Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

5 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Design Facility Layout
- Stavros Garoufalidis and Roland Van Der Veen- Asymptotics of Classical Spin Networks
- Facility Layout
- Facility Layout
- Seetha Madam Maths
- AQFT_1
- euclid.bams.1183500533
- PMAT10 1
- The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Shoe Dog: A Memoir by the Creator of Nike
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- The Little Book of Hygge: Danish Secrets to Happy Living
- Never Split the Difference: Negotiating As If Your Life Depended On It
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- Yes Please
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America

You are on page 1of 13

Rudi Pendavingh

Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

AGT5

1 / 13

Graphs

Denition (Graphs)

A graph is a pair (V , E ), where V is a nite set and E is a set of unordered pairs from V . We sometimes abbreviate {u, v } to uv .

Let G = (V , E ) be a graph, e E , v V . G \e := (V , E e) G \v := (V v , {e E | v e}) G /e := (V \e + v , E /e), where (edge deletion) (vertex deletion) (edge contraction)

E /e := {f E | f e = } {uv | uw E , u e, w e}

AGT5

2 / 13

Graph minors

Denition (Graph minors)

A graph H is a minor of G if H is obtained from G by deletion and contraction of edges and/or deletion of vertices. We write H G if H is isomorphic to a minor of G .

Let G1 , G2 , . . . be a sequence of graphs. Then there are i, j such that i < j and Gi Gj . A set of graphs G is minor-closed if for all G G and all minors H of G , G contains a graph isomorphic to H.

Corollary

Let G be a minor-closed set of graphs. Then there is a nite set of graphs F such that G G if and only if there is no H G such that H F.

Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 3 / 13

Graph embeddings

Denition

Let G = (V , E ) be a graph. The topological graph G associated with G is the 1-complex that arises from 0-cells (v )v V and 1-cells (e)eE by identifying one end of uv to u and the other to v for each uv E .

Denition

We say that a graph G can be embedded in a topological space W i the associated topological graph G has a tame embedding in W , i.e. if there is a continuous piecewise linear injection G W . Given a surface S, the class of graphs embedded in S is minor-closed.

AGT5

4 / 13

Planar graphs

Denition

A graph G is planar if G embeds in the 2-sphere S 2 .

Lemma

Neither K5 nor K3,3 are planar.

Proof.

Let f , g : G S be piecewise linear mappings in general position. Then f can be continuously deformed to g , so that all but nitely many intermediate maps are in general position. G = K5 or G = K3,3 , the parity of e,f E (G ),ef = |h(e) h(f )| is the same for all h in general position on the way from f to g . K5 and K3,3 have an embedding with exactly one intersection between nonadjacent edges.

Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 5 / 13

Kuratowskis theorem

Theorem

Let G = (V , E ) be a graph. Then G is planar if and only if G has no minor isomorphic to K5 or K3,3

Proof.

Induction on |V | + |E |. Suppose G has no K5 - or K3,3 -minor. If G has a vertex-separation of 2 vertices, each side has planar embedding by induction. These planar embeddings can be combined to a planar embedding of G . So G is 3-connected. By Tuttes wheels and whirls theorem, there is an e E so that G \e or G /e is 3-connected, or G is a wheel. If G is a wheel, then G is planar. If G \e is planar and G is not, then G has a K5 -minor. If G /e is planar and G is not, then G has a K3,3 -minor.

Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 6 / 13

Let G be a graph. Then G is planar if and only if there is no embedding K5 G or K3,3 G . This follows from the previous Theorem and

Exercise

Let G be a graph. If G has a K3,3 -minor, then K3,3 G If G has a K5 -minor, then K5 G or K3,3 G

AGT5

7 / 13

Theorem

Let G be 3-connected planar graph. Then G S 2 is essentially unique.

Denition

Let G be a graph and let f : G S 2 be a tame embedding. Then each component of S 2 is a face of the embedding f . If G is 3-connected, the faces of an embedding depend only on G .

Denition

Let G be a 3-connected planar graph. The planar dual of G is the graph G = (V , E ), where V is the set of faces of G , and E = {e | e E }, where e connects the two faces incident with e.

Exercise

Show that if G is 3-connected and planar, then M(G ) = M(G ) .

Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 8 / 13

Other surfaces

Theorem (Archdeacon)

The class of projective-planar graphs has 35 excluded minors.

Denition

Let G = (V , E ) be a graph, and suppose uv , vw , wu E for some u, v , w E . Let H := (V + v , E \{uv , vw , wu} {uv , vv , wv }) Then H arises from G by a -Y operation. If H arises from G by a -Y, and H embeds in surface S, then so does G .

