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Concept Maps Class VII

Triangle & It's Properties Lines & Angles Algebraic Expression Area Ratio Symbol Ratio & Proportion Percentage Profit & Loss Simple Interest Exponent Congruent Triangle Integers Fraction Decimals Rational Numbers Probability Statistics Symmetry Solid Shapes Perimeter

TRIANGLE & IT'S PROPERTIES


(iii) 60 C (ii) 15 Z R 60 (i) (i) C P (ii) X (iii)

Classification

30 A

90 B P

15

150 Q B

50

70 C Acute angle D : all angles :greater than 0 less than 90 A 3cm B

Right angled D :an angle equals to 90

Obtuse angle D : an angle :greater than 90, less than 180

Scalene D : No two sides are equal

x x R 3cm Q Isosceles D : Two sides are equal, base angles opposite to equal sides, are equal

60 Y

60 Z

Equilateral D : All sides are equal, each angle has measure 60

A Side : AB, BC, CA Angle : BAC, ABC, BCA Closed curve made up of Vertices : three line segment. A, B, C B C

A P

B Q R

A 30

(i)

P 100

(ii) Exterior angle property : PRS = QPR + PQR 150 R S Y Sum of the length of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side. 3 cm + 5 cm > 6 cm 6 cm + 5 cm > 3 cm 6 cm + 3 cm > 5 cm.

(iii)

50
70 B 80 C

LINES AND ANGLES


Acute (0 < q < 90) l m p q
Parallel lines : never intersects

l m

Right (q = 90) Obtuse (90 < q < 180) Straight (q = 180)

Line : have infinite length

Intersecting lines

Types of angles Line


x 4x 2x 5x Sum of all angles on one side of line is 180

Reflex (180 < q < 180) Complete (q = 360)

5x + 2x + x + 4x = 180

2x 3x x 4x 5x

Sum of all angle around a point is 360 x + 2x + 3x + 4x + 5x = 360

Complementary angles Two angles whose Sum is 90 Supplementary angles Two angles whose sum is 180 Vertically opp. angles
1 4 3 2

Angles made by transversal


Corresponding angles (1, 5) (2, 6) (3, 7) (4, 8) Co.int. Angles (4, 6) ) (3, 5) Alternate Int. angles (3, 6) (4, 5) Alternat Ext. angle (1, 8) (2, 7)
7

2 4 6

3 5

1 = 3 ; 4 = 2 A
1 2

If lines are ||el then

Adjacent angles 1and2 are adjacent angles Common vertex Linear pair two adjacent angles whose sum is 180 150 P
O

B common arm C opp.arm R 30 Q

Corresponrding angles are equal x+y

Alternate angles are equal x y

Sum of Co. Int. angles is 180

ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION
Variables Constants

(x, y, z,a, b,t,......) Its value is not fixed

(2, 3, -4, 100.........) It has fixed value

Expression : 9x - 3yx + 10

Mathematical Operation
[ +, - , , ]

2x + 3y x + 3x - 5x + 6

Standerd form

(i) 3xy + 5x - 5x + 6 (ii) 6 - 5x + 5x +3xy


2 2

Terms

9x

-3yx

10

9 x x -3 x y Factors Factors

Numerical coefficient (-3) Coefficient xy is -3


2

In -3x2y
of x is -3xy -3y is 2 x

Unlike terms:

Like Terms :

x + 3y ; x2 + 3
Different algebraic factors 2 3x y = 3 x x y 3xy = 3 x y y
2

-3x is 7

Same algebraic factors 6xab = 6 x a b -3abx = -3 a b x addition 9ab + 5ab = (9 + 5) ab = 14ab Subtraction 9ab 4ab = (9 4)ab = 5ab

Types of Algebraic Exprission


Monomial One term : eg : 3x, -2t ; 3

Value of Expression

Using Algebraic Expression

Binomial

Two terms : eg : 3x -2t ; 3S+2

at x = a [put x = a] 2 eg : value of x -5x at x = -1 2 (-1) -5(-1) = 1 + 5 = 6

Formulas

Rules for no. patterns Successor of n n+1

Trinomial

Three terms : eg : 3x + 2y - 5 Perimeter Area Triangle = 1 b h 2 Rectangle = l b

Even no. =2n odd no (2n +1) or (2n-1) 3, 6, 9, .......3n.......

Quadrinomials

Four terms : eg ab + 2pq + 3rs + t

Equilateral triangle 3 a ; where a is side Square 4 l ; where l is side Regular pentagon 5 s ; where s is side

AREA
eg. S D 4 A 2 P A h1 B a unit A h3 B h1 C B P
1 ah 1 2

R 8 C 2 B A h2 a unit C Area of Path /verandah = Ar. PQRS - Ar. ABCD Q 4unit 2unit

2unit Area of cross road = (8 2 + 4 2 2 2) unit2 8 unit r

eg.

