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A

FINAL EXAMINATION

MEM 220: BASIC FLUID MECHANICS March 20, 2007

NAME

Multiple Choice:

points of

20

Solve:

Problem 1

points of

50

Problem 2

points of

30

TOTAL

points of

100

Please remember to:

1. Write your units at all steps and especially in the answer!

2. Show all work and explain steps

3. List all assumptions

4. Write neatly

5. Only exams in non-erasable ink will be eligible for re-grade

6. Box the answer

A

Multiple Choice and Short Answer (circle the correct answer)

1. You want to increase the speed of sound through a fluid-filled tank. Which of the following

would increase the speed of sound? (Select all that apply)

A. Increase fluid bulk modulus E v

B. Increase fluid density

C. Increase fluid temperature

D. Increase fluid pressure

2. Why does supersonic flow get choked at the throat?

3. The plug for a sink drain is designed to seal at a gage pressure of 0.1 psi. How deep must the

water in the sink be for the plug to seal?

A. 6.25 inches

B. 2.75 inches

C. 0.02 inches

D. 9.1 inches

4. What is the pressure difference between points 1 and 2, if ρ f = 912

kg/m 3 , ρ m = 13,600 kg/m 3 , a = 10 cm, and b = 5 cm?

A. P 1 – P 2 = 6223 N/m 2

B. P 1 – P 2 = 20407 N/m 2

C. P 1 – P 2 = -6344 N/m 2

D. P 1 – P 2 = 8011 N/m 2

N/m 2 B. P 1 – P 2 = 20407 N/m 2 C. P 1 –

5. A 0.5 m x 0.5 m x 0.5 m block of unknown material is lowered into the

water. If the tension on the rope is 1594 N when the block is in water, what is the density of the block material?

A. ρ block = 300 kg/m 3

B. ρ block = 1000 kg/m 3

C. ρ block = 1300 kg/m 3

D. ρ block = 2300 kg/m 3

A

= 1300 kg/m 3 D. ρ b l o c k = 2300 kg/m 3 A

6. In the following equation, clearly label the static, stagnation, and total pressures.

7. A turbulent boundary layer is

A. Thicker

B. Thinner

C. The same thickness

1

P + ρV + ρgz = C

2

2

o

than a laminar boundary layer.

8. A fire hydrant is opened on a hot day, resulting in a vertical water jet. If

the gage pressure just inside the fire hydrant is 400 kPa, and water is

assumed to be inviscid, what is the maximum height that the water jet can obtain (h)?

A. 30.4 m

B. 10.4 m

C. 40.8 cm

D. 40.8 m

to be inviscid, what is the maximum height that the water jet can obtain (h)? A.

9. As you go up in the atmosphere,

A. Pressure increases and temperature decreases

B. Pressure increases and temperature increases

C. Pressure decreases and temperature decreases

D. Pressure decreases and temperature increases

A

10. The acceleration field is given by the material derivative of the velocity vector. For a 2-

dimensional velocity field, the acceleration in the x direction is:

a x

=

u

t

+ u

u

x

+ v

u

y

For the velocity field described by u = 1 + 3x – y and v = 1 – 2x – 3y, what is the acceleration in the x direction at (x, y) = (2, -3)?

A. 16

B. 24

C. 44

D. 4

11. Which of the following will increase lift on an airfoil? (circle all that apply)

A. increase the angle of attack

B. maintain a laminar boundary layer

C. induce separation at the rear of the airfoil

D. use wing flaps to increase airfoil curvature

12. Circle each of the following statements that is true:

A. The Reynolds transport theorem is used to transform conservation equations from their naturally occurring control volume form to a system form.

B. The Reynolds transport theorem is applicable only to non-deforming control volumes.

C. The Reynolds transport theorem can be applied to both steady and unsteady flow.

A

13. When using the control volume formulation for the conservation of momentum, which of the

following do you need to consider: (circle all that apply)

A. Pressure at inlets and outlets

B. Mass flow at inlets and outlets

C. Velocity at inlets and outlets

D. Forces applied to the control volume

14. List two boundary conditions that can be applied in the integration of the Navier-Stokes

equations for viscous, incompressible flow.

A.

B.

