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INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS
IMPACT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK PRACTICES SYSTEM ON MOTIVATION Mr. S. M. M. Raza Naqvi6
Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad
VOL 3, NO 8
Dr. Sadia Nadeem7
National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
Abstract High performance work practices system is of key importance not only in strategic human resource literature but also for the organizations that are striving for excellence in today’s competitive markets. This research study highlights the contribution of high performance work practices to further the level of motivation through developing high performance work practices system in the banking sector. These systems provide a source of competitive advantage if they are inimitable because of their historic time paths and rareness. The study is based on middle and senior level managers of the banking sector. Questionnaires were used to collect responses; 3000 questionnaires were sent to the bank managers in all three banking regions of the country through Pakistan postal services and personal visits where regions were reachable. Out of 3000 questionnaires 1704 responses were received making a response rate of more than 56.8%. Multiple regression analysis was used to study the impact of high performance work practices system on motivation which provides competitive advantage. Results clearly indicate that these practices turned out to be positively and significantly related with employees’ motivation. Key words: High performance work practices system, Motivation. Introduction Most of the research focused on employee’s motivation reflects that it is a result of the impact of different HR practices used as a system. Such a system is known as high performance work practices system (HPWPS). This system of HR management practices is focused to motivate employees by adopting best HR practices such as employment security, job design, training and skill development (Delery and Doty, 1996), selectivity in recruiting, comparatively high wages (Snell and Dean, 1992), incentive pay based on performance appraisal (Wright et al, 2003), employee ownership (Huselid, 1995; Huselid and Becker, 1995), information sharing (Martı´n-Tapi et al, 2009; Guthrie et al, 2009), participation and empowerment (Delery and Doty, 1996; Godard, 2001), self-managed teams (Evans and Davis, 2005; Guthrie et al, 2009), reduced status distinctions and barriers (Murphy, 2006;
Ms HRM (MAJU), MA Economics (PU) Assistant Professor Faculty of Management Sciences, Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad
Chartered MCIPD, PhD in Management (UK), MBA (UK), BSc Engg.(Pak) Associate Professor FAST School of Business, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences
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Martin et al. 1995. 2003. Unfortunately. only limited theory specifies exactly how the HRM practices should be bundled together. 1996). This study departs from other human resource literature as the level of analysis is of sector-level impact of SHRM. However. The researcher uses these to empirically test the impacts of thirteen HR practices on motivation as perceived by the respondents (middle and senior level managers). The same perspective is supported by Huselid (1995) and Pfeffer (1994) in their work and shared by this research. 2001). and measurement of the HR practices through regular employee surveys (Huselid and Becker.. Pfeffer. This inquiry involves all Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) listed banks. the introduction of these practices has an additional effect on performance. Therefore we have hypnotized Ho: High performance work practices system positively and significantly affects employees’ motivation. There is consensus that bundling of HR practices develops the work system known as HPWPS which helps the organization to develop required competencies (Dyer. they always operate in an interrelated complex system. In the literature of strategic human resource management (SHRM) such a system of interrelated HRM practices is known as high performance work practices (HPWP) system (Becker and Huselid. 1997. 1998. 2007). supporting the statement that HR practices affect performance (Guest.ijcrb. Guthrie et al. -----------------------------------Insert Figure 1 about here -----------------------------------Population. They concur with the universalistic approach which states that a fixed set of best practices can create surplus value in various business contexts. 2009. It is argued that these practices are positively and significantly related to outcomes such as motivation. Levine. NO 8 DECEMBER 2011 Macky and Boxell. 1998). Sample and Data Collection The current research probes through the use of questionnaires to understand perceptions of the managers of senior and middle levels in the Pakistan banking industry. Youndt et al.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3. These systems are however. and the perspective is strategic rather than functional. Delery and Doty (1996) gave an extensive overview of three alternative modes of theorizing the HRM practices and performance link. developed to further the level of employees’ skills and motivation so that employees become a source of sustainable competitive advantage (Levine 1995. Pfeffer 1998). The arguments above are based on resource-based theory. This study uses the universalistic perspective. 1993. as several studies have indicated that this approach can be particularly accurate for understanding the relationship between HR practices and outcome (Guest. Irrespective of strategy.webs. 2009). 1994) that keeps employees motivated. Paauwe. The focus of the current study is to find out the relationship between the above mentioned HRM practices constituting HPWPS and motivation. Pauuwe and Boselie. 2000. Our arguments are drawn from the work of Delery and Doty (1996) to justify our choice for the universalistic perspective. COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 198 . human resource practices are not effective independently.
