GOVERNHEN'T OF INDIA

DEPARTMENT OF AROHAEOLOGY

CENTRAL A_BCHAEOLOGICAL LIBRABY

CALL

No,.2.9 Y;§D9.Slf7./At

nO-.A. ~_

..

-

"

B,U IDIDIH I'S,M

IN IP,AK,IISTAN
A Pald.stani Buddhist

'PAl(

I S,TA N PU BUCATI
IP. ClI !!ox INn,

ONS,

11m. KA'!lAC:HI

2.94.30'15 . 7
,pGVk.

iii,

....

"'1'"

;~. "".
''''R

SIS. K::' .~~ .•..•~..••, XI'lp' &9 sy.". ~ "'.~I. "'.rIl·'i ~. "... ".. .
0

_" .,'1 _. ._.
,~ 110

37· :~S'._, •

--

......

II.·II~

,...

II ....

II NI IpI,A, I( I S'TA HI

mnl:ll'oductlolll IM3'hapJGI, SdboJ 6u,lIIharaAn

6
9

:St,upiI$ In Sind
lB:uddm-.1sml In list
rakbtJ'n Gon,d1u:slon

n
34 511

:Paolln!m~~ ~iie. ·(if l'D1II:~11!I \f;JH~li' 'J·lm Ill!tj: dU, or Sr,fi,llUp, ~~nd eel"" D.,C. ,~ lrid ' )e;11I•• A.DI) In ,ifJ,'t Il;J~lmd

P.3.n~(nlc .ltw tlf .'hM \fllll~y.T#i";ilU. with .IN EmddhIJttl~-·~~ ,_f JIlIIIlIl'I h1 thl! :rll:llt-'gr'OlIufl -

BOOd! ''I, 'Iii. ','NDI1~li"'V\'1:' l' 1'-rfJil'lIII ~ I r., Jnt!! (:!liU!~, AuD.l

6u~i'ii

tone rrielllll d~I~!iJlC ~nrl;

h'(pm 1\ ll~UP Df' h~nf!lmU'1I1 O~1ie!i f!J~ hi g "I~lii!'II~ '11!tfj~llln:!.!lti,!J')1 Ll~ ..rhudlli~. '1I'!l~I.1l, 1 (('if. 'lIb ~iEtl,hllT)l \,'ll.)
.OOtU ~lm,w'

r'lilvilll:l:.

.

'~:mUlTtr~ rllJimd "

"iB ('Ch

ilitum .:f ("~Ii!:ll \. r~J

~r ffl!'

~b!uv""

·!II~~n.

filiii'iil

fomj~ Imm ,JlI.nill:l

II N,'TR,Q ID U'CTII 0 N

The 'starr 'I)'f Buddhrsm I, I~"e ~IOl)' of
1'f\~d1lrig
IXIMeqil.llllil'OCS,.

31,gl!lUt I1e,VOI'lIitlo'!I
~l!W

It

mall'lb

Ol,

mae

W

,lib ,rall-

I,n tile

emludon

of bu'm~!'!'Clirtllll1!!:'. lit l'I'IiaJrb 3, iii 1I~'1k rro.", di!! andeillt WDTld. from 'n hoary s.'Urren,dlng.s, Il'sm the dl!predildofl .of GUIiI Sif5teim 'whldll \i/i4U, dragglog, I;'hehumanity I'rom lu, h~SIil ped~1 a.nd iIiInlUy ri'Qm , hGpe~ess ft;;:Ite ~ m1nd labQl!11ng und,el"' d'l.clwe or ~ never. II!ndin,s I>Sfl:OQUS cyCle of birth,s. It was BIJ~d'h;a 'wlilo ~~[d the world ror tJile first time, ~ba& It W,1IiS p~511i1Jll!irDI" ~ humalil beln;1 ~ ~~Ii't and g:et ri'~ ff,om tih,~cJ~l(hu @f c1fCl!Imstan~, ,ef 'nws'CI and effect ~Ild the KormiJ', if he $0 de5ired 3,lIId ilcted. The ps,ycJlI'j,I!m~nCillpllon. offerrd b)1'the wchrflg-s of 'the New ' Maner. releOl;S~ the hldd'en tOr£e$ of ~.LImall rnmlJdwb til I.u;hel!ed I new' elm, e;r PrQ,ltes and ,pro'!ipe:t1lq,' e!X~endlng ,im)'Qnd Indl;a. m Ithe
Inlil'~

of b,an

11111

the ~~

ZI m menimd others 0" may ,stl'I'1 iSiOund paradQ,xit;iilt.lnd

To Heinriedi Ihts 1II1i14l1'a"lbnd In& ~'h,epb lh::rm!ill hr of Bud,dh[srn
m;m,i!Jflg; enlgom
Jmi)"

il!i!H~ S~rliil.l?dd~1!i I West.

~t111remain

I

Ilnl':oJu~,/q"

I.Ill5olVed by d\!~ modern

thinkers

'wllo ha¥~ GreeCi~'foil' th.elr gUide.
U!riOU5

Ibu~ its: unpre:Ceden~edl rise. ud groWth £If InOl.lence 1ll~rillS
attelilt.lon. Akel' iJ spal( of purell)!' with

1'II,Ql1udc secJUcS[QIii &uddhliim el'lllerg~d

am sslona'1' mal and] p~ a I\ecw hn,pulse [13 aJJ waJkls or Hfe: ptlIl05c:pl1h:ai. ethlCOLI. "(l~ 11'1.UnguJ!O'tlc:. 1irc:C!mq and IreflgIDW:: 1\nd! w~tillrn .a few gllunle.s orin adV'ent illllm'uenced the ellthil-e known
WCI,~d. The B~ddhltt Epoch caHie of to

011rrull' 'mpGr-mnce, ,for the 111$r:orl~1iI g
UfiUke the p,rlif,.hhitO,!i'i'ttI

chI!' II'1,do-~~kl~l1:~n,l.IlIHnn~tn,EMlt. s
Il.s,

who, are I(,no,wl'l on'1r tbrol!lg;b mrth,s :md kaJIeldflKCI,e €If elll]cs. ,B,IlI'ddha Is ill hl$t.OJteal fl,gure. He I;a m,!<In,of tllIl!' b@wn 'era. He walked ~ut i:lDd t<I'light In t.h,e M:aga~fm.Desha; il:.liUil the: rel~qu:ilril!s COIIInl''''i his asha ,and Ii',el~a, (dha'ru) ,illI'esl:lII ln exi"~ence and form HIm'!! or the m~t valuable and proud pa!SSelSions of tJhe <museumS!
permJi'l3g,es of India such as Rilmlli ".lid Klishnil, IlGlby. Tfle ,advent of l!u'ddlh1s!'I1 was uf IlI3f1tlllltlar ~mpott31IlCe 'f&r the Nort;h~Wau!flD "egIDt!s. of' hkl'~an. Th~ devo~~ wil~ln prililbabl'y tJlIrcc hundlfl!d )'1111":$ tille, death ,of
~Qml!' aLit:

or t!u;eJr Tal:ha:g;atta,

'of til 1£religion.
Made

IlIls ,re,~ll!iIn :1 bel'y IPI:ae. BLiddlTa.

w'll@! In h~ IIretimi: did net d Ithe ,l:w::U,I!IId:iJ.rfes e'f MiI,pdlt~ 31Jd modeli'l'I lI~t IPraCliesh, ~ by tradh;jo:n importe.!lI it~ ~'e,\I\enl places In the Nonh,"W~ In order [f.l add! ItO, i,"; ,glQry illlld :s:analty. The: shrewd' rnoob liIJIild their Biltow; fo'lI'llwers muM not. 1ft: '~Il\[ent with ii, ('BINvlllits their .OI'IlI to lh,eilr beloved hll:lm!!l'" nd. MIi:n!,,.

or

more

new p'laces welle

'GaMeen'cd

where.

illXo,rdJliIg tel their

m;tl'u:lfogr. Buddb'" had Uvea 11'1fit Is. pll'levlou;s Hilru:nm. or where

:!i!IlI,lIiIeO'f d'll~pIFleVI(I:U~ l.f B!l!rd1d h~ had 1f10\'ed t:I'U~iW!u:ell,c:f the law •.

tl: is ,.:.omlmon know:19.le tbt d! e Wiest :Paldsta'n, ,al~ii!i i5ield!~m tid ili@ !iibre the; (De G[ the 1'~~Qf' the ,u'p..tlo,Rdinent. 1'i13.VrnJ,! form ed paR ,,,r iike P~rs!ilJ'I Adlt3~Qu~'ii!1~n, pi I'll: fur ~enwJrf!S, e.m tI1JgSf!<l!Jl"eH, weltlt He:lle:l]lrstfc 10:0..~he mnq 1Ie!it of A'examd'eir ~ 'TIle roe~~f,. ,~a:l!!'rng rEmil!rndl MiI~~ 'fglrrome IUm~.l;hrrlT ~I1ItQ 't~e llaJiildsO'F tllle' Ilnd!r;l~IJIia,n:~ I~. $qri:~l"l1Is;, 'r~~~, KI!!lilh~1Wi

,a&sm

i!:!~dHYlIM I!I~P(!ttl"'!!I;"

1'1iIul!' COIta~y~iimlc: dlan&'e5"

IliIilie!iS~erted un I,ui!!!

by

en.si

!l)f :~;;I~

M <tile d'o'imJ III
SClmi'p£I~W~.

or rurt ilililid hel ped

all III 'fIQgf~"

wlf@lu,lht
t&ei
If

i!J

h~~I'th,e'!l'elQpmel1lt d
~e'\I'iI!r>Q'P <Ii

eQop~e to

n.i~,whe:nl ippllH

,pv,e: b~lrn:11I a ~~p.e.rh :i!,rtand '~O ne

du: Bud!illr~lS't legend I' m;;u:'le G~ln_~'Jq ;!! m;~d~ I ,royi nee d

'w ~epltt

('Or ~~e wb~e of til!1'I:!Bull!ld hbt W'c;ul'hli.

pli"QdIlIttw'on er C"SliIdhiill!r.l whh:;'h W\lS :a.~:e':t!edl and, :i:igpli.:d ln c.v,cry mlilury w:hl!li'!e' hQm;lge 'W!s pal.d tol~,he_ l£lrd Budd hili. The '(11£ 'til! e' a~ I.i~ellt ,P:aklSltillml f'or d!~ Feflglon elf du! fathgatll!.a Ciln be g;!llg;ed ib, t~e tll~OOre:n Qlf s(iUlI~nll ~e ~itih el h InQrleJl1 rem'ilI n~ an:d till e n~ mHlf' of :S 11l~' wbtd, (HlIIt"lII!Jm~bl! all till e: IE!I'!lI ~d bitt 'll'e.n:ig~: In dlf: 'w:h@'!e.., r

be;;UJ(I(1U,ftatU!ll of B!i!ddhOl:~! tlhe proud I

~a:m

India.

Sc0l()cID liS tFie IllInl, ~h.oo:l ~f art In 1:;:he whiJ!;h. ~!I! ~pl~e I)f' l;tI Iqli! I'Id~'1' amd Ifltfrtllll:il liIi!lif~"'~UJfi~~ dielj!\!!lo,ped ,en: the Imolt nilfuram bes, !Ln.d 'wth~Je a:ccur,aq ,ef a!il~mm]ta~ ,detan~ J" ilillrayll1l ~~:he 'Cirnl:! ~l"ltler~3~f ~rlect~on. fh!!i IBrahm;m Qf;I~aruJght dSCFO:!i,I!,dl the ~M v~tJp oh.1'I1!!8udldh1ft an. ~11i! rnd'I3I, and wlle~ Fd I~H~ v:Js:lqd I~ tile fi;l~nd Kapil~mstli! i3.de!!ieFEedc:1()f and Lumbll'll a for'h:,rn ,'lace. But: cone!Itlal'l5 WeN fi:le BuddhlcSg Gil~dil~~
l ndo-hkWRilIiI sld1!--mli)tilnel'lli:,

~i"...

~h§II1ICel,1 different, In the Nfl'n:h-W~ where hU!!1l~r'l!d!s mO'rt~ Qf were: 511'111 preachln2~ The prGvln,Qe uf Snd col,oyed the Bud!dhltt rol'el ~In the hh 'ce'l'ftlJf)' A.l1l., altd 'was Dve rthl!lQwiI'I by 'iii crever lBrahm'lr1I named Chuh whose SIQIiIn turn Invoked '.:lhB' e,nmlty d . ~be Arab ,c:::aUphand '10'« his kln,dom. The Na:rth':Weste,l"!'I !lie-liON; II'" t~e .sub<Q,1l tlnent, whrt:h ~O:ltltulf!: West Paklstal'l" S1!ern 'to, have be.1iI w~1I adwnced In alrU and ~. Mllld:li~f:lho gJ,ve,s ill IIs:tef pl'iofeuloi'ill KCOlI'd'lliIlI: (0, w'I11It:he:v;elil ~ih maJllUJilct QIf'IU'5 of bows and af'l'OWl ~!i,d to F!ali~ II' I~h]iloygh dll"ee wClj'~hops:. The w~nf!ow111igof [gJr3ln 3S d~rlbedl In IMU'lndll.panbili ,('Qu:e,uIQIl~ ~r IMen:alldelll')aJ~, IndlC<ltu Olr l'lm~h!r dL~ii~Qi'i ,of labout'. ,A;piU"t l1'$m thelie, theR welll'~ sl!Wemenh of carpenlEen lUll!! rrnecaJ,-smd lohs,_ The ~ettlem !!one a:f ~lI'peil'l\e n Is dcscrlbc;cil 10 be Q,piil1ble ,i!jf produtJllig ~III s.m QUui!'i'iluJIIi";e a,nd 'inen rr;ke s~golng,~hlps. The wOl'lciel'lln 1~liiIrUl! £oul'd hlhll houses and hoi ow Ii Cilylt, in ill crrltaJ to mtlike ~ ~ge far a moW!e:. E'iQ1!')' ~rlc. WGltll1l,8:~, 'cofrlftetloliGlry. J,ewelleii1 lind work on 'pre,chlfluSi memis, pilIKe:ryll ~11.nd"md'ng and head-~"'~~ltI& an! deplctH M !SOme~Itihe ihQIIIQlJn'l)le Ipro&,ulOfls. SlaytO,1 df~n'lmJ's.
J

'~"t'

,t3nln111i1.slliillke-dili!.rm Iiii'll a~U n8'. (fa.1 1'18 ~ndl :lIO,glng W,cI'l!!Ulme 0" tlhll l'flfcttlOI' ;:nd "',I! III des,plted ,p~GfI!:HIQII!$_,

y,lyld bue sant,a.~:!iI nt:: oftndel aiJ'ld4lommell'c:e-. ~fD,ra luCl.h~·1 !ii]n"'., u ~ldolle!; GOlllnmed with hi:' Inr, Imply UI'unl'll.te. The Qlllcrr:llld 'QQ¥UI are ~om;el:imWl repr,esenEed :u 1I.011il1 East: 1Ii'id' WI!$C 'andl ~I'O$I duefU; dDt ~k cll,'" The d'ese 11 n:uJtA!l 'mi!i IH:lond II!!I.re fWrIOi,y be. one leadl,ogrrolD' t'tagilldhll thr;oll,gh Ra:JPlJhlll'Ii'IO Sind and (urt:l'lell' I'!orlh co' 'GUcilbra. Dii'Oustn:'. famine, WIld beasq. robbell'1 ad
Ii

The lii!it~

g~ve

It ~

hi,:e:I1~, d'llvelDped

demons: :!!If\!!1 :SjJd 1O. 11M! !'1!¥e..~~y ~~ttl~ 'd!~e .d~~~". Nnr~. SD:me gf' t:ho~ede:sen; royt~ ,_d ~'hlll'ol1lllih b]pU~'Uiliil ~ Cil!.e pert of BMrubch'iilJ (lhrupm ot B'tQ:;ldil). whe!'leetlh~g"dJ !ii!I'.ere T;!I'i3~$flI'g Itttd '~Q IBIi!~b~h;)'~. b~kM;tfl'l @f .A!i!i1'E!hilpmnd I~" carawn ·t~aVte:IHn:8to bo:rde.rs. which pfG'b:JI!Ill" Imlmlt ~oW3l1'ds Gillndl1an. the F!'IO,m[!WI!:: ttl Wm: '~lhc traflk ~ Ilvge1y &,)' river '1IlIg~~g £.he G3n'ge!!IiQ Siilu~tll1allil,d IIIpdli! J1ilI!)1IUln'l to lKommb:I.Flilrtherr wstwal'ld tfl'l'!:i,o ulI':n W'3S Ima~m~)'O'!l'erclaJn!ll lll'ldhe. aIQ~ft~ liIe,a,~hll'~ S~f!d. S;id ;at 'eih.e",t if:rm,e ~ allli~t ~~nell' ~f pedigree [hOll'5~. hll ~hie

I!,

l~'

[IIl£U't:h,

of 51 [Iif !Ihe ,great 1l~lhwa)"whltll::h ¢Onmetted ~ndb: W£I~, the nd

,Cewrtrala:lil:d Wes~ern ~I:a. A~c:.ujljef f\QU~gl pwei!l fr:om M~I~dllii! to. S::Iglb. (SliIolkl@'g). T~I~ and Pa'JU:W3li" In G3d~ara. Thl!5g,.eat mi!ld;tl'l~ ih co!'lnecti.cnsillre 5,h.~m ~n J.l'tati; a f'i!::matl vei~ ~~. ~~,
e:nily BlJd~I!I~·In:I.e dlilly.i\i nd ~1lI~mn~ l!.OO)!nd of ~:hi!isens of nobl'e:s ~

nilt~ellll,ded b1' r:'Iks'hii5lla, (TuUa) 'OOf[1ea.mIO:I. In lflr,s iIln:ikgJi'ililJliIl'ld lh~t Byd'i!lt.i~m lmad'e' 11'S~ppea!~IUll1~e In dile ¥Q~e of N.ob,·:s.g~!: re:I!iI,pl adtlilFn:ed the 1'I1h:;IIi'tffll-WestUIlil re f,~giQ:n flntia 10ae GIl' iu p:r~rn~i,P'll Wlltl!'B. fo;r mc;:ny 'Cien:t'uFles.
iii

p~~m8:

~~ ''W<IlS

The vellglaus I,radilces. of Bhakth W:hrc.h we're ~dre3dy elt!'i,dent 'n the tnchlnp dl Asoka. were 'for Hlme trni!l'\~ irea!, vlll, the 5't.Ipport s~OC:k.InthJlding M:IHla:ndef (Mlilnda or the B'uddfd!lt Text$). wuld m:n: dl'llfik ,of a ~:eUllon 'IIIlIItifn:lUlt pels ilnd their em&i.e~:~d Byd'dhca"
w.ho' 'WU
£01 (gil"

c:f

,3

new

,Buddhbt

p!hIlO5G'phy.

But

,h~ pl'ih\Q!s ,of HI!Jlenr,la~

~mp,ICiIl@~S
Si;liIrp~Yr!!,

b)' Clbe: iilmenoe:

fOl!!nd iii p~acelin

lUI; ~n,ce hb ~hape

lbe:re<.d b)!' "hiii

(oIIQ\lluln., 'he Wia!! ,tell'!reSe~tied

br til!

,Iff his Images., now wu not f\tmemsha:p~of:J G f\et:k

g,l@d. 11!Idd1l3~ diu:s, '~e

to be ri:vere-d e ;iI< dl"'~III\i! be ..g~ T1he IBuddhas (Buddlhas of !the: Past :Jnd Blnild'has gfthe Fm:un!) utls~ th~ ,devotee In his: attempt t£l In-amlllithe: Bud,liI~a~'

be:II'er,

tllitlt

flllIliIerOlJi5

haod laleliit In Mm. took

ill

ifiilrm1i'OGt.

