Social Science Concept Maps Class X

• Popular struggles and movements • Agriculture • Manufacturing Industries • Minerals and Energy Resources • Lifeline of National Economy
• Consumer Rights

• Power Sharing • Forest and Wildlife Resources • Gender, Religion and Caste • Federalism • India as a federal country • Political Parties
• Democracy and Diversity

• Mobilisation & Organisation

Popular struggles and movements
Stories Mobillsation & Organisation
Nepal Ruled by king Birendra under constitutional monarchy Killed in a mass acre (2001) King Ganendra became the king, did not accept the constitution People started a movement (2006) three demands (i) restoration of parliament (ii) Power to all party govt. (iii) New constituent assembly. Joined by SPA, Maoist, Students, etc. Succeded on April 2006 Nepal's second movement for Democracy Bolivia World Bank pressurising the govt to give up control on water supply in cochabamba city. Rights sold to an MNC Hike in water price by MNC people were in burden Movement started by people under (FEDECOR) Jan 2000 The govt tried to supprem it by applying Martial law Turned into a bigger movement The MNC fleed The prices stored to govt. rater

With the help of political parties, pressure groups & movement groups
Political parties Contest elections, form govt. and make changes Keep contact with pressure & movement groups for support Can be influenced by pressure groups. Pressure groups (Do not directly participate in the govt. Sectional interest group (FEDECOR) Promotional interest group (BAMLEF)

The Bolivion water war.

Movement Groups (groups who raise voice for their demonds) Issue specific movements Generic or general movements (comprised of many different movements)

Agriculture
Types of farming practical depends on two factors
Physical Human Relief Rabi Kharif Zaicl Climate Location Cultural back ground Aawailabity of irrigation Agricultural practices Consolidation of small & holdings Providing knowledge weather bulletions Crop Insurance MSP KCC, PAIS

Coropping pattern Major crops Technological and inst. reforms

Faster means of comunication

Types of farming

Irrigation, spinklers Fertilizers, HYV

Primitive Subsistence Intensive Subsistence Commercial farming Plantation AGRICULTURE (Geographical and Physical Condition)
Rice Temperature Rainfall Soil Climate Type Labour Pattern Frostfree days 24-27ºC 250cm Alluvial Tropical Subsistence Cheap — Kharif ---Rabi 100 – S.E.Asia, South Asia Punjab, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Haryana. Haryana, Rajasthan U.P.,H.P. Maharashtra, Punjab, Karnataka – Kharif Kharif Kharif – 210 – – Both – – – Wheat Moderate 75 Cm Loamy Soil Temperate Subsistence Millets (coarse) High to Moderate Low Less fertile Sandy Tropical Subsistence Maize Moderate 150-200 Well-drained fertile soils Tropical Commercial Cotton High Light black, Alluvial Tropical Commercial Jute (Golden Fiber) High Heavy Alluvial Humid Commercial Cheap –

Pulses High 75 Cm Semi-arid, Loamy Soil Dry Commercial

Sugarcane 21–27°C 75–100 cm Alluvial Hot & Humid Commercial Cheap

Coffee High Heavy Loamy Warm / wet Commercial Cheap High

Tea

Heavy Loamy Humid Commercial Cheap

– – Maharashtra MP, UP, Karnataka, Raj., Karnatak AP, Punjab Karnataka, Tamilnadu Assam, Sikkim, HP, Tamilnadu – –

Area

West Bengal

Manufacturing Industries
Importance Industrial Location
Raw material Labour (Skilled/unskilled) Labour Power Market Transportation Enterpreneur Capital Modernisin Agriculture Eradication of poverty & unemployment Brings foreign exchange Increasing industries leab to prosparity

Classification on the basis of

Raw materials used Mineral based Iron & steel Aluminium smelting Chemical Industries Fertiliser India Cement

Their main Role Basic/key

Cpital Investment Small scale

Ownership Public sector Private sector Joint sector Cooperation

Sources of Raw material Light Heavy

Agro based Tertile Cotton Jute Sugar

Consumer industries Large scale

Contribution
27% of GDP 9%–10% GR/annum Formation of NMCC

Minerals and Energy Resources
(Homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure)

Mode of acarrence of minerals
Isneoys & metamorphic veins, lodes Sectmen to bed or layers by evaporation ? Placer deposite Ocean water

Classification
Metallic Ferrous Containing Iron Non-Ferrous Copper Non-metallic Energy Minerals

Mica

Lime stone

Conventional Coal

Electricity

Non Conventional Solar Wind mills

Bauxite Petroleum Anthracite bituminous Lignite Natural Gas

Thermal Hydro Nuclear

Conservation
Minerals Energy Resources

Bio-gas
Geo thermal

Type Importance Basic minerals Back bone Used in manufacturing of steel, Ferrmanganings bleaching powder, insectisides, points Orissa – 33% M.P. – 22% Karnataka – 15% Others – 30%

Peat

Tidal

Distribution • Orissa Jharkhand Delt • Durg- Bastar - Chandrapur belt • bellary - Chitradurga- Chikmaglur – Tumkur • Maharastra Goa

Iron-ore Type Magnetite Hematite Basic minerals Backbone of economy

Manganase

Copper

Mica

Lime stone

Importance

Used in manufacturing of steel, ferro-manganise alloy. bleaching powder, insecticides, paints

• malleable • ducsile • good conductor of electricity

– excellent di-electric strength – Insulating properties – resistance to high voltage – used in electric & electronic industries.