2cm R

4+2+2

R = 3 + 2 cm = 5 r = 3 cm
2

8+2+2

Area = pr r = Area p r=d 2

Area of shaded region = p(5)2 - p (3)2

Triangle

Circle

Parallelogram

h1 a unit

h2

h1 h2

C a Q a unit 1 1 Area = 2 a h1 = 2 bh2 = 1 ch3 Sq. units 2 base = 2Area altitude altitude = 2Area base 3 2 Area of Equilateral D = 4 (side)

Area = a h1 sq. unit = b h2 sq. units base = Area corresponding altitude altitude = Area corresponding base

Rhombus : d l unit
Area = l b sq. units length = (Area breadth) unit breadth = (Area length) unit d = l2 + b2

Rectangle
h a h a a d1 d2 a

Area = a h sq. units = Square Trapezium


a D

1 d d2 sq. units 2 1

Quadrilateral :

d
h A h1 d h2 C

a unit
A = a a sq. unit Side = area unit d=2a

1 A = h (a +b) sq. units 2


1 =2

When to calculate Area :


(a) Painting / white washing (b) levelling (c) Ploughing (d) grazing / watering

1 cm2 = 100 mm2 2 2 1 m = 10000 cm 2 1 hectare = 10000 m

Area diagonal sum of offsets = 1 d [h1 + h2] sq. units 2

RATIO SYMBOL
Age of A 7 eg : ! Age of B 5
age of A = 7x age of B = 5x

Convert ratio into fraction 4 > 3 Compare numerator when 7 7 Denominator same 5 5 When Numerator same eg : < 4 3 Compare denominator
eg : eg :

After 6 years age of A ! 7x " 6 age of B ! 5x " 6 age of A 5 ! age of B 4


# ages of A 7 x " 6 5 ! ! ages of B 5 x " 6 4

1<2 3 5

find L.C. M. of denominators L.C.M. of (3,5)=15

If a : b is in simplest form H.C.F. (a , b)=1 eg :18 = 18

15 = 5 ; 23 = 6 35 15 53 15 6 : 15 > 5 : 15

9= 2 27 27 9 3

H.C.F. of 18 and 27 is 9

H.C.F of 2 and 3 is 1

Comparison of two ratios

Simplest form/lowest term

To compare two quantities, the units must be the same eg : ratio of 3 km to 3m 3km : 3m = 3000 m : 3m =1000 : 1

a and b should be of same kind

a : b = a anticedent b consequent

Equivalent Ratio

1:2=2:4=3:6 2 3 1 = 2 = 4 6 1 12 13 or. 2 = 22 = 23

eg : divide Rs. 5000 in Ratio 3 : 5 Rs. 5000 3 = Rs. 5000 3 = Rs. 1875 8 3+5 Rs. 5000 5 = Rs. 5000 5 = Rs. 3125 8 3+5

eg : If 3 A = 2B = 5C the find A : B : C Let 3 A = 2B = 5C = K (K 0) \ 3 A = K ; 2 B = K ; 5C = K A = K ; B = K ; C= K 3 2 5 L.C.M. (3,2,5) = 30 A =10 3 ; B = 15 2 ; C = 6 5 \ A : B : C = 10 : 15 : 6


10 K 15 K 6K

eg : If A : B = 2 : 3 and B : C = 5 : 4
A then A : C = B B = 2 5 = 5 C 3 4 6 A:C=5:6

RATIO & PROPORTION


If a : b :: c : d ad = bc or
extreme terms a c If b = d

If a, b, c are in continued proportion

fourth proportion

(i) a : b = b : c a b (ii) ! b c
( iii) b 2 ! ac $ b !
mean proportion a b b= c

middle term/means

ac

Condition of proportionity ad = bc eg : are 20 , 30, 40, 50, in proportion. 20 5 30 40 Not in proportion

Third proportion

eg : 8, 12 and x in continued proportion then


8 12 12= x

x = 12 12= 18 8

Continued Proportion Proportion


eg : find fourth pupoltion to 15, 20 and 30
15 30 20 = x x = 3015 20= 40

eg : No. of chair 9 7 #

Cost of chair Rs. 720 Rs. x

eg : mean proportion b/w 2 and 8 b ! 2% 8 ! 2% 2% 2% 2 ! 4

9 Rs. 720 7 % 720 ! $ x! 7 Rs. x 9 Rs. x = Rs. 560

A = K ; B = K ; C= K 3 2 5 L.C.M. (3,2,5) = 30 A =10 K 10 3 ;B


15 K = 15 2 ;

If a, b, c, d are in continued proportion then


a b= c = b c d

=6 K 65

\ A : B : C = 10 : 15 : 6

PERCENTAGE
eg : Meeta saves Rs 400 from her salary. If this is 10% of her salary. What is her salary ; Sol. Let her salary be Rs x 10% of Rs x = Rs 400 eg : 5% of 25 5 % 25 ! 1.25 100 eg : 20% less than 70 20 20% of 70 ! % 70 ! 14 100 eg : Total students in class = 25 Number of girls = 15

10 % Rs. x ! Rs.400 100 400 % 100 Rs. x ! Rs ! Rs.4000 10

% of girls !

