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Petroleum Engineering Institute HW University Institute,

Well Test Analysis W ll T t A l i


Chapter 1: Fluid Flow in Porous Media

Dr: M. Jamiolahmady (Jami)


Tel: 0131 451 3122 Fax: 0131 451 3127 Email: jami.ahmady@pet.hw.ac.uk

Flow in Porous Media


Unsteady-state flow in heterogeneous systems:
Three dimensional. Multi (three) phases. Multi (three) forces (viscosity, capillary, gravity, inertial).

However here we focus on radial flow.


One dimensional. One phase. One force (viscosity, impact of gravity and capillary for static pressure distribution discussed in the last three chapters).

Well Testing - Obtained Information - 1


Pressure behavior. Average reservoir pressure. Reservoir properties.
Permeability.

Reservoir characterisation.
Faults, layering, areal continuity. y g y

Well Testing - Obtained Information - 2


Well completion efficiency (skin). Well productivity.
PI q/DP, PI=q/DP, which stays constant at least for a period of time.

Nature of formation fluid.


Also Al samples f lab analysis. l for l b l i

Reservoir temperature. p

Pressure Behaviour
Pressure history vs. time during a test leads to: Determination of average (static) reservoir pressure. Flow capacity (kh=net pay*permeability). Skin. Reservoir discontinuity and limits (fault, ).

Produced 2.5 BBO (Feb 2006)


TYPICAL OIL PRODUCTION PROFILE
PLATEAU W.B.T.

Forties Field 4.2 BBOOIP

CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT

Inj. Well Prod. Well

PROD. RATE

OIL

For an Offshore Field the Target Plateau Rate is Typically 10% of Recoverable Reserves p.a.

TIME

Fig 1.1.1

. . . depends on the following factors: Water Depth Oil Price Pipeline Tariff

Minimum Economic Rate for an Offshore Oil Well

Distance to Existing Facilities


. . . each case must be examined in detail and an economic assessment made

Total Recoverable Reserves

. . . in the early days of the North Sea development a figure of 5000 STB/d was often quoted (no longer valid)

WELL-HEAD

ps
S EP ARA TO R (1
st

GAS OIL

ST AG E)

WATER

WELL

p wf = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure p r = Reservoir Pressure


pr pe pi p

q
RESERVOIR

p s = Separator Pressure

Reservoir to Separator Flow System

pwf

Fig 1.1.2

FOR LINEAR HORIZONTAL FLOW

L AMINAR SINGLE-PHASE FLOW IN A POROUS MEDIUM

Darcys Law

DEFINITION OF THE PERMEABILITY OF A POROUS MEDIUM PERMEABILITY IS AN INTRINSIC ROCK PROPERTY

=u=-

m dx

k dp

Fig 1.2.1

Darcys Law

Definition of the permeability of a porous medium Permeability is an intrinsic rock property q A u m p x k in-situ volumetric flow-rate cross-sectional area superficial fluid velocity fluid viscosity pressure or potential length permeability m3/s 2 m m/s 2 Ns/m Pa m m2

q k dp =u=A m dx

. . . single-phase, linear horizontal flow

q : cc/s

A : cm

Darcy Units k : Darcy x : cm

m : cp

p : atm

qs : bbl/day

. . . practical unit of permeability : md - the millidarcy A : ft2 k : md m : cp p : psi

Oil Field Units

x : ft

qsB

B = Formation volume factor

11271 10 . =A m

-3

1 md = 0.986923 *10

k dp dx

-15

Laboratory Measurement of the Permeability of Core Plugs Controlled Measured Flow

Core Holder

Transducer
q

Cylindrical Core of Cross-sectional Area A


k p1 - p 2

mL

i. e. k =

A Dp

qmL

Fig 1.3.1

Darcy s Darcys Law


Assumptions.
Steady state creeping flow. Rock 100% saturated with one fluid. Fluid does not react with the rock. rock Rock is homogeneous and isotropic.

Q=

P L

Units. Units
One Darcy is defined as the permeability which will permit a fluid of one centipoises viscosity to flow at a linear velocity of one centimetre per second f a pressure gradient of one ti t d for di t f atmosphere per centimetre.

Darcy s Darcys Law

Q=

P L

Analogy between Darcys law and Ohms law .


I(current) = E(potential) rL k 1 R = Q I, , P E r R(resistan ce) A

Analogy between Darcys law, Fouriers heat law.


q = K 'A T k Q q, K ' , P T L

Q=

Absolute Permeability Determination


Empirical correlation (e.g. Carman-Kozeny). Log data.

P L

Use of an empirical equation ( g Timur) & extending the p q (e.g. ) g correlation between measured lab. & log data (porosity & Swi).

Laboratory Measurements. y
Steady-state flow of a fluid & Darcy Law with measured Q & P, reservoir conditions preferable otherwise to be corrected.

Well Test analysis.


An average (unlike core & log) in-situ (like log) k.

Permeability of Unconsolidated Beds (Sand Packs)

For Laminar Flow:

Fixed Bed in Chemical Engineering

f D v s2 36 k 1 (1 - f)
3

f = void fraction DVS = Volume - Surface Mean Particle Diameter

Carman - Kozeny Equation

k1 = 150

Fig 1.3.2

Carman - Kozeny Equation

36 f D k= k1 1 - f
3
k : permeability

a f

2 vs 2

Dvs : Volume - Surface Mean Particle Diameter = 6(1 - f)/a Shows importance of porosity and grain size as determinants of permeability

k1 = 150 . . . Kozeny constant

f : porosity

a : specific surface area of bed (wetted surface / unit volume)

Investigated the permeability of well sorted detrital rocks with porosities down to 10%

Berg Correlation
-6 5 .1

k : permeability (Darcy) f : porosity MD : Weight median grain size PDa : phi percentile deviation - measure of sorting Cum Wt % Cum Wt %

k = 5.1 10

maximum value for granular aggregates

e j

MD

e -1. 385PD s

1 D= 2

FG IJ HK

phi

Berg : Trans Gulf Coast Assoc of Geol Soc 20, 303 (1970)

phi

Log Resistivity & Porosity


Formation Resistivity factor. y
Ro resistivity of water saturated rock. Rw resistivity of water in the pores.