They' iUJued c:h!!!t their was flQt Arlhe.d1lX1d QI' Nlf"\Ina rDIi theJlll$elv!'s. S"ililcoetbq wer~ ~U IOns lOf the Ryddhll a.nd lIt~d ~readJ' a,h~e¥ed i;nllgbt!l!n.ment. Ithl!llr dll.!t)! III:':W WM to r~1 the whole of humanity co H1:QUDn.

g~~'

'Whi r!~ ortlullc;( dMVine was caned tlbe "Smgj' IFeJ"ry-hnt'" the
I( HI na,yana)1 10 w1tld) ~he ll'ldlvZdlUil to !:he sbores of Nlr\Imla, tile new ,he "'BIg
MS; ~, Clrcw; dIe stream dGttll'lne

'of life C!~rne:w tiI~ known as

hr'1-bt"'

(If

Mallia),al1l1 In wl1 ell

an Il!nllgl1U!IU!d mi:mk

fen'red ~II the ye!irnllo_g $Oum:; ~ohe:lr Itel.e omd enllghlemnent, and fillall, 3Chleved Tathagattahood ~ Sldhamhil did >1ll:hh~v,!. The ward HlnaytnJ 'WaS, IlInknswn In the e.lfl:Y BUidd1h~u: III~!"Itul'C! ;mdls, not fOl!lnd Wndie' PBII Plhbs. lit C1!!m-e.010 U!!!! In the arly Bud Q1h!itSJi'ls'krlt works: wh~ch mark tfl~ !!dvell'l t IQ'F PFlO,lll;ru. I iI -sl,Y'e ,ele ment m~ 'dle ro.dlgkm. 1911 ~n tlhe lat:eif M',ahap I1Ig. wa ..b It t 'liWli, Ipartlcul'31"1:y lII~d :8 iI ceil'm of disparageml!nt.. Although IMaJhtl)'i-'ili ,gained Wid,!!! pC;Plilltrit)' 'and spl"\eadl r:an Jnto the North. It: w:I:I Slr:I« ,,/ ,$,peakll1g the' Bud,i!l111smofthe South ror. ac:co:rdhl, ~o Nl'Ilna:icslil3J OlJttUi" it origlfliiled "11'1 the Sooth but Ilate,f 1),1111 b~m4! popl.lI",1I' In the North ~'feUll'Ilg 'tl1tlll~e liD 'China. nbet. Nepali" M~T!g~II' and japan. ~II!.W~ Hjlil3,~n~i om the' olher h31l'1,ilI. whh:h had 3i InQr£ll1e,l'ifll rigin 2nd spre:.all ~oWiilrd! o t he ~t 'i:lV~1' [Bengal, By fmai and ,s lalm l[1i1IilllhJldr) :aJi!;.et hayl"1 b~ re:ccgnilsed lin, the -tla:ne of hakao Hel nrith Zimmer In rh Irs: 'Phlloso,phfes 'ei-I hull,.!' huMs th3.'t IMallliil.yanaeQuid not. he a Y11llprlmtion of itltellrellgr~uli by alll' -stli'l!tdl

o.f Ima:glmlll: on.
lIhe fo'l,g,WeFS of Mahayana belleIYed dlar: l_hiJ "Blg lieril'1-~Boat"· ~ np3lhle of Qfirylng ~IJ b!!!malllit)' III 1!11!Iddhd:ood. A[~rdrng UiI' I:hf:s;t:eac:h1n.&. hew'Oer. t!hep31 1$ not Arh>athood Of NIIII'\'\aiIll fGr oneself but ml:h~1i'!the IpGllllian iliIr a &dillldIllWi' ('an embryo [I~dllh~) Yll'ho~fol''tile dime'bel"1 Il'efnIl'I!srfOm ~1liiImnl:ng'dle I_I In 0 refer Ito ad s hellpelJ' oJ i!~mm1qr :andl :1.sa,'IIQIJr m 'edlell',s. ,1!!ldiJI n,g ,

s'alwtfon. 11:.1 In Ill'le with til s; I!laarnlnethll't Budclb:a hlmlllf ts, dul,II'.lt.ed II i B&d~lstan .n h~s plIl!!ylo'!ll elds'tf!Iiiee5:. The ~1n:lpD tfllnke~E:lhad klll!l!fd In a numll:K:r of BlilddllitlU but (he Mahapna ali1ie£! the m'IIIt:lpllcat[O,1II1 or the dlY,ine be:li1g;s m~ch &"rt!lelf. 11Ie, ;,dCl"lYIllilD'~Iii't!lm Iilic4h1mViU lind l!Iumercl![s. deities u usodua of BuddhM. Th~ IMaih'Otyauphlllo$£lph)' h'ilil Its roats 11111:he Sa~,"d~ I schafll of e:ntr Bud.dh1sm wh .:11kilelfd .n Ithe re nt1 of'.11 D lbe In'Jme lhillU denCl't€J. Sinu d'!ls so1tGOI lof 'hough' hld ,revalled in IGMdlilan '!IlI1d KMhmlr, the 'Mehillr.a.JilI 5I(h!XI VAS. f~a:dUl1~cept~d 111111 thmeareu ·d~lI1n'll: 'time ur Mem:a.nder (Mmnd;a~.ud K:IInl$hb,. dlu; :lindi'fGmtbl!l'i~ 'spread alii aqerr'the NCl'lh-Ealte'rn A:s~i Including Cbtlll3. andl J'l~n. K~111bka was a poweiiul Itt,.g .of the Kushan d,IIUl1 wlil~h nfled il'Strlde dIe Him;I~)'U .md E:he Kata'k.o·!"m1 t~g;liQns. sE!retdiln,g (!'10m Ch~rnesl!. TurkiUt:.1Ili1 111iI1lbe INQllth 'to Si~d In m~ South. His, q,l~ 'was PUII"LlS'h:apU ra (mMerll Pe.d!:lwar). He ~o!lj!l!n!id " famQ.~s Caulildl whldl YII',M iii l'ilIiiidrnark. In die h1uorr of IBuddtdnn. Tanll2ltli-a teUs 11:5 that loon ~frt:fJlI' the CCiuncil of 1(.ili1Jll1s;hu 'some Hlnrqallie mOllibattaJlliiedl AllllnutplI.tdb Dha'j1ll:l.ks~allitl allid beplllJ
1

10 deUver M~p'l'l1.c

dlseOIlIAe$.

f~m this ;ll!gJllrnt Qf TaA'lluh~. ~t I~ eVident li!nt MahiiYJntsm with I" fiefVIi' Dot;;~tine 3:ppea ..ed OIS an 'nul tUUDft soaft .Iflil:r K~bhb·s CQUl'lcl1. '.~.IIIII the 'Ii!Ait !tentlllrl' A.D. Wbi'tl!'IIer I'lle dn~ ~r Its eme;1'11! and I",ep 1kI1l1. IMaharan~ gav~ B\lliIdlllsm a w~«h!r PQP\lI~II"ty ;lllld a sU:p1lrlol" ~Fit which was eopled ,hr.Qugl1ou, tile C'h1efit wlliholilt Imlilm d~tlan'.

"tie

pen Em,£ror Asolm HalJll1"!t the ~'Il1irned IS the lru'hae ~ndl tfle rnelldlClllII!t who soughtt: salvadoR dlJ'iOU,ilh rerlun.l:Jatlon 'm'f l'he wofl:d3,qd aU that b@'Uind him to 1iI~5, MUJlU:iaIIilB surrOlJlildlfllll,;5i.
lime 0'( dl~ A l:iil'ty 'of qm,ath

from the hre

of' IEluddlh3J ,tihre dllr5 'E!D !l'ellg~gfl rrFthe Hm,el" W.

Isell'S"

pat'I'OllS

:andl peepl:e

who

p'i'ofused

reaJI

"'Jnl:l~.

aUeglilR~ to de r~I&,lon ~ndlfol'l~wl!d 'oo:e:path 'of 'tnnfCl! ndenm 'had ken (RatICG by dil,e 'I!I d1:1"Si" 1311,[suI! die t<C.lllglon wa
m llil a Qar:rGWI geogr:il!p'lllu'llllfeL

confioe'd 1/.0 tbe: fe,- U~I:

The m!llv6§ton
UP'PI:III,ptill. to

'of Emp'eJl'01I'As@Jg
dlKtil'lne of

lir the,

great Buddhist

monk

indl'thililll'lp.rlty I !:xercba wOll'hlli,enl~on. 'in the 119th OIl',iiIIC,oordII'lIIlO' lOme litittOri!iil!n~ Iht, yQr 0" hb reJgn, ,A1:oka: f5umImGne,d ~ ICourn(ill~g!I'~u& the Order and! deal" It li1fsome hell'e:ttcail 1Ii!;:es. U'p;pagulpta"- K1!.t@!jfll.uhu, ~mposl!d at lIh tile:
posltli!1IiI (if a pop'arla:r

,elew.t:ed ch

;'Ilild ¥li'EdeJ:, pNlpapted

tl,rj1,eehifl'ls

CouJllclJ,glve5 ,IIMI 'r~eard ofrhe
iiI 'tliie

d1lw"IenetC!lof'apfllllo'il

that oJ:s~d

(1m!!

o,r the

mOVien:IiIQII.

At-HI'"dl,e Coi!and!

,Am~kiarIlailllllu::tied an aiiiiilbttious p1'OIra:m,me elf COlllycrtllllg the whQI'e O',f tlhe: t,!'!fll'I-kfl0'N1II worrd to hl:s ItJelo,yed r~:t,b and or&'ain~sed a
Ilar,gel mls.s oJlliaIi7 -force. selill:
tOI

differelll'
formed

The! names of ~d. Eh~5e per!iolUi WJiU)1 were pla"(eJl haye been Pn!!eTVedI KHhmlr a.nd

G'illildh.an

f1adhyarntUtili

part 'of die Idngdom of Emperor Aso'kia. and W'3Ssent to prea..;11 Byd'dhlsm Ithere. This mQnk, ~~~5 saId, 51l:~ceed',d In ~Rif(:,rdng the, enUr'lI! ~~, lila,", c_om,rllSlng the No!'t:h-We;st FMntme:r. Piut, ,af dill' N'c:rt'h "IJIIIIJiib" ~he loweI\'
l~uJlus 'Vail:!!, and tliu: whDI:!!: of Kah m1r,. The' fc1!.i llhtla~w~. r

til us. I~Ed fOil' du~erutl Dn
Itlie Buddhist Ii)"

or 'onll! of [he nOl;ii~1,edm~n5C1f '

art 1111

IUlno~phy wlUck was lalier' en QCi,Pld In 21'11 dC'tillih, the entl Fe Budd Mn wol1d., Gan.dhan was the ll"~gls,1iIiWRel"ll! He'III!fl~.sm in its CtiI::Wllrd COlllne' alild Buddhism filii Its _estvtatd rIl!!rclil, ~e In dlrKt milltace .'111.:1 w,Qrikfil Ol!!!t!l!ll alf['~Ic: s,ntbe&l:s. ne re,gh:m 0:( Ga'lldhlni bd n'eY'er beefl :a: pan of IlIIdll bcfc,rc thl!! ..dive:l1:t of th.:l MillJr,tm5. Itl king:!,)!, bd, been dhe:q'uered" Before' ~br: .1II~on of ,A!IHander I[ Mil >!II part oFt,he "'erslan Em pire dl~ Ac:ha.e,men;am. ni!l dVI! fltl!FW! of Ale~ficl:e r inbl' c bl's I'and an!! Said. ;.Q hay,~ been mati'il'..nd by the desire to ooculP)r levert Inch of t!he: Persian Emp reo Mel the. death of AJenndJi':r dill! Grt:_k ch:dlelilge ell'okedla Hlrndu Illeperans 0111nd Chandn G,IJ,pta a Hurya, a, ru.er 0" NlgrtherB I'nella., 1I!car,po!";!te~ ~hr~ lreglon if~r the Ant alu:ilhe lut time 11010 a: Hindu Empire. His Bramhan Asob. howe-vert ill!lI'!'Ilbramd Suddhlam. whl'ch b~ml! the mte reHg'Dn Dr d'11: IMal;! I"JUl IE!TIpJre.,

ar

-'f[tn' t'h,e d~J:h

'of ~iIt~

Will:u I

B.c.. ~he Ernp~re bl!gan ~o bl"G!k,
tlhi!

u,P. and! Gilind !t1JQJ. bel,nl one

,or

dIIS~JI IirovIIiiCt$, e

Wiii5

iIIlill'l!i

In
to il.A'l!rt Iller' !11I,dufH!illente but 01'11, to '~JI a pre)' to the Bac(ri;!n Glreek Inllf",ie~ from 'Central AsI:!!. &)'150 ,I.C., the Seleilldd. ElifIlplr1! bd Wost U 'eastern pI!iO~llIIc~ :to Iwe, SiU,cceeiflng 'Gr,eek State-s, Dladci,w, had esu,bllshe;dl iii small klnidem lin Ba.(,Q"jtaand. An:aaes In PIilrt!lili~ raftl" lallS pe-"e~Rtieddn! $Ub-(entl B£;llit aI rillr ~e asdila: Ilnd'w. 1&«if'la, under Oemetri'g, ,e;,r,rted iI'FIM$iI(rl)S'5 the Hind III t(u$h and annC'ed tile "'abul VIlle, ;tnd Gundfiam ~rn li90 A, luoouslcm of Hl!lIenh:: ful'ers ch3.'lII,g:d the 'tultuml lif~ of Gandh,~ra.. Th~ most CI'u't5~ndIRg or ,these WIllSIMUindil or MenaRder. A~~,d.. lin"g U!! SCl"3lbo this- mQna'i'lih extende:d hliS 511'1,"'" even fan'liter East th~n AJexaRdeii' h~d dl(ju. He figure:s :1$, tlliii! c'hlef ~.tor ,of a 'IIcf1 ~m,p>Dm!11E: Bydd'Mst, lI"o-man,ce l(c.noWi1u, 1M1&1 nd,:!'pai'lho, 0' lithe 'Q!!euloJII$ of Mllindil. hcordilili to thts: IMihnft lI"u1ed I~ a I!I'ty caned Sa,g-alO!iwhu:1iI ha be.ent IGelllified iilS mo;C!,ern Slal'k,ct. AI dese,!'thed In [he lear'l, 'ti_e ~f B'uddl!15m, Mef'llandJer wa eloqluent. learned and c-.oA\!I',erS:lntwith IIIlII'llya.l'ltS and !ideIlW.

a.c.

A.u;orGJlng

'liD

'Milllndap;a,n'h,i} Henaiilder
.$\lge

'c;amc llrndcl"

,,:he

IfIil'ftlul!lUiO

'of ,aJ f.lmL\')!IS BuddhliSC

NiiI&UeJ1I1.

ilh1s: ,accord 01' IWt Ind Welt dht noe, hOVA!Yef, enduri'~ very [ong. Th pres.sllre of Yueh-cl'r' 01" the Whltie: Hllln5 was hlmfllllg tribes ,and ndll1g "t~'I'IS"'om Bactll'liIJand, 'ru!~gl1'bl:l!u~~g tO~Ii1:tJll'Iei5
'IjI'hh::h. on\ll' ~fte.r the adler. t~wan:l's ~lJIllI"ned bl ~ eve... 1111creastlflg wa\!es"

th~ IlntfllS' VaUey. ,de:i@at.ed the a:1~lng_ mOI'l:!!rdn, a'lii,d enalJJ 11bed dli~lr ownl pr ndplll~~C!5! in ,d:o~e $'1ICC'I!S$'ion. hkM ami PehtaYai ,*cupled ~he 'NonJV\\'Vestern f\e;gJDM ,of t&e subCODttn~ l~ Yuth<h1 woo had dr~"'lIi'1 diem frslTI Ba~riiil,

soon foJtQIWi'!d ~hm dnoug,h ~he K~d:ILdVaUe., co Gand&lara. Tiki! P'-'P£1'paJ! 'tl"ilbe cf dil~ KJl!;sh:ms and the'lr rtller Ku,lul3J K~dph1s-a

~~l'ldl!dI

tlhefr «Inquesg

'~Q

Gal!ldb~. was ,th

De. ~..£~ors pl.rln.

of K:l.d~

plil$eso uCI,uqYeIl"e:d the entire' Wn'o·GangetJIc

K'a111s1hta. 'IS we
rul'er

of the kush:UII dynASty.

""ft seen.

gn~'U6t ;a:n;d

most powerlllll
lirom .:lhe

His Empllfc

e~i!iilded

bo,ridlers of 0111lllB l1C thi'! &'ontle~ firMlEime in I~be hlltor)'., :prolll'tnce. Hi:l ,~p[~ I

gf GQilJara. thuler I'dm ,fDr tbe Gandh:ua c:e;ulCdElD plar dill! II'Gle Qf:a lllOntier
'Qf !iod&),'.

was Piul'III;5liafu t'1" ~he Pli'.!shilw:lf

K'JQf5!hka. when be lbecame 01 king. WM dle follower Qfsom!!f n@liI.,BLlddhtsc reIDlgllul~ but 1I'b: .o'I\wb he 'II"o'i3S, converted UJ' thIs, lalth and ll Ice ~IQ ~o he had aU (he zuJ of 'tile mnYen. To, letde d'I!' IiKa Ii"~ of the ua!t:fl hl!~t.en amsulr;ed [he hoi)' sulp~liIre:s ef'the BlIddhln; nl~lglol1 3'IId ~ fOl'ld of ~heoSog:lcal dlslOiiI<ssh:!lns. He Wd,$' Yf!;1"1much dismayed [0 find ~ differeillces 11'1 'o:.lllin DIU lh,e
of
Viillr1IJ'IJS

Buddhist

'e'tt,

Panw.

C,ne

of tile Bu:ddhkt

e~ders,

t.ol'~ 111111'11'that: 'the dl'ffell"I!'I\m~ware dille to tihe bct d13t

tile T:u:b~

latta (the IEnlllh'~:ened On~) had ,left diu 'wolI'l ~ long a-gP and tbil't 'with Eh~ pus~&e sf time< th.e rOIiOWe'N Weiile fOl"gen ng th,e real W,O rd ~r lhe M'M!:~II". belli gl"Q~P held W£s aWIii iffeW5 alild WlIiS .liI.te1eAnt to ,otlilJer:s. ~iiSbb. th '!fore, ealled his famow Colina. or Hal,AMiem tit,. W'h~dI ~ ~tillended byliirllle h~ ndlred ImBn k.~ alld ptuldedl ,Q'V'er by Vaumitm. Mer Ilonl and ,arc!ltl.l.D'Us dJs~
clluloru;, "-til ~h1! ml,nor dlff'el'flilU:i~were

"~I"'d

~nd new CGm~

me.ntar(e,s DB th~ '.:ihree Plc:akas 'Were prepOlNd whl~h rani IntG IliMIlt ~CKMXJO ¥e'-su. These commentaries whim dealt wId, all
qlJlmhl!l'lU1 gte!at er ~'m1Jl, were dlenl eng,raved on '~IPpell' pbu;es. K~!Illhk" pl'aced tlilese: pl~~ ~n:111, ,stUpiii
Iii -a,

stane' chest: which

lMI$

dlilposlte,d1

The CouniCilll or K1IJllshb. Ithu~. ended'lihe

cI'CtuJd 'to, ",'Im!crale ad P'~$etYl!them. ,

a.d 'q'llU,relt On petty

113

1

dl'rrerii!n~
!letweenl

b1ltllct'llillT"

Irsnl,~I)I'

enaugh,

,th,!! ,grea,t

sell'lsM' at a_bout
'ttl

"die M~~na

,lIl1d HIIiI1<)II.QsdJeols: occulted

thr;s \IeI')" dme.
Ing Its!!. f

The Mab,Yi!Il~ ,SQ'Iuml, w:1i1Cih ea.n ~e said

have

~1Jl,e4 I'U mitt!ilrllt)" b)! thi~ t1lme" cmm,pmMedi the duvag:a

b;' ded31'-

i3 s~l'Id, ldloo'l or thD'IIg!h,t. howe,v>il:r. I,s, ,the pe:ri'od' wh~1\I 'the BuddllliH Pllanlc Art Gandlmr.!i rexilu:-,d it$ ~enrth. U'l'Ifo1i'tllllUtel)". It kg Qu-t bee,l1 poss'lble Il!(l''1iIl'leard, iIIn, monumel'lllS wh,lc'b"t;m be: dialled an}' 'runher 'bi!ick dilan thGi advent of t:he H~yrpn dy,n:~t~.

ar

Dis"

Tha number

~r IfIfIQUmePlts,

be CllI1g~llig:'t.o rdil~ 'Ha~ryu and S1!ln~,

'rnMtI'M ~n aim hi! aJ'llrn~ on fi~gefS.. Tile stUiPasof Slrh'lll! \and :Salil,clil~jtbe 1~1!iSU'ide~ of 'th~ ~~ml! st1bii leMli!mi1id IFrom Amrll.!~1 and MaJt: iii. riHi!' mOl'iollt'lill~ plWI:iIIli"S i Nab, llind tilte hu o ~lIes he prep3!red 'fQ'f ithe I.!S~oft'he meniJlcarn:sQ'f,d11ft'erelilt reIIIJlo'lII~ ,if ilICh:l1!d w the lot. 'CORl,ldete DIU r IIs-t of allill the Im:ntr IbuUons tbe B1iIddhlit Sc.hool ohhat tim!! had, m~d~ towards lheo molt popumar' r~Ub til1l!' period. 'of Thill m~t :s~ rillidng reahlre ,e'f Ike 'pm-G;JIDI dlha'l";l, :SCfrlOObi ~I the ~n~prcuous absenc.e oil mil: Milo from whO!!!! ~IrfItJllild r:a'l"mer ~11tenc'es; 'hey had set them!ie!lves ~o caNe In sto,II!!' 3indl pa:lIu In c:olo1l!rs. We h~ ~hem l!13JlUlr;!II:r ponied Ili.. ~ IhduKrloysl" 'Ciitty,ln,g 'I!IUt t,he: 5tnnle ulndC'mJe,lo8 or repr~eilllUnl the nre of
IBuddha wirtholilt
of

the lud:dh!l1!. Their

elmrt. ~

t'o create a

reel 11'11

r:lle, presel'l.:!1 ,I),f ByddhOl whoSl! ill1l'iag-e cc uld not bl li'ii!;p~~sented tor chelr belief. Ihi! had rIseR a'b.oVGall att:ribllltes andl forms. We, thus, ~i1,Yali'lahty find. the di'l'One:~eft '!Rant. At th molt. theli1i III, a 11mbu~1 .ndlafh'lg: the: II'D",,:lsi !!i pr~~t1e ,of 'tFie b
~. ilIl:iCio,ding "um&n~~ Soull. 51 nee sucl1 ~ mode' _ eliC:pf\~ion bill
:8i

serlOlJs

dr~dQnQgii! fer ~Ile

po,ul3r

arcJstOl !the Ruddhlst

~, new ttl I'll: .1ke lih e Wheel ,Q'f tile elWilJemnce of Ehe 'K.usha,1iI ;art.

u. In

sCl!llp!!or needed
m
Ii fI ~el' ~~U,QJ

clli"der

till e

It ,~:e!!mJi ImfndJ of the dUOte;es.w\@l the
as the, DI'IJnl!' Belililg. were ~h~tit 1111 ror
(Iii'" i3I

now rq01fdcd Buddha glimpse ...rthe lIBiu:cldh~,
no obleal!;Jjii to The cu:stom, hlld

at Ie.m, Ill.$ Image. fI
!Ii

Canolilr~II~)' the"e~'

r"lf wldnheflll them (["om takrng thaI: mon!:!. BlIt Mah¥ina. wfi'al1 bad alrea.d)l' b rDk,e ill fro m the past, S'Ut;;~ClI! life!i!l In ,bu rstl. the IIIaSt barrier Iti~twecl'l the devotm ~i'ld the Image of t'he ,Mme:r. lind ~:he o.l'lly pro!Jlem fpl' 'tfHf artl!t w.q 'to de~ rmhle ~he fJglIIre andl featum B'uilldh'a. The $O~l:ItlOil'i ~ provided by th,! HeIhmlstlc tl"3dLtlQ,111 and Imp'ulse 'which had aJread)'~lcien firm fOOts in G~.n dlhara. Wlum [he Image Buddh!1 was Intl"@d!.!ci!d" h~5 followers in GOI!I1~harnand ~h,lil: North.Weuem "cg~on olr t,hC5'l1b-imf:!II,III!1!liIt. had been bl'tllMte:Jy ~n I:ouc:h W till thl!! H'elll!nl.SEi.C Clvll~.:lgfl. ad hd Ibeen 8lI'ea.tI)!' Ilmpii'ie£52d by' lit. The peo;ple who wer'e: alre~" ImbJhlnsawe ilInd In.s:pll'3tlgn from SCUI,ll.lfl:ri smri'e:s tiI'F Budd h'll'J me. must have been only too. h~P" to 'see 'i personlficatlDn of the' LOird lin dte riJn Ol;rffilljll<aillligra~ IIInd dlgn1ty~ Tihen r,s no wondl!!lC. tl1ierefore" d,n t'h~ sqt'Uet found ,theIr way tlnmll:llIla:re"lr ((I ami Ih~ '~emp'Jer ':In dl5 hl'ilncs a'f 'dI'~ BYd4hl5't wol"Jd. It has Inow beenl pro¥ed YQnd daub!' rlw It was In the NarmWeste rn p:iLfit of lhl.5 ~...~nl~ Rent ('now Mlmn) thM thL~ unlq Ye uUsdc fit,ve titian, 'took pl:llce, Th'e Buddh:a figure ,Qf Ga.ndh-a~. whl'd1 W!UmlMplrred b)' the mtl,J~ye IbaliltJ of $wlllPtlill'elii ApQllo. Irou,lIId its, W,n the ,wune iff 11. c.entl.!lf'f!!il! m 'CJm bedla"
50

'brlfl,g.ng

:5:h~pe IlIIto lhe spa.tlilID dlrnll:mlons.

or

0"

way

'ew

n_~.