15 % 100 ! 60% 25

% of boys = 100 - 60 = 40%

20% less then 70 = 70 - 14 = 56


eg : 10% more of 90

In c re a s e d Va lu e & O rig in a l v a lu e % 100 O rig in a l v a lu e

10% of 90 = 100 90 = 9 10% more of 90 = 90 + 9 = 99

10

Original value & Decreased value % 100 Original value

eg : School team won 6 games this year; 4 games last year; increase = 6 - 4 = 2 2 Increase% ! % 100 ! 50 % 4

eg :

Ram's Report Shyam's Report Total : 320/400 Total : 300/360 Percent : 80% Percent : 63.33%

In 10 years number of illitrate persons in a countery decreased from 150 lakh to 100 lakhs decrease = 150 - 100 lakh = 50 lakh 50 1 decrease% ! % 100 ! 33 % 150 3

eg : A's salary is 50% more than B's salary If B's salary = Rs. 100 50 $ 50% of B' s salary ! % 100 ! Rs.50 100 A's salary = Rs 100 + Rs.50 = Rs 150 B's salary is less then by A's

Percent into Ratio

25% $

25 1 ! ! 1: 4 100 4

salary by

50 1 % 100 ! 33 % 150 3
Multiply by 100

To convert Percent into Fraction 30% $ 30 3 ! 100 100

Fraction into Percent 3 3 (i) $ % 100 ! 60% 5 5 3 3 300 6 (ii) $ % 100 ! % ! 42 % 7 7 7 7

Ratio into Percent 3 3 3:8$ $ % 100 ! 37.5% 8 8

Decimal into Percent 67 6. 7 $ % 100 ! 670% 10 (i) 6% ! Percent into decimal 6 ! .06 100 0 .5 ! .005 100

(ii) 0.5% !

PROFIT & LOSS


If C.P. > S.P loss = C.P. - S.P

If C.P. < S. P. gain = S.P. -C.P.


gain%! S.P & CP . .. gain %100 ! %100 CP .. CP ..

Profit Loss

loss% !

C.P. & S.P. loss ! % 100 C.P. C.P.

eg : A toy bought for Rs. 72 Sold for Rs. 80 Since S.P. > C.P. gain = Rs.80 - Rs.72 = Rs. 8 gain% ! 8 100 1 % 100 ! % ! 11 % 72 9 9

Cost Price (C.P.) :Buying price of any item Selling price (S.P.) : Price at which you sell
Gain % ; Profit% always calculated on C.P.

eg : Cost . Price of T.V. = Rs. 12500 S.P. of T.V. = Rs 12000 Since C.P. > S.P. loss = Rs. 12500 - Rs.12000= Rs.500 loss% ! Rs. 500 % 100 ! 4% Rs. 25000

Gain% Given
C.P. % (100 " gain%) 100
S.P. % 100 (100 " gain)

Loss% Given

S.P. !

C.P. !

S.P. !

C.P. % (100 & loss%) 100

C.P. !

S.P. % 100 (100 & loss%)

eg :C.P. = Rs. 540 gain % = 10% S.P. ! Rs. 540 % (100 " 10) 100 540 % 110 ! Rs. ! Rs.594 100

S.P.= Rs 4025 gain% = 15


Rs.4025 % 100 C.P. ! 100 " 15

eg . C.P. of a cooler = Rs. 6200 loss% = 15%


S.P. Rs. 6200 % (100 & 15 ) 100

S.P. of a washing machine = Rs.13500 loss % = 20% C.P. ! Rs. Rs.13500 % 100 100 & 20

4025 % 100 ! Rs. 115


= Rs.3500

Rs.

6200 % 85 ! Rs. 5270 100

13500 % 100 ! Rs.16875 80

Also S.P. = C.P. + gain C.P= S.P. - gain If C.P. = Rs. 72 gain =Rs. 8 S.P. = Rs. 72 + 8 = Rs. 80

eg : S.P.of 10 pens = C.P. of 12 pens C.P. of one pen = Rs. 1 C.P. of 12 pens = Rs.12 S.P. of 10 pens = Rs. 12 C.P. of 10 pens = Rs. 10 S.P. of 10 Pens > C.P. of 10 pens gain- Rs. 12 - Rs.10= Rs. 2 (on 10 pens)

also S.P. =C.P. - loss C.P. = S.P. + loss If C.P. = Rs. 12500 loss = Rs.500 S.P. =Rs. 12500-Rs.500 =Rs 12000 If S.P. = Rs.12000 loss = Rs. 500 C.P. = Rs. 12000 + Rs.500 = Rs. 12500

If S.P. = Rs 80 gain = Rs. 8 C.P. = Rs.80 - Rs. 8 = Rs. 72

gain% !

2 % 100 ! 20% 10

SIMPLE INTEREST
eg : A sum of money doubles itself in 8 years what is the rate of interest. Sol. Principal = P ; A = 2P T = 8 years. S.I. = 2P - P = P

P = Rs. 7200 R = 18% P.A. T = 3 years

S.I. !

Rs.7200 % 18 % 3 100

eg : S.I. = Rs. 450 Time = 3years Rate = 5% P.A.

