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Triangle & It's Properties Lines & Angles Algebraic Expression Area Ratio Symbol Ratio & Proportion Percentage Profit & Loss Simple Interest Exponent Congruent Triangle Integers Fraction Decimals Rational Numbers Probability Statistics Symmetry Solid Shapes Perimeter

(iii) 60 C (ii) 15 Z R 60 (i) (i) C P (ii) X (iii)

Classification

30 A

90 B P

15

150 Q B

50

x x R 3cm Q Isosceles D : Two sides are equal, base angles opposite to equal sides, are equal

60 Y

60 Z

A Side : AB, BC, CA Angle : BAC, ABC, BCA Closed curve made up of Vertices : three line segment. A, B, C B C

A P

B Q R

A 30

(i)

P 100

(ii) Exterior angle property : PRS = QPR + PQR 150 R S Y Sum of the length of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side. 3 cm + 5 cm > 6 cm 6 cm + 5 cm > 3 cm 6 cm + 3 cm > 5 cm.

(iii)

50

70 B 80 C

Acute (0 < q < 90) l m p q

Parallel lines : never intersects

l m

Intersecting lines

x 4x 2x 5x Sum of all angles on one side of line is 180

5x + 2x + x + 4x = 180

2x 3x x 4x 5x

Complementary angles Two angles whose Sum is 90 Supplementary angles Two angles whose sum is 180 Vertically opp. angles

1 4 3 2

Corresponding angles (1, 5) (2, 6) (3, 7) (4, 8) Co.int. Angles (4, 6) ) (3, 5) Alternate Int. angles (3, 6) (4, 5) Alternat Ext. angle (1, 8) (2, 7)

7

2 4 6

3 5

1 = 3 ; 4 = 2 A

1 2

Adjacent angles 1and2 are adjacent angles Common vertex Linear pair two adjacent angles whose sum is 180 150 P

O

ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION

Variables Constants

Expression : 9x - 3yx + 10

Mathematical Operation

[ +, - , , ]

2x + 3y x + 3x - 5x + 6

Standerd form

2 2

Terms

9x

-3yx

10

9 x x -3 x y Factors Factors

2

In -3x2y

of x is -3xy -3y is 2 x

Unlike terms:

Like Terms :

x + 3y ; x2 + 3

Different algebraic factors 2 3x y = 3 x x y 3xy = 3 x y y

2

-3x is 7

Same algebraic factors 6xab = 6 x a b -3abx = -3 a b x addition 9ab + 5ab = (9 + 5) ab = 14ab Subtraction 9ab 4ab = (9 4)ab = 5ab

Monomial One term : eg : 3x, -2t ; 3

Value of Expression

Binomial

Formulas

Trinomial

Quadrinomials

Equilateral triangle 3 a ; where a is side Square 4 l ; where l is side Regular pentagon 5 s ; where s is side

AREA

eg. S D 4 A 2 P A h1 B a unit A h3 B h1 C B P

1 ah 1 2

R 8 C 2 B A h2 a unit C Area of Path /verandah = Ar. PQRS - Ar. ABCD Q 4unit 2unit

eg.

2cm R

4+2+2

R = 3 + 2 cm = 5 r = 3 cm

2

8+2+2

Triangle

Circle

Parallelogram

h1 a unit

h2

h1 h2

C a Q a unit 1 1 Area = 2 a h1 = 2 bh2 = 1 ch3 Sq. units 2 base = 2Area altitude altitude = 2Area base 3 2 Area of Equilateral D = 4 (side)

Area = a h1 sq. unit = b h2 sq. units base = Area corresponding altitude altitude = Area corresponding base

Rhombus : d l unit

Area = l b sq. units length = (Area breadth) unit breadth = (Area length) unit d = l2 + b2

Rectangle

h a h a a d1 d2 a

a D

1 d d2 sq. units 2 1

Quadrilateral :

d

h A h1 d h2 C

a unit

A = a a sq. unit Side = area unit d=2a

1 =2

(a) Painting / white washing (b) levelling (c) Ploughing (d) grazing / watering

RATIO SYMBOL

Age of A 7 eg : ! Age of B 5

age of A = 7x age of B = 5x

Convert ratio into fraction 4 > 3 Compare numerator when 7 7 Denominator same 5 5 When Numerator same eg : < 4 3 Compare denominator

eg : eg :

