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Graph minors and embeddings

Rudi Pendavingh
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

Graph minors and embeddings

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Graphs
Denition (Graphs)
A graph is a pair (V , E ), where V is a nite set and E is a set of unordered pairs from V . We sometimes abbreviate {u, v } to uv .

Denition (Deletion and contraction)

Let G = (V , E ) be a graph, e E , v V . G \e := (V , E e) G \v := (V v , {e E | v e}) G /e := (V \e + v , E /e), where (edge deletion) (vertex deletion) (edge contraction)

E /e := {f E | f e = } {uv | uw E , u e, w e}

Graph minors and embeddings

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Graph minors
Denition (Graph minors)
A graph H is a minor of G if H is obtained from G by deletion and contraction of edges and/or deletion of vertices. We write H G if H is isomorphic to a minor of G .

Theorem (Robertson, Seymour)

Let G1 , G2 , . . . be a sequence of graphs. Then there are i, j such that i < j and Gi Gj . A set of graphs G is minor-closed if for all G G and all minors H of G , G contains a graph isomorphic to H.

Corollary
Let G be a minor-closed set of graphs. Then there is a nite set of graphs F such that G G if and only if there is no H G such that H F.
Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 3 / 13

Graph embeddings

Denition
Let G = (V , E ) be a graph. The topological graph G associated with G is the 1-complex that arises from 0-cells (v )v V and 1-cells (e)eE by identifying one end of uv to u and the other to v for each uv E .

Denition
We say that a graph G can be embedded in a topological space W i the associated topological graph G has a tame embedding in W , i.e. if there is a continuous piecewise linear injection G W . Given a surface S, the class of graphs embedded in S is minor-closed.

Graph minors and embeddings

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Planar graphs
Denition
A graph G is planar if G embeds in the 2-sphere S 2 .

Lemma
Neither K5 nor K3,3 are planar.

Proof.
Let f , g : G S be piecewise linear mappings in general position. Then f can be continuously deformed to g , so that all but nitely many intermediate maps are in general position. G = K5 or G = K3,3 , the parity of e,f E (G ),ef = |h(e) h(f )| is the same for all h in general position on the way from f to g . K5 and K3,3 have an embedding with exactly one intersection between nonadjacent edges.
Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 5 / 13

Kuratowskis theorem
Theorem
Let G = (V , E ) be a graph. Then G is planar if and only if G has no minor isomorphic to K5 or K3,3

Proof.
Induction on |V | + |E |. Suppose G has no K5 - or K3,3 -minor. If G has a vertex-separation of 2 vertices, each side has planar embedding by induction. These planar embeddings can be combined to a planar embedding of G . So G is 3-connected. By Tuttes wheels and whirls theorem, there is an e E so that G \e or G /e is 3-connected, or G is a wheel. If G is a wheel, then G is planar. If G \e is planar and G is not, then G has a K5 -minor. If G /e is planar and G is not, then G has a K3,3 -minor.
Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 6 / 13

Theorem (Kuratowski, 1931)

Let G be a graph. Then G is planar if and only if there is no embedding K5 G or K3,3 G . This follows from the previous Theorem and

Exercise
Let G be a graph. If G has a K3,3 -minor, then K3,3 G If G has a K5 -minor, then K5 G or K3,3 G

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The planar dual

Theorem
Let G be 3-connected planar graph. Then G S 2 is essentially unique.

Denition
Let G be a graph and let f : G S 2 be a tame embedding. Then each component of S 2 is a face of the embedding f . If G is 3-connected, the faces of an embedding depend only on G .

Denition
Let G be a 3-connected planar graph. The planar dual of G is the graph G = (V , E ), where V is the set of faces of G , and E = {e | e E }, where e connects the two faces incident with e.

Exercise
Show that if G is 3-connected and planar, then M(G ) = M(G ) .
Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 8 / 13

Other surfaces
Theorem (Archdeacon)
The class of projective-planar graphs has 35 excluded minors.

Denition
Let G = (V , E ) be a graph, and suppose uv , vw , wu E for some u, v , w E . Let H := (V + v , E \{uv , vw , wu} {uv , vv , wv }) Then H arises from G by a -Y operation. If H arises from G by a -Y, and H embeds in surface S, then so does G .

Theorem (Bodendiek, Wagner)

There are at least 23 graphs that are minor-minimal non-toro and are dal such that any Y- operation yields a toro graph. dal
Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 9 / 13

Outerplanar graphs
Denition
A graph G is outerplanar if there is a piecewise linear embedding f : G B 2 so that f (v ) B 2 for all vertices v of G , where B 2 is the 2-disk.

Denition
Let G be a graph. Then the suspension of G is the graph S(G ) := (V + v , E + {uv | u V })

Exercise
Show that G is outerplanar if and only if S(G ) is planar.

Theorem
Let G be a graph. Then G is outerplanar if and only if G has no K4 or K2,3 -minor.
Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 10 / 13

Denition (Petersen family)

The Petersen family is the collection of 7 graphs that may be obtained from K6 by -Y- and Y- operations.

Exercise
Draw the 7 members of the Petersen family. Verify that the Petersen graph is among them.

Exercise
Show that if S(G ) has a minor in the Petersen family, then G has a K5 - or K3,3 -minor.

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Denition
Let G be a graph. A tame embedding f : G R3 is linkless if the images of each pair of disjoint circuits of G are unlinked.

Exercise
Show that G is planar if and only if S(G ) is linklessy embeddable.

Theorem (Conway and Gordon)

K6 is not linklessly embeddable.

Exercise
Show that the other members of the Petersen family are not linkless either.

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Finally..

Theorem (Robertson, Seymour and Thomas)

Let G be a graph. Then G is linklessly embeddable if and only if G has no minor in the Petersen family. This used to be Sachs Conjecture.

Homework
Be sure to understand all denitions (look up the def. of link and linking number if necessary) You must know the proof of Kuratowskis Theorem and the theorem of Conway and Gordon Make all exercises

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