P % 100 R! ! 12.5% P% 8

= Rs. 3888 Amount = P + I = Rs. 7200 + Rs. 3888 = Rs. 11088

P!

Rs.450 % 100 ! Rs.3000 5% 3

If after certain years sum of money : (A) Doubles A= 2P S.I. = 2P-P = P (B) Triples A = 3P S.I. = 3P-P = 2P

Sum of Interest and the principal A = P + S. I.

Cash borrowed by you from the lander is called principal/ sum borrowed.

P!

S.I. % 100 R% T

Principal (P) Amount (A)

Time (T) Interest S.I.

Simple Interest S.I.


Additional money paid by borrower to the lender for the money used S.I. ! P%R% T 100

Rate (R) Percent

Time for which money is barrowed (calculated in years) S.I. % 100 T! R% T


P = Rs. 2400 R% = 5% P. A. S.I. = Rs. 240 Rs.240 % 100 Time ! Rs.2400 % 5 = 2 years

P = Rs. 2000 R% = 14% P.A. T = 5 years Rs. 2000 % 14 % 15 S.I. ! 100 = Rs. 1400
P = Rs. 3700

Sum paid for use of Rs. 100

If T is given in days
then T ! no. of days years 365

If T is in m o n th s , n o . o f m o n th s ) Then T ! * 'y e a rs 12 + (

S.I. % 100 R% ! P% T

S.I. = Rs. 280 P = Rs. 56000 T = 2 years


R% ! Rs.280 % 100 1 ! % 56000 % 2 4

eg : P = Rs. 1200 R = 6% P. A.

1 5 T ! 2 years ! years 2 2 1 11 R ! 5 %P.A. ! % 2 2 S.I. ! Rs.3700 11 5 % % 100 2 2

T ! 146 days !
S.I. ! Rs.

146 2 ! years 365 5

eg : P = Rs 2400 R = 8% P.A. T = 6 month = 6 year 12

S.I. !

1200 % 6 2 % 100 5

Rs.2400 % 8 6 % 100 12 ! Rs. 96

= Rs. 28.80

= Rs. 508.75

Solve :
4

2 % 3 4 % 25 9% 4
5

2
4

10 m= 1km 10 cm= 1km


5

2% 3 % 2 2 %3 ! 2 3 2 % (2 2 ) 2 3 % 24 = 26-434-2 = 2232 = 4 9 = 36
4

5 "1

To make vary large number's Easy to read, understand and compare ,we use exponents

Exponent

eg : (i) 3x = 81 = 3 3 3 3 = 34 x=4 (ii) (-5) x = -125 = (-5) (-5) (-5) = (-5)3 x = 3

a = a1 a a = a2 a a a = a3 exponent/inden/power
3

,2 ) ,5 ) * ' % * ' +3 ( +6 ( eg : 4 2 ,5 ) ,2 ) * ' % * ' +6 ( +3 (


,2 ) ,2 ) * ' * ' 2 3 ,2 ) ,5 ) +3 ( ! ! + (1 ! * ' - * ' 4& 3 3 ( +6 ( ,5 ) ,5 ) + * ' * ' +6 ( +6 ( ! 22 6 4 6 8 % ! % ! 3 2 5 9 5 15
4& 2 2

a a a....a = an base a multiplied n times exponential notation/power notation an'a' raised to power n or th n power of 'a' 10210 squared or 10 raised to power 2 3 10 10 cubed or 10 raised to power 3 multiplication powers subtracted
n mn

Express 432 as product of powers of prime no. Prime factorisation 2 432 2 216 2 108 2 54 3 27 3 3 9 3 1

= 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 = 24 33

division
m

(1) am an
base same

(2) a a = a

Powers added

am+n

[m > n] base same eg : 35 32 = 35-2 = 33 (3) (am)n = amn

eg : 23 25 = 23 + 5 = 28

(6) a = 1 m m m-m 1= a a = a = a eg : 2 + 3 + 4 = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3

am ,a ) (5) * ' ! m ! am - bm b( b +

Low's of Exponents
24 ,2 ) eg :. * ' ! 4 ! 2 4 - 3 4 3 +3 (
4

eg : (53)7 = 537 = 521


eg : Compare (a) 2.7 10
8 8

power same (4) am bm = (a b)m base different eg : (-2)4 (-3)4 = (-2 -3)3 = (+6)4 Standard form/Scientfic notation A 10n 1.0 < A < 10.0 ; n integers eg : 59 = 5.9 101 2 590 = 5.9 10 3 5900 = 5.9 10 Expand form : 47561 4 3 2 0 = 4 10 + 7 10 + 6 10 + 1 10 eg : 1000= 10 100 = 10 10 10 = (25)(25)(25) = 23 53

; 1.5 10 Same Compare 8 8 2.7 10 ; 1.5 10 different (b) 2.7 10


8 12

; 1.5 10

Compare 2.7 10
8 12

eg : Express in exponential notation 4 (i) 625 = 5 5 55 = 5 3 (ii) -27 = (-3) (-3) (-3)= (-3) 3 2 (iii) a a a b b y y = a b y2 Note : b3a2 b2a3