B~n'ima and TlilaUa;ndl, h~ ,Japan the fig ....e r d\e M3iUoev WI.$' II ntn:l" ducecillin tfleSth ~!1U!!l. Ch~nac Im~;g;Q badt~Qtl'le",th c;en~ury. g:o
Ate haemogf,cal, mlGlo~ 1n Central
IIf1i!age reached

o'r

ru[!Ji

lI,grl!1:

dR:t ,iilfchty:pe ar

the

cher'I1'from (;:3",1 han.

IExQv.tt om: do nQI t"e us far tie,a III iii I;h.ar:IliUirlOlJof SC!1lJIpt!1II rei ibut the' absolu~ pl!rfe.ctraR W1lI'-oug!ht in ~he old~st ct Ir.gures compe;S 'us liD Ipm-~Ilii1it~ l';b'i:ll: the,~ had ii, long, hl~DIF1 ef e;x;_".crim I!JI1it !unl d'elll'el'£I~pml![It, ,en lilid thefl!l.~ndl loll!! liIa'll'il!EG eenel gdre' that Icllle p~ 1'$01"$ we~ m",e som1;l1'li hem: d'urlng f'b II: 'reigns of ~1te IRdo-Partl1 13 III or Ilndo-,&qdl1m kI ng~, 'Pdllia:s: Atlitene confl11nua '1:0' Immdmsh ,the PatierlRl U,gl'ltnlng ,o,[ Z..eIfSon 'tITe coins of IMenaRdel" but Iller ~m3ge 15SliU'iIiOU:l'ldd bl linse-iii" ~on5,En h,c.tI dl:alew. ,MOil probably' t wa:s In the: ,Fetln ,of Hell:!lQder ~h'ilt &neril'l fdeology
1

and Westerilil arc al'Tl!iI!d 11£ ~ ,srnl:ltesl$

ItO ae3lie:

tille, 'Gl1ndhara

sculpture. Whate,y!!.r the: rea. leillilln.&1 of Helll311deril b., th 131"se liIumlber of' J:t,u,pa ~u~ns ~(id BlI,dd fil;o~,wJndl 'far ell en~ rnkll' l!I~the' h:iI! ma_'tel~tlIl SCI '~r e:Xli!iiI.Yi1ltM i111 ;:tae li'st Dr !tile lu&~,n'tl nen t. It btl~o:mes certaIllII ~h. Buddhism was very PQ:pu'lar' r~ thb ;il.,.ea., and I:lhe.Idlllp:. scmttmm~ tlil'\Dllgln pecrsofllalde-muon .. d at otherl in
1

res,peec of pub'lh: .s~n't1meflt'5 honOYlrlvd tlhe I"t!lfdolll illld! blilllt(or i~. WiiiChii1 a 'l!l'!iI")" ,short time we fi'lld th.n: G'3ll'ldlt\!!r:3. beealm asso,. da~dI With £'hc I.~ Qf Badlllln3,y,a. 1I",1''''gtlfu:!feJ In Olle: Inarna.tlon olith!' ather. A~u wef!e alllQ«ed to dtfl'el'l!nt btnkas,. Some dared 'e'tCI'I tiJlrth.'e'r iiI'Il.liII Impol"fie.d Buddllila., clhe: SabyMnunl • IiIrmsefF' ' an.d ffl'1iIi.d'e' hmm¥l!l'~k ilil till! Itlree1S Qf (dIllGlI)8f:il. "He", lhey :saidt
··cam!! tirleUilit: ~V'i:J m

me

tQYft'~"

fro,in !eYiI!G~ &tas:tillQphl~l ••

Tihus

he k AI ill

tQ

haY'1!!COme mill

pel'lSlO n tlO ~lIIbdlUC

the Na_gaF.lJ cf

the S'rl1"lnrlvc:r who, used
ICQl.!ilIltry
iI!l na

W

Inundate

ithe where of 't!he sgrrolllndlllll
IlnteJ'II!ccndo 111 of

~n every tw~I"",c MaRdlt:s. 0111 the. yws.

his. sWllIrgJ: aJid 'limit 1111 noC:.h~.r a Ja~. he ls '1liP',~ liel h"l.'1! !1'I.lbdued che 1~i$.'&rI'I!lte ~lteu or 11Th3i!lp»:. lom~whell'e 1111 the nORI1O'fPusbka'll~ti. Armed wltl1 legelld and r;w;runlud by ~h.e Greek. kIngs lind l'he;l~ !<ili,shan ,$'IJI~n,. Gand haliU beQrne t~-e 11'101, I.md Itf BIi~dhltm" Some lof the Chinese ,11g1'1~ were quite CDlltelt~Will' I vlsllt dlLere 'Ill tIhout reeillill the 1iIt!l!c.emt)l' of gOi"l 35 fill... ,down as the IGl!ing.1!$ md t~e M.~~'ha liJesil'lL Tille whole of Ihl!! G:andh'll--;- I'lroYln~ WillS ft!lldded With sV.u~iou~, alne beautiful stulp3S where the Blestt:dI CIRe had, hI his lPl"tv OYSi e~llstelll~es. fR';Uilfi a gift lef -.15 Ruh. hl~ eyeJ. illS head and hils, Ilmbs~ tlt,e fil'!:t I/O 11"1 bili,cJka 1IiI0000e from 3J hawk alild E:he lu~ to satl~ 3i f:llii'll,:h,cd t1lress, MIMI of theJe re~IN !han now bc:lm wfei'ted f.rom the layers or o'1Jvlan, lime ,some :u:i11 fll:pote' unde r the tu mu ll wh1d! dot, the ,plaio:s ,lIid vallie)'~ lof Ganci hil!l!'''ii., Hluen T~"g saw a IliQ.1Isanid mTlQl1utell'ies whWch ornamented U Wf:lll as san«Ifte41 the ar'e'-3 when he ",[<sIted !thl5 land. All the Chffimls~ Btl d dllln: p~rICilnu, whm Yls~~ed the hoi), pla'CeS e:f Buddh iSm! in tile 4th m,lIltul1' .l\.D.. and! after,• .,~tlr, Eib2t IKan15hlk~ h;)d bull~ th.e: lliil~en pagoda of the UlUllitry ,near Pesbawar whlch was h1$ wi ntell" C3;p Iql. Wit'b. SiO Ill) say.. the s.ixth ~l!n5e. o:f .3111 art:t.utl[oglst. m!:JdU!!' loat~d SlhahJlkF IDh>!lrl as thl!' proliable IU:e tiD !lave once ~e'e1l1 ~,ed br tlill! Sireat Kanli1ii~ka temple. ~nd of ~@ 1IIr!le, tEU!i long and ted OlliS eJl!Qa~tlom tarrried 01111 !by MaJl'lha1 and SpGOl'It:1' reveal~ed di ei hue or;!J llarge PlIg.o<ia. llil'itq U Il1ed Buddb hI! 1,5mid Eq m.vl!ilglI',eedi to ~mln

it to cn~' in ellery twelve

ot:h e rte'm,le I n tile, l'oNilli:!l:!i: iilI'f -tJile I liI,dQ-;fak~n 5!l!Ib..canri n,snt. 'ts: c,e~tre~,[e1dedi die geld ~lket, 'wlhh:h. uco:rdlmg ~o the ,Chin_a l__ lII1i1Gn)'~ ('gOb-lilted dle h"ffir r~IIQ ,of IBuddhr.li w,hleh we",,! dePl"lted by ~n[.shlk.iI IiIfms'!ft: Tblt IreWI,q,u1f7 11:1$ the name Kat! s!hb ,IIII'Q'Ot't!C:diJett'en ;mill hils, .ma,le In repolmle. Bwd,dllila15 :sa~d ak'l'e,tll!! 1lliIlbeJtwe~1iIi:he 11:.£1' stand!.. .nl Ii:ll~r f!'t~es. The '!I'II!Uqu.ary is, 1!1.18,W the P!,(!Iud!possesiol'! C)" dl,e
UlWlo:n, IIII~ ,of Th

In lengt& and Ibf'\eaddl by In"

ns; I~m IF;ilillen
o!IOO A.,I!)'.

KyshaJf:l, pow,er dedln,d aftler AID .• '3mllt~e history of Gandhan
'com'll!S to

tII",!_

,dea:lh ,at Vuud'I!r'U In
Ilnt'O
i

tell IHi

much about

f.tJk Its

partial oblclilirh:,
grillllGieur ln

'sunri vll\g

He $tlres 'that sevlCiiD Ihu iii dll",e:d IPI"1~'ll$ stili I se ~e:d Ithe

IPat,r.!chaliqrn: :art'~1h1iWlr ,~liId,~"e st:lJllpa af 'he eJ~lft WIii!!adorned

with sIlver and g:otd.
The ~p,a 'of the 'e,)I'e'rglft
<Ii

Wh-llil the Bodhl,1u~

was nJsed IG (lomm.emaliate 'th eY'llQt ,ave 'hl~ ,ele mnchar'ty ~t PusJd~a'la'latll(ShehbH
,,1olils devotee cf 19:ddh~_5m. IIiiiI, li\at whl~lIl h~d a,uu3lUY-1t:t In thls

Gar:h1). Btu fg,hlen.aJ

been iil!b~G S1I!e ~o modil of It! d~)'

luMolltillu~;nt. Ill. Is e'¥lidelltt. ~hilt Ulnder IflJlle'fS ptofeuEng

Brahm,,-

r~1 k1~h" Drthodox HIfi:d~ls:m m~~ lI",e Ibee!iI much ""ore m'lIen:t thOi, Bluildhl$m In rhe sulkclnt'lnl!JI:t Ille vhiEed. Ht ~ Ihaw~e!i'. IllliI' !!~.wlit,"m; c,f Itlile dea, to, tihc Buddhh't bet)' il:ltlu
af Glp "af!jd 'Kapil';';,i'UtiUI IJInd~i!:rthe. Hindu Gupu el'l'llplre wh1ch

p".'

'was 'th~n n'led b)' Its gfC.3,EleSt I:l:iOIil Cha.l1dn Gupg V1 ramldiQl'a. He h!lb ,of :ntlJ~11 enm_1)' bet.W911i dle Bl'abmlJlU, ~d Buddhlm ,and f\eco.rdi5 ~ha:t at Sltn'(il BRlJilma.IIJ ,attempted to det!:"'1' eertain I!!!.d hUt D:fUm,llIreJ bu= W'ei~e ImiFill;;tlllGfUlilr, Ihllmdienld. 'Seems, bdl d'~11fOil' Bar,ddh~5m hild ~E::,t lit. 'CRndittollf were.

't

II GW,elII'ii'iIl', UiI'IlliIChb!uer' I n the Nortll~Wt:$te:l'"fll regIon ,cf IG:al'ld h:{~ which w:as, stili Indepetuilent the BmuDall1rc;j Irule. II" (hi!: period when GillI1li1hain.1rellfli:lilil!d Independent of ~b~ Hindu Guptil EmpiR. dl~ BlIddhr« SC.Umptlilf'I:' 'Itu' Red Its ~Innillde of perliectlolll, Among J1:$ mo:n: typl~ ex,press Dm: il'm bor;h Sieated and ~U!f1d'lng: .s£aUlas or B'uddlh, wh@ Is !.isually shown prbed 111m a,

or

sme~h,

~lght-fi ft~m£!'ollie. of the

TII'15 st)lfe WIiI'f1 md :5,~:tdptgf'ieIn G~ber uen

parts

$ukQ,IIl11nIi;lIU'whelie

similar

fig:~res, aFa dufifilltJ!ly

the dle~''ll:n,d':Ji'iu, Q(' eh III G:mdh.:na Buddha. Af1!:.erth 1'$ b rlef phase ,of perfecden the Bllddllt1s:t art suffered 3i rnp1d .ltd 'lliloliell1t dul lI'a. Wh~n Son..Yun ylslted mJs Sl:lb-~Dllilll!leollt in SlD A.D •• he fOunG G3IJ1dh~!"i :;!.Im'os, fA fldns. "fhe region ~f Gandhtan had 1~I!,nl ~\\aged iii)' Whfn= HIII"s t:We genm!l:' ons ftfone Ihlls 3'rr1,'lal. SO'IIi-Ytll'I speaks of the! Yeth3 (Wh1l:e HllIn king M.hlragul~ Whom he m'l!t III'the, Cilliiilpi i5 a pe'~l@n, h vef)" "FUel ~~ ¥hldlttlH 1IiI:lI~IU,l~. G P ctJslilllg It he mest. IlIv:bru'o'Ul ourodtila, w,l:Inlll.lppl,,& demaru: and o,pest!d ~o the Ila,,,",, IBuddha_ Nevertheless. he Slil •• Ire:i:i:ilrd5 the eillilSltenc:e at Pellu ..SIt'1 (Shhbu: G,u~ll' e,f' b~u~ful Imag.es IIXlltiered wl~h gold. suffldent it,D daz:z::le the II!Y'e:s:. BUit he, was iEl'he I!out miln to WI'I!:Jlelll the l~fld'l!ur oUhe'hbu G~li'hma 011 his ¥.ndlc~

or

dive: lriHulrn from

Kasb m1r,
Ihundred

1!U!friOfflit"':4i!1

yars 1a.t:1!.r IM~hI~,gula
i

den;re)"ed I'rIaI "dl! r!lel
Tllns W,H

fl~

of 'Ga:ndhara's tlhe fmhalib h!nti
IlIO l~

l'Ieligloll~ e:stalhllsl'Ir-

1D~1'i",klll'ed two ~bld50f

3nd Ii'l!du~ed ~'hc' r~

,slavery'.
the' severest blow lire arid ool'cure ~f Gandh:arn
When Hluen
eVl!ry

frem

whlcib I~ c.ouTd ne.ver IreCD¥,a.r.
'D'Ie!"grown wl,th

T5~lIIg 'I"I:;]telli S~n&i'lrnm3J lil.!~d
Wn 'e:s:ohilua.

~IS f'Mi' drthe Vnliiil'F'3. In rulM.

1.1iIb<'Glil'tine,n·t. he found

wild

~h,ybs and

like stupu temlples.

Ihl,d deayt:dl l"ihe

;rndthe

Whll!e

Huns, occupied, ~are,v;ie;d
m~ll~iIiI" e'ft!ln

during: the life Elhne of H:aJ1Jh<a. SuMka. the krn.gCl'f centJAI hlilpl, ~Dd p~obablr aI ulolil Qr lihe GU,pa D)'nuty, 'WaS, a lIII'ol'lh',pe;r ,of Silva. H~lnig f:hiddhbm,• liIe did hl.s hest ~:o ea«r3l~ l,tflrQmJ the EastJern Iregton,s Ielf the $ylIi-colu1nent. Hlueill T:rnllg bea'r;s te,s;tlmonr lOo~he b tier :animosity wl1lth marked the rrebcmans 'betW,e!l11l1 PYl'Mllc Hindus and the Bllldd,J;ilsu., The art wh~ch de,Yeloped illl 'Gandkara 11Ild ,~ualneg lu, height durllilg thl! K.lIslhilll'l pe:rtodl• ; ,!IS mli!debtl!d mCHt of a:LI, 'to the 'GlreeJk ~u,h:l;!l'e whlc,h flourIShedl'," IPan:hlll! ~"d lactrlla. But ~n 'Gandihii!n, IMtQiI of i:x!tG 11'11 $lJrvlle 1.,0Ithe G,gek Fi'lIIIS" the l~oC!' :ilLrtlst was IIU pll,ed 1'1,1 to 'tr'1I:ate iiII 5UIld;U'd" a 1,il"eatment anlill,3 ~)'Ie' of h 5 QW,II. He USedl .:h Greek '~~,liIlqllie Ill, the sC'lIlptulre 101' litlllman form. and IdeaUsed In 111$own, way '~he:splrltyid ponlblltles of r.1i:iI!ltcill'lg ~Gmpo$ures:..
p.\'Jce :lind 'Iove. The illl:lrg,e Ig,f8u:ddha selected by fDllrtil;er as ~he olldeHlLmolilg ~he like, fQrms a !ferr 1,_ IUbJett of ltudy If we lhia,,,, co Il"Il!to,fl;liiiU tile eommon rWtures.Th WOUi the pattern

I~OUlii' of' the

,orlih@dox HtndlB, ~

wh,ldh ha.s been rollowed lin d!lS~llIlng hi!lu~alild:s of ,otl!ei' Buddhas ~n !il\i!ryi"i d~lrc!f:5 course., The fll~111 force cf'the Gr,eek, mind ~5 ccrn:splcRilGutl)' VI5~blC!10 the grnce iI.[ldi $Implldt)' ,of Ifuw.rc$ ~ndl Jrme.llt wl1~dI hilS al' the ,gnndiel!lii' the: lbeau'tlful tl"M.I:'mentcf the ga

or

,~hll1~ G,feek
p01111111w'hl,.::h

U:ip.;

Bud~h:~he,fe [ook.$ more like ,3 Gre:ek

phUIKO-

pileII' tl13n an Indian d~ty! but the an;lst lin not forgouen tl1e give tke ~rt rru,1t :t liN IQQhilU r. The lang nr-!obe'$, tille, iUsnlisa OD'tll'l,fed b; h:a:lr lilsflil, ~n !!I g,n-ceful klllO'; Ciiifid ~he hoc"'! In the ~m balic pilI$ltlCllli Ie, ItO p I"e'!l'l! rJilat, {!he ,e ..sen Is the Sir'" eliilllitl nernt;il!l "~di:3g,a.tta.

1"0 the ~'W!np 'rtlU dil!1 lleued IOn~ Il'uem'bled iii pml~lu sbpe t.fl'd bef(! l1'I'Inlf or the 1,2 I'I1IIIJO!l' andl IBOIII I ItDr' sl,gll'5 'of beaut, and g~lnm ~Laksbn;g):,thel rest aJlifl~-dIhe st&mp of the In,.:il¥li"" duilJt)' of' die iwnO&t'3,pher. ElIIUII withIn th ll:!LnGW ,lilR1fiet ,Ill Gt,nd bill"ill tJi'iil d !lieN nte of com.eplloll PfO'ol'1l11s. Th 1$ I,. 'irery ,Sl801iAaRt In cJhe nUIJI,alel1l!'lnt of dnllerr and lTieJps,'-IS In 'tradng C:he chl'olll,olog cal deveropm~lIIt of this att. Tihe' uri d1:a!nges. blilt the 1'1j~ re.ntaJn,ihe 'sam!!! 'From tbl! COOli'GUid31 'Buddha; ~ the' yeu 41D., to the fhifldllllll'ld s~ted 11m_gas d ~bl! lII..mlnaC~ One at Tllduie Bald ~:nd Sillhm Bahl'ili. Thf![le u the .sarna'friend I,' demfiUIQUiI". di;e tll'ltk mllage&led ~II'II the IJulInaVe:!'~hl ~~wn. and,tlhei dn,l!iIl' 'C@oVlu"ln:g II:mth ,be shQ'ldderl" lo th., 't)'lpi!: lbe! g-f'l!~ tihe Buddha 'Of' !;he lK:an s'hka rellq,Llaf)'. T~ wards ,he da~ dr tJlu! fint c.t'nnll')' w~, meet, anew Lfpe: tih kydllln Buddh:a wIth I m~ .. d1e. So far rr:he Uflel ,do .It@t dJfr,li'. but. mm.e '11Ite.!' ,BuCidlwud sey,enIi youthful BodMna:¥iI!i froml Tdihm IBah. ~W\e a square ~U,!'!lenll.f1IceJ with 1'011& mou.«&he.

n

~.mh.e!"with seme

othe!!" hea'lJ' MCln10111Jii'i troUl.