Fr =

Ro Rw

Fr can be related to porosity by an empirical correlation.


a and m are constants.
Archie, carbonates, a=1, m=2. Humble, sandstone, a=0.62, m=2.15.

Fr =

Log Resistivity & Saturation


Resistivity of a rock saturated with hydrocarbon and y y water is greater than that of a rock saturated with water Rt>Ro. 1/ n
n values range from 1 7 to 2.2. 1.7 2 2

R Sw = o R t
1/ 2

For n=2

R Sw = o Rt

1/ 2

FrRw = R t

Timur

Af k = C S w ,irr

Permeability from Open-hole Log Data

Sw,irr . . . Grain size indicator Modified Form:

k 1/ 2

f 2 .25 = 100 S w ,irr

k 1/ 2

Coates and Dumanoir

w2

c F f I = w GS H JK LMlogF R I + 2.2 OP MN GH R JK PQ = 3.75 - f +


w 4 w , irr w t , irr

c = 23 + 465r h - 188r 2 h w = cementation saturation F= a fm Sn = w FR w Rt

exp onent

Sea Bed

MSL

Basic Rock Mechanics

Overburden at Depth =

= total weight of rock plus sea water (obtained from density log)

pc

psi

OverBurden

Formation

Fluid pore pressure = pp psi (measured by WFT) Force Balance:

Contact force between particles = grain pressure =

pg

psi

pc = pp + pg

Net Effective Stress

Fig 1.3.3

(%)

1 0

pp = 0, pc varying
0 2000

SANDSTONES LIMESTONES

fP = 100 - 3.37 (p C- pp )0.3 fA fA fP 0.42 = 100 - 0.432 (pC- pp) fA f A

Grain Pressure, pc - pp (psi)


fpa fp
pC

6000

10000

pp

= OVERBURDEN PRESSURE (~ 1 psi/ft) = PORE PRESSURE

= POROSITY FROM CORE ANALYSIS

= POROSITY IN RESERVOIR AT PRESSURE pp

Vpa - Vp Vpa 2

4 3

Effect of Pressure on Pore Volume


pc = 14500 psig pp varying

BEREA = 20%

14000

Fig 1.3.4

Normalised Permeability versus Confining Pressure


1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 BA

pp = 20 bar
FA

k ko

MA

SP

BA = 0.4 md BE = 52 md

ko

FA = 817 md

MA = 737 md SP = 944 md

200

600

pc

BE (bar)

1000

Fig 1.3.5

Note f = 0.42 Very High Porosity

6.1 Billion bbl OIP

Ekofisk Reservoir
6 3 km 400 ft 600 ft

Danian Chalk (Paleocene) Cretaceous Chalk

Overburden Stress 9000 psi

Overburden

Seabed

Tight

Zone

Initial Reservoir Pressure = 7000 psi (Pore Pressure) End of 1985 : Initial Net Effective Stress = 2000 psi Pore Pressure = 4000 psi

Net Effective Stress = 5000 psi

Fig 1.5.5

Satellite Measurements of Platform Subsidence Since March 1985 Subsidence (cm)


50 40 30 20 10 0

1985 Ekofisk Subsidence Seabed Map (cm)


B

40 cm/yr

Predicted Subsidence (1986) under Then Current Depletion Policy - 6m

Time (days)

200

400

km

100 50 0

200

250

Subsidence of Seabed into an Elliptical Bowl

Bathymetric Survey

Fig 1.5.6

Ekofisk Reservoir
Very little pressure maintenance

. . . naturally fractured reservoir with solution gas drive and some gas re-injection

Reservoir originally thought to be oil wet were raised by cutting, installing flanges extensions of 6m

In 1987 all six of the steel jacket structures and jacking up the platforms and inserting

55 50

Elastic Plastic

Valhall Porosity versus Reservoir Pressure


Yield Point Pressure

(%)

45 40 35 30

After Cook and Jewel

Reservoir Pressure (psia)

5000

4000

3000

Fig 1.5.7

2000

Half the oil produced from Valhall is a direct result of the rock compressibility mechanism In the crest rock compressibilities can be as high as 15010-6 psi-1 On the reservoir crest a measured PTA permeability of 120 md was corrected to an original value of 300 md Final set of compaction curves shown in Fig 1.5.7

Valhall Reservoir

Original rock curves had to be multiplied by a factor of 1.5


Cook and Jewel:Simulation of a North Sea Field Experiencing Significant Compaction Drive, SPE Res. Eng., 11,(1), 48-53, Feb 1996

Net stress exposure had hardened the rock samples

Flow Regimes
Steady-state, P=f(r), qr=constant.
Strong aquifer support or injection wells.

Semi-steady state, P=f(r,t) Semi steady state P=f(r t) but P/dt=constant P/dt=constant.
Closed no flow outer boundary.

Unsteady-state transient, P=f(r, t).


Transient well test data.

Radial Flow Single Well Model


P RODU CING WEL L OBSERVATION WELL

re

RE GI ON O F AREA L RADIAL F LOW

Reservoir Pressure Distribution


pe
q

ACCESSIBLE FROM

WELL SHUT-IN

pe

RFT DATA

ACCESSIBLE FROM PLT

wf

re

Fig 1.4.1

Model Cylindrical Reservoir with Central Well


k f

rw

re

Radial Flow Situation

Fig 1.4.2

Incompressible Flow
q

Steady-State Radial

q ur ur re q h

pe

rw

pe

rw

ur =

q 2pr h

k dp m dr

re

Fig 1.4.3

Steady-State Radial Darcy (Creeping) Flow

Separating the Variables and Integrating:

q sB k dp ur = = 2 p hr m dr
re

Darcy's Law

q sB m 2 p kh

rw

dr = r

pe

dp
pw

\
Dimensionless Pressure

pe - pw
pD

pe - pw re = = ln = ln rDe q sB m rw 2 p kh

q sB m re = ln 2 p kh rw

Steady-State Radial Creeping Flow

pe

pw q

rw

re

rw

re

Fig 1.4.4

Steady-State, Radial, Single-Phase Flow


P RE SS UR E PR OF IL E I N T HE VI CI NI TY OF A WE LL

p - pw pD = qsBomo 4 2pkh
3 1 2 0

p = ln rD D
1 100

r/rw

200

300

Fig 1.4.5

400

WELL-HEAD

ps
S EP ARA TO R (1
st

GAS OIL

ST AG E)