There are at least 23 graphs that are minor-minimal non-toro and are dal such that any Y- operation yields a toro graph. dal

Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 9 / 13

Outerplanar graphs

Denition

A graph G is outerplanar if there is a piecewise linear embedding f : G B 2 so that f (v ) B 2 for all vertices v of G , where B 2 is the 2-disk.

Denition

Let G be a graph. Then the suspension of G is the graph S(G ) := (V + v , E + {uv | u V })

Exercise

Show that G is outerplanar if and only if S(G ) is planar.

Theorem

Let G be a graph. Then G is outerplanar if and only if G has no K4 or K2,3 -minor.

Rudi Pendavingh (TUE) Graph minors and embeddings AGT5 10 / 13

The Petersen family is the collection of 7 graphs that may be obtained from K6 by -Y- and Y- operations.

Exercise

Draw the 7 members of the Petersen family. Verify that the Petersen graph is among them.

Exercise

Show that if S(G ) has a minor in the Petersen family, then G has a K5 - or K3,3 -minor.

AGT5

11 / 13

Denition

Let G be a graph. A tame embedding f : G R3 is linkless if the images of each pair of disjoint circuits of G are unlinked.

Exercise

Show that G is planar if and only if S(G ) is linklessy embeddable.

K6 is not linklessly embeddable.

Exercise

Show that the other members of the Petersen family are not linkless either.

AGT5

12 / 13

Finally..

Let G be a graph. Then G is linklessly embeddable if and only if G has no minor in the Petersen family. This used to be Sachs Conjecture.

Homework

Be sure to understand all denitions (look up the def. of link and linking number if necessary) You must know the proof of Kuratowskis Theorem and the theorem of Conway and Gordon Make all exercises

AGT5

13 / 13

- Design Facility LayoutUploaded bypakoffi
- Stavros Garoufalidis and Roland Van Der Veen- Asymptotics of Classical Spin NetworksUploaded byLopmaz
- Facility LayoutUploaded by777veena777
- Facility LayoutUploaded byAsif Raza
- Seetha Madam MathsUploaded byChithra Kannan
- AQFT_1Uploaded byNhellCerna
- euclid.bams.1183500533Uploaded byJulio Masco Layme
- PMAT10 1Uploaded bybalaji kumar

- Removing Curse ManualUploaded byBasiliz
- Section 7Uploaded byJong Benedian
- INGLES SET 3Uploaded byNeto Kintero
- 2008-88- Missouri Division of Child Support Enforceent (DCSE) Timliness of Child Support Administrative HearingsUploaded byMichael E Mckinzy Sr
- declaration of jacob leventhalUploaded byapi-404444621
- gov.uscourts.nysd.463432.4.2Uploaded byBillSchmalfeldt
- Hedonism Motivational Hedonism is the Claim That Only Pleasure or Pain Motivates UsUploaded byLubeth Ronquillo Cabatu
- The Dragon in the Fog Article-The WarsUploaded byElena Mihaela
- Aircraft Register for Website 20190201Uploaded byProp Forward
- 1. The responsibility of a Husband and Father.pptxUploaded byrobertzenbuiser
- FAM REALUploaded byTechnical 2016
- Napoleon Bonaparte and his role within the French RevolutionUploaded byosvincent2010
- Corpus v CorpusUploaded byRavenFox
- Women in Wuthering HeightsUploaded byNiallCronin
- UNIT 3Uploaded byAna Maria Matute
- Theme Respect and Reputation (Quotes)Uploaded bymusfee
- Chapter 8Uploaded byDaniel Salazar Murillo
- Dowry System in BangladeshUploaded byShariful Kader
- Teachers’ and parents’ rolesUploaded byZovem Se Hristina
- MasterShot by Craig Miles_2013Uploaded byCraig Miles
- Changes in Chromosome NumberUploaded byLote Marcellano
- Eleanor RigbyUploaded byLuca Dall'Asta
- IRWIN of IrelandUploaded byMike Standish
- 2011 Cases PFRUploaded byIcee Genio
- kuchisake-onnastoryboardUploaded byapi-311220873
- acholiUploaded byomonydrew
- Opera Review MapehUploaded byavhee badillo
- Western Culture Promotes DivorcesUploaded bybasab
- Comparative and Superlative AdjectiveUploaded byAleya Malik
- 1 Sy Joc Lieng v. Sy Quia, 16 Phil 137 (1910)Uploaded byyamaleihs

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.