposition in which the balancing moment is used. Caprani . θ B . We also note that the balancing moment is split up.

we have: M Bal = M BA + M BC = K BAθ B + K BCθ B = ( K BA + K BC )θ B And so: θB = M Bal ( K BA + K BC ) Thus. substituting this expression for θ B back into the two equations: ⎡ K AB ⎤ M BA = K ABθ B = ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ M Bal K AB + K BC ⎦ ⎣ 17 Dr. C.Structural Analysis III If we now split the beam at joint B we must still have θ B rotation at joint B for compatibility of displacement in the original beam: Thus: [θ B ]AB = M BA K AB and [θ B ]BC = M BC K BC M BA = K AB ⋅ θ B and M BC = K BC ⋅ θ B But since from the original superposition. M Bal = M BA + M BC . Caprani .

C. in general. the sum of the DFs for the joint must add to unity: Joint X ∑ DFs = 1 If they don’t a mistake has been made since not all of the balancing moment will be distributed and moments can’t just vanish! 18 Dr. This derivation works for any number of members meeting at a joint. • The DFs are properties of the spans solely.Structural Analysis III ⎡ K BC ⎤ M BC = K BCθ B = ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ M Bal ⎣ K AB + K BC ⎦ The terms in brackets are called the distribution factors (DFs) for a member. So. • The DF for a span is its relative stiffness at the joint. K ∝ EI L . Caprani . Examine these expressions closely: • The DFs dictate the amount of the balancing moment to be distributed to each span (hence the name). the distribution factor for a member at a joint is the member stiffness divided by the sum of the stiffnesses of the members meeting at that joint: DFBA = K BA ∑K A useful check on your calculations thus far is that since a distribution factor for each member at a joint is calculated.

C.Structural Analysis III Relative Stiffness Lastly. 19 Dr. Therefore. Note that the above follows simply from the fact that the absolute stiffness is 4EI L for a beam with continuity at both ends and the absolute stiffness for a beam without such continuity is 3EI L . member with continuity at both ends: k= EI L 2. we conventionally take the stiffnesses as: 1. notice that the distribution factor only requires relative stiffnesses (i. This is obviously 3/4 of the continuity absolute stiffness. Caprani . in moment distribution.e. member with no continuity at one end: 3 3 EI k'= k = 4 4 L In which the k’ means a modified stiffness to account for the pinned end (for example). the stiffnesses are divided).

Distribute the balancing moment and carry over moments to the (still-locked) adjacent joints. 6. Thus we have the following rule: For structures requiring distribution iterations.5 Moment Distribution Iterations In the preceding development we only analysed the effects of a balancing moment on one joint at a time. what do we do? To solve this. which is just applying a fixed support to it to restrain rotation. never on a carry over This leaves all joints balanced (i. the procedure is: 1. Release the lock on a joint and apply the balancing moment to that joint. 3. The reason this is an iterative procedure is (as we will see) that carrying over to a previously balanced joint unbalances it again. With this in mind. This can go on ad infinitum and so we stop when the moments being balanced are sufficiently small (about 1 or 2% of the start moments). C.Structural Analysis III 2. repeat steps 2 to 4. The structures we wish to analyse may have many joints. we introduce the idea of ‘locking’ a joint.e. 5. Re-lock the joint. 20 Dr. Caprani . Repeat until the balancing and carry over moments are only a few percent of the original moments. Lock all joints and determine the fixed-end moments that result. Considering the next joint. 2. Also note that some simple structures do not require iterations. Thus: if we have many joints and yet can only analyse one at a time. 4. always finish on a distribution. no unbalancing carry-over moment) at the end.

We clamp the support at B to prevent rotation. span AB is a fixed-fixed beam which has moment reactions: FEM AB = + PL = +50 kNm 8 FEM BA = − PL = −50 kNm 8 Notice that we take anticlockwise moments to be negative. Problem Consider the following prismatic beam: Solution To solve this. we will initially make it ‘worse’. C.Structural Analysis III 3. In this case. 21 Dr.1 Example 1: Introductory Example This example is not the usual form of moment distribution but illustrates the process of solution. Caprani . Beam Examples 3.

25 = = 0. From our previous discussion we find the bending moments for the balancing +50 kNm at joint B as follows: Since EI is constant.5 × +50 = +25 kNm We also know that there will be carry over moments to the far ends of both spans: 22 Dr.5 Thus the distribution factors are: 1 1 DFBA = k BA 0.25 ⎝ L ⎠ AB 4 1 ⎛ EI ⎞ k BC = ⎜ ⎟ = = 0.5 ∑ DFBC = k BC 0.5 ∑ Thus the ‘amount’ of the +50 kNm applied at joint B give to each span is: M BA = DFBA ⋅ M Bal = 0. then the stiffnesses are: 1 ⎛ EI ⎞ k BA = ⎜ ⎟ = = 0. Thus we are using the principle of superposition to get back our original structure. We know the bending moment diagram for the fixed-fixed beam readily.5 k 0. take it to be 1.5 k 0. we will apply a moment of +50 kNm at joint B. Caprani .5 × +50 = +25 kNm M BC = DFBC ⋅ M Bal = 0. To balance this moment. C.25 = = 0.Structural Analysis III The effect of clamping joint B has introduced a moment of −50 kNm at joint B.25 ⎝ L ⎠ BC 4 At joint B we have: ∑ k = 4 + 4 = 0.

O.5 kNm 2 1 = ⋅ +25 = +12.5 +62. C. Final A AB 1 +50 B BA BC 0.5 -25 +25 +12.5 0.5 Note 2 +12.5 kNm 2 All of this can be easily seen in the bending moment diagram for the applied moment and the final result follows from superposition: These calculations are usually expressed in a much quicker tabular form as: Joint Member DF FEM Dist. C.5 Note 3 23 Dr.5 -50 +25 +25 C CB 1 Note 1 +12.Structural Analysis III M AB = COF ⋅ M BA = M CB = COF ⋅ M BC 1 ⋅ +25 = +12. Caprani .

24 Dr. Note 2: Both of the +25 kNm moments are distributed to the far ends of the members using the carry over factor of + 1 . Caprani . the final BMD is: Once the bending moment diagram has been found.Structural Analysis III Note 1: The -50 kNm is to be balanced by +50 kNm which is distributed as +25 kNm and +25 kNm. C. the reactions and shears etc can be found by statics. And with more detail. 2 Note 3: The moments for each joint are found by summing the values vertically.

Structural Analysis III 3.1937 25 Dr. The stiffness of each span is: • AB: • BC: • CD: 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3⎛1⎞ 3 ' k BA = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 4 ⎝ L ⎠ AB 4 ⎝ 8 ⎠ 32 k BC = kCD = 1 10 1 6 2. Ordinary Moment Distribution Analysis 1. The distribution factors at each joint are: • Joint B: ∑ k = 32 + 10 = 0. C. we will solve it using the ordinary moment distribution method and then explain each step on the basis of locking and unlocking joints mentioned previously. Caprani 3 1 .2 Example 2: Iterative Example For the following beam. All members have equal EI.

2666 DFCB = DFCD kCB 0.375 ⎪ ∑ k 0.1937 ⎪ ⎬ ∑ DFs = 1 k BC 0.1666 = CD = = 0.1 = = = 0. 26 Dr.625⎪ ⎪ k 0.48 ⎪ ∑ k 0.1937 ⎭ DFBA = DFBC • Joint C: ∑ k = 10 + 6 = 0.Structural Analysis III k BA 3 32 ⎫ = = 0. Caprani . The fixed end moments for each span are: • Span AB: FEM BA = − 3PL −3 ⋅ 100 ⋅ 8 = = −150 kNm 16 16 Note that we consider this as a pinned-fixed beam.1 ⎫ = = 0. A subsequent example explains why we do not need to consider this as a fixed-fixed beam. C.2666 ⎪ ⎬ ∑ DFs = 1 k 0.52 ⎪ ⎪ ∑ k 0.2666 ∑ ⎭ 1 1 3.

Caprani .5 kNm L 102 Pa 2b 50 ⋅ 32 ⋅ 7 FEM CB (1) = − 2 = − = −31.5 kNm L 102 Pa 2b 50 ⋅ 7 2 ⋅ 3 FEM CB ( 2 ) = − 2 = − = −73. C.Structural Analysis III • Span BC: To find the fixed-end moments for this case we need to calculate the FEMs for each load separately and then use the principle of superposition to get the final result: Pab 2 50 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 7 2 FEM BC (1) = + 2 = + = +73.5 kNm L 102 Pab 2 50 ⋅ 7 ⋅ 32 FEM BC ( 2 ) = + 2 = + = +31.5 kNm L 102 27 Dr.

Caprani .Structural Analysis III The final FEMs are: FEM BC (1) = FEM BC (1) + FEM BC ( 2 ) = +73.5 = +105 kNm FEM CB ( 2 ) = FEM CB (1) + FEM CB ( 2 ) = −31.5 − 73.5 = −105 kNm which is symmetrical as expected from the beam. • Span CD: wL2 20 ⋅ 62 FEM CD = + =+ = +60 kNm 12 12 wL2 20 ⋅ 62 FEM DC = − =− = −60 kNm 12 12 4.5 + 31. Moment Distribution Table: 28 Dr. C.

5 -4. C.2 Note 7 D CB 1 -60 Step 1 Step 2 +14. Dist.625 -105 +60 +16.4 +8.4 -7.1 +1.2 +82.O.1 Step 3 -3. Caprani .2 +0.O.1 +11. Dist. C.9 +28.52 -150 +105 +21.4 Note 7 The moments at the ends of each span are thus (noting the signs give the direction): 29 Dr. C.1 C CB CD 0.375 0.7 Step 4 -49.8 +1.4 -2.4 +131.Structural Analysis III Joint Member DF FEM Dist.4 -82.6 +23.48 0.3 -2.2 +1.6 Note 6 0 -131.7 -4. Final A AB 0 B BA BC 0.1 -4.