# ages of A 7 x " 6 5 ! ! ages of B 5 x " 6 4

1<2 3 5

15 = 5 ; 23 = 6 35 15 53 15 6 : 15 > 5 : 15

9= 2 27 27 9 3

H.C.F. of 18 and 27 is 9

H.C.F of 2 and 3 is 1

To compare two quantities, the units must be the same eg : ratio of 3 km to 3m 3km : 3m = 3000 m : 3m =1000 : 1

a : b = a anticedent b consequent

Equivalent Ratio

1:2=2:4=3:6 2 3 1 = 2 = 4 6 1 12 13 or. 2 = 22 = 23

eg : divide Rs. 5000 in Ratio 3 : 5 Rs. 5000 3 = Rs. 5000 3 = Rs. 1875 8 3+5 Rs. 5000 5 = Rs. 5000 5 = Rs. 3125 8 3+5

10 K 15 K 6K

eg : If A : B = 2 : 3 and B : C = 5 : 4

A then A : C = B B = 2 5 = 5 C 3 4 6 A:C=5:6

If a : b :: c : d ad = bc or

extreme terms a c If b = d

fourth proportion

(i) a : b = b : c a b (ii) ! b c

( iii) b 2 ! ac $ b !

mean proportion a b b= c

middle term/means

ac

Third proportion

8 12 12= x

x = 12 12= 18 8

eg : find fourth pupoltion to 15, 20 and 30

15 30 20 = x x = 3015 20= 40

eg : No. of chair 9 7 #

15 K = 15 2 ;

a b= c = b c d

=6 K 65

\ A : B : C = 10 : 15 : 6

PERCENTAGE

eg : Meeta saves Rs 400 from her salary. If this is 10% of her salary. What is her salary ; Sol. Let her salary be Rs x 10% of Rs x = Rs 400 eg : 5% of 25 5 % 25 ! 1.25 100 eg : 20% less than 70 20 20% of 70 ! % 70 ! 14 100 eg : Total students in class = 25 Number of girls = 15

% of girls !

15 % 100 ! 60% 25

eg : 10% more of 90

10

eg : School team won 6 games this year; 4 games last year; increase = 6 - 4 = 2 2 Increase% ! % 100 ! 50 % 4

eg :

Ram's Report Shyam's Report Total : 320/400 Total : 300/360 Percent : 80% Percent : 63.33%

In 10 years number of illitrate persons in a countery decreased from 150 lakh to 100 lakhs decrease = 150 - 100 lakh = 50 lakh 50 1 decrease% ! % 100 ! 33 % 150 3

eg : A's salary is 50% more than B's salary If B's salary = Rs. 100 50 $ 50% of B' s salary ! % 100 ! Rs.50 100 A's salary = Rs 100 + Rs.50 = Rs 150 B's salary is less then by A's

25% $

25 1 ! ! 1: 4 100 4

salary by

50 1 % 100 ! 33 % 150 3

Multiply by 100

Decimal into Percent 67 6. 7 $ % 100 ! 670% 10 (i) 6% ! Percent into decimal 6 ! .06 100 0 .5 ! .005 100

(ii) 0.5% !

If C.P. > S.P loss = C.P. - S.P

gain%! S.P & CP . .. gain %100 ! %100 CP .. CP ..

Profit Loss

loss% !

eg : A toy bought for Rs. 72 Sold for Rs. 80 Since S.P. > C.P. gain = Rs.80 - Rs.72 = Rs. 8 gain% ! 8 100 1 % 100 ! % ! 11 % 72 9 9

Cost Price (C.P.) :Buying price of any item Selling price (S.P.) : Price at which you sell

Gain % ; Profit% always calculated on C.P.

eg : Cost . Price of T.V. = Rs. 12500 S.P. of T.V. = Rs 12000 Since C.P. > S.P. loss = Rs. 12500 - Rs.12000= Rs.500 loss% ! Rs. 500 % 100 ! 4% Rs. 25000

Gain% Given

C.P. % (100 " gain%) 100

S.P. % 100 (100 " gain)

Loss% Given

S.P. !

C.P. !

S.P. !