In "III i:JJ,s 5tat!lla.l'l the ~nlca1 r,lff! 'itlfld tlbe knot of hllr has b~1Ii • mathr ,of peate'!" tn'E!etm dian 'i!V4!1Ii the ApcUo b~ or che
IBuddha Blure. For wlilelleH It_heKl.dpmll' h;adUltle ar no l:dualxl'IJlit

lillie grfieCl re:a.tur,es or the nh.llmlllllil~dl One. IIh I! $ito"1 aliloul h~s
h~r' ~ vie,., din" :al'ldlind ~Gllit~nged witholllt ;Uify l;Q:ntr:adl~iQJII!. Bllddlha at me 'tlmel uF' his g,e~l', Ire'nuncJa:m:,lon Md leYeJi'i-9, hl<l ,IuJ,1r with lilts SWOI!\Il! ~d had DeWier wOr n t'h,em abrwaTdS. .A~Qrd'ng; to !:IU!' r-eU,glo!.l:!!:d 13k he c ~Ib,t Ee hoe 1!ppeare.d bald. ml:!d!.e r . I, aF the o,lnlDD tbu the all" cl!iol.lSht I~ ~,IIfli1'tl'ent COl omlltlhe I1udpar cr Bu4dflil, IIIfl,d I:eave h'lm ~re'h!!il.ded not .!i'IIIII. far

ustlle.: c re~~.,oo dWipri'le ,the: $ubmlmel Oli'lJl! ,of 'hlJ bea.liIIl!lfiJIllhid r, The stud, Q ~ dra:P!!:1I')' 111'1 tJhssf! C'US 15 "lisa Int!ili'UEEn,l. It III atl seldom roulld ~nlche work of die an mat .,:illlllt md liUilehl. but llliI G~dl1l'iiln It bec:Jnm 1.$ Impomnc ~ f:eatUN as the .'lIIes 01'ttu~ fI~ ~. II'lie~fltolll'$ ,of die Imdy. Dq.perr In mil schCiG. C'f art becom~ free. n~tu~ Ilnlil full of' I'I1!NOIII'5 Ulil rest. The ,ss;~ed 6gll!'e II!Jf BIId:dh3!a.t Ta\;h~t!, B~hl has, 'Ii; ~twn! d'rape'l fallUng, eaS)' on "tfl~ WeM!:". Burt wken ,£:opl~ fin tJhiH~'iiI5e ~l1ied B'U:ddihu of 8f dIe se(.Qi'ld ~ntl:i'l'. i'l: does nOt 'f,,11:but ~p!!,ead$ Ol:lt Irnely. h: Is '01'11 !the: «Ilif'tl"iUJ g~~heJ'\ed IlIJp -n lfol:iiII and 1.56n311,' b!;tened bel'ow w;l~hOllt 'emp~'s'ng the ~emn_(es., The Bud!.llh from Sahrl! hh~d1 shD'NI ~n ;adlGl!ntill: 'OVtli ~h.eeffigies dlllg aut ffom the mOlllnd, at Tuna ht lt !,III'ft'er, fram the IGI'DU! de:tll£'tl, ~ndra:pl!ry. pl'OYel a gnd~11 de~y~e from l'he natlm." and Ilhe 're'a1Ir>ltie.Thill m~nqe.mll"f cd' 'drap.e:ry d'lllflflrl ~h 4£i'hia!J1lU!ry enee .,a1111 Imp.nI~ even, tran!!~lulllj'l_g (fie' qu~l~ H of lihili 1st ,centUrr 'GiliHdlla'!"'a art. The seated 811.d1d h I~es n:lOJie gnc~fu. when Idllil! drapery. IIA (he lime,. hnlt of ~he: 1st ~errt'lIr",k de,pJeted I,n a new s,:ye'fke !J'lghl 1~,Q'fiI1dtl'r dl C Ii'lih:l ..fim Is I,e&:'rree and till,! "e:et ,are Ind :a..I,o,wed tlQ pFo,lrilde o'u~. Clil liiilS, the 4th ~entlll'JA.D •• wI! e n I!.U!I 18l.!ddlh'IU Galfldfl.rura ,n:, Ihad QUlilh,',e4Id1e: lAd een'tury dlec:adI!R~ and was reuliFnllng ,h~ dmf~1 :srt}'me. ,the d~pery' beJ;aml!1 more HeUenku: with alii adiwpcaae ,hat d~e ~,ds£ eGIiI,hi! new lm_ilLke 'til!! bod)' vtsUille t.ihf'01Ii8lhi t'lle '_amer ,dnpef)' 'mverlng till: kid,' andllfilillEngin nahl ti!l r~I;d_$;, A,~n. 'rom the' Bddb RgliI"e,. ill! lre~~at ck~lI"m 'he 'BuddhlU d art '.fa ~rnthe ludlilhiilllblll'le iSl!I'IIUdin hundlr;e-d~, Bas leml~ Eve" mlnl:lfif 11111i8uddh:a"s, IIfL vms, aJ gJ::red m,lllfllliu1 :1d1,11ll, harrceJ,leJ i

.t:

1

I~

or or

fO'I"

lh,~'

Idle &n~MMt9' • Bdd hI:! ~gd aJ!IIe;ady lived S~o p'l'.eYh1l1l!~ 1Ur'lt1l£. 'To; Ci'!~ be :ufded t'liIe: stor~es cf]4ID'ther Billddhiai.$whoh"d p:l'eceded
All th Irnp!l!na~'~i!n.~~Iif(!)tui:lfth.~1!Ihi,e
ha'ill

SI!l!hi:lll'iDth G3:liIIta!IM.

ken ilrt:1~!Ic:::anf d~p!ctied In ~t(lI'I'e. r!i!~Iii,e ~, lR;eli,!!,& of diem deV€ltlo:n:a'lnori!!!: the Classical iion,e ef CQ,fll"ec::t li'!!:pli"!!5enl;idon a:ndI th!!! ,Intlrodl~«1 a n ,of Ina!Y I':i!!i h UlfJ'I;:!!IiIi :;md :3!ntm~I'fQfTIlIiSIU'E! 'r:ih e d~$~ll1!glolld)'lml e'lt'lll "'~ ~ft he Gilin dlhan f

An.
11'1 dll~n 1IiIi!ile ~ii!n t
III"!
FICIn!

;"lJt~1

rOY!1IdaicIDo!l, ,of dile AII'iI:; whlcl1 fI~iUJrl5hed 111lL\:h !lllt'llry hD. a
W\U

d!!:, su b-colilti:Iili1:,l!I tfrern
fQ,m plHiected

"hll: St,h!!,Q tbe

~tWOIS

~hiit tlileprlncfpie of n..~unln!!5$

first a«eptd ~n;d the
h:: Is r:he 1l1l.tll'Cductian
r6

I'IYII\fI;I1Ii

In IDEs mlllilJtle: d'eltn.1k
&t!U

cf lna:tlJr.lm surr'oll1ndl rI,1S Imhabl ~ d by the GIl,~dh~
lthe

r:aJfigu

whlu

pm'UlCS

lin;, fllr 5111 perl Q r Ito :i111Q1l adliE~1" !lill'~ Prf'Odlilced d 1iI,I fig mtlll!! iii iii Iurn h~ the il!l\tW~e su t,..mntm nent. llit Wi!S with the Ipoerfenlo!i11 ~rth~ ",ymilA fonn :lilld 1:~e lo've for 21 rea:llith::: I~p:re:r ,s!an dut 1I0! l'Ies of t:I!!,I:s: we r~d iilliI,d the nexJt" iI:S des:Cl'mlaed 11'1 the!~

11'1'pi t!!elf the iI.~~di3i.t, 3il1 dl!!; ''1etlge.s:' ,c~rtbe: GanditJra an: wl!iri:1!' , ~!d dowl'! and, dl~~l"Cy~d b,), lh!!i ~'II' ...gl! Whh::e IF!:un:s ri!~d 1'Il~lf by tile f.cHawers·o$ Sa:l1Ikan PIi:h:l.FpI" the mmu'li of tlh I, de:sol:J,th:m ~allfe nnll6lld ;, ,g;re~tw~th Qf' &5, R.elll!d1: w~rl~1 ~d~)I' fiU ehe mllHums of Paklsan ~rndlLa.Germliinr. FJ;31ce a:rndthe Uml~!edI K1f1gdcm. Cbrsada bid PushbiavoUj Ch~li~ 15 thl!!: l1Il'I~t Jm~~rli!'~ ((fthei ~J~~ .$~ flU' ,dJllOOV!!li'm o.r e~ca&ted ~1iI itlile G~ndhiil!l"iItre.glul, h ",Ifi~d:~ mell!th31'1I!iI!I. Pu~tIbffiaw,tJ Wl!,$. ~UIH ar tJhe Q'I~~ ,eenCJfellO'f:!l~j;'lent tlvlllzatlQij, It wiS
i

wmp'lm&l'!~

MalIi~~'Ii1ltlegends. W;ere. mil~e pllra:!,pt~&;I!!.

c1t1 eYer! for the peo;p'li: ~f Buddltai"s; d,me. Bef'OJi!i!the! dbCcQ"Ii!i~ af the Kh,be-r :pus the I~de rlfOffl ~lIIdla 10 lla1kh and .'khmr (kcti'ra) was 'carried tlilrDl.Igh the d file Clreatl!!iI by Ihe
an andelU

Kabuli

river.,
Cem,'uil~

Chana,d'a

Wal

the

firJ't bU5,1n_

~lltll1elh~~

greetd

,the

liie3dlng, ror eh is, :sub-@nt'lllent :ad (fr 'e)!i,a~t ~l1Dmdlls OQIIIOlry. Buddhist Ja~Jw, ad:ded COl ~c-s,Qil,poritiiln~Il!'bf declaring It UJ be I the :Sn't" ~r the Iodlhilti:i.~ who In M~ d~fti!!l"IBntbl,l'1i:ib:s!!Iv,!! ,the I ~ft 'el hfs fl1esh! hIJelf,e! ;m,d even of his he:a,d. . 10... Wlu:eWer :lttali:hM gre~t IlmpQlitlinc:e to the piflesent S~Ii!i!' of P\II&iIIlti~Ir.a"l!.Uilnd f~e,~~ ,tlira.t ,th.e temal"~ or '~his il'et1on wU~rle'ld the mlSS:'liIg-link IbetweJlHI' diu: Moellj:e Daro d .... ,IIllmtl!lJn and the AIJ 1m
'alnYaflS

was: an el1l'Ullnr .mfKIttalO~ centre

historic

e'l'a oJ Ah!'x-and'rlillli T;;'xlb..
5 d:s~1fll!1etrQR OIli natlilli'e.

The.se rem 11'm:, iIIl1'11'e :suft'ti'1fti lhe IT!l)St, dfmt!'(.i!lll

J~"akas.

The Swat IrIYe-1" which, O!Ci!;Ordlil1l8 tOi !the 'o'f the BlesS/eell One :lnd haC! stopped '1~~r"iHilali sCO'IiIi'.ge. ~ rcngatten we pl'edle and hs h CIiI'L '~h<e J'Il!g!l!l~r IIiIlQurld O'f dlla lI'em:MIIIS Into ,pleas. I~ '~lffrent Ih,iISah'e-ad)' w,uhed'iilWJ¥ m_ af w~~t w.Duid h"ve been a mUf\ct ,of valJuab.11!! llii'irorllilatlofrl. Tlh e I.. rgest uF the fe'll,r m,01l.l fld~ klflO'wn :u the Ibla HI:sU' ws partjallj ex,ea.vatelil Eln,.'9Q_2-3·. b'lIt dll~ el<Q;vatl,olii$ were IIIOC .dup enougf! ilnd liIallll reve:a'ied In clhe u,ppe.r ~tl~t;l 50me Sikh and til Uislll IIIiIO:n ument!:. B~n deeper dQ'Wf! ~h!ili~ !tIn ilc h !'I,ed m vah!~ble tJ!'1I!3S'IIr. ,of ,Imft:lrimruolli. !!lilt it Is dwhll.dllng dar .". ,!liar 1:1, the fa;YOJ,I~ of the Swat river. The secGl'ld Irlg,i11 ~ m Dilndl. 1Mh!" ZIOIII''aC:. SQ,n:ds a m'~e off fbi)!;! Hlar. I't!lias aI'SQI been pler,cedl andl ~ested. TI1,eotheor ~wa 'I:umlllil
hd

tlte hlands O'f

obeyed

'the ,command

rOil'

14 IGturIIhma An

I

'El(Qwtlons iElhen! hlle 3J'f'9'), shown !'lOme sigftS of tbe' Bud'dllilJU cu'tUF1e, but ante the IJIIR:de of the ~rcha 01108 cal expert gets Iftny. It lis
~pe;t't'ed U)-:Ur:lcate
'10 t'he ,olciest times.

of Platu aRlit 'GbudheFil ill"e h,wf'

'thalli 'hc:: 'otttel!' tWa.

In:fo.rmati:Di1Il fiflsml

the pR!'o'Ku~fI dar"l down

Tdhlie hlfl
TIWi,hi &!II It
I;

"",lIge

Imodern

dlsccnl'ery. lille 'Chli'l~e remrdl

Buddhist p'aces b [)ud. are $1 "gur1lFI), $11nt aboi:luc It. hen the II'mcmu Pi wlh'!I' e d'lmoe pll'Qlltilli Ipllgll'l m,s dil d ni::i't me1lltle,ft 'tihie DImE! of tgd! allJ ~m.. p~~nt Buddl1il1st sJirl~,ei all',e Mt ,eil: kncu<wnto us. 11I,e:il'f\chae:oJogists have" liIowc:y,ecr. ,tJkfl!n QUi, :a wea'ith of ',UI,cfelllt Buddlillst 11'ie1f:t:J'ns
'('iilDIT'I dl.lWI

01'1 whIch 1ifI'll!dl of our Irifotillll;!.t'JOIl rq;n;i!linrg

moulild~.

A

hll:lilg

n.!)lge

0"

,diffemnt s:ized Bu,ddhas

'fjlg.m Takhlie Bahl h~Yle fiUed 'O!!lr museums. The m\!IIRI ,pilip' ~r buUcltlllig, stan~ Oft II smaU pi teau O¥'ef five hlundred 'Fl!-t: ~baVl!' the sunrotmdil1g ptilIDn.Tlile fJlg "Ulpa hi ,iI huge building w dill ,i IIaJ'gefOurrt_ tt has. <ill ClT'o»-eGll't of "~'Wie: StUpu" ~ maliWdc: qruadlran,!le'iI monatlc cemlis, Gnd ~ ihuI,e aDem bl,,'haIl. To db! ~Quc;h ofltlil!:i qllladnngte: Is:i:llJlocih!lf' ~El1iIt, f Ic:h Wi5, drc@taDed b, a III'"!! 11g;lodc Ilhuildhu, 1f1s;1!'II~CI' heilhrr: a 116, to :m ['e'I!'t. lItle rmol';: rem.arblil1llln de.ll21fl1 and ~n;8,ement Is II! lifSUP of ~f:I!ill' s4ilrliIU!$ su,rraymd~lI'IlI,the !mlln fl!J~p3i GOlrrt which _Ii :1J'tier'mi!.tLllliI!!~' ,uDwncdl wJth 1t1ll:PI-Uke ,dtl:l»ratlQIl5, lfid gab !!,I!I, dI'I1~,. The bmwty Ind Ir1lnd.e:ur provlde,d tllie: enl'ire mmt~ po:s.'1tlof! i~ unpa'mnel~l!;d hi t'liu: IB,u:ddhls~world~

..llId Bodhlm1aS

run

or

w"

O'r

b,

S~bre IBahf.J
Uke Tlil.khlil! IBatiI, Slhre: &.thEa tiM
R~ntl,

an'!!.. I: com,p'lete elil I¥iolll

abo bean dl~"'ered

' 1,111 Ie

of some firte~!l hllodFCdl)rat&

The d't:y was ,robably fGlilnded Ib, Kushan kings ~d fimilly rcduQed It/Gd'e'brl~~ by It"e ~rc~lld !!!word af Hllliragulla. the Hl:lf! wOl"sli1T,PIM" of SIva. The ~ca.,,abDrs m..ve du,g mUt more' th;alll half a d~~" farge. m€lm~ r~el. bu rillt ,tid laid I'e,w. But the destrQJrng f!rie h3$ :lU'01fl!'d3. wOI1:derfull p'II'HeheT" llb-e rain af the superurll.et!l!te emo.mbed I.bl!' to'll1!r byildln,g,s;. HlI.!mllln hand!i never iF' _ ~che.d them merwards. Ill,!, rows:: "Ii Ii Eft> high BQdh S~ii;"as ,om both the sli!le, 'Cilr the gf\eat Htlpa ,:lind elite
5tUCM,

base of the .snu.Uer uupa: [:Ire nil! In milgnlficent
f~gM

condition ,of c.~u-

of pre,mna.rlon.
... The miillu:h Ibodl 10 S('uCa!

hive 011 very high ~tan:d'ard of u~cll!nce and Fle<pres-cnt'the G;uu;!~MlIi BurildhlSt art a.t Lu b~
Tuiil,iI

p liIut, a'll

~r 'lIiLem,

llIlAl!

stone .show

3

wrde ""ge

Our

IlnsioTI

1'$, bcw~et,

most.

Inldob~ed

lie, T~'~h!1for'

its

l'iegufilf
>Jrrt,

ri!cord,

d'epla:lng tine Y:lIlI'h:!lIIJ: pln.$l!s of the

IB'IHld.hIH
tilt}'

<1m!

alfoC'hll~cturcdm:ulgh the ages.
came al'ld in,va!lled

h: was a rich

when IU~ndl!!r

rhrcs

su!:Kontlnent.

The lklng of T-ax!lliil

,of~re4

olM!dln~

[0 'the vlcwll'

;<IIodlillll!'d hk f~:cm.

On cli'le retWlrn

aF Ale:xa.naer- and tile def~t of S'el~uCic!\. Ch:l.ndl!'il GUlptl'l Ib~a!lIu! fhe muteli ,Or tile entil!l'~;D'e~I)ling mu~h ~r~hii! Hltnd'l#-lKilull. The
'Cit)' remftcd SG agalnn the
ill

H~ura)i1!i bur:. ~

subdll!ll!!d ~n Asak~ hearne

by
~

As.oka. lhe.rli nJU

)I,mn,g prj !fa.

ra..

deViliuee

~r Buddhl,m

1"..xll"

1!!oI'.U '"

non.-Budd.btrt
dUl

,m'1. A£

'Wl;:h aU

ma' oJ' _ ~'Qn'ii'ert. til1e 1;:1ulture San TM!IIa. rrl:IH~Uill

of 1:11~plil_a! a5umced

a. dlffilrent colour.

-r the:

Dld)1beam.

tbe gJQteSt Budrlhls!t U'nlvelil t'I' of tI1e sub-

CiG IiIltl n!!nt.

735

Tine cit, of 'tb
.!'iI'lCI gnd

kQka 111 period
~Q~e
fa

Is nOW

willi u, is ~~

dllC:

lfleipre.senu:d b)l till e BIiIIr '[ie~e nt 'a!!"idli!.t'!l1Jtlt1 mI lin LIseg!in
nVI"!lIW

011 tffile
mf"1")'
;JS

~y~h e 1'1'1 5'lcie of Talflf3

Nama. The :J"chl te'Ct~ nl: g:F the
,athW8i)i'$

~[)' of Ilbl"

mOlml'ld ;lml ~t~ IllItl"la'te :l<nd

~o 1I0~

any fUlrth,e;1' I n 'he ~~u ,af th e'Bgd~,il1~:t >cuiU!I'E! during tty t It lsI Ithe tu m ull Cicverl ngs1!1f'l!!!rnlmonwlI! nla

days of Asfl~. !lind

~f'ewll)

.fl

~ I Oyef' dill! s,uno IiIrn,~1g h lI~s .Ul ~ [pial ns" wb lG:h hl!)us;ed the gll"l!il!I'i n

dun ~Qmmi:!~d~ @ur a'tten~~,~ Ili., Dhat"!l'il'l!il ~jli'ka Stupae 'On iI pTLilteau i!I~~C T;;mn N:ab ls 01 cl~r;C::1i" Ig,f ~ufW" JlI'lc~mu: t.ell!: and Cll;~er c!iiapels. ~1fI the £en~nr !"nn,d~~II very I~fge Il'oun~ st'iilp;!, p fabab1J bill lit b;:r Asob WIIiI3001 B.c" The Q~lkcr I"m:liller :st,I:I~M am:!1 bu iId iI'Ig5 (n!1 be Ulli~t!1!I b~ck 110 ~h~ lI"eilfl~ ef M.es and
Ill! IHJ'1!¥ne~ IJ nlvenl"

r1au~ 1C.-l!lt'eJ! d,log

Mil! ir

to

t:h!i!'

5'th ce nit~ ry
IiF!OK

S.c

ttle

13!1!',ge stl!l~\1

ha~ rai$O u n:dergone
iii!D~

~:aIlllj:~~,wJie II'l!paiF'.5 wllth
~hrilUil

3dd~clc as 111'1111 d'I!{l@!raplI'el[lml n:l!f)f fll!;p:alll'S 'tl!in-

tiToru: to the: mal'lll buUdllilg. bLlt ~'hEl

be Id,,~ed [hack 'tll ~rml er
GIn

the 1111 centUiry A.Il'. ~
b~t p~~eF'il'c:dll!n~ the! r
flO:;

The niches
malin dome on

t'"~

~~'!'!lflllli

~,lde ,Me form
fI

Ii(;mJ!!fe 5t]Ol'le d~c.efirt],OIl5,
15 S<1Wf'!'\OUim,d'H'I

01good su blil!rt
~[Ih fer
Ollll!.

stil:ldlf. TIl!!
EillGaYll!NOnS

hy

pr'OO!:l~'5lgjfl._

thr:s
W'dS,

'slilih!h~ve with

F,e,v~<IIll!d!!!hree ftC'~:rs 'Dob,e!!: ooJ\I!:S:la bs, s

lilpon the: ather.

The

flm

di!mra~edI w.lth balfilgJC5, Ith~lewliid Ito¥cn~d by 1,lass tUe~
11ite pl'iD(i~iil'g!'l

35'S «I1.nl or A'Z~ II, Sot:tlr Mep. Ir:lIiI,l!JI'l~sbka. 'Vasl:ldeiY3i and ether kll'lg'S ·of' ,~b_:!in:lIlId Stisa!lll:ln ~Jigll'l. ~nd, a Ifew pre~es @f L\.lu~GOlltdbra 50CiU ptlll'"'!l!. I l~e h5t Gf t:h'l!se s.. t~tUf~$ It du~figlilllll!l u of Bcd h~S'mva!'t;!!.!'MiU!IIgl M:harp t1 LIdIi"a, (tILe aUilal~~ O'f pret,ecdDn). n
IE9~ ne;dl

amil the tMrd

p.ilQ oon~

l'lhe' Ilit.dn stlilpi!