WATER

WELL

p wf = Flowing Bottom-Hole Pressure p r = Reservoir Pressure


pr pe pi p

q
RESERVOIR

p s = Separator Pressure

Reservoir to Separator Flow System

pwf

Fig 1.1.2

Productivity Index, PI Since: then No Skin

Well Productivity Index

- Radial steady-state flow model

qs J ss = pe - p w

1127 10 -3 2 p kh . qsB = pe - p w re m ln rw

Field Units

J sse

Hence well productivity index depends strongly on - in-situ oil viscosity, m

1127 10-3 2p kh . = re B m ln rw

bbl/day/psi

- Permeability- thickness product, kh

Straight Line Inflow Performance Relation (IPR)

qs = Jsss(pe - pwf)

i.e.

pwf

pe

p wf = p e -

J sss

qs

. . . Definition of P.I.
. . . equation of a straight line

slope

qs

IPR

1 Jsss

Determination of Well Operating Conditions


In oil wells under laminar (creeping, Darcy) flow:
qs=Jss(Pr-Pwf):

Overall pressure difference for vertical lift performance is not linear:


Pwf-Ps=fVLP(qs) (q )

Solving the above two equations simultaneously for qs & Pwf, k knowing Jss and fVLP f i d functions, specifies ti ifi the well operating conditions.

Well Inflow Performance Diagram


FBHP (psi)
(pe)1

pe - pw

pw

(pe)2 (pe)3

slope = -

DRAWDOWN

1 J

VLP Production Rate, (STbbl/D)

IPR

Relation Between Three Key Variables: qs, pw and pe

qs

Fig 1.4.6

Bottom-Hole Pressure

pwf ps

VL P

pr

Well Performance Diagram


IPR

pr - pwf

Drawdown Total Dp

Operating Point

Lift

Due to Gilbert

Match vertical lift performance (VLP) to inflow performance relation (IPR) i.e. find qs from nodal analysis

qs Oil Production Rate

pwf - p s

Fig 1.1.3

Average Pressure in SS Radial Flow

pe p

p(r) rw re pw
Fig 1.4.7

p(r) = pw +

ln r rw 2p k h

qm

Pressure Distribution Volume

Average Reservoir Pressure in SS Flow

qm r p r = pw + ln 2 p kh rw

bg

re

Averaged Pressure

p = pw +

pdV V

p r 2 p rhdr p re2 h

bg

rw

qm re 1 p = pw + ln 2 p kh rw 2

LM N

OP Q

1 qm i.e. p e - p = 2 2 p kh

STbbl/day/psi

qs 1127 10 -3 2 p kh . J ss = = p - pw re 1 B m ln rw 2

LM N

OP Q

CL OS ED (N O F LO W) O UT ER BO UN DA RY WELL PRODUCED AT CONSTAN T RATE

Pressure in Reservoir
rw

t
TRANSIENT INFINITE-ACTING PERIOD SEMI -STEADY STAT E

r Transient Pressure Behaviour of a Single Well at the Centre of a Closed Reservoir

re

Fig 1.5.1

Semi-Steady-State Depletion of a Circular Reservoir with a Central Well

PRESSURE

t2 t3

t1

dp = constant . . . all r dt

In SSS Pressure Profiles Retain the Same Shape

rw

re

Fig 1.5.2

Average Pressure in SSS Radial Flow q


p

PRESSURE

p=

rw

re

p r 2prdr

ej

pre2

p wf rw

AT SSS

dp dt

dp dt

re

Fig 1.5.3

Reservoir Balance Material

1 V c = V p

Compressibility of a Liquid

. . . fractional change in volume per unit change in pressure

DV = qdt = cVdp
Volume produced in time interval dt

. . . simplest possible form of the material balance equation

dp q q sB ==2 dt cV c p re h f

Expansion of the Liquid in the reservoir

Total System Compressibility


. . . a more sophisticated analysis shows that c should be replaced by the total system compressibility ct where: c w . . . water compressibility

c t = c w S wc + 1 - S wc c o + c f

c f . . . formation (pore volume) compressibility S wc . . . connate water saturation

c o . . . oil compressibility

1 Vp cf = Vp p

Allows for the presence of connate water and formation compaction Latter term is significant in unconsolidated formations

Definition of Rock Compressibility

pi

Linear Pressure Decline in Primary Depletion

slope , m = *

2 c t p re h f

q sB

Reservoir Limit Test

Time , t

Fig 1.5.4

Semi-Steady-State (SSS) Flow


No Flow Across External Boundary Slightly Compressible Flow Oil Production at Central Well is Sustained by Expansion of Fluid in Place

q
ur = 2p hr qr

ej

=-

m dr

k dp

re

ur

rw

Fig 1.5.10

Closed System

Mechanism of Semi-Steady-State Depletion

qr

qr

q
0

Flow Distribution

rw

qr

rw

re

qr = - cVr re

dp dt

re

Fig 1.5.11

qr
q r = - cVr r e

q rw

qr

dp dp 2 2 = - c p re - r h f dt dt
\
q
0

re

qr k dp -ur = = 2 p rh m dr

Darcy's Law

dp 2 q = - c p re h f dt

qr

q r re2 - r 2 r2 = = 1- 2 2 q re re

rw

re

Hence on substitution:

which on separating the variables becomes:

qr

Integration gives:

FG 1 - r IJ = 2 p rkh dp =q H r K m dr FG1 - r IJ dr = 2 p kh dp H r K r qm
2 2 e
2 2 e

re

rw

FG 1 - r IJ dr = 2 p kh H r K r qm
2 2 e

pe

dp
pw

The analytical solution to this is:

q =

and the pressure at any radius r is given by the equivalent formula


w

FG ln r m H r
2 p kh
2 2 e

2 p kh
e

1 r - + 2 2 2 re

2 w

bp IJ K
w

- pw

q=

For re >> rw

bp - p g FG ln r - r + r IJ m H r 2r 2r K 2 p kh q= bp - p g FG ln r - 1 IJ m H r 2K
2 w w 2 e
e w e w