C.P. !

eg :C.P. = Rs. 540 gain % = 10% S.P. ! Rs. 540 % (100 " 10) 100 540 % 110 ! Rs. ! Rs.594 100

Rs.4025 % 100 C.P. ! 100 " 15

S.P. Rs. 6200 % (100 & 15 ) 100

S.P. of a washing machine = Rs.13500 loss % = 20% C.P. ! Rs. Rs.13500 % 100 100 & 20

= Rs.3500

Rs.

Also S.P. = C.P. + gain C.P= S.P. - gain If C.P. = Rs. 72 gain =Rs. 8 S.P. = Rs. 72 + 8 = Rs. 80

eg : S.P.of 10 pens = C.P. of 12 pens C.P. of one pen = Rs. 1 C.P. of 12 pens = Rs.12 S.P. of 10 pens = Rs. 12 C.P. of 10 pens = Rs. 10 S.P. of 10 Pens > C.P. of 10 pens gain- Rs. 12 - Rs.10= Rs. 2 (on 10 pens)

also S.P. =C.P. - loss C.P. = S.P. + loss If C.P. = Rs. 12500 loss = Rs.500 S.P. =Rs. 12500-Rs.500 =Rs 12000 If S.P. = Rs.12000 loss = Rs. 500 C.P. = Rs. 12000 + Rs.500 = Rs. 12500

gain% !

2 % 100 ! 20% 10

SIMPLE INTEREST

eg : A sum of money doubles itself in 8 years what is the rate of interest. Sol. Principal = P ; A = 2P T = 8 years. S.I. = 2P - P = P

S.I. !

Rs.7200 % 18 % 3 100

P % 100 R! ! 12.5% P% 8

P!

If after certain years sum of money : (A) Doubles A= 2P S.I. = 2P-P = P (B) Triples A = 3P S.I. = 3P-P = 2P

Cash borrowed by you from the lander is called principal/ sum borrowed.

P!

S.I. % 100 R% T

Additional money paid by borrower to the lender for the money used S.I. ! P%R% T 100

P = Rs. 2400 R% = 5% P. A. S.I. = Rs. 240 Rs.240 % 100 Time ! Rs.2400 % 5 = 2 years

P = Rs. 2000 R% = 14% P.A. T = 5 years Rs. 2000 % 14 % 15 S.I. ! 100 = Rs. 1400

P = Rs. 3700

If T is given in days

then T ! no. of days years 365

If T is in m o n th s , n o . o f m o n th s ) Then T ! * 'y e a rs 12 + (

S.I. % 100 R% ! P% T

R% ! Rs.280 % 100 1 ! % 56000 % 2 4

eg : P = Rs. 1200 R = 6% P. A.

T ! 146 days !

S.I. ! Rs.

S.I. !

1200 % 6 2 % 100 5

= Rs. 28.80

= Rs. 508.75

Solve :

4

2 % 3 4 % 25 9% 4

5

2

4

5

2% 3 % 2 2 %3 ! 2 3 2 % (2 2 ) 2 3 % 24 = 26-434-2 = 2232 = 4 9 = 36

4

5 "1

To make vary large number's Easy to read, understand and compare ,we use exponents

Exponent

a = a1 a a = a2 a a a = a3 exponent/inden/power

3

,2 ) ,2 ) * ' * ' 2 3 ,2 ) ,5 ) +3 ( ! ! + (1 ! * ' - * ' 4& 3 3 ( +6 ( ,5 ) ,5 ) + * ' * ' +6 ( +6 ( ! 22 6 4 6 8 % ! % ! 3 2 5 9 5 15

4& 2 2

a a a....a = an base a multiplied n times exponential notation/power notation an'a' raised to power n or th n power of 'a' 10210 squared or 10 raised to power 2 3 10 10 cubed or 10 raised to power 3 multiplication powers subtracted

n mn

Express 432 as product of powers of prime no. Prime factorisation 2 432 2 216 2 108 2 54 3 27 3 3 9 3 1