Ii ~Yr"QiJfldl.ld' [b,1f f!'Iilli\y sm aml;er $IIi.U,(il:5;

wh~c:h

were '~n«rlll"a.ed
5£1

dnillg, 'I:hl! Salta, pel'lad. The: work
[0

IElev,eolii of these
IF~~

I;ti!iYiC

fair been eKaYated.

on IEh.. ;Sie!I!ill.li'ldln8~ e

tht

~h)' ha.d~en5'IJbrKteiil

wrlillU.s "'l!;pall"lnrg (I,ernt~on$i and

helOli'tthe .surface !eve~) Dr these 51m.;!.I~~r"rlUaUll'e.5 werE! fOlllnd to enfo'ld holy Irellu. These rll! fts are m~r 1111il'tu,pa.IUc'!'l ~ket:5, CGYI!r>ed b)' ulm:bl'ie~Il;i~ ~n4 :lJt:Ciompmledi by b~uit]ful Mid c.me'l), '!'OtOllle md ~hell beaus. There areerg;ht ~lch3.p:i315 On lthe 50Utfl..Wi~'L ,wde. O~C 'oJ thUD: 'dtapels ",ldd'ed the lI'elics ,of I_,oji'~I,..ddlm~ with ,,{lIycr scrQII gMng details. The rene:; whim ~1'1!!I sted of small pieces of bones 'were .kiep'[ In a :5mall ,gG'~dIrel,lqu3.l1. whtch WK In '[Urn kepi hi 1) askti: oh,lie~tlteSUiJle and was: c:overe4 by iii heM!'l' s:ti(i'neunder the surf.ice: ,,'the floor. Thernl~_:hh~ i'ODfbd ~ruken the ,ccverlllg miloe and thl:: ~K tel wl<et inn: t'hll! gold rellqu3if}' .mel theflJver
suo!! w,crrl! sa,¥ed 'fre.m !iiI'e5tiii'~~lon,

some. 'of diem

were evell €!'nlalfgedi 1111 subl"eqlllent ag,es. 011 dlggll'l&

n.e

l

IlliclII'lpUon.

wl!lldl, 1.5~In

Kharoshtl dia,1';I«;tiltr, r,ecords dial fhe I'1!I ts were '~ho5e,of l.oliid IlhCldba il:llilil were efl~htlned by Urnnka. ~, Idol'll or l'fIlUvhrla, .. B3ctal'l an, rD, the days ,Of ltilIU'hka. 'ti,e ,King Qr I'Oo®s. FurIMer- 1tI, the soutlll Is, tine.Chru~ I-bll bufh: by K3tU~hlm. fhls h~11Is rem"rbble for ItS CKtag,ollal 3,~e, whr.:h fn aU other am hil thewbole ,of' ~I'ld13.BII.d1 pialkisun 15a1WaiY' '1"ilII.!In TIl is, h, liI U nfq U:~ ill.
B)Q_I'I1P'!e In des:lgil1" Inl 3!

dlapel
5ii

EO 'ti,e ~QI!!,t'lt·j~u~·W1!n

lthe

Door b

I::OY'erM

!lfil'lth

glus;

~lrilS

of 1:i":alnl,pM'-'t!lu DU~.

Mm~hU li"ea'lll:s11 Chllneu tf'adl-

d dIU glus was ,orJl)lnally llntrocl'u~ed Inita Chlu. 'rem the ~onh,l!:rnl 'l'es;lon (If Ithe h'lda..PdJrsmn ~y,iK:glllitl ne ~L Th~ dl~very gf ,glass ltilfes ~1iI tehl$ eih,pe~1 :and on the prQ(esslQIII

Cion WhIch

;,hat the, WI! I'll! c:rfWn'iLlly 6:u!dl fn tilt! main uupa" lI.IId wbel'l ~hai pr~IGn path was rsume:e.d. the Ulnbl"Oku (lies, W,!'re' ,bli"n:g;ht tlil this chap~1 and p!.l~1(0 a Further use. l'he: use of glas; tile$< In 'the Im,,1nl S'tup~ $trellg!tit!!f11 the ;w;tbu:tll::lty ~rtJ; ~ Cb Ine;5e ,~~t:L~fit" '~th d! Ii!
m:11 nrtupa

or

pm\l'~

Ab@ut

co' tihe !OuLh":l!~ or the Felt OhamllJm,llh stupa 1:1:Ii I"ilIli&I! of hllh I1nr~. The highest of tlle$!! Is «owned Ihy ~ srpilJl feRrnu whh::b Wi!S ,pro: ably creet:Jt!G by the middle of dile 5th ~ntlilrr A.D' .• QI' a'ff~1' refuge rrom Hun In>aders ~D th~ mmnks resJdlllg III! the lm!!ilnM1.ll!des of Oh.mmaf31Ika3I!1idm311), othw UUfM 5C3tD!l'~d all ""'I'er ~he wrul'e,. The"lIm tn tum works as ill parotlon a!l'hln m mule Dff ;J few more 5ItUp3S and mon~ :I~rh!l5. Th ~ ,glell of GI'iri ~'iI:S tWDIIt'I!II~ ,and I wo iiltt:lch,iad nUID~ astel'lles.. One. SI!!.t 'tan be da.ted b et to the P:attMi!n.Kuslr.m en 1m d ~kit iilth e,r to :I 'l.u)1!' d~te. I
The mOlllmerles an! Ibulih:. 1ma W'i!tc'r ~ Tlle;!ill"~
'Ci

n mUn

G'len ,of Glril

eft

OIItiow:') ~

sprlllg of exce ant
liS

covered

by these

monasteri
01'1 II

1:1 n:G )'iI.1"Cb

b)'

&0 yards,

Th

Ilarger stu,p ~nds

pllnl!h, dF 61 square feet

~na the debris now rl.te1l0 a 1ll!I~t of tS feet.

with "L1cei!l, Tile Is 5urlTd,!>ed the while tihe Odllll]' porUQn;s .el".e built Iunder iii bY,ge dlif. the hall was built OYer tile cliff Ife3d!ed ht a lU1ri;'iMeJ parts of' whldl an u:UW 'iill
Is deC:,QI1Il'Cd

The monmC!1')' of tke r'ilte.- d'~lle

dilltlmb~y h~11Is 51ngu'la..ll:.' mT"lng.

i!rnd

II:

eXllAe R:Oe.

Stu,.- Df I 'u:na'ia
AlXel'd Illig t'O Hiluen Tsan'g:, the Chi nele

plJ,grl Ither'll! wt!!!fe fo ur m.
Wii£

,Irut

stlilpiS

In T~ks:h3!l a, (T~~I3I). The fil'lc ~

die nurp

ClJf

EI,,_pa-tlli"a. (he D",olll stu~ JlliilllI'king the

KIn:1 (N:ap R:!~) M;d theS-ftD,nd

wrul;

Ithe'

,'Ia.'~whkh.

the IlI,liiddha predl'cted'. wO'l,j,ld

)'le!ld fey r ,~t 'treMures '0 n du! Mnva1 of M1:ltrp as 'luddh'J:. "the thlrdl ;!)ituP:J mal'ked[lh e ,1a~ Qf the ~rUiu uf 1111 :u'Id 1:,11 I! ~dl
foun::h comml!momtedl tile pb:a:
Olilrt.

whem KUllala,·s eyes were pillE:

The SUllp31 d the N::!l,ll 'Ra.l:a 11,1,31. 'Hen IdlentUied the' til'nk: Gf H'HI1iIll' A~-d'i:!.1 which Is lila,,,,", Ikflewn :liS the mn'k of hnl1!! Shllil. The $lKO~'U:l <mil ~Mrd !il1J~~ have been .delltlfieiill with !the ruins o~t'hi!: 1"14g,~ of Baotl PI i'ld and thu Bb:l:U'v Stupa. crow' riling the we:nel"l'1 rllilp 0 tile S.arda h1ll11. The Kuna'la .Situpa 'W~ e'lud nrs
I

.,I'~

~'he an::hrm-cdCl"glt~ (c,r a long tim.

Ar lan,g I sf I't ~.

Identified

by' rfili'$ha!I,wit,b tfle s;tupi!l ,o"!l'fJf'tiie ,l1dle of Hl'lth Iii) w'h leh comma'" Is ~he whale ,of die Hare V:dfe:)"_ The story ·of K!ll'nill'i!i. iI.!i r!:eG:rde~ Iby Hl'lIcm Ts,ng. Is ver)' I,nlierestlngi- KlInlla was :011 :CInof ~he g,reat 'lh.l:ddhl'5t: cmpellcr 5 Asokil MOIyrp. His step-mother TI:s_hra-:ralch'$hi~ rill III In love wl~h blm lind IndlJlGe<d' Alo~ log :~1'ld h.im M his; Vlioomr £Q Ta:k-~h3.s1ra. Olsappoln~ in, love. she: sent ,ardell'S. thai: 'I:h'll .:)res of P,rl"te~ K",rqla IN):' be ..--emovei!l. Por 'thesa ofCieF'S :she liI~d the se:!'1 ,o:r 'the J!; I n'l wihlm 5111 ~!!t'IU\(idI whe'l1I be 'III&S :uh:!l!!p'. The ~ mlnllt1ll'1 of Kllll'iil'~ ~ydder,e~1 ~t die' of\~iI!n ;,nd shfill'lIIk FlI"'Omit$ iI!(l(ec.l.lcloQ bUll: the abedl-ent $ion ~oKed them 'to do tileSr ob. HIs; e)'ll!li 'were pillt OIJf~ ;rndl he: :lJoo,g wIth bl~ wwre: beogrgd his Wii'l to the Cilip[ml 'P<!!t:l!IHpl.i~m wllere AsdkOl. III'l!qnised hil'lii' Ilty h
1\ ... olce

amI!!

,the stmln of his iIiIute. apd On knowing the f.lcts; put tile demonic wife ~g death. Th~ lIi!:rel of' 'tl:~R:i!J11Ii wen!, howey!!! r, renC:i!lre>i.5 Olil:; BQdh Gll)'iII thRliugilil1 [il,e gcimidofficD of Arhat Ghost!'3_.

30 1 Gondhtrm.An

idleliltllid to call",nemQmlL~ llUt !S1mry sund, recm ...gulJlr \Ir.1Jsie;)( ,61 feet 9 II'Ic<hes '111 width and .05 fe.et 1111 1 Ifllgt:hl. ,Nothing Ibul '" rt~gmt!nt €If the' a:ClIre m"! supei".st:,rll,tU!n! or ~'M; S'llM'hi',!!d blft this little portloll oo,mbhled w[,tb tine 3 lEeff'aCe!!i, glvell !!. ridr Id'ea af I~he idme' or lu e~IQII'. ,A nlll1ilber of ardJlh'Cll:uml p'rl!~, of the fUp€!lI'!$!tUllct'UI"e whl(,ih are ~,Ing ilili'Ollllllii at the Ib~ help Qne to ecndl.lde tha; the ctleVOltfe;; of thl!' dome II1II,£1 drum wustrlkln.8~Y I~ft,. '2Ii1d~hat 11 was 3J clrc;ul:a.r 1iOW'er 1'1'5ln,1I1 In sb: 01' seVt!1'I tIers. It Is ilJlso !Ie,., d~r that dle ternces and

TIte 5t.'I.I,panow
:<I.

Ci1l

dUl1tlr:en"t tiler'S were d'eccrn:iOecdWIth friezes,

1IIIi1'~r- .. lces.

MohR MuradlJ The B~ddhrst bl.lil'£jel"S'of Talil:lhi. had iii! :k~1'I eye fo,r tf!,e ,Iands.ape. Th.e selectIon 01 Mo'hra Mundul J:s an ex3.fiFip~e of Ith~l. Ues a:boult iii Imlle ftC c'hl!' &QllIth-eMt of SJrsukh. lit ~s it b~iJllfuri S'tu,:I, W,ilh high '~ges, wtraullded hy dafik grl~.e.n ,bnlbs. The stupa! 111'.1.$ no[MlIIg new to offer In S1tyJg or d'eslgn. T1hl! ,gnry I"trMIrkable thmng a'&GlIiIi[ .It r'l tihl! e!(a:~1 5L1.R! of pl"1l!S'enill: ,01'11n wh~d!I l~ has IlIU

rt

,i;c.elllfoYlllillby lid
Ithe

~he ~ava1ior5:.
d'KQmtion

MQft of Its ptanC'J' w~tk aJnd sym~
st~,U::GO' maget I

with the:

ttQIiI~

hDi'te be~n Or"
IlilUuteA

~l.lIn:l

1111heir t

orlginflll form ~lJIIdLlIII~

mo'l~ted

by

miillll'

llbe 1:01' df dile Itupa. was c:rdt by
plI'ob:3bmy the)' did l'Iotllind i:lnI)'tll1llg

treKure

hrlllnl:~I"S, liIut3S

valul:I'ble, the ruins, wet,!: lefc c.Q'Ie,~ ¥f,lth ~hrubl ;lind ,debii'll.

When exmvated. It WH found IEhr
u,p'to the tOp of the dome was .rIdl BcIi:lhlst:lv;U
Rl!!UO

wihl:lt.e'uF the nlru~url! 'CiO¥cre<i with fm:lga of Buddha
dtf!

In dOle

IU~loli

one IU,p:O" (he at.her. 'Be

Fe'l ets ..re «Ire ql!1"il!.(J. t'heulC~ 11:11 !!he ,oofallll' h__unow raded. The slip' wbhdl IIfIW! a,plle.di OUrii' ~'he: Siurbcl!:I .fOR giving 21,dee'pe'r

1t£!:IiII!!'.

,ginsilni hln
bM r,

,~rtlfl'll'

~IDI.!" ~dtemt. Tlhe ['ita!, ts refit white.

bt~ffile

~Ip~;,~4gllS of' ~he "Qul,lIs, ,eQ\~es: ll!li 'rol ds gr the e)liell d~ a

,e.fll~ of the
red whUI!
['iU!

:rotels 'of ,nKits
Din

an d

1~_:r.laM!l . a vcry

3i'\ei

Iplc!k!e~ tGlllt 1n of

[hair ~ueilf ~"IlQ1Qu~dllre,)' bl,~,c:k.

The
~id'e

:air!:, ilS, seerl

the

:stililpl.

fi!'ilCffils

~11,1b:stOlllldar4

'excelle!l1!,ce. ThE! figl!ll I'm. ':Jrtl~ullal,y

,0",

du!

'blo~i!l

>or

the

!iOu'tll

O'f dU;Ji Idin~m-..bVi!i!' ben

e:nd'cwed wJth I~reand ml'.l,vemCl'lt.
't liLe SWi~5rn <of Wh05le

I iii, the WCllI'dis<o:riM'iliFsha![. ~"tlh,15 me :o!Jl1!dmO"'efl1.lHI~ I~ ~pe;r:Ji:dl~y "lde~l't e

In ~'@mC!@f' ,:he: alcl!enldanlt lodhlsu,v:as
'W~t!lil tli'~'C!'

j

Fobes.

die

Urn!!li del:lmtelr

con~urd

bl'!IU!iMfi

~~!!'m. hi:w~ndl!':rl'lllU)'

3n ~ 'OO'~'II'~nd 1lI;g. Dell~tli:.

tQ@t, :!lind ~ifl:8::ul:ilrtY efif'eJ;~Iy,1! are

.~idtJ

Ih,e l'I~efltl1,g rigl! res w:hl"h 'em€: ie; tr'f~1iII1 the b:3(ktroYIIiI dI 3~ the f ~rt1htt!: B!J~~Ilas:J as If ~'hJ:~ were ~ml1't,i!,iI1S ~ifDmtlll!: ,.:;1'III'd[!!_ ~ 'Yet Ml3cfiHl;r po~~'~ t!h~ i!\f~ts ~he >lItttlllml'tlOl'lls, ttlle hl:gJ,1, sl.i:,"c;es."~d mallf!nl!!r ,m portn)li~ngthe fQlt!ik 'Dr 'tI,e dra,e,ry. th~t~i'!rl]~11 't'ii'eat~
merit

,of w:hlt::h

a~ii"<s

wuhl

t:!Je I)e~[ lI"IellE!:nfS~ie, ttrndltlo,nlS

,!i.IiI,d

dtJ:mo:n$tii"ate~m~t
3rtlst. mhe d~ie

aC,CluraM obsell'vi:tlcnTl on ~he pan

of '~he to
rIlS

TfiJtl! d,ia:p:er ,st)'h= lilt tlhe: Wl3Ji s Qf' the: mon:m:elf)' elf tllile li"d !O!n~lIIl1'y A.[)"
I'I.g 1S01ifl,E!
~5,ilI

d:a.tes; Ithem
lli!if ~

I'n d !!ita! I and det:-'IlrntiCi IIJ It 1&an mlilt.>I;llFes~lfig ,gra:Y,p

cemp'nlsi
dl~mve!ry'
iI

ve'1

mar:g:lI!' E;ham be B.
r()Ynd!ltlilpa

I"

m Glilt

IT'll! ma.rk.~e

001111 p!!!I:tteJ,

~lr~~~ '['n l'Iel,g~u. In,,1de OGm,p!r~sJ'l'Igele,pha1ilts
haYte n::~IIU!1lI

'Cie'I~. [)~Ib
,iilft I!II~

~f dli! S<lupa, I:q;

deQ1ilr3Jt~DI05

~n~ Atl~ng5 11;1 'thl! l:ow'eS(: t:leIC5"
~y,en I:~ I'l' traas
il! m be1biH!dt

~;lew:and ~cal!ed BUlddh~ 1m ~h!l Y,pper

SI;II1II:e of .:ihe ,S'Eililcec, d'!l!coratffiolil,5

Iii C;:o'IGil'~rtrnr@ nl. 'blli:g ~.n ,y,.;:llfiW'--wl'li ~11 Oll~ .• them. The IJ m bli'eU3! fi3.5~ of'eOlilli1$e, lraU!!1II 3:5md'e: t b

'9"C!,1lIthit
1J$iru:! fur'

b yet:;li cu-mpl'l!le whole :and Jpli'l!Si! .....s
g.ulii!II'IiI:I's.

tllte I'a ol'es wifllcllil were

Jli1.U1'iu. l"jJe ImQn35'WlT)' illIiI dl tlhe st!ll Pl. ,of J1illlIlliil.l1I.SOl'll e lbree Imlt~ eastnOrth~l gF S,lrklp. repfe,;el!lH t,k!! Blildd~I:!i1ll11 .he dUild!l!n~ ;g.i!!. ~f The ~mlln~ ~fe the pn,~dl of!!1 Il!!r,lIlle !itUp3i '5U1rrc'U,nd1!dbf .lmaU wall" The me 1Ilii\5te:Ii')i" lis a,pp;!ireI'lC~)! ::I, dO!!llilih,~~'Ei@ nlyed, b~lId] ng I~~t! I~ pam,UeJ In th' M'olill'll IMlilndu wUey_ The rr,ell'[a!i11l5 iQf the Up,Pllf ~HJi'eyilll'E!! almQst ml:S5ing. l'ht! telll 3iJf'tl! ili:lil'ger tn s'!m and :s;unaLlnd iii ¥~ry lat,ge ~:ou~ In ,he' b;lJdq:rauIIII. Aluflg51d-e dH!bll _CI!I1 b~~ 'h:l!lI lis 3; gr'I!IUP 'of ,other 1I"~n'UI Ii' 1'G'¥~d ~I£e 5vI!rred 1"1 SP,Ii;e:s f.ol' Itl ~dI~.",sm~e '~1fI~ J. lilirl<ed'i nllng hll with iI panlth:m ed 3.p2ll"tmemt 'tor ~h,e: ofliu!r ht~Mrg,e of fOGd"ri~Ufl'5.
lIh
El

h'!trud uttJa rI of
fll'O:II'I

I!'ekcllD-fi~m;

In the

rilUl'1iI i!uerl!l!;S

[5,

a d~f

~he pilU. 'T1'U'l l'Udcl hl~t I'ldk~,11! WiIS 'l!;J(pedH [0 Ifile 3i very 3i1!l5tler'i!Ilte.Th e cell$< W,I)n! m~"~ fgr ~I~ lin I:dlu[;lofJ and p~,ye~; •. iiI ~d diJe 1be:gg1l1hgbawl ~riO suflkli!: ~U fI I$; pbrsl,~ll needs:. 18ut wl'th t h e pu,mge of ~ mel!l!l!I~ (ie;sJ5-a!!iol'l weal'th), patn::m:ap: ,of Gf k1np ilnd mer-d1;:!!n~~ tlht!~monutlE_ Uf-eb!:qJn~ a h~l)!ury. Ma;ul;o :u-r;errl6 bega~ '~GafTl'M<llw!:~I~1'! and QW'nedl~r,ge llindi d()n~tr;d by the b real(

me

,go'iemml!l1!B.

Sind f'1l!malnl!'da ,art ~f 'the Buddflbt Kingdom C1!!'-enIiIl:lrillng '11IiId
Ilfit;e:I" EiJte Hu n C~£U'il.tJ£1n of 1iG1l1I,dltuu'lII, lind the

PliIl'lja'b. but ~t ls
iUiiJ! aliitu:lfll:l.ng of the IPeople

etnrious;

tQ IRote ~'hat

iEhl'

p'I'Ciyince

dDeS not have

lIIemulM of the' mon,uments thl\t dlf!~ Il'ellgi'QlIs fervour

Ulu'ld have p rodu'S!d, The ilt!sellilce of Ip:adQIU l'IIoliIHtel'la ,~ larg., Jlli~canl beexpl(a~ned by ,the geo,g:-~pfrl'h:::lii~,«Indltlen.s ,of'

th
t,u« vo~

~Uliitl')'

which ,do IlIIot,&"'01111' the
,;;s

U~

of IUdllliIlilicerlal

for

~Ojlj-

on wDrk

the Ili'I.~e. IiC;S!IiIJlUl' ~lidl rt.e~t!Im- ~r;olies. The d~ hl:lge edifices: gf Itl!Hlmr Illild lun~ked

mrgh~ Ihlve ,e~ed

am"lllI~hd~he!lll wl,tll gQliI:",nd sllvl!lI". btl,; ,1111 them h:a\i'e r:!~nee:perb'hed. ,!if We. hgw-e~eF, hvu a l'lIifg!!'
b:rldr" lInd mlgh.t e'lll'en !'iDa

$itll!l,PiiII wRh P ~flted tJe:r:ramtta DuddEi. de,caratlng IlL

Anotl1eF'Stup~

~C HC'J1!,Ii D:tto" whffh fe,rmerl, CJlGwnd the lI\olilnd covlI!rifl.g the jO' drader of tJ'h art andlen;. Citr. ,,"d fiW'i) ImOn!! jlocated at Sl!Idhenmp 1!:I:h'~o: I,n S3idplll!" lind Thull,jIIl" R.'IIIC,t.l'n11'1the INi01wablha:t1l dlW'l:a CQmpfelie tlhe Wist ,of UII:ning ~I.!'Q and ml1lnme!'~er 1111 Sind.