Joint B Taking joint B first. We can balance this by releasing the lock and applying +45 kNm at joint B: 30 Dr. C.Structural Analysis III Explanation of Moment Distribution Process Step 1 For our problem. Step 2 . the joint is out of balance by −150 + 105 = −45 kNm . the first thing we did was lock all of the joints: We then established the bending moments corresponding to this locked case – these are just the fixed-end moments calculated previously: The steps or discontinuities in the bending moments at the joints need to be removed. Caprani .

Joint C Looking again at the beam when all joints are locked.Structural Analysis III The bending moments are got as: M BA = 0.4 kNm ) since it is locked but no carry-over to joint A since it is a pin. at joint C we have an out of balance moment of −105 + 60 = −45 kNm .4 kNm Also.52 × +45 = +23. We unlock this by applying a balancing moment of +45 kNm applied at joint C giving: M BA = 0. Caprani . there is a carry-over to joint C (of 1 2 × 23.375 × +45 = +28.1 kNm M BC = 0.9 kNm 31 Dr. C.625 × +45 = +16.48 × +45 = +21. Step 2 . At this point we again lock joint B in its new equilibrium position.4 = 11.6 kNm M BC = 0.

1 × 0. and must be balanced by releasing it and applying -8.5 = 14. C. 32 Dr.5 kNm to it: In which the figures are calculated in exactly the same way as before. Therefore joint B is now out of balance again.5 kNm to joint B. when we balanced joint C (and had all other joints locked) we got a carry over moment of +8.5 (note that we’re rounding to the first decimal place). Caprani .Structural Analysis III And carry-overs of 28.9 × 0. The diagram for these calculations is: Step 3 – Joint B Looking back at Step 2.1 and 16.5 = 8.

when we balanced joint B (and had all other joints locked) we got a carry over moment of +11.Structural Analysis III Step 3 – Joint C Again. C.7 kNm to joint C. Therefore joint C is out of balance again. and must be balanced by releasing it and applying -11.7 kNm to it: Step 4 – Joint B In Step 3 when we balanced joint C we found another carry-over of -2. looking back at Step 2. in Step 3 when we balanced joint B we found a carry-over of -2. Caprani .2 kNm to joint C and so it must be balanced again: 33 Dr.2 kNm to joint B and so it must be balanced again: Step 4 – Joint C Similarly.

Caprani . This final bending moment diagram is obtained by summing each column in the table vertically: 34 Dr. 2. 4. The values of the moments being carried-over are decreasing rapidly. The carry-overs of Step 4 are very small in comparison to the initial fixed-end moments and so we will ignore them and not allow joints B and C to go out of balance again. 3. We are converging on a final bending moment diagram which is obtained by adding all the of the bending moment diagrams from each step of the locking/unlocking process. C.Structural Analysis III Step 5 At this point notice that: 1.

Structural Analysis III Calculating the Final Solution The moment distribution process gives the following results: To this set of moments we add all of the other forces that act on each span: Note that at joints B and C we have separate shears for each span.4 − 100 ⋅ 4 + 8VA = 0 ∴VBL + 33.4 − 10VCL = 0 ∴VBR + 45. C.1 kN ↑ ∴VBR = 54.2 − 131.6 − 100 = 0 ∴VA = 33.4 kN ↑ If we consider a free body diagram from A to mid-span we get: M Max = 4 × 33.4 kNm Span BC: ∑ M about B = 0 ∑F = 0 y ∴ 50 ⋅ 3 + 50 ⋅ 7 + 82.6 = 134.6 kN ↑ ∴VBL = 66. Caprani . Span AB: ∑ M about B = 0 ∑F = 0 y ∴131.1 − 50 − 50 = 0 ∴VCL = 45.9 kN ↑ 35 Dr.

1 kNm Span CD: 62 ∑ M about C = 0 ∴ 20 ⋅ 2 + 49.27 m from C.4 × 3. we have: 20 ∑ M about X = 0 3.3 kN VC = VCL + VCR = 45.2 − 6VD = 0 ∴VCR + 54.4 = 3.5 kN 36 Dr. we have: M F = 54.1 + 65.4 kN ↑ The maximum moment occurs at 65.3 kNm M G = 45.4 = 110.9 ⋅ 3 − 131. C.2 + 20 ⋅ − 65.2 = 53. Caprani .1 ⋅ 3 − 82.6 − 82.27 = 0 2 ∴ M Max = 24.9 = 121. Therefore.Structural Analysis III Drawing free-body diagrams for the points under the loads.27 2 ∴ M Max + 82.7 kNm The total reactions at supports B and C are given by: VB = VBL + VBR = 66.6 − 20 × 6 = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 ∴VD = 54.4 = 33.6 kN ↑ ∴VCR = 65.4 + 54.

Caprani .Structural Analysis III Thus the solution to the problem is summarized as: 37 Dr. C.

We will analyse the following beam in two ways: • Initially locking all joints. including support A.Structural Analysis III 3.3 Example 3: Pinned End Example In this example. C. 1. Hence we calculate these for both cases. Caprani . For each case it is only the FEMs that are changed. We can also compare it to Example 1 and observe the difference in bending moments that a pinned-end can make. the stiffness and distribution factors are not affected. We will show that the solution is not affected by leaving pinned ends unlocked. Stiffnesses: • AB: • BC: 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3⎛ 1⎞ 3 ' k BA = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 4 ⎝ L ⎠ AB 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 16 k BC = 1 4 38 Dr. we consider pinned ends and show that we can use the fixed-end moments from either a propped cantilever or a fixed-fixed beam. • Initially locking joints except the pinned support at A.

Distribution Factors: • Joint B: ∑ k = 16 + 4 = 16 DFBA = DFBC k BA 3 16 3 ⎫ = = = 0. We do this by applying a balancing moment to cancel the fixed-end moment at the joint. C.43 ⎪ ∑ k 7 16 7 ⎪ ⎬ ∑ DFs = 1 k BC 4 16 4 = = = = 0. Caprani .Structural Analysis III 2. Note that we must release the fixity at joint A to allow it return to its original pinned configuration. 39 Dr.57 ⎪ ⎪ ∑ k 7 16 7 ⎭ 3 1 7 Span AB is Fixed-Fixed The fixed end moments are: PL +100 ⋅ 4 = = +50 kNm 8 8 PL −100 ⋅ 4 FEM BA = − = = −50 kNm 8 8 FEM AB = + The distribution table is now ready to be calculated.

43 × +75 = +32.43 0.Structural Analysis III Joint Member DF FEM Pinned End C.0 +32.7 Note 2 Note 3 +21.0 -50.0 B BA BC 0. C. This is necessary since we should end up with zero moment at A since it is a pinned support. Caprani .7 +42. Note 2: The -50 kNm balancing moment at A carries over to the far end of member AB using the carry over factor of + 1 . C.3 kNm M BC = DFBC ⋅ M Bal = 0.3 +42.57 -50.O.7 +21. Dist.7 kNm 40 Dr. Note that joint B remains locked while we do this – that is.4 Note 5 The +50 kNm at joint A is balanced by -50 kNm. This must be balanced by +75 kNm which is distributed as: M BA = DFBA ⋅ M Bal = 0.57 × +75 = +42.4 Note 4 0 -42.O.0 C CB 1 Note 1 -25. Final Note 1: A AB 0 +50. 2 Note 3: Joint B is now out of balance by the original -50 kNm as well as the carried-over -25 kNm moment from A making a total of -75 kNm. we do not balance joint B yet for clarity.

This should lead to a shorter table as a result. Note that in this case there is no fixedend moment at A and so it does not need to be balanced. Note 5: The moments for each joint are found by summing the values vertically. Caprani . We now consider the alternative method in which we leave joint A pinned throughout. Span AB is Pinned-Fixed In this case the fixed-end moments are: FEM BA = − 3PL −3 ⋅ 100 ⋅ 4 = = −75 kNm 16 16 The distribution table can now be calculated.Structural Analysis III Note 4: We have a carry over moment from B to C since C is a fixed end. C. 41 Dr. There is no carry over moment to A since A is a pinned support.

C.43 × +75 = +32. 42 Dr.57 -75. Note 3: The moments for each joint are found by summing the values vertically.4 Note 3 Joint B is out of balance by -75 kNm. There is no carry over moment to A since A is a pinned support. Caprani .0 +32.Structural Analysis III Joint Member DF FEM Dist.7 +21. This must be balanced by +75 kNm which is distributed as: M BA = DFBA ⋅ M Bal = 0.3 +42.57 × +75 = +42.3 kNm M BC = DFBC ⋅ M Bal = 0.O. Final Note 1: A AB 0 B BA BC 0. It usually depends on whether the fixed end moments are available for the loading type as to which method we use. Pinned ends can be considered as fixed-fixed which requires the pinned end to be balanced or as pinned-fixed which does not require the joint to be balanced.4 Note 2 0 -42.7 C CB 1 Note 1 +21. C. Conclusion Both approaches give the same final moments.43 0.7 +42.7 kNm Note 2: We have a carry over moment from B to C since C is a fixed end.

Structural Analysis III Final Solution Determine the bending moment diagram. shear force diagram. C. 43 Dr. reactions and draw the deflected shape for the beam as analysed. Caprani .

Since we know in advance the final moment at the end of the cantilever. such as the following beam: we know that the final moment at the end of the cantilever must support the load on the cantilever by statics. Any other value of moment violates equilibrium. Caprani . we do not distribute load or moments into a cantilever. we consider the cantilever moment as a fixed end moment applied to the joint and then balance the joint as normal.Structural Analysis III 3. Given any structure with a cantilever. C. Therefore a cantilever has a distribution factor of zero: DFCantilever = 0 Lastly. SO for the sample beam above we must end up with e a moment of PL at joint C after the full moment distribution analysis. 44 Dr.4 Example 4: Cantilever Example Explanation In this example we consider a beam that has a cantilever at one end.