– Raw material for cement industries – essential for smelting iron-ore

Distribution

• Orissa - Jharkhand • Durg - BastarChardrapur

• Orissa - 33% • MP - 22% • Karnatak – 15% • Thers - 30%

• Balaghat mines (M.P.) 52% (Roj. – 42%) MP – 58%)

– Chota Nagpur plateau – Koderma - Gay a - Hazari bagh belt – Ajmer, Nellore

– A.P. – 16% – MP – 15% – Raj – 15% – Guj – 11% – Tamil Nadu – 9% – Others – 34%

Coal Type

Petroleum

Natural Gas

– Anthracite – Bituminous – Lignite – Peat Provides fuel for heat & lighting. Lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a no. of industries. Mumbai High - 63% Gujrat - 18% Assam – 16%

Importance – nation's energy needs – Power generation – used for power generation

– Clean energy resource – Now material in the petrochemichal industry.

Distribution

Gondwana Coal Damodar Vally, Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro, and Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and wardha valleys Tertiary Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Nagaland

– Krisha-Godavari Basin – Mumbai high – Gulf of Cambay – Andaman Nicobar Islands – HVJ, 1700 km loy gas pipeline.

Lifeline of National Economy
Land
Roadways Golden Quadrilateral Super High wasys National Highways State Highways District Roads Other Roads Border Roads Road Density Goods Railways Passengers Narrow Gauge (0.762 to 0.610) Metro Gauge (1.00) Broad Gauge (1.676) Pipelines Liqued (Petroleum) Gas HVJ Assam to Kanpur

Water
Inland N. W. No. 1 (1620 km) N.W. No. 2 (891 km) The wash
Kandla Mumbai Marmagoa New Manglore Kochi Tuticorin Chennai Vishakhapatnam Paradeep Haldia Kolkata Portblain

Overjeas Major Ports

Air
Donestic Raja Sansi (Amritsar) Chhatrpati Shivaji (Mumbai) ING (Delhi) International Netaji Subbash Chandra Bose Hyderabad Meehan Dakkam (Chennai) Nedimbacherry (Tiruvanantpuram)

Public under taking

Private Airlines

Communication
Indian postal network World Largest Telicom Network Longestion Asia Mass communication

International Trade
Export Imports

Tourism a Trade Eco Tourism Medical Tourism Culture & Heritage Tourism Adventure Tourism Business Tourism

Consumer Rights
Meaning
Consumer Consumers Rights Consumer Exploitation

Consumer in the market place
Forms of consumer exploitation Under measurement Factors causing exploitation of consumers Limited Information Limited supply Limited compitition Low Literacy

Consumer Movements

Sub-standard good High Prices Adultration & Impurity False Claims Hoarding & black Marketing Unsatisfactory after sale service Rough Behavior & Undue conditions

Consumers Rights
Right to safety Right to Information Denial of Choice Right to seek Redressal Right to Represent

Steps taken by the government for protection of consumers
Legislative steps Copra, 1986 Three tier quasi-judicial system District level court (Up to 20 lakhs) Sperate Dept. for consumer welfare both in central and state govt. State level court (20 – 1 crore) National level Court (More than 1 crore) Administrative steps PDS Technical steps BIS/ISI Agmark RPO

Learning to become well - Informed consumers
Duties of the consumer.

Taking the consumer movement forward

Mobilisation & Organisation
(With the help of political parties, pressure groups, & movement groups)

Nepal
Ruled by king Birendra under constitutional monarchy Killed in a massacre (2001) King Ganendra became the king, did not accept the constitution People started a movement (2006) three demands (i) restoration of parliament (ii) Power to all party govt. Joined by SPA, Maolst, students, etc. (iii) New constituent assambly Succeded on April 2006 Nepal's second movement for democracy

Bolivia
World bank pressurising the govt. to give up control on water supply in cochabanba city.

Political Parties
Lontest electrions, form govt. and make changes. Keep contact with pressure & movement groups for support

Rights sold to an MNC Hike in water prices by MNC & people were in burden Movement started by people under (FEDECOR) Jan 2000 Can be influenced by pressure groups The govt. tried to suppress it by applying martial law Turned into a bigger movement Sectional Interest group (Fedecor) Promotional Inteest group (Bamcef) The MNC fleed The prices restored to govt. rater

Press are groups
(Do not directly participate in the govt.)