Whn~ Bud-tillIsm 1l'~e:I"'ed

In the NQII'tIl~West m:ntlel P'nlIv.imlC!e~ PUIIJab :lind' Sindl. thl! 5?UlI')" w.u V,I!.I')' dlfl'el"l!'l1It the In East Ben,pl. Th!!n!' It ha,d "' dlequeti'd tCB___reef 'thmug" the
a'CtliYe IJm~fDnl'ige

cell!turlcs.
Ve.ry hr;tle Is kIiIown of tb,~ ,~!'I)' hIKGr')' of BiJddh,l.smIn BenpJ. We CilI1I aM'I)' ,~onle-«uII' tile ;ill'l'\iY~1 of wmeW'iUlderi PI Imlih Ikk,u!S. dl1irh-'1 dill! w~r~~time'r '1llJlili!lllha who might MW! praath.ed (he re-o I rghlIiII EO th maHeS of pe;opWe.. Thl'lee a:Jii~lirte5 later Benpll \IQI ;II part of A.sfl,b'$, 6Iii'I,plre' and w~ klloW' for U!1'tla11ilt:iI<atm'I5Slon3r~e5 bilil:k!.'::d1 .l' ,polUlal po,war wenese,l'It, ICI Id'il~ p;art of the ~an,dIwhl.:1iI b ¥f~ ~mp3ntl.,ffi, !iJearerto' P,a.ullplllcn tlwl 'It:be:ol:ld)lln,g prg,Yinees ~f K~hmllr :and G-andhara. The sU.C(;e:.5S thts mlu'lolII was asof lUnd and the ii'~ult$ were mere enc,olJ11'(lghlig than exp'Cfl;~. Bliil a~ter t:be. Fall oftke IMa:I!~1II1 E.mplre an,d Ebe: ~li!Ii"patIOI!'l or 1:11i:: Mitpd h'ii Rilla! !by' fi,uhy.and't 1".1~ tb e ~'acge efl'ectli !III~ .dq e I
B'r.lhmbl reactltm to the IBuddhln Imlligtolil mus~ h;l,ve

b'l:en ... d~)' felt d

bi the' peG,pl'!! ,O'ij' Nonh IB.elll'g'ldl" ~I ~~me:Wh,i;i n 1311de!lilrJ m MiS adding to lu Stl'\l!llglih by die COn"niDIl ~ M:enzndet tOi the fait"'. P:u:.shpmll,t!IiI, wu pe,rsecmlllll,g aU th.cse whm dh9 l'iii)t confOrm ~ orthadox Hinduism'. W'dI tbe wil' lOr :3 blgGte.d reV:I¥aI~scthe burnt down Bud,d~1U InOl'liSE:Elfiief :lind51~ monks frGm M~d1h:a
to Jgllandh.~., The~tR,Y

'fi nds: gf klll,lIIa t:eIrh!:(Ot~ at M a'loas:duulI (lthillJII kno:wn
cena.I~1 pIQ,c.es in MUfShidllMdi dlSitTilct show

U Pil!!'flcI'ranapm) and

'that iii pan or Il!iell,g)1 Irormed part 'o'r PU$h)H\mltra's ,klngdoflll ~Rd wa, sy'bl'C:QreAliIm tile 3'1'It1·Bllddhi$tiiluoclll~ of the '1il5urJH!lr. After :Ii lo,ng, p,p ~n, f~tcI~ we ~ome~frou some viluable RIii.d~, h af Kushan ~Q~iii' iii t,lIe' Gme r'ieglan and Gn u:sume dlilt North Beng'" formed p~rt of ~he eom'lum 'of 'P,l!mllljillilit1l"3l by KaIl11shka.. te r:s mas," Iprrobabl'Iil' £ h-at 'Kiln sh bi'.5 J'lsl,.g,nwas, 3, IpC,i'l~ ,of com'"'
p~iv.e Between ca1m mdl eVen or p:r,o.,Feu for the 8uddMus

or Belilpl,

KiI!t1fs'bki1 and t~e II"I:se'of ~l1e GlUlpm dyn3~qr" the h~tQi1'
1

'o'r le:qgr.w 1$black,d lJ:IuJt. r th e lad, of Irealrds and Imonl:lIII I!IItS. (0 Ul'ld~r t~U!' GuP,g regime t!icSl.lp,PN15 l01'1 ,e'f Ehnldhr5;'m was not el'l, -:he ~~Ie' sale adoptedl'by Ptlshpm1tra. bUlall I:be $iilme the 'G,u,pl;B m,Onard!!5 'litilTe ItaUlu:1l ~h'Ml'Ip~oli' O'F,crthOifax IEI!';!;'hm:anl,sm. 'Bud'dlh 1 m now I~me sulii, eQie!ill to, a 5)"Hem~I;' ~ eI:iOflOllililc:, cul:tuml and plllftl,a1 "S;~p,reulon. The coililSi. IIiifIOnUmel1l,ts ,and InJicrlpUom ~f1e- 11'1 rurnlsblflg il!filllfidlll!llt evldeRa, 01· E~Cl'I'iKrU~ desc:eJ'IcedUIi'~Dg'tliH! 'Glllp~per]od of BnhmanlaJ Hindu SfiI at till: ~l!lIl1ie ~¥ Budd h1sm andl diie h~(I\ll'shoWi1 by the run I'Ig rowers, to daulaJl Stitu'lc,flic iiII the ,expense of the ml!m! popular iiilllalll!m, _'liIldll iliad enlDy,ed tbe patll'lcn'.e 0'1 Budillhrns;. Glllpms maJin(Qned at d,b,II,onur ~, relgloLis tGlt!nliI: on. but
1

or

die;

RI!:U:IS,af the

mme

raml!;r

who :goVl!uad

Ih"l13llwe're

more

militant,
;!D'QSS,

and afte.l' a long' ~bllel'la:: of 111$~or~ca1 II'HOrd we com I!

tbe allltl~&lIddhiSt ClUtra_g~,by Stalnka. tile GlilpA K'ng: of Can:tnl Sellgal'. 'who ,came 3:s rail' 3.1, Bm:Ih Gap, dO'i up and blJr-Q~ the hc 'I bodh. ,ret on wMl:h As:aka bad liiv,liShed devotf.c:m. brob ~he stiOR!! marked wid! the root~prIIllU, sf Buddha: at IPatalipulttira" destroyed th 'm:n''''I!I:I~ lind db,pe:J"iSed dill mglllks, car!")' Fig till pllll'leCut:lon a1:ressthe INepalese 'hills. HlU'sha V:l.rl!lha;!ii~ W'U '~nWr ,II tI[LI~ilir o1il'erl'clI'd of Bengal, The OldmInlstr;<ti'illi!i power 11a, I nth Ell haJI cis of 'd! e 1eca.1RaJu and hence tile: IBtllgall 8l1ddh[5U did not ,gain much fmm ~b Buddhl.sU~ zeal (if that gre:i.t SQve.relSiII, ke!" h I death his. .dngdcm was usurped by his mErrltt!!.r ArJllna or hulIaQ. Thls ArjlJ"<I had a il11ndl Fury IIpl~!f; e.\I~rr:h1I11g B1IjjIdbf:st, "'ndillS <11 lI'~ult he; even ,colllF1iedi po'iltloa1 dlsauer fer- IiIlmsiI!l'f lind der~ Cor India. fn the c'bsCUJ:l1I!J ,c:ellitull7whlch followed! A,'l'jUUl'l. ,he, buill( Qrlel'lpt's poP'IJIru:I:i:m :nuclk ~Iutll!d.hitm. Whn ~h Chinese p~r,gl"lm HII~eliil'''A~ ''illii~,e.d!engaJ In the I midd le ef the 7th £1!ntlJ rr. 11 foun dI BlJchl~ I"" stlU fo" gw1 ng 'the!iI' e mlWllon z:eal:DlIsl)'. S01!ID'allt~ (dIe I'IInd'ern dlnrh::U' of Ncalithotll '31n~ np,eni) ¥r,;u <l!1'I [mponanc. kingdom iU lhi:i 'time:. There were
still m!iollt. 3(1 Buddltltt !iaclgllramas and

::u:m

l"rlesteS

11'1 the

'~ou.ntr1i Ibllllttile UIlI,p'les ofBnllman al gock ni.!mbered one hUlldlred.

from
CO

under 'tile KJlail'gas of Be npl. The ru~,~r plates. wel'ie' Jf$ued pb~' IUmed :K:lill',"ma "!il which has ken I I'll dentl fled wl:tlb Bad Kl'm~a near ComUI4. TIIte area, rgYnd Bd Kamtl apPf.l~rs
1iIa''oI'e been", $tl"Qnslilc'ld ar Buddlh !1m.

I!hrddliir~1TiI hadl one of 1115, fiiilht

pedods sf p.atilloBI~d prOlfIMS

East as 5u bl'ia,1iI1' iln, kill 'Ka,mq lsthe villi'. Vllblilm~l'Idall' appafeilld, 3! Iu:ddhbt name,. 'it hi ;JJmusljf1g 'to nD'lle: t!1ilft tile a'rnlJunanlcal pre,lud cs ~.Irm: Buddhrsm h-a!ll'1! sUn'lv,e,d ther,e IC:O' Ith • ,d'ra,y. The Hlllld,us IDf e1111:: Sllirl'i~\lluu,lIlg Tilltage5 will nl!i¥'Cf UftClI' the nalme ,af VUulramandlal, In Idle mo,ollng. The)' bcl1eve th~t IGI:, will :S'liIll'iel, :s:pol~ chILI" mldd:l1 m'l!'a.1. hI the monll11' they ,eriC!r ttl It::as West "mage ur lEast '!!Itllage, North or SClilfth "m'J,ge a~GiJrdlng ~ their rolatlt'le gSJMlphlea'1 pt61t:lon. Tlho r:a""S~ off1me 'lI!liId'tilol:ed IRiru:lmlnsm hawe howevet. ,des,.., 'tll'oyed all. If,ha.t was bulJ, In the: 1K"'~d!g.il.period. 'W'C; hl1'1'1e SQ rat fOl;llild gO')' ene I1Ims chaltp and :a ItaIi!Ul~e: of Dlitp.!H Buddha! ~!i!o~h dlst-O'wefelS=.t Asnrplilii') whld1 QUI be :~e'y uulbllited to thl~ period.
Whtle Gupta ,tile 'K1;.a~p$ w,en
W'M

r!1ll~Inig: 1111 &:i'tle'rIII IJell1gaJI (5 'l'lIIa'tatll).

We5,t IBe.lilpl

IIIIICliJd'd In tihe K:lmgd(lm

or

AI~ltp

Seml'iIi, the

wasil, muu'hfoJI@wf:ii' @'F IHillidui,m. celiturJ ,A.'O. \1IPF'itm'5as ~ pe,riM' Qif !blalllk c'hos In the Ilb,wry Df ~c Pak ~taB. I't is O'nly aft'!t the Me "r Pw, In Non:1ii Beng:~1 ~~W\1;l"ds t'be ~,g.nnll'l"g ,of ~liIe 91:11 een,~tlry ,A.D., dl'~:t thesoeia'i ~11d1PQ1ltlca1 ,cQllldlll: 01'11<$ of ien.galll'£se aut In . ,deal" rldJer. Thc Ji'ie~n "' tih IPil~ 'BaS tin:! golfdf!iII age ef B.uddhmsm in 'I'!'! 1IIifI1. P'olll~Janr Pi:das, ".H'e quill!! nrQng. IDharma,;]t .. anill DevapaJ:J wehife:d 111fJ\!'llrldll1e awd'iorJtr 'DOt oldy In N~rth Be."ga>1 but in Ehe who~e oliNolI'tftelliftndfa. The,were pa;tflllll$ or ans an' mhltec.I 'CurYe. N'ii"""" :«'111,_'1$: Orri;~!'Io.inplilr iOou.rts.hed :a1m OViC!1I'If.he ClOvntf)'. T-ranrm.th mellilTJlons Clh1!:naQiles 'of tWQ mtiteli''ilulptors" O:tnlmna, iI~d ,Iils, sen YiI~PJa: b!l1t, the: l'Iul1!I'ber mllSt ba, m!l!ltrplle,d by

mORain:h whe

n",~e~gh~h

dtetiund',

It we

hOi.ve con$ der'tl:le "to

matterl),

P!'IcdUct.lDR!l,

o,ver a; Ifhlou~d

ce!l'n!S: of Ii,ha:r: c;ulwll'f!. everywhere
it:i,W!

'Qttel~d Tlhi!!' Z1f5t w~akb of
'InS

aiilmlrab(e' ~liIll1ges~ temple. I(nd
WQ

shows tbat thert!

1t~lI'dftT

~ vmage In those Idays whlch did not
nIlUi1eJ1'OWl nDII,gh e

;!!8ud'dfl s:r: Vlfiara ,OT

Thulllh now mllillrnLl~rat1!!,d e,CljfI'ltlc~. thet VEl Hantrul IQ lill ild I!unbelllsih miln,. a mUI~~m.
the 'suer pan of ~he lCll1it!hc:e,nt\l1'1 dU!~Pihl, kli'l,gdorn lby ~he hmllmen KamhalM who
let O~II"",run

IDu,llng

~cmpo,lT;lItll)'

Y,P

one ah:helr di:lefs a!l1c~iiiI. 'The KMllhoj~ were, Iho,weyer. eJllfo!'lI'l!d

lbf' Mahlpall:a. [he nfnth ,s~l!r'1!J,gf:lQf Pah Idynmy. who 1~&fI~d fOIF 10 yea!lI'cS). or all Ehc Palli lid fits. he' 15 thl!! belt remem&ared. He was a rnOIllMieh wId; mJs.slen311'1 .zeal fCiil' IBlilddhllsm ~nd hms 1r'1l"1,glllII ueJi.!l!i:dfor lIa,\llll'Ig helped ~ll! revh,<al Il!hll:ddhl5'1Il i!lll l1ilbeE wlllth hId been wGilEe,ru::di b)' £!h,epe""ti:IlIt!'ons (If blngd'l!rma "3, '~nJt'u,., e.alfUer. Mluch of ~h Buddh I~'t U~tnlilire of Be'ng~1!has

or

IHen IP,~eii'YlI!dIn llHmn Wld\
Ol'li!! mO.rE!

tralU!llItl'cm.

Inu:u'lilptlolli

from

ike Chasil IKall!alra

tlrUD:~

wbtcl! 3'tt1idc.edInd usur-ped the Ip<lwell" r'Ol'" II. 'r'fef ,erlod. the PaI'.u rem' lned mClulIrcl1s !:If M,.gadilOli rim 1'1197'. Klln,g G'Dvlndil.p;~b ls known to 11111'1' been on (he thll'olJl! In A.II). 11'15'.,aII'Id IlndradynmlD (I~I'I)'W~ 0111 the throne when MIB'lm, ~l'Iquelrol"l tame' to Brhar. Tht!1 k!llllgdom ,af klil'gal hId. hOWe;V&l'i beellli llOK to, th~ h'I!u _ong before. B.uddhE!!it Mrs:Ud'sm lEn Bengal During ~h:R ben cbp of BLldlll1lrm; und'er P;a'111 ru~e" Senpl witnessed dle l'1IiS~ and! 8,owdi, of a nllw trelld In the Buddhist p'hlrao, hl~_ The new Zihoo ~5 klRGWiIl ~ SimIllJ:aPM whldh rep'reSents jI liter ,!rHe M:a:ha:p«:lit8udd"l~m of M'~dhpmlo type. The

,cr

gdha5 wh~ n~ In ~ii\ed 14, I'M ,dlL The: lre~!'id df 1:1Idii'~ IIll' 1'1IJII'I&st1I)1' In (lrlgi!llIl3l. lib!!, l'est flourishedl fl"Dm 111'8 UIlI" IIQth to Clilil' end 'of fRe! 121h ctntulJ'. Dd thel, wOli'k w,g, waliipWllUli'ld b, Bh kku ferl!ie~ to Tibet wllm para of Ie Il,.m WMe ftdl1l1l t; It !iii)' bit UI n:on B,litdd h+r:st ruler:! of S_ nil Mid Vermanl d'im,stJes..
fiel,cher5, cd
H

till IsstiiwCG:lwl!re: klllQwn

The dLscoYef)" or CfI~chalfP"V1nl!dh~

..~ lr:eye~lle4

iii,

new

''iI'erm,i:lll~r wI1l~h ~ In V(Jgut: ~iil Bel'lgl:lJ du "fig ~hl! 116th ~nd ~1't11 C=fI'tUfll:es. It is ill mllect[c.n of SI mlRlRJS!'~GllIIp~md b,)" Dmrstl(; 8'WI"us. Amongtl11eifl'l ~1HJ.&~l'iIli1a, 3n,d ehy~ul/!:u ~re the mcm. pf\QII ftc;. IFiII'om 'the 'fIIb;ehn ,Cii:l!lectIOlnl ,of' Tl:l n'J Dill'" 'Bam~Hg)lu") we get tille n:Jm~s: or 53 works, c:ompuM b'1lthem, A rew manu .. SEiII'~ptsb,' Kanhu 3JllIdl $araba llayCl ben found 'n ormlrnl and edlte:d b>, 0,1'. Shahe,eduliahwi'C:h die hel'p, of dl'l~~rTIOOmA'tiMn5131tJom. We 'I!I~e. llhel'il!fore. IIIiI a posltJIon to ~riObe 1110'00 ,the nart.ure or dns ph~ID" IQP'h',. ~~ generall ll'll'Iull Wil(;!l aQ~ rl,1:, . ,",curdllll! ~ $a'h_layaiF Ihe dlll,d pll~ a,pll'llrng for ,M'(lII:s;h fIIlUst lbe ,lIu[ded lil:l' 31i1 effldelt~ 'Guru. and ~e:bod" eIDsi!I but a, ,q~,uLlified 'Gu,u OJ'liI'ld mn~'tl il~e dIe dj,5dp~e Into :i~ m:fdi!if'i:es.Th~ Ilitir:it1!! re u( iMi!! a.)!i1li13, LiS 1m of fu 5u~h :St?Jtemenu ;u .. thii trl!nh ~hat, '5< free from dll~nty 15l'alolghl:Il)' t!'he 'Gun". ·'Tl1ere Is notliiI lill: IlIrtattaJiIiab'e fQIi" iihe man whom the! Guru fa,I/IOI.IIA··. e~ llllls: 'teS~mes Ih.e ~!lfted ~Itlon gl ell! to c:h.1! preceplQr but the qua~lficatlons Ineumhe'rn ,on the Guru w.ere a.1!i'ove:'1'~~I~g. He ~tild to' find di;e special! s,~l'''ltU'll1 aptitudes ·01 [he dlSidple <ifid sUHes~. !liOi him lbe pil!th mint ,1>LIjtabh! ror hi's; i1~~ds. TIl I!i splrlfill'3i1a,tltudm, 'tjfle,e db:~rU.Iiln:d in 'mr~ ~u I :Ui~ledI nl~lJy ~n~ DQlilllb • NIl1!i1 Ratak;. Cblnd:.IDI. OIl Bra'hrJli;~ni. dl Til'!! IR1,!Ulre ,of KUlas Is deliern'lrnlnBi by fi~ SalC'IJ~~35~ The S.:Iktl

;aqllm~
$a!i(tlldilS

6!A! dUferent forms accolid,llllg

mille

prominence
ls to

of

and

the

beSt CCUrft

rOil" ILike

Sadh ..ku

faHow his

Ill! h1s :splrltlilal marc'h. Th.: wtl.lrk of the ,GurLl Ill)l' In evoJ,vlnSi'hAt ,ml~laJ" ,llflerg}' In !the d'ltdpl'e whlelh was sU'QJIIge:R t 1'1'1im and thus Ihelp I'llm 'Uil pelform' h~s S"d tum. h The SldhM Qrtlhe I'eaders of this, ;Hihm:ll hnlll eifll'cl!,ftd ~. !!lni'llIu! ,system of Yoga. ,It, believed ,In n llltirvc-dl:anneb In the head wjC;h,bl'lln 01' ~he h~hl!5' pan or folie luii:a:diI5 ~b~ phu:~ of ,great bll~. The ob~ect IGf tbe iMpl rant was~Q b'Vecclfivol Civer ~U lh ese' nell'Ve-dianncls and achle\'1! the: mtie Qf hb.a]a 011" great bU:ssfumillless. Whl) '~hI:5irta'tlii was arcm111edi, ,tllil.e' m~l'ilal : wl!!lrild dlsappe:ared from 'll'J'ew'aJ'Idthe Sdlit;ki found ~IIIIII himself lh,!! ''!:It!!, I'~Ul)o'. The rile aF this, p"!lltos,Q,hy ~I'rell's for ,~mln thOlit Buddhism had by !IIOW not onWy 3c.ceptled ll'lc Hmnii!lu P~nth.eOlll gf goos and g'CIdlj~u b'lII t ball! ~I'sa inC"liIf¢ated dil!'! H lindOlph 11GU1p:hy .f A~an :Sl-eda1 bkll and Yo,golchall'e'.I, was definltel), a downWilrd tl"il!ln41 and wl1H~fI

ranefl

Eo iIJ

:sush

ilin ex;tent. t!he iln-absorb

IIIg HI"dlllsm 3,Ea!i,~e.d

Bu(Jdha

tile' nin'~h IUrt-a1i' (IBl:ilr'JOliIQn) of Vfsfilll.! md absorbed!

,,,tthe BLI:I!ldM,~ ~!lJth,e sub-ecntlnel'l~ df5c_udl!~e E(I catha.rt Buddbb'm. Wh,l!n tbe 'Pialas ¥!I',l!r,'eIlJlpreme In chill IIIQrtn,o!I!3S[ Ii;>o"!'nl!r of Ben,pl. the kmll'f 1m 'Cih;ul,dli3$ liJiI'ew 5trons ",l'Id ",n~i!d the :;lJIft:h.ol~t7' of Ike PaJ'asi. Am:u;'her' blillllchi of 'th 'Otandll'M haild SW'a,)i' Q!i.er VlInp. Thull!:Chandras WUlI!' l!I'ui!lldhlru andl had ~helr !:iIplRlli~ RoMta,g11"1 {Red HII~I. This milia; be a SanskrIt V'etsrOD Clf tlh,~ Lalmll IC3.f1ge
Ith,e mal!ll ~I!I)'

tile

11m who we~~ Um loyal

w,hlEh

Ott:Llf,I eI tlil!!

ceJn:re ,af Tlppe:ra dbtii'rtt.