C. • BD: End B of member BD does not have continuity since joint B is free to rotate – the cantilever offers no restraint to rotation. Hence we must use the modified stiffness for member BD: 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3⎛ 1 ⎞ 3 ' k BD = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 4 ⎝ L ⎠ BD 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 16 • DF: 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3⎛1⎞ 3 ' k DF = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 4 ⎝ L ⎠ DF 4 ⎝ 8 ⎠ 32 45 Dr. Caprani .Structural Analysis III Problem Beam Analyse the following prismatic beam using moment distribution: Solution We proceed as before: 1. Stiffnesses: • AB: k BA = 0 since the DF for a cantilever must end up as zero.

Distribution Factors: • Joint B: ∑ k = 0 + 16 = 16 DFBA = DFBD k BA 0 ⎫ = = 0⎪ ∑ k 3 16 ⎪ DFs = 1 ⎬∑ k BD 3 16 ⎪ = = =1 k 3 16 ⎪ ∑ ⎭ 3 3 Notice that this will always be the case for a cantilever: the DF for the cantilever itself will be zero and for the connecting span it will be 1. we consider each joint to be fixed against rotation and then examine each span in turn: 46 Dr. C. Fixed-End Moments: As is usual. Caprani .Structural Analysis III 2. • Joint D: ∑ k = 16 + 32 = 32 DFDB = DFDF k DB 6 32 2 ⎫ = = k 9 32 3 ⎪ ∑ ⎪ ⎬ ∑ DFs = 1 k 3 32 1 ⎪ = DF = = ∑ k 9 32 3 ⎪ ⎭ 3 3 9 3.

Caprani . C.Structural Analysis III • Cantilever span AB: FEM BA = − PL = −30 ⋅ 2 = −60 kNm • Span BD: FEM BD = + FEM DB PL +100 ⋅ 4 = = +50 kNm 8 8 PL −100 ⋅ 4 =− = = −50 kNm 8 8 • Span DF: FEM DF = + 3PL +3 ⋅ 60 ⋅ 8 = = +90 kNm 16 16 47 Dr.

67 × −40 = −26. Caprani .7 kNm M DF = DFDF ⋅ M Bal = 0. C.3 -1.0 +10. Dist. distributed as: M BA = DFBA ⋅ M Bal = 0 × +10 = 0 kNm M BD = DFBD ⋅ M Bal = 1 × +10 = +10 kNm Similarly.0 +50.3 kNm 48 Dr.33 0.7 F FD 1 0 Note 1 Note 2 Note 3 0 0 -60 +60 Note 4 -75 +75 Note 4 Note 1: Joint B is out of balance by ( −60 ) + ( +50 ) = −10 kNm which is balanced by +10 kNm.7 -13. distributed as: M DB = DFDB ⋅ M Bal = 0. Moment Distribution Table: Joint Member DF FEM Dist.O. C. Final A AB 0 0 B BA BD 0 1 -60.0 +90.Structural Analysis III 4.3 +5 -3. joint C is out of balance by ( −50 ) + ( +90 ) = +40 kNm which is balanced by -40 kNm.0 D DB DF 0.67 -50.0 -26.33 × −40 = −13.

Note 3: The +5 kNm is balanced as usual. that is. Note 4: The moments at each joint sum to zero. (noting the signs give the direction. 49 Dr. as: With these joint moments and statics. the final BMD. Caprani . SFD. Exercise Verify the following solution. the joints are balanced. C.Structural Analysis III Note 2: There is no carry-over from joint D to joint B since joint B is similar to a pinned support because of the cantilever: we know that the final moment there needs to be 60 kNm and so we don’t distribute or carry over further moments to it. reactions and deflected shape diagram can be drawn. The moment distribution table gives the moments at the ends of each span.

Caprani .Structural Analysis III Final Solution 50 Dr. C.

C. if support B settles by 12 mm. we initially consider joint B locked against rotation. However. Take E = 200 kN/mm 2 and I = 200 × 106 mm 4 . determine the load effects that result. Caprani . Solution As with all moment distribution.5 Example 5: Support Settlement Problem For the following beam. we have: 1. we allow the support settlement to occur: Following the normal steps.Structural Analysis III 3. in this case. Stiffnesses: • AB: • BC: 1 ⎛ EI ⎞ k BA = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ L ⎠ AB 6 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3⎛ 4 3⎞ 1 ' k BC = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟= 4 ⎝ L ⎠ BC 4 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 4 51 Dr.

Fixed-End Moments: • Span AB: FEM AB = FEM BA = = 6 EI ∆ L2 6 ( 200 ) ( 200 × 106 )(12 × 10−3 ) ( 6 × 10 ) 3 2 = +80 kNm Note that the units are kept in terms of kN and m. Caprani . Distribution Factors: • Joint B: ∑ k = 6 + 4 = 24 DFBA = DFBC k BA 4 24 2 ⎫ = = ∑ k 10 24 5 ⎪ DFs = 1 ⎪ ⎬∑ k 6 24 3 ⎪ = BC = = k 10 24 5 ⎪ ∑ ⎭ 1 1 10 3.Structural Analysis III 2. C. 52 Dr.

0 +96. (noting the signs give the direction.0 +24. C.4 0. Final A AB 1 +80.O.0 B BA BC 0.0 0 0 The moment distribution table gives the moments at the ends of each span.6 +80. Caprani .0 +88. Moment Distribution Table: Joint Member DF FEM Dist. as: 53 Dr.0 C CB 0 +8. 3 4. C.Structural Analysis III • Span BC: FEM AB = − 3EI ∆ L2 4 3 ⋅ ( 200 ) ( 200 × 106 )(12 × 10−3 ) =− 3 2 ( 4 × 103 ) = −120 kNm Note that the 4 EI stiffness of member BC is important here.0 -120.0 -96.0 +16.

54 Dr.7 kN ↑ Span BC: ∑ M about B = 0 ∑F = 0 y ∴ 96 − 4VC = 0 ∴VBC + VC = 0 ∴VC = 24. ↓ VB = VBA + V BC = 30. Note the following: • unusually we have tension on the underside of the beam at the support location that has settled.e. ↓ ∴VA = +30.e.Structural Analysis III Span AB: ∑ M about A = 0 ∑F = 0 y ∴ 88 + 96 + 6VBA = 0 ∴VBA + VA = 0 ∴VBA = −30. Caprani . • the small differential settlement of 12 mm has caused significant load effects in the structure.7 kN support ‘reaction’.0 kN ↑ ∴VBC = −24.0 kN i.7 kN i. • the force required to cause the 12 mm settlement is the 54. C.7 + 24 = 54.7 kN ↓ Hence the final solution is as follows.

C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III Final Solution 55 Dr.

3 (kNm) 2.0 (kNm) 4.4 C: 54.8 C: 0 (kNm) 3.6 B: 58.Structural Analysis III 3. Caprani .9 B: 32. Consider them prismatic unless EI values are given.0 B: 50.6 Problems Using moment distribution.3 B: 41. The solutions are given with tension on top as positive. 1. A: 20. determine the bending moment diagram. reactions and deflected shape diagram for the following beams. A: 15. shear force diagram. A: 72.0 C: 0 (kNm) 56 Dr. C. A:24.

C. Caprani .7 D: 0 (kNm) 8. A: 28.9 D: 10. analyse the following beam: A: 0 B: 50.8 B: 74.0 C: 22.9 D: 54. A: 22. A: 0 B: 66.0 (kNm) 9.5 (kNm) 57 Dr.3 B: 3.3 C: 100.2 (kNm) 7. Using any relevant results from Q6.4 C: 86.6 C: 33.Structural Analysis III 5.5 C: 58. A: 0 B: 43.1 6.

7 C: 248.2 C: 118.0 C: -39.8 C: 62. A: -2. A: 0 B: 31. 58 Dr.5 D: 0 (kNm) 12.0 C: 70.Structural Analysis III 10.3 D: 0 (kNm) 14. Use EI = 40 MNm .0 B: 70. A: 85.1 (kNm) Support C also settles by 15 mm. Caprani . A: 0 B: 69.0 D: 0 (kNm) 13.5 B: 5.6 D: 226.6 D: 0 (kNm) 11. C. A: 0 B: 240.

but a two-stage analysis is required to account for the additional moments caused by the sway of the frame. • Unbraced or sway frame: Moment distribution applies. The different types of frame are briefly described.1 Introduction Moment distribution applies just as readily to frames as it does to beams. The application of moment distribution to frames depends on the type of frame: • Braced or non-sway frame: Moment distribution applies readily. In fact its main reason for development was for the analysis of frames. 59 Dr. C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III 4. with no need for additional steps. Non-Sway Frames 4.

Caprani . Any frame that has lateral load resisted by other structure is considered braced.Structural Analysis III Braced or Non-Sway Frame This is the most typical form of frame found in practice since sway can cause large moments in structures. Some examples are: Typical RC Braced Frame Typical Steel Braced Frame 60 Dr. C.

C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III In our more usual structural model diagrams: 61 Dr.

C. Caprani . The lateral movements that result induce additional moments into the frame. For example: 62 Dr.Structural Analysis III Unbraced or Sway Frame When a framed structure is not restrained against lateral movement by another structure. it is a sway frame.

C. Stiffnesses: • AB: • BC: 1 ⎛ EI ⎞ k BA = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ L ⎠ AB 4 1 ⎛ EI ⎞ k BD = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ L ⎠ BD 4 2.2 Example 6: Simple Frame Problem Analyse the following prismatic frame for the bending moment diagram: Solution We proceed as usual: 1.Structural Analysis III 4. Distribution Factors: • Joint B: ∑k = 4 + 4 = 4 1 1 2 63 Dr. Caprani .