< 1.5 10

(corresponding) 2 sides and the included = 2 sides and the included angle of a triangle angle of other triangle
P 60 60 Q R B C A

(Corresponding)

Congruent Fig
P L 80

Equal Shape and Equal Size


30 Q 80 R M 30

Criteria for Congruence of Triangle


R C

In DPQR and DABC PQ = BC = 5cm P = B = 60 PR = AB = 4cm DPQR

QR = AC R = A Q = C 30 Q

DBCA [by S.A.S property]

3 sides of a = triangle
A

Corresponding three sides of other triangle


X P

30 A P B mPQR = m ABC PQR ABC

In DPQR and DLMN Q = M = 30 QR = LM = 5cm R = L = 80 DQRP DMLN by A. S. A. Property

then by c.p.c.t. P = N RP = LN QP = MN

In rt. angle triangle's The hypotenuse = and one side of a triangle X 5cm (cosrresponding) hypotenuse and one side of other triangle

6cm

C Y

4cm

In D ABC & DXYZ AB = XY = 3cm BC = XZ = 6cm AC = YZ = 4cm D ABC DYXZ [by S.S.S property]

then by c.p.c.t. A = Y B = X C = Z

90 D PQR D ABC Y 4cm Z In rt. DXYZ and rt. DLMN Y = N = 90 hyp. XZ = hyp. LM = 5cm YZ = LN = 4cm DYZX DNLM by R.H.S. propery. M

90 N Then by c.p.c.t X = M Z = L XY = MN

Corresponding vertex : AP ; BQ ; RC Corresponding sides : AB = PQ ; BC = QR ; AC = PR Corresponding angles : AP ; BQ ; CR

A a z 60 C Q

P 80 x

b B 8cm

40 y R

eg : In DAOB and DQOP AO = OQ AOB = QOP P A OB = OP

A Q B In DACQ and DABQ C = B = 90 hyp. QA = hyp. QA CQ = BQ DACQ DABQ by R.H.S. property

Given : DABC DPQR to Find : x,y,z, a, b,c. So, (i) AB = PQ (iv) A = P 6cm = z a = 80 (ii) BC = QR (v) B = Q 8cm = y b = 60 (iii) AC = PR (vi) C = R 7cm = x c = 40

Q DAOB DQOP by S.A.S. property

If AB = AC C B = C

Addition

Integers
When integers are of (a) like sign (i) 27 + 3 = 30 (ii) 27 + (3) = (27 + 3) = 30 (b) unlike sign (i) 27+ (3) = 24 (sign of bigger absolute value) (ii) 27 + (3) = 24 Subtraction b - (a) = b + (-a) b - (-a) = b + (+a) eg : (i) 27-3= 24 (ii) -27 - (-3) = - 27 + 3 = 24 (iii) 27 (-3) = 27 + 3 = 30 (iv) 3 (-27) = -3 + 27 = 24 (v) 27 (3) = 273 = 30 Properties of addition and subtraction of Integers (i) Closer property : a and b are two integers :then (a + b) and (a b) are also integers (ii) Commutative property (a) a + b = b + a eg : 3 + 4 = 4 + 3 = 7 ; -3 + 4 = 4 + (-3) = 1 (b) a b = b a eg : 3 (4) = 7 ; 4 (3) = 4 + 3 = 7 (iii) Associative property (a) (a + b) + c = a + (b+c) eg :[(3) + (9)] + 17 = (12) + 17 = 5 (3) + [(9) + 17] = (3) + 8 = 5 (b) (a b) c / a (b c) eg :[(3) (9)] 17 = 6 17 = 11 (3) [(9) (17)] = 3 [26] = 3 + 26 = 23 (iv) Additive identity a + 0 =0 + a =a [o is additive identify] eg : 3 + 0 = 0 + 3 = 3 (v) Additive inverse a + (a) = (a) + a = 0 [ a additive inverse (a) ] eg : 3 + (3) = (3) + 3 = 0 When integers are (a) of unlike sign: product is negative a ( b) = (a b) eg . 2 ( 6) = 12 (a) (b) = (a b) eg .( 2) ( 6) = 12 (b) of like sign: product is positive a b = a b eg : 2 5 = 10 (a) (b) = a b (2) (5) = 10

[All natural numbers + 0 + negative of counting numbers]


- - - - - - - - - - - - 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 , 1, 2, 3, 4, - - - - - - - - Negative integers Positive integers Neither positive Nor negative Multiplication

Division

When the dividend and divisor are of unlike signs , the quotient is negative other wise positive , If a and b are ( + ve) then (i) (-a) b = (a b) (6) 3 = (6 3) = 2 (ii) a (b) = (a b) 15 (5)= (15 5) = 3 (iii) (a) (b) = (a b) (4) (2)= (4 2) = 2

(iv) 8 4 = 2 Properties :