Volume Average Reservoir Pressure in SSS Flow


q

p
rw

pe

pw

re

p=

z bg
V
e

p r dV

2p h f

2 p re2 - rw h f

rw

z bg
re

p r r dr

qm p = pw + 2 p kh

qm 1 Dp = p e - p = 2 p kh 4

LM ln r N r

3 4

OP Q

Dimensionless Pressure Profile and Flow Distribution in SSS Flow

qr q

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1


pD = p - pw qm 2p kh ln r rw r 2re2
2

6 5 4 3 2 1

re = 400 rw
r re2
2

SS FLOW

SSS FLOW

pD

qr q

100

200

r rw

300

0 400

Fig 1.5.12

Well Productivity Index in a Bounded (Closed) Drainage Area The SSS well inflow equation is:

J sss

qs q = = p - pw B p - pw

g
FG H IJ K

q=

2 p kh p - p w

or in field units:

FG ln r m H r

g 3I - J 4K

hence

J SS S

2 p kh = re 3 B m ln rw 4

J SSS =

11271 10 2 p kh .

FG ln r Bm H r

-3

3 4

IJ K

Semi Steady State, Steady-State Semi-Steady-State Steady State


At Semi-Steady-State (SSS) conditions, pressure gradient with time is constant, no flow closed boundary.
P*=Pe, c=0.5 P =P P*=Pave, c=0 75 c=0.75. Pave , volumetric average pressure. Pe , external boundary pressure.

2kh P* Pw Q= re Ln c rw

At Steady-State (SS) conditions, no variation in P & saturation with time, constant external pressure.
P*=Pe, c=0 P*=Pave, c=0.5.

Productivity Index, J Index


PI is the ratio of production to the pressure drawdown in the drainage area of a well.
SS, P*=Pe, c=0, P*=Pave , c=0.5. SSS, P*=P c=0.5, P =P SSS P =Pe, c=0 5 P*=Pave, c=0 75 c=0.75.

Q=

2kh

P r Ln e c rw

J=

Q 2kh = P - P

1 r Ln e c rw

Dimensionless Productivity Index JD Index,


JD does not include the impact of reservoir thickness, fluid and rock properties. J
Only depends on drainage area & rw.

JD =

2kh

1 r Ln e c rw

Non-redial, improvement, damage expressed by p g p y skin factor.


Q= 2kh P r Ln L e c+S rw JD = 1 r Ln L e c+S rw

. . . Multiwell Reservoirs

Concept of Drainage Areas and Virtual No-Flow Boundaries

p1 V1 q1

p4 V4 q4 p2 V2 q2

p3 V3 q3

Dietz Drainage Areas

VIRTUAL NO-FLOW BOUNDARIES

Fig 1.5.8

Under semi-steady-state (SSS) conditions the reservoir pore volume drained by a well is proportional to that well's production rate i.e.

qi V Vi = qi
Vi determined by planimetering at joint SSS due to Dietz

V = total reservoir
compartment volume

assumes a communicating system

p1 = p 2 = p 3 = p 4

real no-flow boundaries such as sealing faults must be respected before assigning drainage areas

Effect of Real No-Flow Boundaries on the Assignment of Drainage Areas

Real no-flow boundaries SUCH AS SEALING FAULTS MUST BEbe such as sealing faults must REAL NO-FLOW BOUNDARIES respected before assigning virtual drainage areas
RESPECTED BEFORE ASSIGNING VIRTUAL DRAINAGE AREAS

p1 V1 q1

p2 V2 q2

p4 V4 q4

p 3 V3 q3
Fig 1.5.9

Physical No-Flow Boundaries e.g. Faults

Generalised Form of the SSS Inflow Equation

Radial streamlines in a circular drainage area with a central well

Deviation from radial flow in non-symmetric drainage caused by well proximity to a physical boundary

Fig 1.6.1

Dietz Shape Factors

- note the longer length of flow paths and the bunching of streamlines with a non-central well - areal flow convergence effect The basic radial flow equation for SSS is:

Generalised Form of the SSS Inflow Equation

which can be written alternatively as:

qm p - pw = 2 p kh

FG ln r H r

3 4

IJ K

The natural log term can be rearranged as:

qm 1 pre2 p - pw = ln 2 3 / 2 2 p kh 2 p rw e

where

A = Area of drainage region CA = Dietz shape factor

p re2 4A 4A 4 = = 3/ 2 2 2 2 4 p e rw 56.32 rw 31.62 g rw

g = 1.781 . . . exponential of Euler's constant CA = 31.62

For a circular region with a central well

The generalised inflow equation takes the form:

. . . the maximum value which CA can take

qm 1 4A p - pw = ln 2 2 p kh 2 g C A rw

SSS Well Productivity Index

J SSS

For non-symmetric drainage areas and well locations and the PI is smaller than that of a well in the centre of a circle e.g. rectangle Dietz evaluated CA for a wide variety of shapes and well positions Especially important in long narrow reservoirs e.g. channel sands and when well is close to a fault

4 p kh = 4A B m ln 2 g C A rw

FG H

IJ K

CA < 31.62

CA = 4.514

Selection of Dietz Shape Factors


CA 30.88 tDAsss 0.1 CA 21.9 tDAsss 0.4 CA 4.51 tDAsss 0.6

Fig 1.6.2
CA 31.6 tDAsss 0.1 CA 0.098 tDAsss 0.9 CA 3.34 tDAsss 0.7

CA 27.6 tD Asss 0.2 CA 12.98 tDAsss 0.7


1 2

1/3

7/8

CA = 21.8 tDAsss = 0.3 CA = 10.8 tDAsss = 0.4 CA = 2.08 tDAsss = 1.7


2

CA = 4.51 tDAsss = 1.5 CA = 3.15 tDAsss = 0.4 CA = 0.58 tDAsss = 2.0


2 2

7/ 8

7/8

CA = 5.38 tDAsss = 0.8 CA = 2.70 tDAsss = 0.8 CA = 0.23 tDAsss = 4.0


4 4 4

Norwegian (Whitson and Golan) Form of the Inflow Equation

qm re 3 p - pw = ln - + S A rw 4 2pkh

FG H

IJ K

where:

Total skin factor is a vehicle for allowing for all deviations from ideal radial flow No formation damage contribution to skin in this formulation

1 4p 3 S A = ln + 2 g CA 4

Areal flow convergence contribution to the total skin factor

Well in General Position in a Rectangular Drainage Area

a2

b1 a1
xD = L2 a2

Well

a2 < b2 a1 < b1

b2

L1

yD =

L2

L1

a1

Fig 1.6.3

a = aD L b bD = L c cD = W

Rectangular Drainage Area SSS Flow

A = WL

Result due to Yaxley based on linear flow theory

p wD

b p - p g 2 pkh = 1 ln =
qm
w

4A 2 g C A rw

i.e.

p wD =

For a 5:1 rectangle (central well) CA = 2.359

ln C A

FG 1 - a b IJ + ln W H3 K r 2 p sinb p c g LM16p A sin OP - 4 p A FG 1 - a b IJ - g = ln K N W Q W H3


2p A W2
D D w D
2 2 2 2 D D

g = 0.5772

Totally Offset Well

a 1 = 0 = yD a2 L2

b2

L1

Fig 1.6.4

Reservoir Limit

Clusters

Well

Well Spacing Lc

Three Well Cluster

FigFig 1.6.5 1.6.5a

Overall Block

4 3
Fig 1.6.5b

Approximate Drainage Areas for a Four Well Cluster

Cluster

Well

Five

Virtual No-Flow Boundaries

Fig 1.6.6

Triangular or Wedge Shaped Drainage Area

AREA =

re q
2

After Yaxley

ro q
qo

Well

re

+ (ro,qo)
Fig 1.6.7

Dietz Shape Factor for a Well in a Wedge-Shaped Reservoir

CA =

LM 4p F r g exp M G ln MM q H r N

e o

OP 3I qr PP - J + 2 ln 4K FG p q IJ 2p sin H q K PQ
o o

4A

. . . Due to Yaxley

Intersection Angle Well Distance from Apex ro 1 5 10 20 50 100 200 300 350 400

q = 60 Dietz Shape Factor, C 9.5289510-27 2.326410-18 3.430410-15 3.5127510-12 3.350010-8 3.430410-5 3.5127510-2 2.0256 9.46298 35.9706

q = 90 Dietz Shape Factor, C 7.116310-16 1.7790710-10 1.138610-8 7.287110-7 1.7790710-4 1.138610-2 0.7287 8.3004 20.9305 46.6372

Table 6.1 Dietz Shape Factors for a Well on the Bisector of Intersecting Faults (re = 1000, rw = 1) Yaxley formula is valid provided ro < 1/3 re Use default value of 31.62 if formula predicts a larger value

Near Wellbore Altered Zone


ideal profile altered profile

pe

Dps

pw pwf rw rs

For a variety of reasons there is often an annular region of altered permeability around the wellbore
Since most of the pressure drop in radial flow occurs within the region from rw to 100rw near wellbore permeability alteration is very important

Formation damage

Fig 1.7.1

Near Wellbore Altered Zone


ks

Dps

p wf

pw

Ideal Pressure Profile Based on Homogeneous Permeability, k Actual Pressure Profile Steepened by Reduced Permeability, k s, in Altered Zone

pe

ks . . . Altered Zone Permeability rs . . . Extent of Alteration pwf . . . Actual Bottom-hole Pressure Dps . . . Incremental Pressure Drop

rw

rs

Fig 1.7.1

pm

Mud Filtrate Invasion

Dpmc psf

ql
pf

Spurt Loss

Dynamic Filtration

Static Filtration

pm . . . Mud Hydrostatic Pressure

psf - pf . . . Excess Formation Pressure "Supercharging" pm - pf . . . Mud Overbalance psf . . . Sandface Pressure pf . . . Formation Pressure

Time

Fig 1.7.2

Low Permeability Formation

Saturation Profiles

Sw

ql

1-Sor Swc

FLUSHED ZONE

t1

ri =

t2

Qe pf 1 - S or - S wc

Qe

= Cumulative Fluid Loss Per Unit Height

rw

ri(t1)

ri(t2)

Fig 1.7.3

Piston-like displacement with the creation of a flushed zone at residual oil saturation

Mud fluid loss rate depends on the overbalance and the filtration properties of the drilling mud

Depends on porosity and cumulative fluid (mud filtrate) injected Q l = cumulative fluid loss per unit height of formation

ri (t)

. . . depth of invasion of mud filtrate

ri =

Ql p f 1 - Sor - S wc

Often

ri

is synonomous with

rs

- the extent of the altered zone

D to van Everdingen AN H UR ST Due UE TO VA N E VE RD IN GE NandD Hurst

Skin Factor Concept


PRESSURE PROFILE IN THE FORMATION BASED ON UNALTERED PERMEABILITY k

SKIN

Dps

pw

pw f

pw f

. . . Dimensionless Skin Factor

D ps

= INCREMENTAL SKIN PRESSURE DROP Incremental skin pressure drop (POSITIVE FOR DAMAGE) (Positive for Damage)

D ps qm 2p kh

pw

D ps

Fig 1.7.6

. . . Due to Near Wellbore Permeability Improvement i.e. Stimulation Possible Actual Profile Region of Increased Permeability

Negative Skin Effect

Dps

"Skin"

pw

pwf

Homogeneous Medium Prediction

S=

qm 2p kh

Dp s

. . . Dps is a negative quantity

Fig 1.7.7

Deliberate Well Stimulation - acidising - hydraulic fracturing

Reasons for Negative Skin

High Shot Density Perforation Well Deviation "Geoskin"

Thermal Fracturing of Injection Wells

High Permeability Lens Straddling the Wellbore

Formation of Permeability, k

Effective Well Radius

pe

pwf

reff rw

Dps

rw, eff = rw e - S

re

Fig 1.12.1

pe

re re p D = ln + S = ln rw rw ,eff

pwf

reff rw

Dps

Well Radius

Effective

re

\ S = ln rw - ln rw ,eff

rw ,eff = rw e

-S

or S = ln

rw rw ,eff

Alternative Way of Characterising Near Wellbore Alteration

Particulary Useful for Negative Skin Situations e.g. fractures

Relates Skin Factor, S to the Intrinsic Properties of the Altered Zone

Hawkins Equation

rs

ks rw re

k = Bulk Formation Permeability ks = Altered Zone Permeability rs = Radius of Altered Zone