Movement Groups
(Groups who araise voice for their demands) Issue specific movements Generic or general movements (Comprised of many different movements)

The bolivian water war.

Power Sharing
Belgium
Ethnic composition 59% Flenish - Dpeak Dutch Backward weak 40% Wallonia - Speak French Rich/powerful In Bruses Dutch speakers French speakers 1% German speak

Desirable for
Intro. of the New Model Pnedential Reason Forms Horizontal Distribution of power Vertical Distribution of power Among different social groups Political partia, pressure groups, movement. Moral Reason

Accomodation Amendments in the constitution 1970 – 1993 Intro. of the New Model

Sri Lanka

Ethric composition Srhala speaters 74% Buddhist Tamil Christia speaters 7% 18% Hindu/Muslims

Equal no. of ministers from dutch & Freach community Sharing of powerb/w state & centre.

Sri lankan Tamils

Indian Tamils

Bnessels – equal representation Community Govt.

Majoritarianism Act 1956 Sinhala as afficial chgerm favour to sinhala speater in jobs Promotion of Buddhism Discrimination in opportunities & interest Result Struggles, distrust civil war

Forest and Wildlife Resources
Classification
Vulnerable species

Causes of Depletion of flora and faunea
Hunting and over exploitation Agricultural expansion Environmental Pollution Increased grazing and fuel wood collection Colovonial forest policies Industrial growth and expanding urbanisation Over population Large scale development projects (mines, dams etc.)

Endargered species Normal species Pare species Endemic species Extinct species

Conservation in India
Forest Classification (i) Reserved (ii) Protected (iii) Unclassed Community participation (i) Villagers in Alwar district (ii) Chipko movement (iii) Beej Bachao Andolan (iv) Navdanya (v) JFM Wildlife (i) The Indian wildlife Protection Act – 1972 (ii) Project Tiger – 1973 (iii) Wildlife Act 1980 – 86 notification for protection of insects – 1991 - plants were added.

Gender, Religion and Caste
Gender
Stereotyping

Where is discrimination withessed
Literacy Rate Low paid & unpaid work Low political representation Sex Ratio Domestic Violence Gender

Senual division of Labour Feminist movements

Religion
Communalism Religion & politics in Gandhiji's View Religion & polities in Humanist view

How communalism can lead to seclusion of ore section of the society from the rest if merged with dirts politics To combat this india believes in Secularism

Caste
Earlier system of caste Present Situation Results On the basis of occupation with the liberty of changing it.

Rigid and cruel system based on birth not qualities.

Used for social discrimination, dirty game of politics played leading to further divisions and seclusion in the society. Not always defined by politics, people look at their work & performances, New generation not very much concerned with caste system but economic upgradation. Untouchability is abolished, equal rights to all, reservation for the under previliged

Actual Results Still casteism is a great threat

Federalism
Promotes & protects unity and accomodates diversity Cach tier has its our jurisdiction The existence and authority of each tier is constitutionally gauranted Coming Together Federations U.S.A., switzerland Courts act as an unpire Sources of revenue are different and specified Holding Together Federation, India, Spain Change can not be done unilaterally 2 or more levels of govt.

India as a federal country
Union list State list Concurrent list Residuary list Formation of linguistic state Language policy wid no thrust on any state Union state Relation Decentralisation of power. Introduction of third tier in 1992 as Local govt.

Political Parties
Functions
Group of people wid similar views and programmes and wish to promote it

Political Party Systems
Single party system (China) Bi-Party system (U.S.A.) Lack of internal democrcy Dynastic succession Money & muscle power No. meaningful choices Multiple party system (India)

Partisanship Contest elections Policies & programs are framed Making laws Work as opposition Shaping public opinion Comprised of leaders active members followers

Challenges to political parties

Reformation of political parties
Law against defection Filing of affidavit Holding of internal elections Suggestion of reservation & State fanding for Pol partion

National political parties
(6% voles in L.S. elections or L.A elections in 4 states) + 4 seats in L.S. INC BJP NCP BSP CPI-M CPI

State political parties
(6% votes in L.A. elections +2 seats in L.A.) Samajwadi Party Samata Party Rarttriya Janata Dal Sikkim Democratic Front DMK Telugu Desam Forward Bloc Shivsena

Democracy and Diversity
Social divisions and social inequalities
Based on the accident of Birth Cross-cutting (One hype of social difference weakens the other) Overlapping (One type of social difference strengthens the other) Resons Birth Choice

Politics of social Divisions

Use of social divisions for political motives (consequence) Religion Dangerous & Explosive (N. Ireland) Economic states Accomodation (Belgium)

What can be done
People see their identify as complementary to the national identity How the political leaders raise the point How the govt deals with these issues

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