Properties : If a, b and c are integers (i) Closure property a b = integer eg : (-3) 10 = 30 (ii) Commutative a b = b a eg : (-50) 2 = 2 (-50) = 100 (iii) Associative (a b) c = a (b c) eg : - 1 (3 2) = -6 (-1 3) 2 = -6 (iv) 1 is multiplicative identity ie 1 a = a a 1 a = a 1 = a : eg : 6 1 = 1 6 = 6 (v) for integer a : a 0 = 0 a = 0 eg : 500 0 = 0 (vi) a -1 = ( - 1) a = a eg : (3) 1 = (3) = 3 (vi) Distributive property a ( b c) = a b + a c ; a (b c) = a b a c 3 [4 + 5] = 3 4 + 3 5 3 [4 5] = 3 4 3 5

(i) a o = not integer [Not closed] (ii) If a o then a a = 1 ; 3 3 = 1 a1=a;31=3 a (a) = (a) a = 1 a (1) = a aa=0

Operation precedence [BODMAS] I. (bar) I. BBrackets II. ( ) (small) II. OOf III. { } (curly) III. DDivision Vi [ ] (big) IV. MMultiplication V. AAddition done VI. SSubatract simultaneously

1 4

1 = 4

4 16

eg : eg :

4 3 0 7 7 5 5 1 4 3 1 2 1 3 5

Compare numerator Denominator same Numerator same Compare denominator Find L.C.M. of denominators L.C.M. of (3,5) = 15 1% 5 5 2% 3 6 ! ; ! 3 % 5 15 5 % 3 15

FRACTION
+
5 1 !1 4 4

eg :

Decimal fraction Denominator is 10,100 , 1000, 10000 - - - 1 3 eg : ; e.t.c. 10 100

Improper fraction denominator > numerator 7 eg : 5 converted into Mixed fraction [combination of whole no. and a proper fraction]

Proper fraction numerator < denominator eg : 5 7

Equivalent fractions 3 3% 2 6 ! ! 5 5 % 2 10 3 6 9 ! ! 3 3 % 2 9 = 5 10 15 ! ! 5 5 % 3 15

Fraction as an operator
1 of 1 2 1 1 % 1! 2 2

1 of 2 2

1 of 1 2 1 1 % 1! 2 2

7 2 ! 1 5 5

; 14

2 14 % 3 " 2 44 ! ! 3 3 3

eg : After spending 4 of her money, Nidhi 9 had Rs. 45 left. How much did she spend 4/9 5/9

1 % 2!1 2

Operation on Fraction
Rs. 36 Rs. 45

Addition
3 1 1 kg " 1 kg 4 6 13 7 kg " kg 4 6

Subtraction
2 1 12 5 2 1 ! 5 4 5 4

Multiplication
(i) Fraction by fraction
Product of numerator ! Product of denomin ator

Division
(i) 3 5 3 4 12 ! % ! 4 1 5 5

L.C.M . (5,4) = 20

L.C.M. (4,6) = 12 5 (13 % 3 " 7 % 2)kg 53 ! kg ! 4 kg 12 12 12 9 16 1 1 1 1 ! % % eg : 4 % 3 % 2 5 3 2 5 3 9 % 16 % 1 24 4 ! ! ! 4 2% 5% 3 5 5

12 % 4 " 5 % 5 48 25 23 3 ! ! !1 20 20 20 20 14 2 2 1 eg : 1 % 14 2 % 2 11 3 5 4 15 % 44 12 % 9 11 % 3 5% 4 15 44 12 9 % % 11 3 5 4 20 27 1 5

3 5 3 % 5 15 eg : % ! ! 4 7 4 % 7 28 (ii) Fraction by whole number 3 3 2 3%1 3 %2! % ! ! 4 4 1 2%1 2


*

5 5 3 5 1 5 (ii) - 3 ! - ! % ! 4 4 1 4 3 12 1 5 1 6 2 (ii) - ! % ! 3 6 3 5 5 * Reciprocal or multiplicative inverse of a non-zero faction a b a b is ie % !1 b a b a * Multiplicative inverse of 1 is 1 Reciprocal of 0 does not exist.

20 % 5 27 % 1 73 5 5

Product of two proper fraction is less than each of the fraction. *Value of ,product of two improper fraction is more then each of the two factions

Comparing Decimals

Convert

Decimals
eg : Arrange in ascanding order 2.01 , 1.9, 0.95, 3.2 and 2.758 I Change to like decimals 2.010 , 1.900,0.950, 3.200, 3.200, 2.758 II write corresponding numbers 2010, 1900, 950,3200,2758 III Now are angle 950, 1900, 2010, 2753, 3200 IV 0.95, 1.9, 2.01, 2.750, 3.2 Addition like decimals eg : Add 3.01 , 2.58 and 6.9 3 . 01 Keep decimal points under each other 2 . 58 Write digts in the correct place value columns 6 . 9 Add like whole numbers. 12 . 49 unlike decimals Subtraction same decimal place 5.25 , 6.89 different decimal place 5.25 , 6.893 Subtract : 8.96 from 25.1 25 . 10 & 8 .96 16 . 14 change to like decimals , then subtract like whole no. (i) decimal into fraction eg : 3.75 ! Decimals are fractions whose denominators are 10,100,100 e.t.c. eg : 23 . 005 whole number part Decimal part

