BIOLOGY Concept Maps Class X (CBSE

)
Endocrine System Digestive system in humans Respiration Excretion Reproduction in Plants

Endocrine System
This is a growth hormone Conserves water for the body

Anterior lobe
Two distinct region of the gland Size of pea

Posterior lobe

Cone shaped gland in the brain Hormone melatonin Contanin pinealocytes Locate in the neck Thyroxine Regulate the basal metabolic rate

Connected to the hypothalamus

Pineal Gland Pituitary Gland Adrenal Gland Thyroid Gland

Located above your kidneys Helps maintain blood pressure Helps regulated metablism Helps balance insulin

Secretes thyroxine hormone

Triiodothyronine

Pancreas

Endocrine
Testes Ovaries

Secretes digestive enzymes

Reduce calcium level in the blood

Thymus
Helps slow the immune systems inflamatory response Produces thymosin Role in lmmune system

Secretes glucagons and insulin

Released when High glucose level in the blood

Glucose gets low in the blood

Important

Testosterone

Secretes

Testes

Ovaries

Contribute

Development /puberty menstrual cycle

Skeetal and muscular growth

Development of

Voice change

2 Hormones

Estrogen Reproductive structure Distribution of bodyhair

Progesterone

Contribute to the development and function of the female reproductive organs and sex characteristics

chewing, tearing and choppoing

Breaks down food through

choking
teeth tongue Made up of

Digestive system in humans
food starts in the In throat, near trachea near windpipe moves food through by covered by

prevents epiglottis
moves food to stomach involuntary muscle contractics

enzymes to break down food

softens food

salivary glands
produce

aided by

Mouth located moves to the

contains

saliva

peristalsis

can be performed when body is upside down

sphincter
mixes with food

esophogus duodenum

chyme
mixes with food

enzymes
releases

enters through

moves to the
21 foot coiled tube where majority of digestion takes place

3 parts

jejunum ileum

acids

stomach

chrun food
moves to the

bile

for four hours mix food

muscles
small intestine also called

aids in digestion in stored in

produces
liver

caelum remove water from undigesed matter from solid waste

gallbladder moves to the

maintains blood sugar level

breaks down fat main functions large intestine moves to the in the proteins starches fats to break down

filters poisenous wastes

pancreas produces insulin

stores wastes temporarily

rectum

large intestine

enzymes anus

opening outide of body at the end of rectum

Diag of root hair

Diag of lenticles

Diag of Stomata

Root 1

Through root hair

Stem 2

Through Leticels

Leaf 3

Through stomata

INPLANTS
RESPIRATION

IN ANIMALS

RESPIRATION

RESPIRATION

1
Cell Surface
(Through general body surface)

2

3

4

5

Tracheal
(Through trachea and tracheoles)
Diag of insect with spiracles

Pulmonary
(Though bilthgs)

Branchial
(Though gills)

Buccat
(Though buccal cavity)
Diag of fish with gills

Diag of Amoeba

Diag of fish with gills

Respiratory quotient CO2 uberated O2 used

(a) Amphibia

(b) Reptiles

(c) Birds

(d) Mammals
Diag of Frog with buccal cavity

Types of respiration

Steps of respiration 1 External 2 Internal 3 Cellular

R espiratory diseases 1. Emphysema 2. Asthma 3. Pneumonia 4. Bronchitis 5. Tuberculosis 6. Pleurisy

Aerobic (pressure of O2) Muscles

Anaerobic (absense of O2)

Lactic acid + energy

(bet organism (bet tissue (Oxidation of food & environment) & environment) in side cells) Yeast Steps ethyl alcohol + CO
2

1. Glycolysis

2. Kreb's cycle

3. ETS

Raphides, Ca-oxollate crystals Tannin Solid waste

Latex, Resin Liquid Waste

CO2, H2O(V) Gaseous waste (No excretory system)

Excretion in Plants Excretion Nitrogeneous (Excretory Products) NH3 Ammonotelic Eg. Amoeba Uric Acid Uricotelic Eg. Insect Urea Ureotelic Eg. Human Excretion in Animals Mechanism of urine formation

Excretory Organs Primary (1) Liver Ornithine/Urea cycle (2) Kidney Secondary (1) Skin (2) Sweat glands (3) Lungs → CO2

1 lac in each Kidney
Nephron

Afferent arteriole Frog. Bowman's capsule

Efferent arteriole Glomerulus (i) Ultrafilteration filteration of Blood & formation of glomerulus filterate DCT

Tadpole

PCT Ammonotelic Ureotelic (ii) Selective Reabsorption Absorption of benificial product like glucose, ions & H2O from filterate

(iii)Secretion Dumping of larger Collecting waste directly
duct

Kidney faliure
Dialysis
Kidney transplantation (Donor's kidney is attached to recipient leg vessels directly)

Capillary network

Urine pH = 6 Yellow colour = urochrome Bad odour – NH3 H2O (97%), ions, Uric acid, Urea (1.5 – 2.0%)

Fragmentation Divide by external or internal stroke e.g. Spirogyra

External Bud froms outside the mother body e.g. Yeast Budding

Internal Bud froms inside the mother body e.g. Sponge

Spore fomation e.g. Fungi

Divide in to more than two e.g. Plasmodium

Multiple Uniparental Reproduction Fission ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Vegetative Propogation

By Root e.g. Sweet potato By Stem e.g. Potato By Leaf e.g. Bryophyllum

Binary Divide in to two e.g. Bacteria, Amoeba

REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mechanism of reproduction in flowers Biparental Reproduction

Reproductive structure of a plant is flower which is made up of 4 structures Sepal Petal Stamen Pistil

Self pollination (Autogamy)

Pollination
Cross pollination (Allogamy or Xenogamy) Anemophily (Wind) Abiotic Agents Hydrophily (Water) Entomophily (Insects) Ornithophily (Birds) Chiropterophily (Bats) Malacophily (Snails)

Biotic Agents

Double Fertilization

cotyledon (Store food) plumule (future shoot) Radicle (future root)

Germination

Syngamy
Fusion of one male gamete with the egg

Triple fusion
Fusion of other male gamete with two polar nuclei

Zygote (2n)

Endosperm (3n)

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