~t Is ~ low p,~

'ttlr~lqlll!: II'tf.lgll! sF hillloelCs;,17inghe

miles .... 1: of Comllb. 5

Ex..

('It it~lhIICC!l~UIT)I'

Corobel1'ed !:!I~~ Imlil: 'fokl'!:l:e ,Wllb1.D~tdel. Mm'i1'11.1lI1 A.11l.) R:49IIIIiI~ ,nf libe Il';~(l_ teil)f , Il T:IIikb:I~ oafll I(e. 1$l-5th "town' .,.D.)

=

19Q.~~I!d,I!~

· .'D:rHJ.-W~llr1m. ,Set:UOiii of BbJt L'l\J:oUndi

r1l'Jlli1dWl

-

--

iEp~l~ !:iWI,l;l'l ~C. ~ I

G~I1~nI~ vll'.Wof ~h~ Dllul!Ie-!H)tr.ided
l:l.'fli'

u:r,1

JO.)

Ta-dIiiJ (.!1M mltU!'J A~IM

Hlil r til II 'broke!:! toil!:"" mI~ of rtIf.lJlI'isb brawll teali.e '~ifI:w,p.

Ci(~'

. (,IIIIPI

m~

ad!

Immer'

[f'vum

'roIlu~·t~]1 seJdst rfiHP 'IrMp"l';U:;Ull UJU'CIUWl' D,.C.}

ill' ~)'

BIIIIWW,' I'Ifl:. Fmm. N!Jnh,.\l'~ fronfl~ l'rmj~tC., lnd ~ '.D.),

'GIIIIIlIml'll

_~

rnrrn

smoot'

I~ri~

III~pit~[gg

GlllldlllJm

Dul.lLiUvain tbe iI,11~.!\i!Itof ~mit=.
II~ClIJIIlroDl [)!hoI'llUUIJ!ji1«l i :S:ljJp~

line

n;1~r

d~pk,wDgl
1I't

'li.l!i!llb (C. 2ndl tim1uq;' A.D.1'

GI.IJdIUN sl~:e wli:i.Ie' of i1i~ JiIIadh. bfllIq NblHTml 110m, Mi!lbrn -1oJ'!!dp. iDxihl ( • ln4 I1ieII1l1fy A.D.l

b1t 0'[ U~ 11~,lItt1ill :Mncllm in l:on" Prom [)fJrum;Ol'!lIif.lJJ. Stlilli! • l"-x. (hill l~nlllr>";\.1l.~

G nil1l:!Im.
~i~f'..

~mllH'yA.]!).)

~Qn~ iI'i~ Cl:mpitJll!:cjt" ~11" fW:m IF;fQm·IiIi'Ul·'\'b~ 1i'_~IIIL\il' Pfg~~,

DuMb!:! (iC.. llIiIIJ

,(I m~l'Id

'dfJll'of' Ku~ ,S!uP9J NG~\".\!il!!Ot iU 'rod I' :shu ~ ,II i'imillle:r ~up imln!!lred, ~ IllS ftJl'f1

rr.om

~fdl leaf" rtom l-tUPl~ A. I. :!U Ku'I gD. TiUlilb. I~C.l'! te!lIU!r-~ A.D. I

S11l1;1XI .•£'I:w~

an\i:'fl

'~~f(."~

!III11b.

Qi -I UIIUI limn lup3 N." !Iii. orlw1rnliro.I~lm. 'Ji'iQ;lra I C•.~ Ieen~ut1· A.D.)

'fiOill't-l11ril)' 'Df ,grey smkI
fll\liIm .

1:Iltl1DQ

flbiP. TUili!i U~1 ~Ii)~)

Buddh~lln thli: l.oomB'.JJllu'

'1i1~.

~U I,u.'b:m 'l'firad:u. l'RlI . 1'10'''7 iu lillie T,LlXilIt. 1~eunl-'4~1J.
I'
hm~U:I')\' .Do.} A

Sl:Uil~O' N!~""" 'Wi Ulil~ mm.!! 'S~!lP~

A.D.l

UN' P'i1Jg~!: (c. Zn~

FlflIDI

Uf(!- Nglll~W~

:Ff)g)l1~
'(lr.!'~Ur)l"

from

Smalm.§I~ilel!d
Moh~

'irB!d:ttlJ (iC. <Jth·S!'h KOt!f11' A.DIJI
MOI:'lIljllJlo

or 1Iud'dba

J;:U!.!lWJ. I'~ G~lit'w}1 A.D..)

S'~Qcro b~a (if UiIiM~

CC. ,411bi-51bi

~m

~jil= . 'lif tmi:ll IlfiilmlJllf 'lhlSll'ilti!'lii:: ilils ,e:'JOIu'i[oo Irfr.'.
.gll)'

'lI'l

B.•

It!!!

Medl~-l T!mu

T,.~ ~ld een-

I

Jlinl;'!l-e]iie"~ ew wlIl1
IIi I~~

,or

the'

,r_xfil.li"

PIdUt... rr. RIIj,sllldIl D nr'J~t" m.sl Pllld!~an

In nmilfl~ m1E!piifI (&i~w,m -~1l[1!Iil'1(t. ,

RJlJii1lli1 u :{"ni','e stlilJl1l a. Plllblll'P.!.!r. R:ijsb~ DMr;id. EMi,.~

or

'[mEa'l. Irnlnt
fi!!rl[

A,~D"l'

a;u~

PaWsImI'. -(C,
ce[]hll'lI'

P,ah:u_.

pIDq~

pll@i':Mll!llll,salii

vari)01.i5,

peaks, ,ef

Itb~$ I"3ll1e

have yhMed

C:OIl1~'d'e~bli!l

rmll:ef'l'~& remalns.

Ute first IJrnI'I1 'of note among tile C!h.uldm of Ruld''Qglrl. His gfilnd.sDn TI~IIDkyOl. Chndra was IiIJ 'wal'il'il:~r ~liId Is u1d t'CI be ~ke ~lnfta)' of the klll'lg ,H<lJrik~'I~ Van~ iiiir
Is

'PUI"aIil' OIandra

or

(Southfill'lIil ~m~~)"

Tr.lillok)'i15~w
_ ,it dl w~

to M."",e 1'I1IlRI!'Xedhe klng,dom t
tr.!ct

'Of Ch,mdlfOll

OU,Ylp3

the name 'of tbc

gf tnd

"OW

rarml n,1l:the dbttl« i

of ~k,el'g:l'lI J, lri!~,t!;!lky<i.·s; ·sop Sl1I'lch;.ndra :[l'etil master"1

~he 'w:hal'e' a" V~n.p •. ii~lW'kinaw"

iHe· WlIed htl c:oppeli'-:Jibte grant for Vllkrampur
{hI! rlillp.s

by

-of iltirnpa!'a. sltuatedll,l'I llilc

Ihcan of Vlknmplll"

P'ar,iiI!lI1! or

til

[boca district.

The ,Ch3'l'ulns were Gusted f1l'ORil BI!I'I,ga I Inl die bl!gln'l!Illlg o'f th: IIItb c:eI'1'I:;ulI'1by Vell'm;'JIIIIII who hlli:hi;ilr turf! rnade reern for Sen~ !the end of t~1! nm.e cen,wry. Ttle P",'as h.wd alll~ead)l

lit,

~n

m~mh:ed Ma:li!db~ to

tbc Verman S IiIIU rpe,d! the· C il;nd rn ItingdClm. bard dol)'!: IrQI' Bud~ dh'sm arne to wh~.:::~W~ 'he ~an resort of dHs;r IIg,lon IIJ! t.he sub-«!ntlllli!ill,!;. Tille. S~"a$; Were 11'10 ifr end:, of Buddhism. V.J'il.Jiil (lOlO-'IQIj. dnl gnndSiOJlIof rhe; fO\!ndu af Sen3i d',l'iIuty In 'Bf!fipl~ W'al'ired w~~lh,Pll!:U Itld wr~l!d 1110rt;hcrl1l It;:"gaN rINfIII them. The Sel]a4i being z.e3Jlous Bnhmam. had 5J1eCl:tt rlmon Ifor host!illty ..gIJ ost the Buddhist: nIl Ifl" ~r·elilg~.. nd il'aytn,g Oll!;f: deare.d C, ¥:il.II.d ' B

ill,

~ne C"alildm,Qf -BenD.

-d wl1~f1

8en,~ru

Sen3. !tn-own u

Balla! Sen. mrnpleu:d

the

work

HI nd IiII ,~te Irlflem. 1!He: IntfodY-C.e-d, KII.!1Innsm .!.IJm~.. g Brallll'l.a,u. Q<a1d'JM a:ruiJ ~1uth~. 5;01 lh'llll: by the time; the ,M,usJllm IG~nen]lllk,tupruddIIllMohiilmmad
.'III,;ld hl,s'm Hi 18 n8ii~ 'iiIIl'ldi re,;jwl"1 'th

o.r

destr~)'ln:g

b1'D &kilty .....cen,quered Nllalah ,

al dA,e e!ild 0' fbe 11th alliltury~

'I'.h,e;rc~
8~fl,pl
tfl1lA

ne IBuddh ~ I1'I«1tlIt10'n1left

In Bengal. Buddhi'd: AIJI'tin bd In.1

'af

was the last lI'elOft" of Buddl1lsm En IlIdf-ll blJt th dl!StrlJc~ I" aritls~l: weaIItlhl 1m been 10 loompl'e,w tflalI IE r~JiH;!w Im-

b'e tol li1lllda:e'tlliled~gree Gflme: ,rlthtl ii"e:II,glc.QIIDJII' PQPu~a:,. the prmlnce. It L~ J!.in ,Iwke the a:Jiterml.th of I flad whtdl onC!eswe,t:: tfle em::1 n!t.GUlntl7 :I,fld le'f!:: l'tstlrewn wltihl :iii 'l'I1li1lt1tlld1e bro~en ohZ,eQs. $liQl1Il:j and pct-sherdl~ ,an 115 F~S']O"', of EYe III 111th1i debri] we do not read!> fM ba,k into 'the~ntiqlJ[ty. The ol~est, eeriCl..: 'of cul'tll!!l'ie'SO far d~5m.,ered appurs: ~o be th,~ fOIi 'CIt'il,liIdl'i2l Virmall ("ith ~enllllry A.,I),.). che grthe:!n RmpaTU ~, whch le,ndose [3 ,biddy populated cra,~ sf hll1id '11 !It 11' IIIlUet lin area. Thl.$, ma,gnWliice,lII,t fOrt Is Siteat.ed 111ft louthern us ·of IFarlidpull' ,chftrlu but Inc, im:age ,ciI'5(ie'ver-ed hrer,e Gllill~fel)' be ~ trlbuU!d ItiD ells felic:ld. On'l)' the statue«e of A~okltesT.in fishedl OUil~rQm the SO\I,ld.ma, .. hi'M ::rpptOiu:hes tbb dale clm:er thUI :any odie r rel'le. A n IlIi1i1 oJ ,other mm!J,gd fia,..,! been dis-, bel' «Ivelled I'mm Ihb area b!.lt the, do Illot betolilg blI thhi Ip.eficd. Th~ ~\!d[ull ooppel" r~1I5 wlm II'iilOv-l,lilig pet1b. Eh I,eat Imilll,o of Giuama. Bddh~ 'In iblaC:k ~nl!l 2!1I1i11 dIe 111:bth: M'l:ridilll aU baU f;n,m, the IIOth unwry .A..D. • BBlIIk:anrI:a BadkanrRl, 12 tIi I a WOE :Sf. 'ComiIUa. \inS an 1mpol'aun: eenb'!! gr ~I
Elon of this

SMI,'

air

me

Buddhism Stillll:d.
11Ifle
ill

I,n lI:h,e Khadp
curhiUi
Itiu: r.ernillns

period.

10 the

ImlrdI~t

sf Badklllm£a

m'fl1l! d a~ut, n

25 fa:t br'lb IIlu'mounted' !by :I 11~~p_1i'i,
S~CI'i,

~

of Clfle 'ItlJlp3 tor c:~ln

b,

Hluen

TRIIII.

The

'1iIII'mo'lllAUII!I 1IIInpm proves

t'hOlit i,t iliad fall'el'l ~ p~

die~. BeIi1Si!. 1lllrnL~eciI '0l1li'1, a magnUl~~iiltlm3ge: Elf AulsklItl~ru, frlr¥a !1VIl~e5 fUrther IRDrt" Will, d~s~fled ,I IIfe-:tiz:e mtue ,of Vajrap30t IBod.. mlft fl'Dml Sub'hapur. A fine Emage of Dh:~nl lL!ddlha ~, dkco,ye,f'il!:-(Ifl"olfl! ~gbe,pu r ¥llllase '1St ~ 5 !IIbh~p1!!r,. All 't~UJ'l: Imag,ap'llOYe the J!ixtrtant.e ,of R'IIllIdhln 11~lt'lJItHCilMi ~1i11 and ,II"CVlld h~b!ll'tiL Ihfi.PUlI" •
(ell'

'Brn'hrnaflt

Iml~ wett

"r

Md

'was

lUe

br

Badkamu. ylehled

a

,&Q,~O

mol at: PihiilF"pli! r lIia¥e ll'ey,eidC'. i!IJ mill,nUkenl>
lila PfO"" enl,gmatlc:il The I'1!mililns ,iiltlll'e 1'IiI2 Ia)'OYt ls ,,_lutely
M'Orwtery

s;pc:Umu D'F
In des~~

[h'l! Bl!lddlil~$1[temp~e whldJ

.mdl
I'i!!f'j'e

demrntloll.
Cinl clforfn'"

~.Il,d0'11alfl8T'f

~ nl:que I n die ~ Istc'i}'

or ~ndo-

:~JkirSitanm ard\itle£tlJllr\~ an4 w,llh the: 'excepuon of' lammal liI'IOnUtierr" I\~ I~ ItOURtil!rpart ool1' In die IIu:ddhlst monil!.ltene!l' of' Java and eurm~. Thll: Im,portallol'! uf' the d'!silgn ftom tbe sou~hern 1$lmds ., yet ;I d f"puled Iq liIestlo:IL Thl!'l"e: :l'fe eill!.pClIleAt.5 who boUe¥!\! ~1i3ii: the 4C5li~ was firn ,devel~ope.dEn lihlls pfOwlnce i1i1e! WlUi Ilater' Gill CQpt!!tI by' the liuu1ders, lin the '«I u'nEfi~' oJ Slo[lj!t;h-ElUt hla. The dea:l'nlltton or tke ~nU' po'rtl:a 85 of Ithe:: IlI'lmn3S't'e,ry 1;$MIodler enlglma. wlil' dt has dte'fied dIe .m~lliTi't! 1)111,01' aru-aeofog.m. all
The' monQP!'1 hM been blilll~ 01'1ill, ralsed, ~flldf~rm
wlrdi 2Il1flgular

llifttlng!! IOn l~,e Slides. 11iil >1'l11ll1lal'11(h:~ a.1"e ,all de~"t:ed willeh ~he Krisbllt:l and SliVl myl:holDgr. ail:: plaCH in eJlahoraU! dJemll. The upper portle<f) ,of the main f.hnldhl5t I:emp !!: Is dew"'ted '.U:t. t~Il'r;(C~ :plmques, whwc:b had lif., delilli!I!a,pmelu dlllrln:1 lhl! IPab period.

The p3!ltheQlIi of Hiillildu gocils 3111dollJdeues, lltt,he bas.e IS'UllI'iousl'1 6 ~'!'I'tefpreted Ibr 'JU'thcriltl:~., Ilit ~. ka,'N,e'l!lll!r. Qgr,eed ~1Il'2l' tIIus

IlI'i~qlleIphenOllle.lllOIl ii ~he result these days. With
5Qllllt

oi' r,ellgiclJ:S Intolerance far t,he o~il1t!i,. l'IeJtglan

during
filII!

rejilll"d

Pal,iS

rardlitect-$ n3li:ed ,on ,tbe ready m~dc material' found In the ruln~ iilr Hindu templeJ~ Th~1 view Is fun:her ~,u,pGnl!d Iby the pre.s;ena of Hlrul'll i-Cl:dptllm!i alii the Jcvcrle of many 'Iilf tbe s!!a:bs tltWsed
In the serueeure. IB,ut Eike cQminulty
Oh.h15

of the

Krishn
stlU

teg,end's

a:intC!l'1duhe truth
to dls'pule.

the:ory

;iillllld t~le questIon

remlillns oJR!n

lib Paili:lrpuili mOlllastery 15 enl!! uJ the .i:lrpst structures th!s lidia II;! the Hlm3ila)!'3!. mve.rb'g a. tract of f~t tquve wh:h :l. m<nilumi!ln~J CnliJ'ilIlCe DI'1 the: nQrth iuul 11311'11,1111 thick pUlare:d hU05. The pb:uorm bM llieef11 r-ahiedwith tIRe he'p or squae celb ""dudl Wo!re tmc,d with d Ii! bll'ls a!:lel bJ'id, pr~llG 11'111a 5'1:1"Q111ei IQIf me ~ q,PPtlf Itrllcture. TlrIe SGOnd sta&e had 171 IOI!US which opened In tlite ~cng alislll!!soh'he VOlrrudal1 and at CIne drne preldd'cd $heh;:er

no

~D 7(10 'monk:$.

T!u:!' sh'a,1: or the upper ~i'u«:ure: can omlly be hnag1nc,' al'ld ,it Is !~urmlsed ,that h was pyramidal ~1iI1s'b:ape.. The eXGYiltilQI\S have relA!3 edl dW:1i the enUre stru:e'!;II.Irl! Llrndentitel"l~ 'lilt I"c.pi1lrs" prorI:ably H' ,the ,day,!;'e'F M'ah~p.aJIL lB.u~'dhee re,pa_ln; appear ~o h.ve been QRleIJ' QUit by s.ome e;are1~~'arcl1l~ of the tillite who, wef1C' IIlOC "',II rJii:!d In Elite IEhuild hI"t IleleUild~ T e:rn«lt~ praqllle:s have ~en ;irliit~ted a.(!~ordIIPg to tile: ~hillp1!l ;snd rorm of i,magl!s and lilly I~d" of silq Ul!",~ ibM II iflpl,y' been leE'I~:nH as I:Ileless. lin the. neW arrallg_aQ'li,m chj! 'Yp.!!:of the Imilgl!1~od not 'thel5cqliU!nee: .f lilt! IliUJ1 Is the mbe 1I1,0n. ,A buill .Is roll~w-e1l 1\1" :aJ b~1!' "od d1 i! be:a r in ts tlllll'n Is fu'llowed .,,- iii nmpa.n~ ef,ephal1t. The J .. mbllllg or plaq,u~ has mad,e the 'Wo'rllt of IthJl!'ilrthUG1og,l-R dlffiwll't ad

u.'dioYs. and the temple

1'1 n!;ili

In

ill

pmitfon to n!cord clie I~gel!ldil,

astb.e.)! Were ,In vmsy!! a~ tbe t'me of Its construed'on. In !!plt,e cf [lilts ~1~arr2ingi!mn'ri ~lii!rra~tt,3r pl.;qtli!5stUI rcma1n 'die: mOst important <1Ju!lm,on RllIrne:rous :s::pll1dmens (I , antiquity from Paha:rIPur. Some mo l[hDLI~d are 'sdll tnl siLl" """hllea,baut eIght hu nd red :sped mealS bv,e £0unci t hElII' ~y tiC' wrtn 5 m usn m 5 En Indr~ alu!! P3k~S'tran'. NhllirpliIl' anlilCt. howe,y,er, tJe proill:d or ha,yllil,g been the piGlleer' I n ,hi,; 011't. The' htne'~yof tern.ootea goos b3Cf.! tD th'ii! plr,e-!Ii1I:st,ort'l;;; fi nd~ fJrom Ha rapp01 '''lAd M:Holo IDa1'0., Ito ne $clII,1 I'll! W:IS Ilmlc ed ptlU to a few places wi:lcf'l1!tlilt;:l'o VInS, aJ~l!Il11daliLtie or material. either due ~oclhe natlll ral ,SYrf<llimd lI.g;S OF' du! IlI'lch 'pjlf;r@ 1i1~;g,e:ii~d I'elig:rc U~ :
'Dl pc mnoe

of Ithe place.