selected for low to high. Collectively.570 branches all over the country. Instruments The following instruments were used to measure the independent and dependent variables of the study.webs. Snell and Dean. It was not possible to collect data of all senior and middle level managers because the exact number of managers in each bank branch is unknown. 2006) (03 items) For HPWS. Out of 3000 questionnaires 1704 responses were received making a response rate of more than 56.e. All of the questions were measured on a 7-point likert scale. 1992. Currently there are 25 listed commercial banks. 1995. Employee Ownership measures the extent to which stock options are offered.ijcrb. those banks have more than 9. NO 8 DECEMBER 2011 The population for this study is the managers at senior and middle level in KSE listed commercial banks. 3000 questionnaires were sent to the bank managers in all three banking regions of the country through Pakistan postal services and personal visits where regions were reachable. Incentive Pay Based on Performance Appraisal measures the extent to which pay is related to performance. Delery & Doty. Becker & Huselid. The number of managers in each branch depends upon the volume of the deposit that branch have. Self-Managed Teams measures the extent to which organization relays on such teams. We selected all 25 KSE listed banks in the three key regions i. Huselid & Becker. Training and Skill Development measures the extent to which such opportunities are offered. 1993). High Wages measures the compatibility of wages offered by the organization. 1996. High Performance Work Practices Table 1 presents all 13 high performance work practices along with their sources. number of items and Cronbach alphas. Selectivity in Recruiting measures the extensiveness of a firm's selection process. • High performance work practices system (Huselid. US Department of Labor.8%. 2000. 2004. Empowerment measures the extent to which employees are empowered. south. Questionnaires were used to collect responses. The study is based on middle and senior level managers of the banking sector. Job Design measures the clarity of job description and involvement of managers to design jobs. Hartog & Verburg. 13 practices were included and respondents were asked to identify the extent to which these selected high performance work practices were implemented in their organization. Participation measures the extent to which employees are encouraged to participation in decision making. Measurement of the HR Practices measures the extent to which organization conducts employee satisfaction surveys. 1995. Information Sharing measures the extent to which information is shared with the employees. central and north. Employment Security measures the extent to which employees feel secure. ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ Insert Table 1 about here -------------------------199 COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research . and. (71 items) • Motivation (Katou & Budhwar. Reduced Status Distinctions and Barriers measure the intensity of such barriers.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3.
training and skill development.714. The three practices employment security. these items have been used by Katou & Budhwar. With motivation as dependent variable in Table 3. NO 8 DECEMBER 2011 Motivation was a 3-item scale with the Cronbach alpha value of .webs. In these tables high performance work practices are regressed on motivation. reduced status distinctions and barriers. Boxall (1996). These practices increase the motivation to such a level where it becomes a source of competitive advantage. All of the variables appear to be significantly associated with each other. p1231) measuring the extent to which managers are motivated and ready to help the organization. 13 high performance work practices are entered with motivation. (2006.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS Motivation VOL 3. Jackson & Schuler (1995). incentive pay based on performance appraisal. participation. Pfeffer (1994). RESULTS Table 2 explains descriptive statistics. Hartog & Verburg (2004) and many others have tried to measure the effects of single or multiple human resource management practices on firm performance to support the relationship between HRM practices. --------------------------------Insert Table 2 about here --------------------------------Table 3 present the key results of the study. information sharing. Lado & Wison (1995). out of 13 practices 10 practices were emerged to constitute high performance work practices system. As a result we have seen the incremental development in the methods used to manage human resources that can have a substantial impact on organizational outcomes. Delany & Huselid (1996). it appears in Table 3 that the high performance work practices system that effects the employees’ motivation consists of 10 practices that significantly emerged out of 13 practices. Huselid (1995). They are high wages. -------------------------------Insert Table 3 about here -------------------------------Regarding Hypothesis. job design.ijcrb. self managed teams and measurement of HR practices. The model serves as a medium to integrate COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 200 . employee ownership. DISCUSSION Strategic human resource management researchers such as Wright & McMahan (1992). This research focuses on the development of HPWPS model for middle and senior level managers in the banking industry of Pakistan. selectivity in recruitment and empowerment turned out to be insignificant. The strength of correlation is not that high which can result in multicolinearity as reflected in table. as dependent variable. Becker & Gerhart (1996). sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) and firm performance.