5⎪ ⎪ ∑k 2 4 ⎭ DFBA = DFBD 3. Moment Distribution Table: Joint Member DF FEM Dist.Structural Analysis III k BA 1 4 ⎫ = = 0.5 64 Dr.0 -25.O. Final A AB 0 0 B BA BD 0.5 -25 +25 -12. Caprani .0 D DB 1 -50. C.5 -62.0 -25.0 -12. C. Fixed-End Moments: • Span BD: FEM BD = + FEM DB PL +100 ⋅ 4 = = +50 kNm 8 8 PL −100 ⋅ 4 =− = = −50 kNm 8 8 4.5 ⎪ ∑k 2 4 ⎪ ⎬ ∑ DFs = 1 k 14 = BD = = 0.5 0.5 0 +50.5 -12.

So for the present frame. 65 Dr. • assuming directions for the forces. as we will see.Structural Analysis III Interpreting the table gives the following moments at the member ends: 5. Calculate End Shears and Forces When dealing with frames we are particularly careful with: • drawing the diagrams with all possible forces acting on the member. • interpreting the signs of the answers as to the actual direction of the forces/moments. as distinct from beams. Remember that in frames. C. we have the possibility of axial forces acting. We cannot ignore these. we split up the members and draw all possible end forces/moments on each member. Caprani .

1 kN ← ∑F ∑F x =0 ∴ H A = +13.5 − 100 ⋅ 2 + 4VD = 0 ∴VD + VBD − 100 = 0 ∴ H D − FBD = 0 ∴VD = +59.6 kN ↑ ∴ H D = FBD =0 =0 x Notice again we cannot solve for the axial force yet. Member BD: ∑ M about B = 0 ∑F ∑F y ∴ 25 − 62.4 kN ↑ ∴VBD = +40. C.Structural Analysis III Member AB: ∑ M about A = 0 ∴ 4VBA − 12.1 kN → ∴ H A − VBA = 0 =0 y ∴VA − FBA = 0 ∴VA = FBA Notice that we cannot yet solve for the axial force in the member. Caprani . It will require consideration of joint B itself.5 − 25 = 0 ∴VBA = +13. 66 Dr.

Caprani . since there are many forces and moments acting.6 kN The positive sign indicates it acts in the direction shown upon the member and the joint.5 − 59.Structural Analysis III To find the moment at C in member BD we draw a free-body diagram: ∑ M about B = 0 ∴ M C + 62.6 − FBA = 0 ∴ FBA = +40. 67 Dr. C. we will consider each direction/sense in turn: • Vertical equilibrium of joint B: The 40. we will consider the equilibrium of joint B itself. ∑F y =0 ∴ 40.4 ⋅ 2 = 0 ∴ M C = +56.3 kNm To help find the axial forces in the members. However.6 kN is the shear on member BD.

we will consider the moment equilibrium of the joint for completeness. Assembling all of these calculations.1 − FBD = 0 ∴ FBD = +13. we can draw the final solution for this problem. Lastly. C. Caprani . 68 Dr.Structural Analysis III • Horizontal equilibrium of joint B: ∑F x =0 ∴13. • Moment equilibrium of joint B: As can be seen clearly the joint is in moment equilibrium.1 kN The positive sign indicates it acts in the direction shown upon the member and the joint.

Structural Analysis III Final Solution In the axial force diagram we have used the standard truss sign convention: 69 Dr. C. Caprani .

Caprani 1 1 1 3 . Distribution Factors: • Joint B: ∑k = 4 + 4 + 4 = 4 70 Dr.Structural Analysis III 4. C.3 Example 7: Frame with Pinned Support Problem Analyse the following frame: Solution 1. Stiffnesses: • AB: • BC: • BD: 1 ⎛ EI ⎞ k BA = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ L ⎠ AB 4 1 ⎛ EI ⎞ k BD = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ L ⎠ BD 4 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3 43 1 ' k BD = ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ = 4 ⎝ L ⎠ BD 4 4 4 2.

O.33⎬ ∑ DFs = 1 ∑k 3 4 ⎪ ⎪ k 14 = BD = = 0.3 +13.7 B BD 0.7 +46.3 +6.Structural Analysis III ⎫ k BA 1 4 = = 0.33 ⎪ ∑k 3 4 ⎪ ⎪ k BC 1 4 ⎪ = = = 0.3 +6.3 +6. Final A AB 0 +40. Caprani .7 0 71 Dr.0 +13.33 C CB 1 D DB 0 +13.7 -26.3 +13.0 BA 0.33 BC 0. Moment Distribution Table: Joint Member DF FEM Dist. C. C.33⎪ ⎪ ∑k 3 4 ⎭ DFBA = DFBC DFBD 3. Fixed-End Moments: • Span AB: PL +80 ⋅ 4 = = +40 kNm 8 8 PL −80 ⋅ 4 FEM BA = − = = −40 kNm 8 8 FEM AB = + 4.33 -40.7 +13.

Structural Analysis III The results of the moment distribution are summed up in the following diagram. Caprani . C. 72 Dr. we can calculate the forces and shears one ach member. in which the signs of the moments give us their directions: Using the above diagram and filling in the known and unknown forces acting on each member.

0 kN → ∑F x =0 ∴ H C − H BC = 0 ∴ H BC = +5.3 = 0 ∴ H C = +5.0 kN ↑ Span BC: ∑ M about B = 0 ∴ 4 H C − 6.Structural Analysis III 5.3 kN ← ∑F x =0 ∴ H D − H BD = 0 ∴ H BD = +3.0 kN ↑ ∑F y =0 ∴VB + VA − 80 = 0 ∴VA = +45.3 kN → 73 Dr.7 + 80 ⋅ 2 + 26. Calculate End Shears and Forces Span AB: ∑ M about A = 0 ∴−46.3 = 0 ∴ H D = +3. Caprani .7 − 4VB = 0 ∴VB = +35. C.7 − 13.0 kN ← Span BD: ∑ M about B = 0 ∴ 4 H D − 13.

consider first the vertical equilibrium of joint B: • As can be seen.7 kN force. joint B must be vertically supported by the other members. • In turn. Next consider the horizontal equilibrium of joint B: • The two ends shears of 5 kN (member BC) and 3. C. in turn act upon the joint. • This 1.7 kN acting on the joint as shown. resulting in the horizontal reaction at joint A of 1. all of the 35 kN is taken in compression by member BD as shown. in turn. the upwards end shear of 35 kN in member AB acts downwards upon joint B. acts upon member AB as shown. Caprani .7 kN. 74 Dr. there must be an extra force of 1. • Since all loads must go to ground.Structural Analysis III To help find the axial forces in the members.3 kN (member BD). • Since joint B must be in horizontal equilibrium.

3 ≈ 0 (allowing for the rounding that has occurred). • Looking at the joint itself it is clearly in equilibrium since: 26.7 − 13. the member end moments act upon the joint in the opposite direction. 75 Dr. we consider the moment equilibrium of joint B: • As can be seen. C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III Lastly. for completeness.3 − 13.

C. SFD. reactions and DSD can be drawn: 76 Dr. Caprani .Structural Analysis III Final Solution At this point the final BMD.

Stiffnesses: • AB: • BC: • BD: • BE: 1 ⎛ EI ⎞ k BA = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ L ⎠ AB 8 Member BC has no stiffness since it is a cantilever.4 Example 8: Frame with Cantilever Problem Analyse the following prismatic frame for all load effects: Solution 1. C. Caprani . 1 ⎛ EI ⎞ k BD = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ L ⎠ BD 8 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3 1 1 ' k BD = ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ = 4 ⎝ L ⎠ BD 4 6 8 77 Dr.Structural Analysis III 4.

33⎬ ∑ DFs = 1 DFBD = BD = ∑k 3 8 ⎪ ⎪ k BE 1 8 = = 0. C.0 -50.0 -100. Final A AB 0 BA 0.33 ⎪ DFBE = ⎪ ∑k 3 8 ⎭ 3.33 BC 0 +300.0 +300.33 BD 0.33 ⎪ ∑k 3 8 ⎪ ⎪ k 18 ⎪ = 0.O.0 -100.0 78 Dr. Caprani .0 -50. Distribution Factors: • Joint B: ∑k = 8 + 8 + 8 = 8 DFBA = 1 1 1 3 ⎫ k BA 1 8 = = 0.0 -100.0 -50. C.0 B BE 0.0 -100.Structural Analysis III 2.0 -50. Moment Distribution Table: Joint Member DF FEM Dist.0 -100. Fixed-End Moments: • Span BC: FEM BC = + PL = +300 ⋅ 1 = +300 kNm 4.33 D DB 0 -100.

Caprani . the results of the moment distribution are summed up in the following diagram: Looking at joint B. we see that it is in moment equilibrium as expected: 79 Dr.Structural Analysis III Using the signs. C.

Caprani .0 kNm VC = 0 kN VD = 318.75 kN ← 80 Dr. C.75 kN H D = 16.7 kN ← H A = 2.Structural Analysis III Final Solution Exercise: Using a similar approach to the previous examples. find the reactions and shear force diagram.0 kNm VA = 18.: M A = −50.75 kN ↓ M C = −50.05 kN → H C = 18. Ans.

VA = 137 kN ↓ H A = 13 kN ← M C = 48 kNm VC = 0 kN H C = 48 kN → VD = 337 kN ↑ H D = 35 kN ← M BA = 52 kNm M BC = 96 kNm M BD = 148 kNm 2. reactions and deflected shape diagram for the following non-sway frames. VA = 200. determine the bending moment diagram.Structural Analysis III 4.3 kNm VC = 47. 1.5 Problems Using moment distribution. The reactions and pertinent results of the moment distribution are given.5 kN ↑ H C = 216. shear force diagram. Consider them prismatic unless EI values are given.3 kNm M C = −23.3 kNm 81 Dr.7 kN ← M B = 73. C.5 kN ↑ H A = 120.7 kN ← M A = 113. Caprani .