= 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 = 24 33

division

m

(1) am an

base same

(2) a a = a

Powers added

am+n

eg : 23 25 = 23 + 5 = 28

(6) a = 1 m m m-m 1= a a = a = a eg : 2 + 3 + 4 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3

am ,a ) (5) * ' ! m ! am - bm b( b +

Low's of Exponents

24 ,2 ) eg :. * ' ! 4 ! 2 4 - 3 4 3 +3 (

4

eg : Compare (a) 2.7 10

8 8

power same (4) am bm = (a b)m base different eg : (-2)4 (-3)4 = (-2 -3)3 = (+6)4 Standard form/Scientfic notation A 10n 1.0 < A < 10.0 ; n integers eg : 59 = 5.9 101 2 590 = 5.9 10 3 5900 = 5.9 10 Expand form : 47561 4 3 2 0 = 4 10 + 7 10 + 6 10 + 1 10 eg : 1000= 10 100 = 10 10 10 = (25)(25)(25) = 23 53

8 12

; 1.5 10

Compare 2.7 10

8 12

eg : Express in exponential notation 4 (i) 625 = 5 5 55 = 5 3 (ii) -27 = (-3) (-3) (-3)= (-3) 3 2 (iii) a a a b b y y = a b y2 Note : b3a2 b2a3

< 1.5 10

(corresponding) 2 sides and the included = 2 sides and the included angle of a triangle angle of other triangle

P 60 60 Q R B C A

(Corresponding)

Congruent Fig

P L 80

30 Q 80 R M 30

R C

QR = AC R = A Q = C 30 Q

3 sides of a = triangle

A

X P

then by c.p.c.t. P = N RP = LN QP = MN

In rt. angle triangle's The hypotenuse = and one side of a triangle X 5cm (cosrresponding) hypotenuse and one side of other triangle

6cm

C Y

4cm

In D ABC & DXYZ AB = XY = 3cm BC = XZ = 6cm AC = YZ = 4cm D ABC DYXZ [by S.S.S property]

then by c.p.c.t. A = Y B = X C = Z

90 D PQR D ABC Y 4cm Z In rt. DXYZ and rt. DLMN Y = N = 90 hyp. XZ = hyp. LM = 5cm YZ = LN = 4cm DYZX DNLM by R.H.S. propery. M

90 N Then by c.p.c.t X = M Z = L XY = MN

A a z 60 C Q

P 80 x

b B 8cm

40 y R

Given : DABC DPQR to Find : x,y,z, a, b,c. So, (i) AB = PQ (iv) A = P 6cm = z a = 80 (ii) BC = QR (v) B = Q 8cm = y b = 60 (iii) AC = PR (vi) C = R 7cm = x c = 40

If AB = AC C B = C

Addition

Integers

When integers are of (a) like sign (i) 27 + 3 = 30 (ii) 27 + (3) = (27 + 3) = 30 (b) unlike sign (i) 27+ (3) = 24 (sign of bigger absolute value) (ii) 27 + (3) = 24 Subtraction b - (a) = b + (-a) b - (-a) = b + (+a) eg : (i) 27-3= 24 (ii) -27 - (-3) = - 27 + 3 = 24 (iii) 27 (-3) = 27 + 3 = 30 (iv) 3 (-27) = -3 + 27 = 24 (v) 27 (3) = 273 = 30 Properties of addition and subtraction of Integers (i) Closer property : a and b are two integers :then (a + b) and (a b) are also integers (ii) Commutative property (a) a + b = b + a eg : 3 + 4 = 4 + 3 = 7 ; -3 + 4 = 4 + (-3) = 1 (b) a b = b a eg : 3 (4) = 7 ; 4 (3) = 4 + 3 = 7 (iii) Associative property (a) (a + b) + c = a + (b+c) eg :[(3) + (9)] + 17 = (12) + 17 = 5 (3) + [(9) + 17] = (3) + 8 = 5 (b) (a b) c / a (b c) eg :[(3) (9)] 17 = 6 17 = 11 (3) [(9) (17)] = 3 [26] = 3 + 26 = 23 (iv) Additive identity a + 0 =0 + a =a [o is additive identify] eg : 3 + 0 = 0 + 3 = 3 (v) Additive inverse a + (a) = (a) + a = 0 [ a additive inverse (a) ] eg : 3 + (3) = (3) + 3 = 0 When integers are (a) of unlike sign: product is negative a ( b) = (a b) eg . 2 ( 6) = 12 (a) (b) = (a b) eg .( 2) ( 6) = 12 (b) of like sign: product is positive a b = a b eg : 2 5 = 10 (a) (b) = a b (2) (5) = 10

- - - - - - - - - - - - 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 , 1, 2, 3, 4, - - - - - - - - Negative integers Positive integers Neither positive Nor negative Multiplication

