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Lecture in Philosophy Philosophy – from the two Greek words: Philo (Love) and Sophia (Wisdom) It means love

of wisdom. Thus a philosopher is a lover of wisdom Wisdom –is knowledge applied to practical life.. It is knowledge intended for a noble purpose. Thus, wisdom is the height of knowledge Real Meaning of Philosophy – it is a science of all things studied from their view point of their ultimate causes, reasons or principles, by the light of human reason alone. -It is a science which verifies all things in one world view Subject matter of philosophy - All things – ( in their ultimate causes, reasons and principles) Tools Used – human reason, reflection, process, insight etc. Philosophy is a parent science – it has given birth to natural and social sciences. These disciplines provide philosophy with problems, questions and issues that need to be answered Philosophy is an independent discipline and embedded there in is the foundations and an ongoing activities of these disciplines. Nature of Philosophy – man search for the meaning of life, the meaning of himself and his world. When does it start? The moment starts wondering about the things around him In short philosophy simply means a search for meaning. The term search is just more than seeking or looking. It is a critical examination to explore thoroughly in order to find something of great importance. According to Aristotle; Philosophy is a science of beings in their ultimate reasons , causes and principles, acquired through the aid of reason alone. Beings – refer to all things reachable by human mind. The philosopher seeks for the fundamental or essential explanation of being based solely on his reasoning power. Philosophy is the study of the ultimate, abstract, and very general problems which are concerned with the nature of existence, knowledge, morality, reason and human purpose. To the early Greeks, Philosophy was a superstar of a subject. They looked with favor on a total world picture in the unity of all truths – whether they were scientific, ethical, religious or aesthetics. Philosophy indeed is the Matrix of All Knowledge. Three elements of Philosophical Search 1. Object of the search is of real value to the subject. Object – refers to a thing under study Subject – refers to the person philosophizing 2. It consumes the whole person, his attention, concentration, interest and effort. 3. It is continued without a let up, until:

a) the answer is found

b) the answer is not yet found but the conviction is reached

Major Fields of Philosophy 1. Epistemology – theory of knowledge – deals with the origin, structure, methods, nature, limit and truth of human knowledge. Epistem – knowledge Logos – study Type of knowledge Application Formulation and expression Acquisition 2. Logic – the science of correct thinking and reasoning – deals with syllogisms, fallacies, truth, argument etc. 3. Ethics – the science of morality of human acts 4. Metaphysics – the theory of reality (its nature, meaning, and existence) – this is the foundation subject of philosophy. It is also concern with the nature of mind as well as religion. Meta – beyond physical Physikon – nature from which it was derived, Physics - the science that deals with matter, energy, force, natural laws and processes, immortality of the soul, nature and reality of the universe as well as time, space, cause and chance. 5. Phenomenology – critical investigation of phenomenon or experiences. 6. Axiology – the study of values – It includes values on human conduct, the nature and justification of social structures, political system, and the nature of art and its meaning in human experience. Other Branches: Cosmology – the study of the universe Philosophical Psychology – philosophical study of God. Social Philosophy – the study of man in relation to society and social institutions Philosophy of Man – an inquiry into man and his dimensions

Difference Between Philosophy and Science
Criteria 1. Scope and Nature 2. Interest Science Deals particularly with restricted field, e.g. chemistry, biology, etc. The interest of science is limited to the physical world e.g. tangible, empirical or concrete things Uses experiments and hypothesis, science tends to eliminate personal factor and values in its quest for Philosophy Deals with all aspect of human experience Concerns with issues on justice, reasons, conscience, soul and God. (metaphysical and abstract) Uses reflection, abstraction and analysis. Philosophy is encompassing it is interested in

3. Approach

objectivity 4. Objective/Goal Science works on the pursuits of truth and stops there, It is interested with the nature of things as they are. Aims to observe nature and control processes.

5. Aim

personal values, human experiences and purposes. Philosophy works not only in the pursuit of truth, but of worth and meaning. It does not stop at the discovery of truth. Criticizes, evaluates and integrates the various dimensions of human experience.

Relationship between the two: Philosophy as a Science 1. Deals with the study of processes governing thought and conduct. 2. Carefully examines and criticizes the premises and conclusion of all sciences. 3. Synthesizes and compares the assumptions and conclusion of the different findings of the science when they appear to be contradictory. 4. Investigates principles and laws that regulate the universe and those that underlie all knowledge. 5. Applies interpretation and analysis to worldly phenomenon. 6. Harmonizes and brings the sciences together to complement and support one another. Different Approaches to Philosophy 1. The Analytic Approach – defines and separates the various elements as part of complete questions. It also considers all the different possible interpretations of abstract concepts and answers to the questions which can be asked about them. 2. The Continental Approach – construct the very general and completely self-consistent theories which can explain the abstract ideas. Philosophical Inquiry and its Nature Philosophical Inquiry refers to man’s effort to integrate all of his experiences as a responsible agent. The term experience signifies the interactive process by which the human self is in dynamic relation with

other persons. As a responsible agent, he, as the responder, is objectively aware of the presence of others which comprises the characteristics of man. As defined by John Dewey, philosophical inquiry is a method of experimental intelligence. It is a matter of controlled thinking which is concern with problem solving Purpose or Goal of an Inquiry 1. To transform the indeterminate or a problematic situation into a determinate situation where the problem is solved. 2. To lead from the indeterminate situation to the solved determined situation. The Need for Philosophical Inquiry Contemporary man is essentially the same as in the past, noteworthy is the difference in how each man of each era tried to cope with the problems of the times. He stands and interacts with his environment while he acts and interprets what is going on and what will be its result. He is affected not only by present situations but also faces the uncertain future. Today, man is at the cross roads as his life becomes chaotic and confusing than his life in the past. Faced with the vastness of these problems, he is tasked in seeking for its solution. This discord state calls for philosophical inquiry. Philosophy is used as a method of inquiry and as an instrument for the solution of global problems. It is philosophy which probe deepest into the root cause of man’s problems and as such it is depended upon to discover the true solutions and remedies of these human ills. Once a solution is reached, tensions and conflict are eliminated and harmony and order are restored. But these harmonious states are not permanent since new conflicts arise from time to time so, there will be a need for further inquiry. Human inquiry is not limited to mere discovery of means for pre-established ends. Inquiry itself relates the actual life of man.