Fig 1.7.8

Dps = additional pressure drop over the altered zone

Hawkins Equation

(Open-Hole)

qm rs qm rs Dp s = ln ln 2 p k sh rw 2 p kh rw

LM F k - 1I ln r OP GH k JK r Q N LM F k - 1I ln r OP Dp S= = G JK r Q qm NHk 2 p kh
qm Dp s = 2 p kh
s s s w s s w

Actual Pressure Drop over Altered Zone

Pressure Drop that would have occurred if the Permeability was unaltered

Addition of Incremental Skin Pressure Drop to


8 6 4 2 0 k s=

Homogeneous Radial Flow Prediction

Bulk Formation Permeability, k

k 2

Damaged Zone
20 40

rD

60

80

100

Fig 1.7.9

Gas Block Around an Oil Well where BHP is Below the Bubble Point

Direct Application of the Hawkins Equation

pb pw f

- one of the main reasons for pressure maintenance by water injection

rw

REGION OF FREE GAS SATURATION WHERE ko=kkro(sg)

Fig 1.7.10

Deviation from Pure Radial Flow Due to Limited Entry


Flow Occurs across Bedding Planes Hence Vertical Permeability is Important
PARTIAL PENETRATION

V ERTICAL FLOW CONV ERGENC E ADDITIONAL PRESSURE DROP REQUIRED PARTIAL COMP LETION

Fig 1.9.1

GAS OIL BEARING RESERVOIR HIGH GOR HIGH WOR WELL WELL

Water Coning Gas and

WATER

Deliberate Limited Entry is to Avoid Coning

Main Reason For

OG C

Fig 1.10.1

WOC

Partially Penetrating Well

Fig 1.10.2

For mation o f Wa ter Co ne W h e n W e ll i s U n d er l a i n b y W at e r


Pressure Distribution in Oil Phase is Little Affected by Presence of Static Cone

O OW C

Water Hydrostatic Equilibrium

qc

ho

pw + rwhap

hap

pw

pe pe + roghap
Fig 1.10.3

C ri ti c a l Ra t e F o r G a s F r e e P r o d u c ti o n

pw - rg g h a p
ho
hap

hp

pw

pe - r0 g h ap

pe

GAS HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM

Fig 1.10.4

Convergence Perforations Groups of into Form of Limited Entry Skin

Flow

Plugged Perforation

Fig 1.9.5

Effective Penetration Ratio


hp theor.
PRESUMED SITUATION E F F E C T IV E P E R F O R A T E D I N TE R V A L R EV E A L E D BY PRODUCTION LOGGING

ALTERED ZONE FL OW C ON VER GE NCE Z ON E ACTUAL SITUATION

DR AW DO WN IS RE DU CED BY

eff.

hp

INCREA SED AND P.I. AD DITIO NAL F LOW CONV ERG ENCE

Fig 1.9.8

Geometry of Limited Entry

hp

hs

h = Formation Height hp = Perforated interval hs = Height of a Symmetry Element

Top or Bottom

hs
Central

hp

hp

hs

Brons and Marting Parameters

b=

hp h

hD =

k hs k v rw

General Position

Fig 1.9.2

Limited Entry Geometric Skin

30 25 20 15 10 5 20

Sp

= 10000
hD = k h k z rw

Correlation

Marting

Brons and

100

1000

b = Penetration Ratio

0.1

b=
0.4

hp h

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Fig 1.9.3

Limitations of the Brons and Marting Correlation


Based on Homogeneous Theory i.e. uniform horizontal and vertical permeabilities

Uncertainty in the Value of the Penetration Ratio, b

Lack of Knowledge of the Effective or Average (macroscopic) Vertical Permeability Does not Allow for Layering

Combined Effects of Partial Completion and a Thin Altered Zone

pD
Sa
Sp

FORMATION PRESSURE PROFILE

Sd

FLOW CONVERGENCE ZONE

NO DAMAGE NO CONVERGENCE

rD

CONVERGENCE WITH NO DAMAGE

Superposition of Skin Effects Due to Partial Completion and Damage Fig 1.9.4

hp
rw

ks

Limited Entry with Formation Damage

Al te red Zon e

rs

Note Augmented Velocity through the Damaged Region

Flow Convergence Zone

Fig 1.9.6

Limited Entry with Formation Damage hp rw ks Fig 1.9.6 rs Flow convergence zone

Altered zone

Incremental Pressure Drop over the Altered Zone Note that hp is used in this formulation

For no altered zone i.e. ka = k

p e - p wf

qm re = ln + S p rw 2 p kh

FG H

IJ K

qm rs qm rs Dp d = ln ln 2 p k s h p rw 2 p kh p rw

Fluid velocity through the altered zone is controlled by q/hp

Rearranging this equation gives:

qm h Dp d = 2p kh h p

or

FG k - 1IJ ln r The quantity: Hk K r


s

Dp d = Sd qm 2 p kh
s w

FG k - 1IJ ln r Hk K r =
s

LM F k - 1I ln r OP GH k JK r Q N
s s w

characteristic of the altered zone denoted Str Thus:

is the intrinsic or true skin factor Formula due to Rowland and Jones and Watts

S tr Sd = b

Limited Entry with Damage (contd)

The effect of damage is enhanced by a limited entry due to the The inflow equation including damage effect and geometric skin becomes: The total skin effect is written as: increased velocity through the altered region Total Apparent Skin

S tr Sd = b

p e - p wf

qm re S tr = ln + S p + 2p kh rw b

FG H

IJ K

Skin Factor for a Damaged Well with a Limited Entry

S tr Sa = Sd + S p = + Sp b

Formula due to Rowland and Jones and Watts

Total Apparent Skin from the Intercept of a Horner Plot

pws

ETR

straight line segment

MTR

LTR

m SLOPE , m = 4p k h ln tp + D t Dt 0

p*

MTR Extrapolated Pressure ("Intercept")