Division

When the dividend and divisor are of unlike signs , the quotient is negative other wise positive , If a and b are ( + ve) then (i) (-a) b = (a b) (6) 3 = (6 3) = 2 (ii) a (b) = (a b) 15 (5)= (15 5) = 3 (iii) (a) (b) = (a b) (4) (2)= (4 2) = 2

(iv) 8 4 = 2 Properties :

Properties : If a, b and c are integers (i) Closure property a b = integer eg : (-3) 10 = 30 (ii) Commutative a b = b a eg : (-50) 2 = 2 (-50) = 100 (iii) Associative (a b) c = a (b c) eg : - 1 (3 2) = -6 (-1 3) 2 = -6 (iv) 1 is multiplicative identity ie 1 a = a a 1 a = a 1 = a : eg : 6 1 = 1 6 = 6 (v) for integer a : a 0 = 0 a = 0 eg : 500 0 = 0 (vi) a -1 = ( - 1) a = a eg : (3) 1 = (3) = 3 (vi) Distributive property a ( b c) = a b + a c ; a (b c) = a b a c 3 [4 + 5] = 3 4 + 3 5 3 [4 5] = 3 4 3 5

(i) a o = not integer [Not closed] (ii) If a o then a a = 1 ; 3 3 = 1 a1=a;31=3 a (a) = (a) a = 1 a (1) = a aa=0

Operation precedence [BODMAS] I. (bar) I. BBrackets II. ( ) (small) II. OOf III. { } (curly) III. DDivision Vi [ ] (big) IV. MMultiplication V. AAddition done VI. SSubatract simultaneously

1 4

1 = 4

4 16

eg : eg :

4 3 0 7 7 5 5 1 4 3 1 2 1 3 5

Compare numerator Denominator same Numerator same Compare denominator Find L.C.M. of denominators L.C.M. of (3,5) = 15 1% 5 5 2% 3 6 ! ; ! 3 % 5 15 5 % 3 15

FRACTION

+

5 1 !1 4 4

eg :

Improper fraction denominator > numerator 7 eg : 5 converted into Mixed fraction [combination of whole no. and a proper fraction]

Equivalent fractions 3 3% 2 6 ! ! 5 5 % 2 10 3 6 9 ! ! 3 3 % 2 9 = 5 10 15 ! ! 5 5 % 3 15

Fraction as an operator

1 of 1 2 1 1 % 1! 2 2

1 of 2 2

1 of 1 2 1 1 % 1! 2 2

7 2 ! 1 5 5

; 14

2 14 % 3 " 2 44 ! ! 3 3 3

eg : After spending 4 of her money, Nidhi 9 had Rs. 45 left. How much did she spend 4/9 5/9

1 % 2!1 2

Operation on Fraction

Rs. 36 Rs. 45

Addition

3 1 1 kg " 1 kg 4 6 13 7 kg " kg 4 6

Subtraction

2 1 12 5 2 1 ! 5 4 5 4

Multiplication

(i) Fraction by fraction

Product of numerator ! Product of denomin ator

Division

(i) 3 5 3 4 12 ! % ! 4 1 5 5

L.C.M . (5,4) = 20

12 % 4 " 5 % 5 48 25 23 3 ! ! !1 20 20 20 20 14 2 2 1 eg : 1 % 14 2 % 2 11 3 5 4 15 % 44 12 % 9 11 % 3 5% 4 15 44 12 9 % % 11 3 5 4 20 27 1 5

*

5 5 3 5 1 5 (ii) - 3 ! - ! % ! 4 4 1 4 3 12 1 5 1 6 2 (ii) - ! % ! 3 6 3 5 5 * Reciprocal or multiplicative inverse of a non-zero faction a b a b is ie % !1 b a b a * Multiplicative inverse of 1 is 1 Reciprocal of 0 does not exist.