9 kNm The following problems are relevant to previous exam questions.6 kN ↑ H E = 1.1 kNm M CD = 55.8 kN ← VE = 110. C.Structural Analysis III 3.0 kNm 82 Dr.6 kN ↑ H D = 6.3 kNm M CB = 64. the year of which is given. Caprani . VA = 34. We shall see why this is so when we study sway frames.5 kN ← M B = 33. The solutions to these problems are required as the first step in the solutions to the exam questions. Summer 1998 VA = 50.0 kN ← M D = 0 kNm VD = 30.6 kNm M D = −33.6 kNm VD = 54.0 kN ↑ H A = 20.0 kN ↑ H D = 0 kN M B = 120.3 kN → M A = −16. 4.2 kNm M CE = 8.0 kN → H C = 20.9 kN ↑ H A = 8.

9 kN ← H C = 226.7 kN ← VD = 30.1 kN ← M B = 55 kNm 83 Dr.33 kN ↑ H A = 6.9 kN ← VC = 61. C.Structural Analysis III 5.7 kNm M CB = 93.0 kN ↓ H A = 8. Summer 2001 M A = +2.6 kN → M B = 26. Caprani .5 kNm VA = 98.7 kN ↑ H C = 33.3 kNm M CD = 106.0 kN ↑ H D = 35.7 kNm 6. Summer 2000 VA = 30.

3 kN ↑ H A = 6.0 kN → VE = 18.7 kN ↓ H A = 58.0 kN ← VD = 66.0 kN ↑ H F = 18.0 kNm M CB = 52.0 kN → M C = +16.0 kNm M BD = 32.Structural Analysis III 7.0 kNm M CF = 48.0 kNm 8. Summer 2005 VA = 2.3 kN ↓ M F = −24. Summer 2006 VA = 40.0 kNm M BD = 56. Caprani .0 kN ↑ H D = 10. C.0 kNm VC = 0 kN H C = 16.0 kN → M BA = 24.0 kNm VF = 121.0 kNm 84 Dr.0 kN ← M BC = 32.

Caprani . Sway Frames 5. for example: So if we consider any sway frame. we can expect to have the above two sources of moments in the frame. C.1 Basis of Solution Overall Previously. we identified that there are two sources of moments: • Those due to the loads on the members. 85 Dr.Structural Analysis III 5. in the description of sway and non-sway frames. such as the following. for example: • Those due solely to sway.

covered previously. The propping force. is calculated – Stage I analysis. 2. 3. 4. The goal of the Stage I analysis is to determine the Stage I BMD and the propping force (or reaction). C. The final solution is the superposition of the Stage I and Stage II analyses.Structural Analysis III This leads to the use of the Principle of Superposition to solve sway frames: 1. The sway frame is propped to prevent sway. 86 Dr. P . The propping force alone is applied to the frame in the opposite direction to calculate the sway moments – the Stage II analysis. These steps are illustrated for the above frame as: The Stage I analysis is simply that of a non-sway frame. Caprani .

we see that the prop force. we proceed as follows: * 1. From this analysis. using moment distribution we find the * moments corresponding to that sway (called the arbitrary moments. ∆ ). P* . However. ∆ .Structural Analysis III Stage II Analysis The Stage II analysis proceeds a little differently to usual moment distribution. ∆ . (called the arbitrary sway. that would cause the arbitrary sway assumed. So to solve. we cannot find the FEMs. C. calculate the FEMs this sway causes (the arbitrary FEMs). that occurs. M II ). 2. we solve to find the value of the propping force. as follows. we also know that the moments from the lateral movement of joints depends on the amount of movement (or sway): FEM AB = FEM BA = 6 EI ∆ L2 FEM BA = 3EI ∆ L2 Since we don’t know the amount of sway. This is the Stage II analysis. We assume a sway. If we examine again Stage II of the sample frame. Caprani . Then. 87 Dr. P . causes an unknown amount of sway.

C. M II .Structural Analysis III * 3. Caprani . by just scaling (which is a use of the Principle of Superposition): P M II = * P* M II Introducing the sway factor. P . α . causes. M II . we can find the moments that our known prop force. which is given by the ratio: α= P P* We then have for the actual moments and sway respectively: * M II = α M II ∆ = α∆ * Diagrammatically the first two steps are: 88 Dr. Since this force P* is linearly related to its moments.

such as 100 kNm. we really choose handy ‘round’ FEMs instead. and supposing that the columns are 4 m high. we are really just choosing an arbitrary sway.67 ∆* = EI We will need to come back to arbitrary moments later in more detail after the preceding ideas have been explained by example. the arbitrary sway associated with the 100 kNm arbitrary moment is: 100 = 6 EI * ⋅∆ 42 266. ∆* . i. Caprani . In our example.e. C.: FEM AB = FEM BA = FEM CD = FEM DC = 100 kNm And this is much easier to do. 89 Dr.Structural Analysis III Arbitrary Sway and Arbitrary Moments Lastly. when we choose an arbitrary sway. But do remember that in choosing an arbitrary moment. gives: FEM AB = FEM BA = FEM CD = FEM DC 6 EI 100 ⋅ 42 EI = 37. So instead we usually just choose arbitrary moments. For example. taking ∆* = 100 EI for the above frame.5 kNm = This number is not so ‘round’.

Structural Analysis III 5.2 Example 9: Simple Sway Frame Problem Analyse the following prismatic frame for all load effects: Solution Firstly we recognize that this is a sway frame and that a two-stage analysis is thus required. We choose to prop the frame at C to prevent sway. Caprani . C. and use the following two-stage analysis: 90 Dr.

5 ⎪ ∑k 2 8 ⎪ ⎬ ∑ DFs = 1 k BD 1 8 = = = 0. Caprani . C. Fixed-End Moments: • Span AB: FEM BA = − PL 40 ⋅ 8 =− = −40 kNm 8 8 FEM AB = + PL = +40 kNm 8 91 Dr.Structural Analysis III Stage I Analysis We proceed as usual for a non-sway frame: 1.5⎪ ⎪ k 28 ∑ ⎭ 3. Stiffnesses: • AB: • BC: 1 ⎛ EI ⎞ k BA = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ L ⎠ AB 8 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3 1 1 ' k BC = ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ = 4 ⎝ L ⎠ BC 4 6 8 2. Distribution Factors: • Joint B: ∑k = 8 + 8 = 8 DFBA = DFBC 1 1 2 k BA 1 8 ⎫ = = 0.

5 -40 +20 +20 -20 +20 C CB 0 5. Caprani .Structural Analysis III 4. Calculate End Shears and Forces Span AB: ∑ M about A = 0 ∴ 4VBA + 50 − 20 − 40 ⋅ 4 = 0 ∴VBA = +16. Final A AB 1 +40 +10 +50 B BA BC 0.33 kN ↓ ∑F y =0 ∴VBC − VC = 0 ∴VBC = +3. C.5 0.25 kN ← ∑F x =0 ∴ H A + VBA − 40 = 0 ∴ H A = +23.O.33 kN ↑ 92 Dr. C. Moment Distribution Table: Joint Member DF FEM Dist.75 kN ← Span BC: ∑ M about B = 0 ∴ 20 − 6VC = 0 ∴VC = +3.

C. Draw BMD and reactions at a minimum for Stage I.Structural Analysis III 6. Here we give everything for completeness: 93 Dr. Caprani .

and associated arbitrary FEMs: So we are using a value of 100 kNm as our arbitrary FEMs – note that we could have chosen any handy number. Next we carry out a moment distribution of these arbitrary FEMs: 94 Dr. ∆* . we are trying to analyse for the following loading: But since we can’t figure out what the sway. showing the joints locked against rotation. C. P . ∆ .Structural Analysis III Stage II Analysis In this stage. Caprani . we must use an arbitrary sway. is. caused by the actual prop force.

C.Structural Analysis III Joint Member DF FEM Dist. C.33 kN ↑ ∑F y =0 ∴VBC − VC = 0 ∴VBC = +8.33 kN ↓ 95 Dr.5 0. Final A AB 1 +100 -25 +75 B BA BC 0.625 kN ← Span BC: ∑ M about B = 0 ∴ 50 − 6VC = 0 ∴VC = +8.5 +100 -50 -50 +50 -50 C CB 0 And we analyse for the reactions: Span AB: ∑ M about A = 0 ∴ 8VBA − 50 − 75 = 0 ∴VBA = +15.O.625 kN → ∑F x =0 ∴ H A + VBA = 0 ∴ H A = +15. Caprani .

Caprani .625 kN causes the arbitrary moments in the BMD above.25 kN would cause. However.04 P* 15. α : α= P 16. and so we scale by the sway factor.Structural Analysis III The arbitrary solution is thus: We can see that a force of 15. we are interested in the moments that a force of 16.625 96 Dr. C.25 = = 1.

as usual: 97 Dr. Final Superposition To find the total BMD we add the Stage I and Stage II BMDs: And from the BMD we can calculate the reactions etc. Caprani .25 kN causes are thus: And this is the final Stage II BMD.Structural Analysis III And so the moments that a force of 16. C.

33 kN ↓ As an aside. we have: ∆ = 1.67 1109.3 = EI EI 98 Dr. C.33 kN ↑ ∑F y =0 ∴VBC − VC = 0 ∴VBC = +5.67 ∆* = EI And since ∆ = α∆* . it is useful to note that we can calculate the sway also: 100 = 6 EI * ⋅∆ 82 1066.Structural Analysis III Span AB: ∑ M about A = 0 ∴ 8VBA + 32 + 128 − 40 ⋅ 4 = 0 ∴VBA = 0 as is expected ∑F x =0 ∴ H A + VBA − 40 = 0 ∴ H A = +40 kN ← Span BC: ∑ M about B = 0 ∴ 32 − 6VC = 0 ∴VC = +5.04 × 1066. Caprani .