375 15 ! 100 4

(ii) fraction into decimal 1 1% 25 25 (i) 9 ! 9 " ! 9" ! 9.25 4 4 % 25 100 (ii) 7 7% 8 56 ! ! ! 0.0056 125 125 % 8 1000

Multiplication

decimal by decimal
(i) First multiply as whole no (ii) Count the no. of digits to the right of the decimal point (iii) Add the no. of digits counted (iv) Put decimal point in the product by counting the digits from the right most place eg : 256. 7 0.005 = 1 decimal place 3 decimal place = 1.2835 1+3 = 4 decimal place

by 10,100, 1000
move decimal point in the number to the right by as many places as there are zeros. over 1 eg 0.53 10 = 5.3 0.53 100 = 53 0.53 1000 = 530

Division.

by 10, 100 or 1000 -[shift the decimal point] 15.6 10 = 1.56 [1 place to the left] 30.9 100 = 0. 309 [2 place to the left]

by decimal no. 0.165 by 1.5


!

by whole number 1.575 35 = 1 [1575 35] 1000

165 100

15 10

eg :- cost of 1m cloth = Rs. 15.5 cost of 1.5m cloth = Rs. 15.5 1.5 = Rs. 23.25

eg :- cost of 2.5m cloth = Rs. 41.25 cost of 1m cloth = Rs. 41.25 2.5 = Rs. 16.50

!
!

1 [1 6 5 - 1 5 ] 100
11 100 ! 0 .1 1

= 1 [45] = 0.045 1000

Rational number on number line

Rational Numbers
A number that can be expressed in the form (i) To represent ( i ) 0 A 0
17 7

17 7

p integer q integer

but q / o Comparison

P 17

(i) Positive rational number : p and q both are positive or negative eg : &3 &4 ; 5 &5 (iii) If p ! 0 the

(ii) Negative rational number : p and q both are have opposite sign p 0 0 ! eg , q 8 &6 eg : &3 4 or 5 &5

divide into 7 equal parts

*Two positive rational numbers can be compared as fractions *(i) Compare the rational no.s ignoring their negative signs (ii) Then reverse the order 7 5 &7 &5 eg : 1 $ 0 5 3 5 3 * A negative rational no. is always less then positive rational no. &2 1 eg : 1 7 2 Division a c a d 7 c 4 - ! % 5such that d / 02 b d b c 6 3
eg : 3 1 33 52 & 34 ! % 17 & 34 17 33 & 104 5 ! ! 3 33 33

(ii)

&9 4

Q -9

B
&9 4

O 0

1 0 5 &9 * Natural numbers + whole numbers + integers + fractions are rational no.s eg : 1, 1 , 6 , 1000 e.t.c. * A fraction is a rational number, but a rational number may or may not be a fraction 3 3 eg : rational no. + fraction ; & rational no but not a fraction 5 5 * There are infinite rational no's between two rational no's : eg : Rational No. b/w &53 and
&1 3

divide into 4 equal parts

&

3 &9 &1 &5 &9 &7 &6 &5 ! ; ! # 1 1 1 5 15 3 15 15 15 15 15

Addition Convert each of them into number with a positive denominator. a b a " b [when denominator (i) " ! are same] c c c & 11 7 & 11 " 7 & 4 eg : " ! ! 5 5 5 5 (ii) a c " [Find L. C. M. of b and d] b a eg : &3 5 & 3 (& 5) " ! " 8 & 12 8 12

Subtraction Add the additive inverse ie


eg :

Multiplication Product of Rational No. product of numerators ! product of deno min ators

a c a ,& c ) & ! "* ' b d b + a (


& 11 24 & 11 24 &5 fr o m 36 & 5 11 ) " ' ! 36 24 (

eg :

S u b tr a c t !

& 5 , & * 36 + & 10 " 33 23 ! ! 72 72

&3 % 5 (& 3 ) % 2 % ! 8 % 7 %

2 (& 5 ) % 7 8 (& 5 ) 3 ! 8 28

Multiplicative inverse of

L. C. M. of 8 and 12 = 24 ( & 3) % 3 " ( & 5) % (2) & 19 ! 24 24 Additive Inverse of


p &p p (&p) is [ ie " ! 0] q q q q

p q is where p, q / 0 q p 3 5 eg : Re ciprocal of is 5 3
Simplest (Lowest) or standard form If denominator is a positive integer and denominator and numerator have no common factor other then 1 6 6 - ( & 3) &2 is ! eg : Standard form of & 15 & 15 - ( & 3) 5 divide by H.C.F of 6 and 15
eg

Equivalent Rational no.

p p%m p p-m ! also ! w here m ! non & zero int eger q q% m q q-m

2 2 % 5 10 ! ! 3 3 % 5 15

5 5 % &2 & 10 ! ! 9 9 % &2 & 18

eg : Additive inverse of (i) & 15 15 is 2 2 (ii) 4 &4 is 9 9

equivalent Rational no.


eg : &

equivalent Rational no.