20 % 5 27 % 1 73 5 5

Product of two proper fraction is less than each of the fraction. *Value of ,product of two improper fraction is more then each of the two factions

Comparing Decimals

Convert

Decimals

eg : Arrange in ascanding order 2.01 , 1.9, 0.95, 3.2 and 2.758 I Change to like decimals 2.010 , 1.900,0.950, 3.200, 3.200, 2.758 II write corresponding numbers 2010, 1900, 950,3200,2758 III Now are angle 950, 1900, 2010, 2753, 3200 IV 0.95, 1.9, 2.01, 2.750, 3.2 Addition like decimals eg : Add 3.01 , 2.58 and 6.9 3 . 01 Keep decimal points under each other 2 . 58 Write digts in the correct place value columns 6 . 9 Add like whole numbers. 12 . 49 unlike decimals Subtraction same decimal place 5.25 , 6.89 different decimal place 5.25 , 6.893 Subtract : 8.96 from 25.1 25 . 10 & 8 .96 16 . 14 change to like decimals , then subtract like whole no. (i) decimal into fraction eg : 3.75 ! Decimals are fractions whose denominators are 10,100,100 e.t.c. eg : 23 . 005 whole number part Decimal part

375 15 ! 100 4

(ii) fraction into decimal 1 1% 25 25 (i) 9 ! 9 " ! 9" ! 9.25 4 4 % 25 100 (ii) 7 7% 8 56 ! ! ! 0.0056 125 125 % 8 1000

Multiplication

decimal by decimal

(i) First multiply as whole no (ii) Count the no. of digits to the right of the decimal point (iii) Add the no. of digits counted (iv) Put decimal point in the product by counting the digits from the right most place eg : 256. 7 0.005 = 1 decimal place 3 decimal place = 1.2835 1+3 = 4 decimal place

by 10,100, 1000

move decimal point in the number to the right by as many places as there are zeros. over 1 eg 0.53 10 = 5.3 0.53 100 = 53 0.53 1000 = 530

Division.

by 10, 100 or 1000 -[shift the decimal point] 15.6 10 = 1.56 [1 place to the left] 30.9 100 = 0. 309 [2 place to the left]

!

165 100

15 10

eg :- cost of 1m cloth = Rs. 15.5 cost of 1.5m cloth = Rs. 15.5 1.5 = Rs. 23.25

eg :- cost of 2.5m cloth = Rs. 41.25 cost of 1m cloth = Rs. 41.25 2.5 = Rs. 16.50

!

!

1 [1 6 5 - 1 5 ] 100

11 100 ! 0 .1 1

Rational Numbers

A number that can be expressed in the form (i) To represent ( i ) 0 A 0

17 7

17 7

p integer q integer

but q / o Comparison

P 17

(i) Positive rational number : p and q both are positive or negative eg : &3 &4 ; 5 &5 (iii) If p ! 0 the

(ii) Negative rational number : p and q both are have opposite sign p 0 0 ! eg , q 8 &6 eg : &3 4 or 5 &5

*Two positive rational numbers can be compared as fractions *(i) Compare the rational no.s ignoring their negative signs (ii) Then reverse the order 7 5 &7 &5 eg : 1 $ 0 5 3 5 3 * A negative rational no. is always less then positive rational no. &2 1 eg : 1 7 2 Division a c a d 7 c 4 - ! % 5such that d / 02 b d b c 6 3

eg : 3 1 33 52 & 34 ! % 17 & 34 17 33 & 104 5 ! ! 3 33 33

(ii)

&9 4

Q -9

B

&9 4

O 0

1 0 5 &9 * Natural numbers + whole numbers + integers + fractions are rational no.s eg : 1, 1 , 6 , 1000 e.t.c. * A fraction is a rational number, but a rational number may or may not be a fraction 3 3 eg : rational no. + fraction ; & rational no but not a fraction 5 5 * There are infinite rational no's between two rational no's : eg : Rational No. b/w &53 and

&1 3

&

Addition Convert each of them into number with a positive denominator. a b a " b [when denominator (i) " ! are same] c c c & 11 7 & 11 " 7 & 4 eg : " ! ! 5 5 5 5 (ii) a c " [Find L. C. M. of b and d] b a eg : &3 5 & 3 (& 5) " ! " 8 & 12 8 12

eg :

Multiplication Product of Rational No. product of numerators ! product of deno min ators

& 11 24 & 11 24 &5 fr o m 36 & 5 11 ) " ' ! 36 24 (

eg :

S u b tr a c t !