Structural Analysis III
Final Solution

99

Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

5.3

Arbitrary Sway of Rectangular Frames

Introduction

For simple rectangular frames, such as the previous example, the arbitrary FEMs were straightforward. For example, consider the following structures in which it is simple to determine the arbitrary FEMs:

Structure 1

Structure 2

So for Structure 1, we have:

FEM BD = FEM DB =

6 EI * ∆ = 100 kNm say L2

And for Structure 2:

FEM BA = FEM AB =

6 EI * 6 EI ∆ and FEM CD = FEM DC = 2 ∆* = 100 kNm say. L2 L

However, we might have members differing in length, stiffness and/or support-types and we consider these next. 100 Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III
Differing Support Types

Consider the following frame:

In this case we have:

FEM AB = FEM BA = FEM CD = 3EI * ∆ L2

6 EI * ∆ L2

Since the sway is the same for both sets of FEMs, the arbitrary FEMs must be in the same ratio, that is:

FEM AB 6 EI * ∆ L2 6 100 kNm

: :

FEM BA

: : : :

FEM CD 3EI * ∆ L2 3 50 kNm

6 EI * ∆ L2 : 6 : 100 kNm

In which we have cancelled the common lengths, sways and flexural rigidities. Once the arbitrary FEMs are in the correct ratio, the same amount of sway, ∆* , has 100 L2 . occurred in all members. The above is just the same as choosing ∆ = 6 EI
*

101

Dr. C. Caprani

Caprani . we have. for the following frame.Structural Analysis III Different Member Lengths In this scenario.: FEM AB = FEM BA = FEM CD = 3EI * ∆ h2 6 EI * 2 ∆ ( 2h ) Hence the FEMs must be in the ratio: FEM AB 6 EI * 2 ∆ ( 2h ) 6 4 6 1 50 kNm : : : : : : FEM BA 6 EI * 2 ∆ ( 2h ) 6 4 6 1 50 kNm : : : : : : FEM CD 3EI * ∆ h2 3 12 2 100 kNm 200h 2 Which could have been achieved by taking ∆ = . 6 EI * 102 Dr. C.

And this results is just the same as choosing ∆ = 6 EI * 103 Dr.Structural Analysis III Different Member Stiffnesses For the following frame. C. Caprani . we have: ⎛ 3EI ⎞ FEM BA = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ∆* ⎝ L ⎠ AB ⎛ 3EI ⎞ FEM CD = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ∆* ⎝ L ⎠CD Hence the FEMs must be in the ratio: 3 ( 2 EI ) * ∆ : L2 6 : 2 : 100 kNm : FEM BA : FEM CD 3EI * ∆ L2 3 1 50 kNm 100 L2 .

Caprani . 104 Dr. C. 2.Structural Analysis III Class Problems Determine an appropriate set of arbitrary moments for the following frames: 1. 3.

C. which gives the following two-stage analysis: 105 Dr.Structural Analysis III 5. Caprani . Place a prop at D to prevent sway.4 Example 10: Rectangular Sway Frame Problem Analyse the following prismatic frame for all load effects: Solution We recognize that this is a sway frame and that a two-stage analysis is thus required.

26 34 48 DFBD = 16 48 = 0. Caprani . Distribution Factors: • Joint B: ∑ k = 16 + 3 + 16 = 48 DFBA = 9 48 = 0. Fixed-End Moments: • Span DE: FEM DE = 200 ⋅ 2 = +400 kNm 106 Dr. Stiffnesses: • AB: • BC: • BD: 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3 1 3 ' k AB = ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ = 4 ⎝ L ⎠ AB 4 4 16 k BC = ' k BD = 1 3 3 1 3 ⋅ = 4 4 16 2.Structural Analysis III Stage I Analysis The Stage I analysis is Problem 1 of Section 4. 3. 1.5 and so the solution is only outlined.48 34 48 3 1 3 34 Notice that the DFs are rounded to ensure that ∑ DFs = 1 . C.26 34 48 DFBC = 9 48 = 0.

Final A AB BA 0.O. End Shears and Forces: 107 Dr.26 B BD 0.48 C CB D DB DE 1 0 +400 -400 E ED -200 +52 0 +52 +52 -148 +96 +48 +96 +48 -400 +400 5. C. Dist.O. C. Moment Distribution Table: Joint Member DF FEM Dist.Structural Analysis III 4. C. Caprani .26 BC 0.

whilst keeping the joints locked against rotation: 108 Dr.Structural Analysis III Horizontal equilibrium of Joint B is: Hence the prop force. C. which is the horizontal reaction at D. is 35 kN ← . Stage II Analysis We allow the frame to sway. Caprani .

8 -79.4 The associated member end forces and shears are: 109 Dr.9 +33.9 -62.48 -96 C CB -96 +16. P* : Joint Member DF FEM Dist. C.Structural Analysis III The associated arbitrary FEMs are in the ratio: FEM CB − : FEM BC − : FEM BA 3EI * ∆ 42 3 + 16 +27 kNm + 6 EI * ∆ : 32 6 : − 9 −96 kNm : 6 EI * ∆ : 32 6 : − 9 −96 kNm : The arbitrary sway associated with these FEMs is: 6 EI * ∆ = 96 32 144 ∆* = EI And so with these FEMs we analyse for the arbitrary sway force.26 BC 0. Final A AB BA 0.6 D DB DE 1 0 E ED +17.2 0 +44.9 +17. Caprani .O.9 +17. C.26 +27 B BD 0.

4 -47.5 +96 +58.8 +52 +78. Caprani .3 BC -62.5 C CB -79.8 -37.9 +26.597 P* 58. C.9 +10.7 -148 -137.4 +48 +0.6 D DB DE E ED Stage II ( M II ) Stage I ( M I ) Final ( M ) -400 +400 -400 +400 110 Dr.6 kN .8 B BD +17.Structural Analysis III From which we see that P* = 58. Hence: α= P 35 = = 0. we can use a table: Joint Member * Stage II* ( M II ) A AB 0 0 0 0 BA +44.6 To find the final moments.

Structural Analysis III * Note that in this table. the moments for Stage II are M II = α M II and the final moments are M = M I + M II . Caprani . The Stage II BMD is: Thus the final member end forces and shears are: 111 Dr. C.

Caprani .Structural Analysis III From which we find the reactions and draw the BMD and deflected shape: 112 Dr. C.

VA = 37.1 kNm M C = 31.3 kNm M BA = 149.6 kN → M D = 19.3 kNm VA = 121. Caprani .4 kN ↓ M D = +50.6 kN ↑ H D = 8.Structural Analysis III 5. C.4 kN ↑ M BD = 50. M A = −14.6 kN ← M B = 37.5 kNm 113 Dr.3 kNm H D = 0 kN VD = 137.9 kNm VD = 38.7 kNm M BC = 200 kNm 2.5 Problems I 1.4 kN ↑ H A = 8.

Summer 1998 VA = 47.5 kN ↑ H D = 15 kN ← M B = 90. Summer 2000 VA = 200 kN ↓ H A = 122 kN ← VD = 200 kN ↑ H D = 78 kN → M B = 366 kNm M CB = 433 kNm M CD = 233 kNm 114 Dr.5 kN ↑ H A = 15 kN → M D = +90 kNm VD = 32.Structural Analysis III 3. Caprani . C.0 kNm 4.

Summer 2001 M A = +82 kNm VA = 81 kN ↑ H A = 40 kN ← VC = 79 kN ↑ M B = 2 kNm 6. Summer 2005 VA = 5.1 kN ↑ VE = 56 kN ↓ M F = +118 kNm VF = 150 kN ↑ H F = 40 kN ← M BA = 15.4 kNm M BC = 55. C.4 kNm M CB = 142.Structural Analysis III 5.4 kNm 115 Dr. Caprani .4 kNm M CF = 42.

2 kNm VC = 0 kN H C = 8. C.3 kNm M BC = 21.2 kNm M BD = 53. Summer 2006 VA = 93. Caprani .1 kN ← VD = 66.1 kN → M C = −3.0 kNm 116 Dr.7 kN ↑ M BA = 32.Structural Analysis III 7.3 kN ↑ H A = 8.

Structural Analysis III

5.6

Arbitrary Sway of Oblique Frames Using Geometry

Description

The sway of these types of members is more complicated. In sketching the deflected shape of the frame, we must remember the following: 1. We ignore axial shortening of members; 2. Members only deflect perpendicular to their longitudinal axis.

Based on these small-displacement assumptions, a sample sway frame in which the joints are locked against rotation, but allowed to sway is:

Notice that since member BC does not change length, both joints B and C move laterally an equal amount ∆* . Also, since joint B must deflect normal to member AB it must move downwards as shown. Notice that the vertical component of sway at joint B, ∆* , causes sway moments to occur in the beam member BC. Looking more BC closely at the displacements at joint B, we have the following diagram: 117 Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

And from the joint displacements it is apparent that the lateral sway of B, ∆* , is related to the vertical sway, ∆* , and the sway normal to member AB, ∆* , through BC BA the right-angled triangle shown. This triangle can be related slope of member AB using similar triangles:

L ∆* L = BA ⇒ ∆* = ∆* BA * y ∆ y

x ∆* x = BC ⇒ ∆* = ∆ * BC * y ∆ y

Using these relationships, the fixed end moments are then:

118

Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

And so, considering this frame as prismatic and considering only independent FEMs for brevity (for example, FEM CB = FEM BC and so we just keep FEM BC ), we have:

FEM BA

:

FEM BC

:

FEM CD

⎛ 3EI ∆* ⎞ ⎛ 6 EI ∆* ⎞ ⎛ 6 EI ∆* ⎞ : ⎜ ⎜ L2 ⎟ ⎟ : ⎜ L2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ AB ⎝ L ⎠ BC ⎝ ⎠CD ∆* ∆* ∆* BA BC : : L2AB L2AB L2 CD

Using the relationships between the various displacements previously established (for example, ∆* = ( LAB y ) ⋅ ∆* ) gives: BA LAB ∆* ⋅ y L2AB 1 LAB y x ∆* ⋅ y L2BC x L y
2 BC

: :

: :

∆* L2AB 1 L2AB

Thus correct ratios between the arbitrary FEMs are established.