Boxall. NO 8 DECEMBER 2011 findings about the dimensions of HRM work practices and motivation. al. training and skill development. Dunford & Snell. the present study contributes to the body of knowledge by defining what the HPWP system is for commercial banks in a developing country like Pakistan. al. Peteraf. Pfeffer. incentive pay based on performance appraisal. Kamoche. 1994. According to resources base view any firm can have competitive advantage and can sustain it. creating combinations which are firm specific are developed over time (Amit and Schoemaker.g. 1987). Teece et al.. COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 201 . The main purpose of this study was the identification of the components of a successful HPWP system for commercial banks and incorporation of RBV dimensions to develop competitive advantage. if the process of value creation is rare and complex for competitors to imitate (e. 1999. employee ownership. If high performance work practices are carefully developed. 2001) and advocated the rational of using human resource practices to produce competitive advantage (Ferris et... 1994. The three practices employment security. Therefore. 1994. it cannot be immediately imitated (Saá-Pérez and García-Falcón. 1991. Secondly this study could not establish causality because this study was based on cross-sectional set of data and to establish causality longitudinal set of data was required which was not possible to collect under the circumstances. Ferris et. 1991. the HPWPS effecting motivation consisted of 10 components or practices They are high wages. Wright et al. 1996. Based on prior empirical work this study started with 13 HRM work practice dimensions and dependent variables i. job design. 1994) because such system is considered as an ‘invisible asset’ (Itami. motivation. 1997). Grant. Even if a competitor is capable of understanding the complexity of high performance work practices system. Barney. First. motivation is a complex behavior that required deeper treatment. Organization’s capacities to deploy practices. reduced status distinctions and barriers. 1993. 1995.e. As per results. participation. it determines the human resource practices that comprise a HPWP system construct for middle and senior level managers. self managed teams and measurement of HR practices. 1993). 1996. implemented in way that competitors are unable to imitate. 1999). Our argument was that to affect motivation the practices must emerge significantly to constitute high performance work practices system. Our study has a number of limitations. information sharing. 2009) because of complex dynamics of employee’s motivation. Most of the renowned researchers have highlighted and explored the linkage between RBV and SHRM to gain competitive advantage (Lado & Wilson. Figure 1 put forth a conceptual model to clarify the relationships between the above mentioned practices and motivation.. Wright. 1993). The outcome dimensions of employees’ motivation can be utilized to determine the effectiveness of HPWPS which are pertinent dimensions for the banking industry. selectivity in recruitment and empowerment turned out to be insignificant. Therefore a properly developed high performance work system can be an important source of sustained competitive advantage (Lado and Wilson. then it results in competitive advantage (Peteraf.ijcrb.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3.webs. The results reflect that the commercial banks in Pakistan enjoy competitive advantage regarding highly motivated employees’ on the bases of 10 high performance work practices Contribution of the Study and Limitations Since last two decades SHRM used RBV to establish competitive advantage. More specifically.
The results have clearly indicated that the survival of Pakistan’s banking industry depends upon its human resource management practices as reflected through the perceptions of the middle and senior level managers.webs. The banks who intend to gain competitive advantage through highly motivated employees must focus on the mentioned practices. The purpose of this study was to explore the probability of competitive advantage through RBV in the cut throat competition of Pakistani banking sector. Such high performance work practices system provides the base for competitive advantage because it is difficult to imitate.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS Conclusion VOL 3. NO 8 DECEMBER 2011 The basic objective of this study had been served. COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 202 .ijcrb. In conclusion only those banks would excel in the market regarding performance which will develop high performance work practices system in the due course of time that motivates their employees. The objective was to prove that adaptation of high performance work practices can lead to higher level of motivation.