Sp from Brons & Marting Correlation

Hence St r

Sa = S d + Sp =

S tr b

+ Sp

Jones & Watts Equation

Fig 1.9.7

a
-2 0 15o 30o 45

Sswp

Deviated Wells

-6

-4

10

h rw

10

a =75

60o
o

Due to Cinco & Miller

10

Fig 1.11.1

Deviated (Slant) Wells


h

For a Completely Perforated Well:

Effect of Deviation i.e. Flow Divergence Expressed as Another Component of the Skin Factor viz. S sw p
2. 06 1. 865

S swp

0 < a <75

FaI = -G J H 41K
o

FaI -G J H 56 K

h > 40 rw

Due to Cinco and Miller

F h I log G JK H 100 r
w

Combination of Deviated Well and Thin Damaged Zone

S a = S d + S swp =

b=

h a s co

hp h

S tr b

h cos a h

+ S swp

cos a

i.e. b > 1
2pk Dp s qm h cos a =

where: S tr =

F k - 1I ln r GH k JK r
s

Fig 1.11.2

For a Perforated Well

Replace Sd by Sc in Preceding Formulae

e.g. well with limited entry:

- not possible to decompose this term into individual, additive contributions

Sc = Sdamage + Sperforation

q=

2p kh p e - p wf

Sc = Combined Skin Effect for Alteration and Perforation


w

FG ln r m H r

IJ +S K
a

where:

Sa = Sc + S p

Sc,tr = Combined True Skin Factor

Sc =

Sc,tr b

Vertical Fracture of Limited Radial Extent

xf

re

Vertically Fractured Well


Double Wing Fracture

xf

= Fracture Half-Length

xf

Fig 1.12.2

Vertically Fractured Well


h
re

Vertical Fracture of Limited Radial Extent Infinite Conductivity Fracture

xf

xf
xf . . . Fracture Half Length

Fracture Height Equal to Formation Thickness For Steady-State Flow:

Prats, M. SPEJ June 1961 p105

rw ,eff

xf = 2

provided

re >2 xf

P seu doRadi al F low

Region of Transient Radial Pressure Propagation

Dotted Lines - Finite Wellbore Radius Radial Flow

Fig Fig 9.3.6b 8.3.6b

Inner Quasi-SS Region

Radius of Investigation

Fractured Well SSS Productivity Index

J sss =
or

F ln r BmG H r

2pkh
e

w ,eff

3 4

I JK

rw ,eff

xf = 2

J sss

2pkh = re 3 Bm ln - + Spr rw 4

FG H

IJ K

Note that any skin on the well before fracturing is bypassed

Pseudoradial skin factor

This pseudoradial skin is negative up to about -5.5

2rw Spr = ln xf

Steady-State Radial Flow

Inflow Equations Including Skin Effect

. . . skin factor is added to pure radial flow term i.e. ln(re/rw)


w

p e - p wf

qm = 2 p kh

FG ln r H r

IJ +S K

p De =

Steady-State Productivity Index

p e - p wf = ln rD e + S qm 2 p kh
J SS

qs = = p e - p wf

Skin is important if S is comparable to ln(re/rw) which is typically of the order of 7 - 8

2 p kh re B m ln +S rw

FG H

IJ K

Hence skin factors greater than about 3 are seriously reducing PI

. . . based on average pressure of the drainage area

Semi-Steady-State (SSS) Radial Flow

p - p wf

or

qm = 2 p kh

FG ln r H r

3 - +S 4

IJ K

pD
Index

SSS Productivity

p - p wf 3 = = ln rDe - + S qm 4 2 p kh
J SSS qs = = p - p wf

FG Bm H

2 p kh re 3 ln - +S rw 4

IJ K

Well Productivity Depends on:


1

Generalised Formulation

PERMEABILITY - THICKNESS PRODUCT

. . . using Dietz shape factor

SSS

PI

JSSS =

Bm

OIL VISCOSITY

1 ln 4 A 2 2 g Ca rw

2p k h

5 WELL SPACING

4 DRAINAGE AREA SHAPE

3 WELLBORE DAMAGE

6 WELL DIAMETER

Fig 1.8.1

Skin Removal Workover on Well Performance Diagram

pwf

pr

High kh Well (Tubing Control)

Low kh Well (Formation Control)

VLP

IPR+S

dqs

IPR-S

qs

dqs

Fig 1.8.2

Flooding Pattern
50 49 43 38

Five Spot

C O NF I N E D

P ROD UCT ION W ELL

P R OD U C E RS

70 57 54

62

46

IN J E C T I O N WELL

30

51

Streamlines in the Quadrant of a Five-Spot Element

Equi-Pressure Contours and

Steady-State, Homogeneous

Fig 1.8.3

Steady-State, Single-Phase Flow Layer Skin Factors Zero q Common External Pressure, p e

Non-Communicating, Homogeneous Layers

Stratified Reservoir

pe

q1 q2 q3

pw

k2 h 2 k3 h3

pe

Fig 1.13.1

Summation to give total flow:

2p k i h i pe - pw qi = re m ln rw

Layered System Behaviour

g
N

Individual Layer Rate

\ qi = q =
N i =1

2p k i h i re m ln rw
i =1

bp - p g
e w

since pe, pw, re and m are common to all layers

Common Wellbore Pressure, pw Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3

Layered System

q = Sqi

pe

q1

S1
w

q2 p q3

Reservoir Communication

S3

S2

k1 h1 k2 h2 k3 h3

Fig 1.15.2 Fig 1.13.2

Applicable to Perfect Layered or Stratified Systems with a Common Pressure on Each Flow Face Perfect Layered System

Arithmetic Average Permeability

k=

k h
N i =1 N i

h
i =1

k h
N i =1 i

LAYER N

kN

hN

i
LAYER i ki hi

Fig 1.13.3

k1

h1

Each Individual Layer is Homogeneous and of Constant Thickness

Applicable to Systems with Random Permeability Distributions

Geometric Mean Permeability


k N-1 kN

p1

k i+ 1 k3 k i- 1 ki

k N-2

p2

Fig 1.13.5 Fig 1.15.5

k2

Biased to Lower Permeabilities

k = k 1 k 2 ... k i ... k N -1 k N

k i , i = 1 . . . N R and om ly Distribu ted

Usually Used with Cut-off

1/ N

. . . Plot of Frequency versus Log(k)