119

Dr. C. Caprani

we draw the sway configuration. Caprani .Structural Analysis III Numerical Example For the following frame. C. determine a set of arbitrary FEMs: Firstly. keeping all joints locked against rotation: 120 Dr.

C. Caprani . the FEMs for members AB and BC are directly related to the arbitrary sway. For members DB and DE we need to consider joint D carefully: Linking the displacement triangle to the geometry of member DE we have the similar triangles: Hence: ∆* 4 2 DE = ⇒ ∆* = ∆* 2 DE * ∆ 4 ∆* 4 DB = ⇒ ∆* = 1 ⋅ ∆* DB * ∆ 4 121 Dr. ∆* .Structural Analysis III Evidently.

4 kNm 122 Dr.Structural Analysis III Considering the FEMs as they relate to the sway configuration. C. Caprani . we have: FEM BA : FEM BC : FEM DB : FEM DE ⎛ 6 EI ∆* ⎞ ⎛ 3EI ∆* ⎞ ⎛ 6 EI ∆* ⎞ ⎛ 6 EI ∆* ⎞ : ⎜ ⎜ L2 ⎟ : ⎜ L2 ⎟ : ⎜ L2 ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ AB ⎝ ⎠ BC ⎝ ⎠ BD ⎝ L ⎠ DE 6∆ * 3∆* 6∆* 6∆ * DB DE : : : 2 2 2 2 4 3 6 4 2 6∆ * 16 6 16 108 kNm : : : 3∆* 9 3 9 96 kNm : : : 6 (1 ⋅ ∆* ) 36 1 6 48 kNm : : ( ) 6(∆ 2 ) * 32 6 2 32 : 76.

3. C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III Class Problems Determine an appropriate set of arbitrary moments for the following frames: 1. 2. 123 Dr.

which gives the following two-stage analysis: 124 Dr. Caprani .7 Example 11: Oblique Sway Frame I Problem – Autumn 2007 Using moment distribution.Structural Analysis III 5. We put a prop at C to prevent sway. deflected shape and bending moment diagrams: Solution We recognize that this is a sway frame and that a two-stage analysis is required. C. analyse the following frame for the reactions.

Caprani . if the frame was only loaded by the 80 kN point load. Distribution Factors: • Joint B: ∑k = 2 +1= 2 • Joint C: 3 5 ⇒ DFBA = 32 22 = 0.5 2 DFCD = 1 = 0.4 52 52 ∑k =1+1= 2 3. there would be no need for a Stage I analysis. C. Fixed-End Moments: • Span BC: ⇒ DFCB = 1 = 0. Stiffnesses: • AB: • BC: • BD: 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3 10 EI 3 ' k AB = ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ = 4 ⎝ L ⎠ AB 4 5 2 4 EI ⎛ EI ⎞ k BC = ⎜ ⎟ = =1 4 ⎝ L ⎠ BC 4 EI ⎛ EI ⎞ k BD = ⎜ ⎟ = =1 4 ⎝ L ⎠ BD 2.Structural Analysis III Stage I Analysis 1. Thus. 125 Dr.5 2 FEM BC wL2 12 ⋅ 42 =+ =+ = +16 kNm 12 12 wL2 = −16 kNm 12 FEM CB = − Notice that the 80 kN point load at C does not cause span moments and hence has no FEM.6 DFBC = = 0.

C. 126 Dr.6 -6.7 + 80 = 97. C.4 +16 -9. P .5 0. Moment Distribution Table: Joint Member DF FEM Dist.6 0.6 +9. Caprani .7 kN UDL Some points on these calculations are: • We only solve enough of the structure to find the prop force. End Shears and Forces: ∑ M about B = 0 42 ∴12 ⋅ + 8 − 9. Final A AB B BA BC 0.O.7 kN UDL P = P + P80 = 17.6 − 4VCB = 0 2 ∴VCB = +23.6 kN ∴VD = 23.6 -8 +8 +4 5.4 C CB CD 0.Structural Analysis III 4.6 kN ↑ ∑ M about A = 0 ∴12 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 5 − 23.6 ⋅ 7 − 4 − 4 P = 0 UDL ∴ P = +17.5 -16 +8 +8 D DE 0 +4 0 -9.

the final prop force reaction must allow for both the prop force due to the UDL and the 80 kN which is applied directly to the support.Structural Analysis III • Since joint C is a right-angled connection. C.6 kN ↑ as shown. VCB of member BC becomes the axial force in member CD and so the vertical reaction at D is VD = 23. • Lastly. Caprani . Sketch this last point: 127 Dr.

C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III Stage II Analysis We allow the frame to sway. and following that angle around to orientate the displacement triangle at joint B gives: From which we can get the ratios of the arbitrary deflections: 128 Dr. whilst keeping the joints locked against rotation: Considering the angle of member AB as α .

Caprani .Structural Analysis III The FEMs are the following: And so we have: FEM BA ⎛ 3EI * ⎞ ⎜+ 2 ∆ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ AB 3 (10 EI ) * + ∆ BA 52 30 5 + ⋅ ∆* 25 4 +240 kNm : : : : : FEM BC ⎛ 6 EI * ⎞ ⎜− 2 ∆ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ BC 6 ( 4 EI ) * − ∆ BC 42 24 3 − ⋅ ∆* 16 4 −180 kNm : : : : : FEM CD ⎛ 6 EI * ⎞ ⎜+ 2 ∆ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠CD 6 ( 4 EI ) * + ∆ 42 24 + ∆* 16 +240 kNm 129 Dr. C.

Structural Analysis III The arbitrary sway associated with these FEMs is: 6 ( 4 EI ) * ∆ = 240 42 ⇒ ∆* = 160 EI And so with these FEMs we analyse for the arbitrary sway force. Final A AB B BA BC 0. P* : Joint Member DF FEM Dist.5 0.4 +240 -180 -36 -24 C CB CD 0.75 kN ← We consider the portion of the frame BCD: 130 Dr. Caprani .O.5 -180 +240 -30 -30 D DE 0 +240 -15 0 +204 -204 -210 +210 +225 Again we only calculate that which is sufficient to find the arbitrary sway force. C.6 0. C. P* : ∑ M about C = 0 ∴ 210 + 225 − 4 H D = 0 ∴ H D = +108.

we consider the whole frame again: 131 Dr. C.75 − 225 − 4VD = 0 ∴VD = +103.5 − 4 H A = 0 ∴ H A = +128.5 kN ↓ And for member AB we have: ∑ M about B = 0 ∴ 204 + 3 ⋅ 103.5 = 0 ∴VA = 103.75 kN ↑ Considering the whole frame. we have: ∑F y =0 ∴VA − 103.Structural Analysis III ∑ M about B = 0 ∴ 204 + 4 ⋅ 108. Caprani .63 kN ← Lastly.

63 + 108.4 -8 +8 -94.75 − P* = 0 ∴ P* = 237. Caprani .4 C CB CD -210 +210 -86.4 +86.6 +4 +96.4 D DE +225 +92.7 = = 0.43 kN → Hence: α= P 97. we use a table: Joint Member * Stage II* ( M II ) A AB 0 0 0 0 B BA BC +204 -204 +84 -84 -9.6 +74.43 To find the final moments.6 +9.4115 ⋅ 144 59.4115 P* 237.Structural Analysis III ∑F x =0 ∴ H A + H D − P* = 0 ∴128. the actual sway is ∆ = α∆* = 0. Also.26 = EI EI The member forces are: 132 Dr. C.6 Stage II ( M II ) Stage I ( M I ) Final ( M ) * Recall the formulae used in the table: M II = α M II and M = M I + M II .4 -74.4 +94.

2 kN and 32.2 kN and 32. C. even though the 18. Caprani .25 kN end forces parallel and normal to the member axis. deflected shape and reactions are: 133 Dr. To find the axial and shear forces in member AB we need to resolve the components of both the 18.25 kN end forces are not the shear and axial force. we can still apply horizontal and vertical equilibrium to find the reactions at the ends of the member.Structural Analysis III Note that for member AB. Horizontal equilibrium of joint C is: And so the final BMD.

Caprani . C.Structural Analysis III 134 Dr.

Then.8 Arbitrary Sway of Oblique Frames Using the ICR Description For some frames. I C .Structural Analysis III 5. θ * will cancel just as ∆* did previously. C. θ * . Thus all displacements of the frame can be related to the rotation of the lamina. they are merely alternatives. To reiterate: working with θ * may offer a simpler solution than working with ∆* . (ICR) about which the frame rotates. when working out the ratios. Both are correct. about I C . 135 Dr. Caprani . I C BC . the method of working with the displacement triangles can be complex and a simpler approach is to consider the Instantaneous Centre of Rotation.

the distances to the I C are worked out by similar triangles. C. we will use the centre of rotation approach: The first step is to identify the I C by producing the lines of the members until they intercept as per the following diagram.Structural Analysis III Numerical Example I Taking the same frame as we dealt with previously. Note that in the diagram.4 2 triangle of member DE is similar to the A I C E triangle and so the lengths I C C and I C D are determined. 136 Dr. Caprani . The 4-4.