3 9 9% 11 ! ;(&3) % x ! 9 % 11 ; x ! ; x ! &33 11 x (&3)

PROBABILITY
Collection of all possible out comes eg : In a throw of a die S. S. = (1,2,3,4,5,6)

different possibilities which can occure eg : In tossing a coin outcome are Head and Tail

Sample Space

Any kind of activity eg : Tossing a coin

Probability
Outcome
Deals with the measurement of uncertinity of the occurrence of some event in terms of percent or ratio

Experiment

Event

A bag contains 5 red balls, 8 white balls, 4 green balls and 7 blackballs. If one ball is drawn at random, then probability that it is :

Equally likely outcomes


Sort of an experiment eg : getting six in a throw of a die There is equal uncerteinty of each outcome of an experment

7 24 4 1 ! (b) Green P(G) = 24 6 (a) Black i.e. P(B) = (c) P(Not red) = 1P (Red) ! 1 & 5 24 & 5 19 ! ! 24 24 24

Probability of an event A = P (A) !

Num ber of outcom es in favour of A Total num ber of possible outcom es

Probability of getting a number greater than 7 0 1/4

0 <

P (A) < 1 1/2 Even Chance 3/4 Good Chance

Probability of getting Tuesday after Monday 1 Sure Chance

When a coin is tossed Total number of outcomes = 2 ie. T,H 1 Probability of getting head P(H) = 2 1 Probability of getting tail P(T) = 2

Poor No Chance Chance

Range
Difference of the largest and the smallest observation eg : 15, 33, 24, 47, 91, 82 range = 91 15 = 76

Frequency

Statistics
Science of collection presentation , analysis and interpretation of numerical data

Number of times an observation occurs in eg : 3,5,4,9,9,19 , frequency of 9 is 3 Frequency Distribuation Table

Raw Data /Crude data Unorganised data Each entry in row data is called observation

Array/arranged data (organised data)

Measure of central tendency

Ungrouped Number Tally Frequency Marks 1 2 2 4 3 2 4 6 5 3 6 3

Grouped Number Tally Frequency Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 6 6 4 3 1

Mean
x " x 2 " x 3 ......... " x n x! 1 ! n Mean of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15

Median

Mode
[The value which occurs the most or has highest frequency] eg : Number Frequency 7 2 10 1 11 1 12 3 13 2 17 1

9x
n

X!
xi

8f % x 8f
f fx

25 27 28 30 32 33

5 4 5 6 3 2
8 f ! 25

125 108 140 180 96 66


8 fix ! 715

[divides the distribution into two equal parts] If n is number of observation (i) When n is odd median = , n " 1 ) observation. * '
+ 2 (
th

3 " 6 " 9 " 12 " 15 x ! 9 x! 5 Quartarly Half yearly 25 20 15 10 5 Ashish Arun Kavish Maya Rita
Students Quartely Half yearly Ashish 10 15 Arun 15 18 Kavish 12 16

Mode = 12 [Highest frequency = 3] Favourate Colour No. of Students Red 43 60 50 40


th

sun

3,1,4,3,6,5,9,5,3 arreange in ascending order 1,2,3,3,4,5,5,6,9


, n " 1) median ! * ' observatio n + 2 ( , 9 " 1) !* ' observatio n ! 4 + 2 (
th th

Green 19

Blue 55

Yellow Orange 49 34

Scale : 1 unit : 10 Students

Maya 20 21

Rita 9 15

,n ) (ii) n is even median = , n ) * ' ob. " * " 1' ob. 2( + +2 ( 2 eg : 11, 10, 12, 9, 8, 16, 15, 14 arreange : 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15,16 ,8 ) ,8 ) * ' ob. " * " 1' ob 4 th ob. " 5 th ob. 11 " 12 +2 ( +2 ( ! 11 . 5 = Median ! .= 2 2 2
th th

th

30 20 10 Red Green Blue yellow orange

P Symmetrical Figures a Q a

Rotation terns an object about a fixed point called Center of rotation R R Order of rotational symmetry = 3 P Q 120 (iii) Rotational Symmetry

Q The angle of turning during rotation is called angle of rotation 120 P (ii)

a R Clock wise Rotation (i)

Line of symmetry A Line which divides the figure into two congruent parts is called line (axis) of symmetry

Symmetry

equilatral triangle has rotational as well as line of symmety

60

60

60

Equilateal Triangle

Square

Regular Pentagon

Regalar Hexagon

Infinite lines of Symmetry

Number of lines of symmetry = Number of sides of that polygon of a regular polygon

SOLID SHAPES
NETS 2 - D Repesentations of a 3- D figure

Solid Shapes
Objects that occupy space and have three dimensions [length, breath and heigh or depth]

height Breadth Length Cuboid

Pyramis
Sprere
Cone

Euler's formula V+FE=2 Vertex Face Edges eg : For Triangular pyramid V=4;E=6;F=4 \ 4+4-6=2 Vertex Vertex Face Edge Face Edge

Perimeter
Sum of all sides.
1 ( 2: r ) " 2r 2 22 P! % 2 " 2 % 2 units 7 44 72 P! " 4! units 7 7 P!

1 2 1 2