15. True or False: If a Reynolds number is small, the viscous effects are relatively strong.

A. True

B. False

16. Which of the following quantities are conserved in fluid mechanics? (circle all that apply)

A. Mass

B. Vorticity

C. Momentum

D. Energy

E. Pressure

17. For which cases would you want turbulent pipe flow? (circle all that apply)

A. When you want a lot of heat transfer

B. When you want a lot of mixing

C. When you want a small pressure drop

18. If water is added to a bathtub (6 ft long x 3 ft wide x 2 ft

high) at Q = 15 gallons/minute, how fast is the water in the bathtub rising? (7.5 gallons = 1 ft 3 )

A. dh/dt = 0.83 inches/min

B. dh/dt = 1.33 inches/min

C. dh/dt = 6.25 inches/min

D. dh/dt = 10 inches/min

A

C. dh/dt = 6.25 inches/min D. dh/dt = 10 inches/min A 19. How does velocity through

19. How does velocity through a diverging duct (increasing area) vary for subsonic and

supersonic flow?

A. Velocity increases for subsonic flow; velocity decreases for supersonic flow

B. Velocity decreases for subsonic flow; velocity increases for supersonic flow

C. Velocity decreases for subsonic flow; velocity decreases for supersonic flow

20. Which area would you use to calculate the friction drag from the skin friction coefficient?

A. Cross section area

B. Planform area

C. Wetted surface area

A

Solve

I. You are testing a new space shuttle design with a 1:50 scale model in a wind tunnel. NASA is concerned about the lift the shuttle will generate when operating at slow speeds upon landing.

A. You think that lift ( ) is a function of shuttle velocity (V), air density (ρ), air viscosity (μ),

wing chord length (c) and wing length (l). Use dimensional analysis to develop the Pi terms.

B. Your boss tells you that Reynolds number similarity is important for your tests. If the space

shuttle landing speed is 220 mph, and your wind tunnel uses air, what air velocity do you need in

your wind tunnel? (1 mph = .447 m/s)

C. If this velocity is not possible in your wind tunnel, how could you modify the system to still

achieve Reynolds number similarity?

D. The space shuttle wings are shaped as shown in

the diagram. Experiments by your predecessors have demonstrated that the pressure drag coefficient follows the chart at right. Calculate the pressure drag

at an angle of attack (α) = 5º for a wing of length (b)

= 9 m, chord length (c) = 3 m, and height (h) = 0.5 m ,

where the aspect ratio (A) = b/c.

A

and height (h) = 0.5 m , where the aspect ratio (A) = b/c. A E.
and height (h) = 0.5 m , where the aspect ratio (A) = b/c. A E.

E.

The transition from a laminar to a turbulent boundary layer occurs at a Reynolds number of 5

x

10 5 . At what distance from the leading edge does the boundary layer transition occur?

F. Find the skin friction coefficient at the middle of the wing (x = 4.5 m) and use this value to estimate the skin friction drag on one shuttle wing.

II. For your next coop, you are to recreate a rain forest exhibit at the zoo. The zoo directors want your system to produce both a light and a heavy rain, which correspond to the minimum and maximum head generated by the pump. Your system pumps water from a large tank at atmospheric pressure up 15 m and for a total length of 50 m. The pipe is 5 cm diameter stainless steel (surface roughness ε = .045 mm).

A

stainless steel (surface roughness ε = .045 mm). A 1. For light rain, the flow rate

1. For light rain, the flow rate is Q = 44 cm 3 /s. How much head should your pump generate?

2. For heavy rain, the flow rate is Q = 5500 cm 3 /s. How much head should your pump generate?

Equation Sheet for Final Exam

1.

2.

3.

4.

−∇ −ρ =ρ

P

ˆ

g k

aˆ

P

∇ =

p

x

i ˆ +

p =ρ g

z

p

y

p p = ρgh

2

1

ˆ j +

5. p = ρRT

6. F

R

= ρ

gh A

c

7.

8.

9.

y

R

=

I

xc

y A

c

F = g

B

ρ

+ y

c

z

y

=−

a

y

g

+

a

z

p

z

k ˆ

ξ

14.

15.

16.

17.