Bill!

flile rich 1lQ;s" variet,

>lnd: eX!:Ibelili'lce

gf the

maJE!~rl..t fram

Till1~te rrncott.! 3,R,

or hh;!llip I!r

Pabal"pur

is I!'nrIvai Id.
ImI'OnB'S the c:lQ~£lef die 7t1h, 00

an.d the wg"lnl'llng: of 'he: SUi 't1!lltuq A.D. "fIhis was the' time when Buddhism wa, .. spellt-ofQIi~e ~ Ii n.1~IIQIl5 phnfl.t~ph)' In tills ,Sub CQn;tif!l!nE. Eve;), Its rora as I dfl.';I\j)~O,.m Il!genliil ~, '@l1'i tile !Willie. Fur~heJ"m~,re. he d35s1tll re$~rlctJo'ls on diD ch(~el t of the Imllogr:aphlu. hd died OUt by this I~me.. Th ". freedom trElm tke C<lIlClWl; 1'e!1'llslii of ~d 2M: p\'l!! a ~III q u:e freedom tot:ltifi' ~f'tI'(;5; elf Pt'h u'pu r an ~ dlq couJd ,<tllow till e f1fltr (0, roam at lel!nJl"e'll'lll tin II medium Which Q'lrer~d a: comparative e3.!leof pr~uc,..
Uon. Thdi' In'!'a,gllil3l:1an :llndell'~ fflam a !etWirlet)' W

~r KeI\U

t.o d!1iplct e!l'I!'1'da" ~Ifdi In Be,1'Ii8,3~. we h~''IIi II dao.!menl. rh:hel and in tine 5ocla'l h'J~o", of Be!:lpl thlll a"Ylrearlse UI far dl5.«Ivu£d. Whll'ettle: 'e~tlye gelil'lw ~rche sculptar wu I mlwd la, the d~lls ~f r:erm lind .illilat:om),. the ~erraCJiJttll! IIfCilti !lievelled iJil 'rep'l'odu:dilll

eyer), conce1wli1'~ lten!! 'wb I th, life <and lune!l~ Stt)NCS. fil:t,lon. Ie:gend an.d 'hinq C&.1!I1di ~!'Ij!ilre up beFo"'e~ him, The P:a1'lj!!l"pur a.ilthts, Ihilvl! pfedl.l«d a fork an 'of E!he'"-IIi to whlChllthl!i)' belonged.

lit !linfq ue side:O'f ehe s~ '1 of thlJ "tl lIs.that the ~In:II of th~s lpart Gf I hnpl "~V'ilr wOl"1l'll!!d ~ut the medlll.lllTi he had ~Q Lltllllll~ The d~"Us !Of tbe '~mpiinltIQn or mlin)" nune: reliefs have hen ~t!ntlnlued i!ll'Id i::!lmpleted 1m terrnoot1ta. Thf& Il'Idlft'i:I'iI!Jl~e ~~, m:iliEi:ri:a1 ..an be: ,",pla ned b)l' I~hl! raet, ['h~t_ I~ yQs rmmelllf!~)' easier 011 manl! I&Ul.lll'e ~erl'ilmtta:l w:hlli!!!!!he stillne bad M be: bn:lu:g,Ju Fir'(J1I!! wn" flderable dlrt;m~tt.
-A d'Qre SIU~'

D'r tlllue:

tl!lI'l'iaeona ".Ulilues :a.lm relil',eal:st!h~t IBIId-

,d)lIsm. ithough ftoulilhlf:lg jH, If In ~ ga!tlc:n a;ge" h'~llI reached Its decadence. Tile old BRhmalillal S)'$Um of barter hail! allleaiily pilVdumd I~ ~g~" Willlle ,on the Ollie' hand thl:! lHindlus, livid e"pled m'ilny of dle Ide I eS' o:r th.e BuddhiSt hnmeolit. 'libe, hillel 111«e,eded Iri'i _mn,g,tih e~r CI,Wngp!ls ,llnl!! g:clilld'~tl!j q Ld~ agre.ga'ble ':0 ~fle Bllddhr,nztt. Henee !;ihe tUfZ()OEit'a pile 11~, liIav1! a. l1;fle l'Iyrnbe:r .fSINS 11'1W!i'iIOIJ,~ form$! alQ"'g wold. Br.llhmil, Vb:hFlu arid Ganesh. Buddh;!", however, I~s ClG£uple:s: tf1~ m~ vl!'n!;ralied mldl central poll tlo 111 'T'he. 'BlJlddha d'lil~r~ re:pfsutedl her,e rdo ~I be1oJII,g E~ the IM~ha.pin l(.hl')Ol. IB,uddha En 'Ialflo!.ll 3tltitliideSi
1,

witb ihlJ ha'lo, and bQdM tree- Irs followed by the Bodlllst1'l'Q Pan.. 1:hec!n. Mitn~ualltl~.,I:hIya:nll~Q.I,ddas alld J.a,s,bhal';u; (die iE,ad vf wl;i'l'lth). [ h

Among the female dii",Jfir!;l~ Taras De the mlilSl lpopular Imas~.
lin:! G;,ndb«ra
:tr,-e the den~n'

of rhe sli!)l :Jindare

Sh!iJWfi

hll

nllme~~l p!aqtll!S as fly~l1IIg,Ionl! OF wftlhl (he Vhlya~ha'ras. Ithelr fmlode GO'tlllrtel'ip~ Ml(\i'I)' N~p I'Otjas ,H,e uJd t~ have p\lfd theIr o'bed len~ 10 lih Il.a r,~ w:h lie ~e, Was U.,11'1,1.iiI~ iii Pa"aT,pu r itOlJllld

not mal!'!!agi!l! without th,e:sedeldes. lli~e N~:u and N:a,glnfs ... e often shown ~yJng Ih-omOl,F ~ dIe Ble55'ed One. The iii reaa Qe of INa_zu andl N~gllll$ d~, not, how~i,i\W',. me.an the pr'e5el'ltJtl~n of btalms ,ac hh3trpur. P:~I!1g throu,gh M(!hiiipna ,ph.foso,.h:), Buddhill had! bll" now lilIst hlS hUl!OaJIJ ll~ltl <!!ndlhts bllrth $~f)r~eswen e no .oBIe-1" a; !1iI~Jl!Ct IrQI' tho!:lghl ,andl C'QnI~Yfe. He was a god ~d Ibclong:ecil 110 'die' hrltfreolll ,e:€'DhymtIIBuddh~~ ikHilh lsa,1t.U alld bllJR!'3n IBuddl13S W~Q liiifll.len~e:d tlhe I)v~ ~f h,lllmilJil he I!ilgs from dl~rli'a!~esthd ~~u. The m:aln 'Ch:JIII"iCliel'iruc ,or tke ~rReaCta walt: :Ii IPaharpur Is Its d)lllltlim1(.ql~r.drq. Mo,velJlf!lIts of Imen "'nd WOmen fiI~a l:arg~ I

numbe I" of phq irl!s.Th(:: ,en ar'e g,a~ y~ figlill~., Ic~ntau I"j .ndi Ih:ybrfd birds and ~nrmil:ls IHd'Qli2JfII to nriQUS;TantMh: s,orls.
All d1l.e!!leIrcpr,eftI'lP{;lonSill'I"e
(QUIIlle!. ~fil d! I! werd!

'of $1r Moi'timoe r

£OnfUlfOll. The)' are set In tbe! bulld~nl widiOlilt coheroent ~tqye!'!ce., and ltih.etxaml'llatlDIIi of fhem hr~ (fln~ was doubtla:s: lin~lil!,"d'ed to ha,.,;,e, ~he eJKi~ment or a voyage Of dls¢Ofe'1'·'.
bewlfderlfl,g prOru51onl'lndi Reb'fta,gi,li'li

WheeTer. "hil

A pmililg: rdltrence hilS
Ch:Ut'dM :as hileliitldloa'

Il'IUllir

bum m:i.de'

ttl, ttl!! RDblta.g~i'1

of

nmge. The LilIrm~ r:iln.ge 40 rHttO. cat Jill!acu; ,one '1Iilndred feet tn h.e~gh_~ :lInd ext,ending ove.r am mWles ~1I11 Ilengtl1. Its ~mpo·rt~nc:e 3$ ~ Gl!liItfr\e of a:iiidei'it nll.liIIlle, ~ lI"ea:!gl!ll_1 H f:;!,1' Ii!w::J!t as 1815whell1lthe work OBI the Comllla,.KaIlf'~ Road had uhgruedthe !I'Iema.IM ~f a ",e..,[Mc~, and ,eM!!! M~¥e bamnd:iJ')l' w;;ll. A coppe e- ,pl:a~ Inscrlp ,~on of one Rma Vtilk~ M!;Ui:II,ditsQ)'Io'tited On blm~1 ilil IISfi hiael proved 't~IlU:t!hl!lo:wn oflP;ittll 'kera 'I:rr P'lt:lk~
Ithe bllm:!l

hi, aJ Illght red IPlaltUJU ri.slngfirom

hln. With <li ~~rgemc:Ji1<Ut:er, wldilli!l. &iI,1: the ,~ct~ll.lIjte oJ tMs toWn. whlth had !men referred tQ ~1iI ~bc 'B'~rme51e cl'li"ollities of a Idl iilnd 12th c!!I'I!:JUrles, was acerdentalll dLscovl!reli durlll,£ the yean O'f Worldl War II. Ofgglilg tfenf'bes for de:rf!noe. a mllit.3ry ({lIlU01ctOr c.b,anced 'iliA a ve'7 IiIlg resef'ljl~i!' of ~ricb. ,and! tile mistake was, n!all!Scd only a{tiel' ,his menl had already done c.ol\$'idl!rnbl~ damage fo tflose ve:sdges (iir great allldt,aeological value.. A la,rge i'lumber of cb and rellef"1 b>I.d
exl~ed

l1ad idso

on th~ !arne

.1'

beenl dug OUt arid utEd up when further

damage was S'topped.

ch,lck bound:lry waill. which ~s so F.i.rlllik(llll to be 1:he rem:!!n,s 0" ~ame did rert of RQlili~81d. was .111fad the~l~ of Pa~lkelr.l fI'lunalll!ry ment[oI1!Dd, In the: l'Urmesl! thl"G'n1d~, of tln~~ ~dll and 12th ~fillllrl'u and In tke .:op"er*p!atie of 1.3 which lrecorilled ehe gfl!llil'i: ,of hund to ~he 'Same InnRutlC'n. Th~ 'e'nJ:.lrc hfll il C'Q1i'e'r'iH:I Wll~' mDulllds of dlrtJi;ilrent SIZi_:$;, lihey hilove been drvld £d y ndiu 18 milJn ,groups ,o.f hl~h Nos. 5. 6, "1 ilJ:ld 110hitve been exaR!hu:d,. HOllnd Ng, ,5, Js ffle i~rl.est nHIiI The p, lllfli very much fe"lemliJ'les the Pa1llarp'ur mOfi~er:r~ alld thoughl I was not 'jli'lO'ably 50 ~r£eI'1 decarat:ed. II: must hav,e: vied with ~rpUf In rlchne~. exubcranl;e a~d mlolili. lierhlQlttai p.liilljlll!S 'of IBu,ddha 5'UI'I"Gunded by palilneiJS' de~1~IJlg dhl'~1!I1! andl sElml-.alvine I1glllr~ ha.ve bee," foufld 5It1~11 em th~ ~IIUliIg w~l5. lI'hmslmound h'u TD :1:111 sC'illth uf' 'm's, are moum d's Nos" , iilimf,7 wh Ich a.re aUd e Rupbln Kallp's pakce IJ;nclIB'ho~I!n'Ja:·~, abce respettl¥eJy. p No, 6 ~ "1p'1n a aDml, bui~d~firg !!!I~lilmilliled by '31 ffliiWSshre: brld( Willi_ llIer Inn!!!' pG-l'ttolll of thl$. bulldrlmg Is .,.)$(1 profu"Sely odeC!Ciirated.with plaques represe:l1Itlng IBuddha wnh his p;!iB~hHIIi. h,liIman ~uoba15. •
been named
M

I, was di5~'lerdt:hl:

tJn

AIIU1Ind~jll':!i, palace.

'WafI' DI'S.

birds and beaus.
on II crud·

The: !SU'l!Iaure 10{ mOl!lnd Nb. 10 'Sem:s, 1IOhlleltoodl
farm.

been ravaged be:l~nd recogl'lltlon.The that rrollfl the sld~ Dr IrES Il'e-..enfll'ut 8mg,tl!$ "', (he ~liIne." h:!;n~ :and p1td~1$ It wu Fcaillshly !lC;CDTa;ted ;wlm «I'TUDtta and 5CD~'tu,e. It'6'a$ 0111 'tills ~sl,tetha~ ~ ...n ,~ e cclt'Nlnllng 'tln,J' Image~of Buddha In b,roll~ were lroundl. 1h11~en ,or th~e mlnll1t.uli'\es w~re te,mYIl:R!d. ,Atl ,ef clieml are' iii' elnlil", t'OlJ~h~liIgttJrllii:de. Th~ aft!: twill' rnehe:s 'hl,lb. 'Dt=3:rrelllgJous ~ a
haV€

rts

5~du

reim3!l~~" hQ'Wey,er~ [,me

iLRd rrRtmbl~

the' \'Iothre 1mllle5 exa'laed dating

fl'C"1IIiI Jlhewafll
'Q!nl:lIl1"

',0

l;b.e

rdil<5lri:lI'h:'tof ChlttagQlIg"

baa

'Eg

91lb

A.D.

PaulUilN "udh;a.Jd

The Cihlnese Plll~Il'Jm HI,Lllon lDflg, had £Oiuncfl IPlurndlra Vg;rdb:a:na:
l(lMaltath'i!1)1 fJQulI'lsh~n;g wicb Bl.ldidihtst rmvnksl.lfldi f1I!~l!liMU!rl;es. It wu Q,jija! aga n a ",entre: or t!h'ls m!lgiloill dlurllPg t "_Pilla 'r~gllme. b!ilJtwIth 'the adveRt ~JSeR'aI aU the 'sacred iud,dhitt IlIiIol'i3D~li'ies; were turned Into Siva. tempt!!!!!. /Ii, ".GRble e~"i1mp1eof this Is the m.oUIJild"cfc;~~ul, Med hr. Tlh II fU!!'I1I"les buU r: C Ii a cr ~llrti r mpl:lin wlih I
·£j'lI"tut
Ir

cglUtrllccion

~

pOIPul..r IN(~, (he hbs

of

IBcl'ip~.

II~ IS

leYlci'ent. 10 the tn!ned eye tllat the IlIPJil~ f100ir ,cafl"led ~ Sitlilp;!
IiILlt lh~ entIre thing ~ Ir',emavn ~nd f1epla~ by 'the Stu IUIlP (111!b andl 112th cent'" e:s A. O.JI and t:.moered b"l 21 sq,lI!alr,eJi'hrr ne rand:a pardi at a sllg,hl an&~I!!. No tfaCeS of the Bvdidh~; m rtfe ~rh:on 'the wall$ 'Df ,the temple: ~d we can 0111,Judge It tol be.:a B1Ul)dhbt mmple br Iits ®.utl'Uttf)on i:iI!lildexlsfien,c:e Qf die fOllf (idler IbUilldlfll$ on fQur C(lrlT'nefS oh:he ClrQJS making il: I(Pan~nJile.gra) RYe-fetC! llli tl'peo.

There m~

!be milnJ" J'MIIIr

Ii$tJl'1IP,tU;

of'r;ike Buddhl,st art 'lorlnC!:dl

~'Ii'~O BrahllllilolcaJ

~mprH and llill'ltllll)' dl!stro)'eCi II,. in,vade,j"$. More
brlBg more enmlples

Ughc. Rccentl)l' iliI10tiher ,ex!ieml'lll! c:enQ"e~ tille' Bl.lcMhlst cult~r1f! was dlileovered till &sr P.akfSiE31l bout 6 mU~s west cJf CI!Jmilfla, Oil ~.he a M'cafnamati-LaJmru Irld~ The ielK(ia¥rilit onSi at dlls plil~ Im",e: 'mill' led (hI! Pr'e5Wla! ofa. BllliilIdlU:n stupa ndoSied Il, a very I lIi!"p In'iODUliery. The l'Ieillalns bela'liIg p;robab.y to the C!lOlndr:as: whQ r;liIed' SOlItil-IaR kllpl betweeo, '900 A.D., ind 105'0 A.!D. Wid11 Rohi~1I.11 3;5 1:~elll' QPlt\111. ~t I~ now (alriy itllll"talll'l 'tha~ dlilis ph;te rl liSlIdentical wl~h La~ma.t. {lIt Ule 5'Olrth~n ud ,o:f lhe rldp. 11Iee

e1!aiHl'alie rlteall'il1llons will

or

to

Chandra$: weR
CDum:~lliIe'

Buddhl!>ts. '3II'IGI ~nder
O!I

iEllE!m the

m~es

of' !the

~mbrnlied Eh.lddhil'm 'on

'vel)' wldfitC."Ie.:

1'h1l: brief a«OU!'It .. the (;ukural Iher~tilJI! or' Bu(hf,h'is'!ilfI br~'nrgl' in,t'O nlll'd :011 few law:. It ,SrbW! ~h.n:he greatest ce rn,[ jI~ of the' t Bud,dihlsr: art llii I[till:! entlM world has I!u;!t!nd.e Gandihara '1lrn!J illl
Wrm Pat
K.al!. III

thb art tbe ph1:s'lcal:i1~I'ien~

of Hellenism

blended n an 'unsurpassed hiil'i1ll1Qny with lTll,fieu1ve ~ph'ltuanfm of die lEast. it was here Ith:ll M'ha)'ana r~EO the stat'M.5 of Ir or d rell~Qn a:llld spreacil a:~ro~, the K~Nkorn:fIi1 range ~ Tibet, l'i1oP,gulia. Cih'lna '!.liId J3flillil. In faa: 'the hls(Qry 0 - We5it 'Pa:lidsuQ can he dll'ifded .Iom three gl'eat; Ipeill'lodrs, ~lic;b ,of' whl,ch p,odiJj~d lu ,own,i:;h~nel1'5 e dy,lll1mt!oll: th pre,.hlstorlc 'period of'Moe.nlo OarI"03.nd H;!lF"P~ dvillzadon. the 'f1l1!;rIOd Qf' Buddhism and the MIILls.lim pc:rlodi. Exa:,t: for (he br1ef rule of the early Malilli"~! Wen, Pnktnan Ii'4$r II'IIIIt,l!r :o!J Ipart af ~ Hllndu Empire. :;jIllilil eVeJJ Ehe Miaury.illil Emlpl'l'e ~IIIitS, tflird g~f:lIli"atlon plFQduee4 Alales. onel1of lke mt.e,ham OIllid mM l0Y3.blt fi,gures thu IhlstO,ry has eve, prochlll:'edI. In East hki.'(nn BuddhIsm fOund !"1I!f.,.gcW1l'1!1IIIt" 'was beclng pe,...

seculed

ln the lI'es~ of [!;he fub"'C'G,ntlnent. and IlSl>e apllll I~

_eft

lIS ;u:tisth!:: mall'b.a~l:liIQulh net as 1'I'i~lfliflQe,uas these mG;md~~~. Ev,en toda)l' there

11 a I!ilddhlst mlnorr'l IIIi! Em Paklscm wlilldl II~ ~ hll.pp:r and honDunble life wl"h dI!: Muslilm:i in hki'ua'l1. It lis '!l'IJr,e ~ts f!!itIJU'ii!" Qf tolll!!nlnce and tre:spec£ lind of dIe full safegtl.rnil of Ie: lill~millil rlghu:. The COlinltueRt kRmlli)' ofP"kin~n ~as .~,.e:ady in~l"pOra:ted I n the Con~dtliiJ(rol1l t he gU\:l~m~ or "Fred',om of CQI'lKle'n~e ;!Ind,the rflht to prcfe$~, ,ptad: ~e and

cr

propa,gare rei i2il:l,0/'·. The

CcI1'l~lYent

Men"! til)! 'f!.!n'!ler

I'ays
IdelilCi-

down~
"S1l{bj:~
mlfil.tlan
tOI

mlaniilvmenc ,~r reillol!l III ad ma1ntiel1i&n£ii ,ef n!ilJllol.Is IBd chu~table IMt~tlltf!l"5 and I;hC! atq:l.ilrstl!!on of m~h: il'lld ImmoYable Ipruperty far th"t PU'lpCIs-e. ·~S:uIbJttt liD rqlJ~atllGliI5 Ito ~ made In t~l$ b;g:h-If ~'Ia:r7 Ir,e'llglous denom m.t1Qn 'or any seulQn t'her,eo'f .shill ~have the !Flint lil) ,PIi'OCiIU'I!! 19e1lu~hiW,l17Irar ~rlg'lous pI.! t,g~ all Olrtlcilel, whl ch 3ft p!l'OYtd :H, IH illig 'I!:5iSEJlth'1 for W\ClNhf:p' in uCDl"dance With the! Jl'lIles, ,rites. lCl!nlmtpnlu ,and ClJItGm>s of drat den@.mhli!tIQIII. sh II

plIIllIUe QnihiF ,md mtlr:aIMr.,. every
In (he
f!'I tlln

,rdlre:lou<s

'enlo, treedci'IiI

611111 I RdydJl'Ig the enmll5'h

"!NOI

person

~n:d~lIIIg

3111)'cd(_QtID'IiI'iI'1 Ilml:llcllitlQlIIlsih:a.11 be

re-

q jJI..ed tD ~b denQmlnaUQfi.

pa.rt Iliii al'l)' re~~'81'CilIJI<~; i,jI'IWlIaCI 011'1 ~,

!::tI iKte:11I d '1Ii~~
O'r

rellgi!oll;s wCll'Sfll,p otller

th:m rh.

of hl!l!, ,own ~ml.inlt)i'

··No Ciommllnl'ty or deftomlnadon !Shan be prevlBnted from p,.... ,rJ!~ns: retrlJ'UlIli IlllSCiI'lSarClO['iil1!' PoYfill of' tm.,!t community lor de-ftmnll'l dOli! ~III lin, mlicatlo:n.l'I ~nm·tuUol1 Ima1l1ltllm b1 llil~1:
E:.fImlmlllllllty Cit d~nomllll!lItIQjiI.

l51,

·~NI)

e(h,!,~t1oi!'la~

~mlSt:1 tliltWOIII lili!ltail nmil'led

wlloll,'

Qutt

1~KW'lded
I

brill

lpa..,tkiU

131' ,mm m ~n["
dlfe:relilt

or iCil'e 1t!i!mr~~IClIl, com !ill ulnl!!;)"
01"

1c1 Iflillilds mal~ H
lit lrefu!l!l$

Irefu:5 I!ll!III'\!i,wlrd tltili'l

tb1'~Ihe:Swe ~g!!~llf Olil' t:h,eJII"C!'!ltd tlllat ,
'Df iI

<Idm1~iQm 'niXl~ed5:

'EO IP~r!CIiIS

de.flJJ~mllRt!~QIiI.
taX:E!5.

"'No pl!h'Q,1iI1

'5ih:a:~~be 'OO'lI'IpaUed ~:a pay
:~"I

31'11), !:~iilll

the

I@f W'hl'lilh <In

fl~ 1)1'-apprgpil'r~1ieJdI ~In
""r miilffintel!!l3l11CS: 'cf

pa'ym~nt of

l~pe:nses: 'f~l' ~!he p:fO,p~t'IDIiI IfellgrQ'1Il utill!il!" ,han h1s ClWilll·~.

lI.n, lputfliiubr

,Prlnu.d
P\i'HaI

H

PI\II'lft IKuiWI

..

u

CE~

ARCRA60LOGICAL LlBBARY.
}!;~\V DELHI

Issue

,,"cCQ'I"d.

Author- - '-' i E t 0.1

";LUl

i

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