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Information Sharing 7. Employee Ownership 6. Job Design 13. Reduced Status Distinctions and Barriers 12. NO 8 DECEMBER 2011 Figure 1 Conceptual Frame Work High Performance Work Practices System 1. Selectivity in Recruiting 3. Self-Managed Teams 10. Participation 8. Measurement of the HR Practices Motivation o Behavioral contribution in company’s performance o Positive contribution in company’s performance o Highly motivated employee groups COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 207 . Empowerment 9. Employment Security 2.ijcrb.webs.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS APPENDIX A VOL 3. High Wages 4. Incentive Pay Based on Performance Appraisal 5. Training and Skill Development 11.
p651) Items 4 4 4 3 2 5 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 Cronbach . p502).757 .790 Table 1 The 13 High Performance Work Practices COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 208 . (1996.595 .com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3. (2009. Guthrie et al.727 . (2003.550 .webs. p834). p147). p27). p651). p117) and Martin et al.719 . Guthrie et al. p547) Delery and Doty. Guthrie et al (2009. p845). 760). Godard (2001.620 .706 . p117) Delery and Doty.715 . p646) Martı´n-Tapi (2009.706 . Huselid (1995. p834) Snell and Dean (1992. Evans and Davis (2005. (2007. NO 8 DECEMBER 2011 APPENDIX B HPWP Employment Security (ES) Selectivity in Recruitment (SIR) High Wages (HW) Incentive Pay Based on Performance Employee Ownership (EO) Information Sharing (IS) Participation (PARTCP) Empowerment (EMPWR) Self Managed Teams (SMT) Training and Skill Development (TSD) Reduced Status Distinctions and Barriers (RSDB) Job Design (JD) Measurement of HR Practices Source Delery and Doty (1996. p834) Murphy (2006. (2009.601 . p117) Delery and Doty (1996. Macky and Boxell. (1996. p834) Becker and Huselid (2000.716 . p29).704 . (2009.ijcrb. Wright et al. p502) Snell and Dean (1992.
442** .244** .078** .132** .318** .089** .ijcrb.com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3.29 4.316** .28 .291** 1 4 Incentive Pay Based on Performance Appraisal Employee Ownership Information Sharing 4.315** .246** .22 .112** .47 1.318** .324** .71 1.158** .255** .206** .49 1.135** 1 3 4.155** .41 1.291** .451** .178** .298** 1 10 4.31 .19 .231** .273** .375** 1 9 Self Managed Teams Training and Skill Development Reduced Status Distinctions and Barriers Job Design Measurement of HR Practices Motivation 4. NO 8 DECEMBER 2011 APPENDIX C Table 2 Descriptive statistics and correlations of study variables Std.245** .146** .083** .359** .092** .380** .287** .051* .70 1.194** .290** .288** .291** .480** 1 .46 .166** .174** -.101** .281** .102** .223** .21 .088** 1 7 Participation 4.05 1.286** .247** 1 11 5.28 .275** . Deviation 1.149** .347** .204** .207** .19 .325** 1 COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 209 .007 .252** .058* 1 6 4.300** .231** .304** .284** .26 Spearman's rho 1 Employment Security Selectivity in Recruitment High Wages Mean 4.30 1.253** .85 .webs.70 1.141** .54 1.354** .098** .229** .215** .44 0.136** .43 1.200** .320** .267** .439** .116** .19 .364** .365** .112** .357** .464** .56 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2 4.56 1.188** .192** 1 5 4.22 .156** .123** 1 12 4.30 1.090** .347** .310** .333** .21 .345** 1 8 Empowerment 4.243** .263** .329** .139** 1 13 14 4.388** .
076*** -0.259*** 0.023 0.005 -.085*** 0.118*** 0.051* .053*** 0.webs.01 *** p<.05* -0.017 0.068*** 0.001 Motivation 1.069** .236*** 0.368 .363 75. NO 8 DECEMBER 2011 APPENDIX D Table 3 Regression for impact of HPWPS on Motivation Variables Intercept Employment Security (ES) Selectivity in Recruitment (SIR) High Wages (HW) Incentive Pay Based on Performance Appraisal (IPBPA) Employee Ownership (EO) Information Sharing (IS) Participation (PARTCP) Empowerment (EMPWR) Self Managed Teams (SMT) Training and Skill Development (TSD) Reduced Status Distinctions and Barriers (RSDB) Job Design (JD) Measurement of HR Practices (MHRP) R2 Adjusted R2 Model F * p< .ijcrb.150*** -.05 ** p<.549*** COPY RIGHT © 2011 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 210 .com INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 3.
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