 

V

2

 

ρ

p

=

V

ρ

2

n

 

du

 

dy

P +

τ=μ

dn

t

CV

d

ρ

∀+

CS

+

ρ

gz

=

C

o

r

ˆ

V n dA

ρ

= 0

18.

19.

20.

21.

t

t

t

CV

CV

CV

P

2

ρ

g

+

r

d

V ρ

∀+

CS

r r

ˆ

V V ndA

ρ

=

F

CV

(

r

r r V

×

)

d

ρ

∀+

CS

(

r

)

ρ

r

ˆ

r

r V V ndA

×

=

(

r

r F

r

×

CV

e d

ρ

1

2 g

∀+

V

2

2

CS

+

r

&

ˆ

e V ndA Q

ρ

=

z

2

=

P

1

ρ

g

+

1

2 g

net , in

net , in

V

1

2

W &

+

net , in

+

z

1

+

h

p

h

L

)

⎛ ∂ w v ˆ ⎛ ∂ u w

i + ⎜

⎛ ∂ v u

v e ˆ

x y

22.

⎛ ∂ v

ξ

z

=∇× = ⎜

r

V

ˆ

rv e

(

θ

)

r

ˆ j + ⎜

(

)

ˆ

k

y z

z x

r

z

+ ⎛ ⎜ ∂ v

z

r

v ⎟ ⎞ e ˆ + ⎜

z

r

θ

⎛ ∂ rv

θ

=∇× = ⎜

V

r

θ

z

r

r

θ

r

10.

11.

12.

13.

z

r

ω

2

=

r

dp

g

1

ρ

dp

ρ

2

+

+

V

V 2

2

+

gz

=

C

o

+

dn gz

=

C

o

ρ

r

23. + ∇ ⋅ =

V

t

0

r

24. ∇⋅ =

V

u

+

x y

v + ∂ w

z

1

(

rv

r

)

+

1

v

θ

v

z

r

r

r

θ

z

=

+

25. Q =

π R

4 Δ

P

8

μ l

1

P + ρV + ρgz = C

2

2

o 26. P atm = 14.7 psi = 101300 Pa, g = 9.81 m/s 2 = 32.2 ft/s 2

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

l

e

D

= 0.06 Re

(laminar)

l

e

D

=

4.4 Re

1

6

(turbulent)

Re =

ρVD

μ

π D 4 Δ P Q = 128 μ l D P Δ τ= 4
π
D
4 Δ
P
Q =
128
μ
l
D P
Δ
τ=
4
l
⎛ D ⎞
Δ
P ⎜
64
l
τ
8
w
f =
=
=
1
2
Re
ρ
V
2
ρ
V
2
2
4
l
τ
l ⎞ ⎛ V ⎞
w
h
=
= f ⎜
L
ρ
gD
D
2 g
2
⎛ V ⎞
h
=
K ⎜
L
,min
or
L
2 g
L
C
=
L
1
2
ρ
U
A
2
D
C
=
D
1
2
ρ
U
A
2

c =

E v ρ
E
v
ρ
2 ρ U A 2 D C = D 1 2 ρ U A 2 c

= kRT

 

Laminar

Laminar

Turbulent

Turbulent

Boundary layer thickness

Boundary layer thickness

δ

δ

5 5

= = x x Re Re x x
=
=
x
x
Re
Re
x
x

δ δ

x

x

0.16

0.16

=

=

Re

Re

x

x

1

1

7

7

Displacement thickness

Displacement thickness

* *

δ

δ

1.721

1.721

= = x x Re Re x x
= =
x
x
Re
Re
x x

* *

δ δ

x

x

0.020

0.020

=

=

Re

Re

x x

1 1

7

7

Momentum thickness

Momentum thickness

Θ Θ

0.664

0.664

= = x x Re Re x x
=
=
x
x
Re
Re
x
x

Θ Θ

x

x

0.016

0.016

=

=

Re

Re

x

x

1

1

7

7

Skin friction coefficient

Skin friction coefficient

C C

f

f

,

, x

x

0.664

0.664

= =

Re Re x x
Re
Re
x x

C

C

f

f

, , x x

0.027

0.027

=

=

Re

Re

x x

1 1

7

7