The Matrix of Philosophical Inquiry 1. Human experience is a shared experience. There is cooperative activity, the cooperative self exist and functions only in a community of selves. 2. The share experience has a double purpose: a) The importance of its role in the creation of the community. b) The shared tradition of the group members makes and keeps the community and its members human. 3. The use of Common Sense – Common Sense is that generally accepted body of regulative meanings and procedures applied to particular circumstances, to what we called here and now. It makes a person aware of the problem but cannot do much about it. 4. The need for Philosophical Inquiry – Philosophy cannot divorce itself from the on going course of human life and the accrual concerns of men. Because it bears the quality of life itself, it must begin there and end there. The purpose of philosophy therefore is not to explain life but to constitute it, by making man aware of the implications of his actions, of the range and scope of his life, it lifts that life to a level that cannot be otherwise reached. Three Steps or Modes in Philosophical Inquiry 1. Logic – Theoretical coherence is the first condition for an adequate philosophy. Man as a responsible agent emerges to self awareness through his participation with others in their common ways of understanding the environment. With his capacity of self-direction, he is in position to judge them critically as the whole community cannot be exempted from critical scrutiny. 2. Phenomenology – A philosopher can become engrossed with his theoretical corrections that he forgets the real world. The agent’s experience lacks coherence as long as he cannot think of his life, so is also coherence lacking when he cannot live his thoughts. 3. Meta-Pragmatics – Philosophy must self-consciously place itself in the context and service of human life as it functions, control its own conduct of inquiry and measure the adequacy of its results.

Philosophy must formulate ideal human wholeness which is the reflection of coherence that man inherently aspires. It also means a work of continuous criticisms, not only of common sense, beliefs, and practices but also of the shape and results of the philosophical efforts as well. In the process of inquiry, man has to think, however there are two limits of thinking units: 1. Pre-reflective – the first situation – one which sets the problems to be solved and out of it grows the question that reflection has to answer. 2. Post-reflective – the final situation when the doubt has been dispelled, there results a direct experience of mastery, satisfaction and enjoyment. All knowledge that is the outcome of the process of inquiry belongs to the continuum of inquiry. But inquiry is an on-going process or affair with no single final or supreme end. Philosophical Methods of Investigation A method is usually a means or procedure followed in achieving an end. It is a systematic procedure, technique and mode of investigation use to study a phenomenon. The key element in a scientific method is a deliberate thinking and planning. Steps in Philosophical Investigation: 1. Sensing the problem 2. Assembling the data 3. Organizing and evaluating data 4. Proposing hypothesis 5. Testing the hypothesis 6. Discovering the truth 7. Applying the principles to specific uses.

Common Methods 1. Induction – A method of drawing conclusion from particular or individual experience, a process of estimating the validity of observation of a part of a class of facts for a proposition of the whole class. 2. Deduction – refers to the process whereby our minds, by way of reasoning, proceeds from general to specific terms. 3. Dialectic – referred to as the process refers of arriving at knowledge, through the question and answer technique. It describes a procedure whereby a thought (thesis), necessarily leads to or changes into its opposite or contradictory idea (anti-thesis), and henceforth a new synthesis is achieved. 4. Analytic – This is a concept which consist of theories that are developed by inductive procedures and begins with imaginative questions for the world to see if they can be falsified or refuted. It is not interested in speculating on matters that cannot be proven to be true. This is particularly useful in the study of mathematics, chemistry and physics. 5. Romantic – this is described as the tendency to base a world view on feelings and instinct. Under this method the immediate sensation and feelings brought about by nature and events in the environment are valued over reason. 6. Synoptic – this method according to Plato is the grasping of anything in one comprehensive view. He argued that I order to have complete knowledge and education, it is a must that we should bring into synopsis all the sciences our minds are capable of disregarding. Importance of Philosophy 1. Philosophy as a body of knowledge together with English, Literature, and History, are aimed to make man a full-man, cultured, refined and well-rounded. 2. The role of philosophy in liberal education is to provide the students the ability to synthesize, criticize, systematize, assimilate and evaluate a variety of and huge mass of knowledge. It is an important part of the students’ total development that will provide








opportunities for him to live a life worthy of human dignity as an individual and as a member of society. The philosophies of the various thinkers exposed the students to the different philosophical thoughts and help them developed his personal philosophies. Philosophy will provide an individual a strong foundation in meeting the demand of his profession and in coping with the problems brought about by multifarious activities of man. Philosophy will guide us in coming up with the right decision from a broader perspective because philosophy provides an individual with the wholistic view that will undoubtedly be an integral part of human development. The study of philosophy therefore serves as a bulwark against mental servitude and provides a framework within which we can think and act intelligently. From J. A. Nicholson, “There is no other knowledge that so widens our intellectual horizons and that deepens thereby both our understanding and sympathies. Undoubtedly the study of philosophy will always be an important feature of human experience and its importance in the development of the complete social being, ready to take up his responsibility in this rapidly changing world, cannot be overemphasized. Philosophy makes man think about basic foundations of his outlook in life, his knowledge and his beliefs. It makes an individual inquire into the reason for what he accepts and does and into the importance of his ideas and ideals, in the hope that his final convictions will change as a result of this examination.