Fr e q u ency

Probability Distribution Functions (PDF) or Core Permeability Frequency Distributions


Fig Fig 1.13.4 1.15.4

May exhibit a Bell Shape i.e. distribution may be log normal

Log k

Median Value of a Log Normal Distribution is the Geometric Mean

Comparison of Pressure Transient kh


West Seminole San Andres Unit (Exxon)

with kh Derived from Core Data


Well Falloff (md.ft) 1094 1008 533 944 599 889 1306 Test kh Arithmetic (md.ft) 910 732 637 446 467 868 Mean Core kh

Geometric (md.ft) 242 312 355 265 193 197 335 Mean

Core kh

305W 306W 307W 609W 610W 611W 707W

1008

Harpole SPE 8274 Fall Mtg. Las Vegas 1979

Geometric Average

Permeability Averages

kG = P ki
N i =1

. . . Random Distribution of Permeability Arithmetic Average

FH

IK

1/ N

. . . Horizontal Flow Perfect Layering

kA =

k
N i =1

. . . In Series Vertical Flow

Harmonic Average

kH =

. . . Vertical Flow Perfect Layering kA and kH are Upper and Lower Limits Respectively of Average Permeability

1 k i =1 i
N

Gas Permeability - 1
Klinkenburgh, non-zero velocity at pore walls.
Slippage of gas molecules along the solid grain when the pores diameter is in the range of the gas free path. A function of pressure, pore pressure size and gas type (smaller the molecules, larger effect).

kG = kL +

m P

Liquid permeability 0 reciprocal mean pressure mean pressure infinity

Gas Permeability - 2
Compressibility.
Use of Boyls law (P1V1=P2V2=>P2/(2Pb) instead of P).

Inertia, Non-Darcy, Nonlinear, P=(/k)V+V2.


Low viscosity gas dictates higher velocities for same P. If Darcy law is used, k decreases at higher velocities used velocities.

TYPICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AIR PERMEABILITY AND IN-SITU BRINE PERMEABILITY


10
3

Brine Permeability K b [md]

102

10

10

(After Juhasz)

10-1
WELL A, Upper Jurassic

Fig 1.15.6

10-1

100

101

102

103

Air Permeability, K a [md]

Single-Phase Creeping/Inertial Flow


Darcy Equation.
dP = v dx k

Forchheimer Equation for dry gas.


dP = v + v 2 dx k

Forcheimer Equation
r

Reynold's Number for Porous Media


inertial term is important only if

dp m = u + br u dr k
is comparable to

2 r

br u r

m /k
r

br u k br u Re = = 0.1 m m k
r

only ev er t rue near t he w ellbore ratio of inertial to viscous forces

Single Phase Non Darcy Single-Phase Non-Darcy Flow


Forcheimer Equation. q
dP = v + v 2 dx k
Irregular, chaotic fl I l h ti flow of fluid, Turbulent

Convective acceleration & C ti l ti deceleration of fluid particles

Laboratory, Field Measurements or calculated from correlations.

Fig 1.2.2
Laminar Flow

Reynolds Experiment

E. Sketne
Dp DL = av

Re p =

D p rv m

< 2100

Hagen-Poiseuille Equation

Flow in a Synthetic Porous Medium (Micromodel)

Laminar Creeping (Darcy) Flow

Re p =

D p rv m

Dp DL

Dp DL

= av + bv 2

= av

Darcys Law

Single Phase Single-Phase Measurements


is a fundamental rock property. p p y Core laboratory. Available correlations. Field, open hole with homogenous porous medium.
Field with any non-uniformity in flow, different from lab data.

Laboratory Measurement
Core flow at incremental flow rates. Real gas law & Forchiemer Eq.
z & =f(P), negligible. i slope of y vs. x. is l f
M W (P1 P2 )A W 1 = + 2zRTLW A k
2 2

Y = x +

1 k

Laboratory Measurement
Clashach Core, Swi=0%, k=553 mD 2.7E+12 2.5E+12 2.3E+12 2 3E+12 2.1E+12 1.9E+12 1.7E+12 0 2000 4000 x /m
-1

Y /m-2

y = 1.035E+08x + 1.699E+12

/m

-1

6000

8000

10000

From Correlations
There are numerous correlations in the literature. First correlation, Janicek and Katz (1955)
k in md and in (1/cm).
1.82 108 = 54 34 k

Most widely used, Geertsma (1974).


k in m2 and in (1/ft).

0.005 k 0.5 5.5

Katz and Firoozabadi another popular one.,


k in mD and in (1/ft).

2.33 *1010 = k 1.201

Field Measurement
High velocity an additional skin. g y Variable rate test, essential.
Stabilized or Transient.
e.g., Isochronal test or Step rate transient.

ST = S + DQ sc

D from slope of Q vs. ST.


from D. D

kM w Psc D= hr RT 2 sc w

Field Open Hole or Perforated Well ,


Clashach, Swi=0, 90 degree phasing 80 70 60 Total Skin (ST) 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 0 0.5 05 1 1.5 15 2 Q /MMSCFD 2.5 25 3 3.5 35 Lp /inch 3 6 9 12 15 Open Hole Li (3)

ST = S + DQ sc
Lp *1E-8 /in /m-1
(from Slope) )

S
(intercept)

3 6 9 12 15 OH

12.765 3.970 2.044 1.338 0.952 1.012

1.87 0.60 0.29 -0.03 -0.06 0.02

h=1 ft,4 SPF, Swi=0, (core)=1.035E8 m-1

Quadratic IPR for an Oil Well Exhibiting Non-Darcy Flow

pwf

pe

DpND = Bqs

VLP

Well Performance Diagram

pwh

Operating Point

slope = - A Dp ND

qs

IPR

Fig 1.16.2

Influence of Damaged Zone Including Non-Darcy Flow

DpsD

Pressure Profile in Damaged Region with no non-Darcy flow

(No damage or non-Darcy flow)

Ideal Pressure Profile

DpsND

rw

Damaged Region

ks

Pressure Profile in Damaged Region including non-Darcy effect


(unaltered formation permeability)

rs

Fig 1.16.3