Caprani . C.Structural Analysis III From the length I C B . we have. using the S = Rθ for small angles: ∆* = 6θ * Similarly. length I C D gives: ∆* = 6 2θ * DE 137 Dr.

θ * . Caprani .Structural Analysis III The length BD times the rotation of the lamina. C. gives: ∆* = 6θ * BD The sway diagram for identifying the FEMs is repeated here: And so the FEMs are in the ratio: FEM BA : FEM BC : FEM DB : FEM DE ⎛ 6 EI ∆* ⎞ ⎛ 3EI ∆* ⎞ ⎛ 6 EI ∆* ⎞ ⎛ 6 EI ∆* ⎞ ⎜ L2 ⎟ : ⎜ L2 ⎟ : ⎜ L2 ⎟ : ⎜ L2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ AB ⎝ ⎠ BC ⎝ ⎠ BD ⎝ ⎠ DE 6∆ * 3∆* 6∆ * 6∆ * DB DE : : : 2 2 2 2 4 3 6 4 2 ( ) 138 Dr.

Structural Analysis III Now substitute in the relationships between θ * and the various sways: 6 ( 6θ * ) 42 36 16 9 4 18 3 ( 6θ * ) 32 18 9 2 16 6 ( 6θ * ) 62 36 36 1 8 6 6 2θ * :
2

:

:

( ) (4 2 )
36 2 32 9 2 8 9 2

: : :

: : :

: : :

And multiplying by 6, say, so that rounding won’t affect results gives:

FEM BA 108 kNm

: :

FEM BC 96 kNm

: :

FEM DB 48 kNm

:

FEM DE

: 76.4 kNm

And this is the same set of arbitrary moments we calculated earlier when using displacement triangles instead of this I C method.

This should help emphasize to you that choosing displacement triangles or the I C method is simply a matter of preference and ease of calculation.

139

Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

Numerical Example II

In this example, we just work out the arbitrary moments for the frame of Example 11.

We identify the I C by producing the lines of the members until they intercept as per the following diagram.

The distances to the I C are worked out by similar triangles. The 3-4-5 triangle of member AB is similar to the BI C C triangle and so the length of member BC of 4 m forms the ‘3’ side of the triangle and so the lengths I C B and I C C are determined since they are the 5 and 4 sides respectively.

140

Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

Using the S = Rθ relations we have: • From the length I C C , we have: ∆* = • Similarly, length I C B gives: ∆* = BA 16 * θ ; 3

20 * θ ; 3

• The length BC times θ * gives: ∆* = 4θ * . BC

The FEMs are the following:

141

Dr. C. Caprani

Caprani .Structural Analysis III And so we have: FEM BA ⎛ 3EI * ⎞ ⎜+ 2 ∆ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ AB 3 (10 EI ) * + ∆ BA 52 30 20 + ⋅ θ* 25 3 +240 kNm : : : : : FEM BC ⎛ 6 EI * ⎞ ⎜− 2 ∆ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ BC 6 ( 4 EI ) * − ∆ BC 42 24 − ⋅ 4θ * 16 −180 kNm : : : : : FEM CD ⎛ 6 EI * ⎞ ⎜+ 2 ∆ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠CD 6 ( 4 EI ) * + ∆ 42 24 16 + ⋅ θ* 16 3 +240 kNm Which is as we found previously. The arbitrary sways are thus: 6 ( 4 EI ) * ∆ = 240 42 16 160 ∆* = θ * = EI 3 ⇒ ⇒ 160 EI 30 θ* = EI ∆* = 142 Dr. C.

Structural Analysis III Class Problems Using the I C method. 2. 3. verify the arbitrary moments found previously for the following frames: 1. Caprani . C. 143 Dr.

9 Example 12: Oblique Sway Frame II Problem – Summer 2007 Draw the bending moment diagrams for the following frames: Structure 1 Structure 2 144 Dr.Structural Analysis III 5. C. Caprani .

C. Fixed-End Moments: • Span BC: 6 5 ⇒ DFBA = 22 32 = 0.there is no moment transferred through the pin at C.4 DFBC = = 0. Also.Structural Analysis III Solution Structure 1 This is a non-sway structure. 1. 2. since there is no moment transferred through the pin at C the 40 kN point load does not cause any moments to be transferred around the frame. Stiffnesses: • AB: • BC: • CD: 5 EI ⎛ EI ⎞ k AB = ⎜ ⎟ = =1 5 ⎝ L ⎠ AB 3 ⎛ EI ⎞ 3 8 EI 6 ' k BC = ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ = 4 ⎝ L ⎠ BC 4 4 4 k BD = 0 . Therefore member CD does not enter the moment distribution analysis: essentially the beam CD is a separate structure. Distribution Factors: • Joint B: ∑k =1+ 4 = 2 3. importantly.6 52 52 FEM BC wL2 12 ⋅ 42 =+ =+ = +24 kNm 8 8 145 Dr. Caprani . and so a two-stage analysis is not required. except that the horizontal restraint at D prevents sway of ABC.

6 +9.82 + 12 ⋅ − 21. End Shears and Forces: ∑ M about B = 0 42 ∴−9.6 kN ↑ ∑F y =0 ∴12 ⋅ 4 − 21.6 +14.4 kN ↑ Zero shear is at 21. Caprani . C.6 0 5.8 -4.4 C CB -4.4 0.6 ⋅ 1.8 = 0 2 = +19.6 +24 -9. C.6 + 12 ⋅ − 4VC = 0 2 ∴VC = +21. Final A AB B BA BC 0.O. Moment Distribution Table: Joint Member DF FEM Dist.6 − VBC = 0 ∴VBC = 26.6 12 = 1.8 -9.44 kNm 146 Dr.Structural Analysis III 4. Hence: ∑ M about M ∴ M max ∴ M max max =0 1.8 m to the left of C.

H D = 30. Caprani .8 − 12 ⋅ + 3H C = 0 2 ∴ H C = +30.4 kN → And since the span CD is a simply supported beam.Structural Analysis III The axial force transmitted to member CD from the frame ABC is: ∑ M about A = 0 42 ∴ 4. the BMD is thus: 147 Dr.4 kN → Thus. C.

The sway diagram is: 148 Dr. Hence only Stage II is required. Caprani . C. which we have already solved. we can recognize Stage I as Structure I.Structural Analysis III Structure 2 This is a sway structure and so a two-stage analysis is required: Looking at this superposition.

33 EI 10 ∆* = EI Joint Member DF FEM Dist.O. we have: • From the length I C C .Structural Analysis III From which. BC The FEMs are: FEM BA ⎛ 6 EI * ⎞ ⎜− 2 ∆ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ BA 6 ( 5 EI ) * − ∆ BA 52 30 − ⋅ 5θ * 25 −20 kNm : : : : : FEM BC ⎛ 3EI * ⎞ ⎜− 2 ∆ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ BC 3 ( 8 EI ) * − ∆ BC 42 24 − ⋅ 4θ * 16 −20 kNm The associated sways are: 6 ( 5 EI ) ⋅ 5θ * = 20 ⇒ 2 5 3. we have: ∆* = 3θ * . Final A AB -20 +8 -12 B BA BC 0.4 0. C. C. length I C B gives: ∆* = 5θ * . using the S = Rθ relation. BA • The length BC gives: ∆* = 4θ * .6 -20 -20 +16 +24 -4 +4 C CB 0 149 Dr. Caprani . • Similarly.33 ∆* = 3θ * = 3 ⋅ ⇒ EI θ* = 3.

4 -30.8 -96 ∆ = α∆* = 7.6 P* 4 Joint Member * Stage II* ( M II ) Stage II ( M II ) Stage I ( M I ) Final ( M ) A AB -12 -91.6 -40 +40 10 76 = EI EI C CB 0 0 0 0 ∑ M about B = 0 42 ∴−40 + 12 ⋅ − 4VC = 0 2 ∴VC = +14 kN ↑ ∑F y =0 ∴12 ⋅ 4 − 14 − VBC = 0 ∴VBC = 34 kN ↑ 150 Dr.2 -4.4 -9. Caprani .6 ⋅ B BA BC -4 +4 +30. C.4 = = 7.6 +9.Structural Analysis III The sway force is found from: ∑ M about A = 0 ∴12 − 3P* = 0 ∴ P* = +4 kN ← α= P 30.

17 m to the left of C.2 kNm 151 Dr. C.Structural Analysis III Zero shear occurs at 14 12 = 1.17 2 − 21. Hence: ∑ M about M ∴ M max + 12 ⋅ ∴ M max max =0 1. Caprani .6 ⋅ 1.17 = 0 2 = +8.

5 kNm M BA = 29. C.6 kNm M D = 68.10 Problems II 8.7 kN → M A = −9.Structural Analysis III 5.6 kN ↑ H A = 96.8 kN ↑ H A = 9.0 kN ← M A = +435. VA = 91.3 kNm VC = 0 kN H C = 16.1 kN ← M E = +39.4 kN ↑ M B = 122.0 kNm M BC = 49.2 kN ↑ H E = 93.5 kN ← VE = 88. Caprani . VA = 167.6 kNm VC = 80.6 kNm 152 Dr.4 kNm 9.4 kNm M BD = 79.

1 kNm M B = 42.1 kN ↓ H A = 71. VA = 56.5 kN ↑ H C = 6 kN → M D = 119. VA = 33.9 kNm 11.1 kNm VD = 86. C.5 kNm M C = 116.8 kN ← VD = 56.9 kNm M B = 118.0 kN ← M A = +82.2 kN ← M D = +94.9 kNm M CD = 17. Caprani .1 kN ↑ H D = 28.9 kNm M CB = 217.Structural Analysis III 10.3 kNm 153 Dr.5 kN ↑ H A = 6.