&3 % 5 (& 3 ) % 2 % ! 8 % 7 %

2 (& 5 ) % 7 8 (& 5 ) 3 ! 8 28

Multiplicative inverse of

p &p p (&p) is [ ie " ! 0] q q q q

p q is where p, q / 0 q p 3 5 eg : Re ciprocal of is 5 3

Simplest (Lowest) or standard form If denominator is a positive integer and denominator and numerator have no common factor other then 1 6 6 - ( & 3) &2 is ! eg : Standard form of & 15 & 15 - ( & 3) 5 divide by H.C.F of 6 and 15

eg

p p%m p p-m ! also ! w here m ! non & zero int eger q q% m q q-m

2 2 % 5 10 ! ! 3 3 % 5 15

eg : &

PROBABILITY

Collection of all possible out comes eg : In a throw of a die S. S. = (1,2,3,4,5,6)

different possibilities which can occure eg : In tossing a coin outcome are Head and Tail

Sample Space

Probability

Outcome

Deals with the measurement of uncertinity of the occurrence of some event in terms of percent or ratio

Experiment

Event

A bag contains 5 red balls, 8 white balls, 4 green balls and 7 blackballs. If one ball is drawn at random, then probability that it is :

Sort of an experiment eg : getting six in a throw of a die There is equal uncerteinty of each outcome of an experment

7 24 4 1 ! (b) Green P(G) = 24 6 (a) Black i.e. P(B) = (c) P(Not red) = 1P (Red) ! 1 & 5 24 & 5 19 ! ! 24 24 24

0 <

When a coin is tossed Total number of outcomes = 2 ie. T,H 1 Probability of getting head P(H) = 2 1 Probability of getting tail P(T) = 2

Range

Difference of the largest and the smallest observation eg : 15, 33, 24, 47, 91, 82 range = 91 15 = 76

Frequency

Statistics

Science of collection presentation , analysis and interpretation of numerical data

Raw Data /Crude data Unorganised data Each entry in row data is called observation

Grouped Number Tally Frequency Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 6 6 4 3 1

Mean

x " x 2 " x 3 ......... " x n x! 1 ! n Mean of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15

Median

Mode

[The value which occurs the most or has highest frequency] eg : Number Frequency 7 2 10 1 11 1 12 3 13 2 17 1

9x

n

X!

xi

8f % x 8f

f fx

25 27 28 30 32 33

5 4 5 6 3 2

8 f ! 25

8 fix ! 715

[divides the distribution into two equal parts] If n is number of observation (i) When n is odd median = , n " 1 ) observation. * '

+ 2 (

th

3 " 6 " 9 " 12 " 15 x ! 9 x! 5 Quartarly Half yearly 25 20 15 10 5 Ashish Arun Kavish Maya Rita

Students Quartely Half yearly Ashish 10 15 Arun 15 18 Kavish 12 16

th

sun

, n " 1) median ! * ' observatio n + 2 ( , 9 " 1) !* ' observatio n ! 4 + 2 (

th th

Green 19

Blue 55

Yellow Orange 49 34

Maya 20 21

Rita 9 15

,n ) (ii) n is even median = , n ) * ' ob. " * " 1' ob. 2( + +2 ( 2 eg : 11, 10, 12, 9, 8, 16, 15, 14 arreange : 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15,16 ,8 ) ,8 ) * ' ob. " * " 1' ob 4 th ob. " 5 th ob. 11 " 12 +2 ( +2 ( ! 11 . 5 = Median ! .= 2 2 2

th th

th

P Symmetrical Figures a Q a

Rotation terns an object about a fixed point called Center of rotation R R Order of rotational symmetry = 3 P Q 120 (iii) Rotational Symmetry

Q The angle of turning during rotation is called angle of rotation 120 P (ii)

Line of symmetry A Line which divides the figure into two congruent parts is called line (axis) of symmetry

Symmetry

60

60

60

Equilateal Triangle

Square

Regular Pentagon

Regalar Hexagon

SOLID SHAPES

NETS 2 - D Repesentations of a 3- D figure

Solid Shapes

Objects that occupy space and have three dimensions [length, breath and heigh or depth]

Pyramis

Sprere

Cone

Euler's formula V+FE=2 Vertex Face Edges eg : For Triangular pyramid V=4;E=6;F=4 \ 4+4-6=2 Vertex Vertex Face Edge Face Edge

Perimeter

Sum of all sides.

1 ( 2: r ) " 2r 2 22 P! % 2 " 2 % 2 units 7 44 72 P! " 4! units 7 7 P!

1 2 1 2

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