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A structure that is generally a metallic object, often a wire or group of wires, used to convert high frequency signals into electromagnetic waves and vice versa.
A device whose function is to radiate electromagnetic energy and/or intercept electromagnetic radiation
Basic Consideration: Maximum Power Transfer .
FIELDS OF AN ANTENNA .
INDUCTION FIELD Considered to extend out from the antenna to a distance of πD2/8λ Near Field or Fresnel Region RADIATION FIELD TRANSITION ZONE Zone between the two(2) regions Considered to extend out from a distance of 2D2/λ Far Field or Fraunhoffer Region .
frequency λ = c/f Where: λ – wavelength F – frequency C – velocity in free space .BASIC FORMULAS T = 1/f Where: T – time F .
CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTENNAS .
.RADIATION PATTERN A line drawn to join points in space which have equal field intensity due to the source.
.Major Lobe – the direction of maximum radiation Minor Lobe – the direction of minimum radiation Null – the direction with radiation intensity equal to zero.
Power losses c. Antenna height b. Terminations at its end d. Thickness of the antenna wire .FACTORS WHICH DETERMINE THE RADIATION PATTERN OF AN ANTENNA a.
PRINCIPLE OF RECIPROCITY The characteristics of antennas. An antenna that radiates uniformly in all directions in space ISOTROPIC ANTENNA . such as impedance and radiation pattern are identical. regardless of use for reception or transmission.
5 : 1 (1.76 dB) .DIRECTIVE GAIN The ratio of the power density in a particular direction of one antenna to the power density that would be radiated by an isotropic antenna.15 dB) HERTZIAN DIPOLE: 1. HALF WAVE DIPOLE: 1.64 : 1 (2.
The longer the antenna. the higher the directive gain NOTES: Non resonant antennas have higher directive gain than resonant antennas The directive gain of all practical antennas is greater than unity .
D Maximum directive gain The gain in the direction of one of the major lobes in the antenna’s radiation pattern.DIRECTIVITY. .
POWER GAIN Overall gain considering losses and efficiency Ap = %D Where: % .antenna efficiency D .directivity .
.ANTENNA RESISTANCE The ratio of the applied voltage to the flowing current 1. RADIATION RESISTANCE. Rr AC resistance The ratio of the power radiated by the antenna to the square of the current at the feedpoint.
Rd Antenna and ground resistance Discharge or corona effects Losses in imperfect dielectric very near the antenna Eddy current loss .2. LOSS RESISTANCE.
ANTENNA EFFICIENCY % = Rr / Rr + Rd The ratio of the power radiated by the antenna to the power delivered at the feedpoint The ratio of radiation resistance to the total system resistance .
a loss resistance of 8 ohms. 10% and 14.4 d. a. 90% and 14. What efficiency and directivity does it have.An antenna has a radiation resistance of 72 ohms. 90% and 17.4 . and a power gain of 16.78 c.78 b. 10% and 17.
at a distance of 2 km. 13. 6 dB . 11. What. 10 dB d.25 dB b. An isotropic antenna would have to radiate 2400 w to produce the same power density at that distance.To produce a power density of 1 mw/m2 in a given direction.21 dB c. an antenna radiates a total of 180 w. is the directive gain of the practical antenna? a. in dB.
EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER (ERP) The product of the power fed to an antenna and its power gain. taking the gain of the antenna into account as referenced to an isotropic radiator . ERP = Total Radiated Power x Power Gain EFFECTIVE ISOTROPIC RADIATED POWER (EIRP) The power radiated by an antenna in its favored direction.
BANDWIDTH The operating frequency range of an antenna FRONT TO BACK RATIO Ratio of the power at the optimum direction of the antenna to that of the power 180 degrees from the optimum direction .
BEAMWIDTH The degree of concentration of the antenna’s radiation Angular separation between two half power points in a major lobe of an antenna radiation pattern .
.POLARIZATION Space orientation of the waves that the antenna radiates The electric field vector is always parallel to the antenna elements.
PHYSICAL LENGTH Actual length of the antenna L =λ/2. λ= c/f ELECTRICAL LENGTH Dependent upon the velocity coefficient or velocity factor L=kλ where k is the dielectric constant λ/2 is the shortest length of a conductor which will resonate at a given frequency .
60 m . 6 m c. 60 cm b.06 m d. What is the wavelength of a 500 MHz signal? a.Ex. 0.
570 m c. 630 m . What is the electrical length of an antenna operating at a frequency of 500 kHz? a. 600 m d. 500 m b.Ex.
GROUNDING SYSTEMS .
EFFECTS OF GROUND ON ANTENNAS Whereas an ungrounded antenna with its image forms an antenna array. the bottom of the grounded antenna is joined to the top of the image. . the system acts as an antenna of double size.
EFFECTS OF GROUND ON ANTENNAS Whereas an ungrounded antenna with its image forms an antenna array. the system acts as an antenna of double size. the bottom of the grounded antenna is joined to the top of the image. .
like spokes on a wheel. consisting of a large number of radials extending from the base of the tower. .GROUND SCREEN A network of buried wires directly under the antenna. and placed 15 and 30 cm below the ground.
COUNTERPOISE A substitute for ground screen in areas of low conductivity. rock. i. mountains and antennas on top of buildings .e.
ANTENNA HEIGHT .
. but where this is not possible.ANTENNA HEIGHT The actual antenna height should at least be λ/4. the effective height should correspond to λ/4.
TOP LOADING A good method of increasing radiation resistance by having a horizontal portion at the top of the antenna Effect: to increase the current at the base of the antenna and to make the current distribution more uniform .
EFFECTIVE LENGTH END EFFECT Antennas behave as though (electrically) they were longer than their physical length The result of physical antennas having finite thickness. . instead of being infinitely thin.
ANTENNA COUPLING AND IMPEDANCE MATCHING .
to provide impedance matching To tune out the reactive component of the antenna impedance To provide the transmitter with the correct value of load resistance To prevent illegal radiation of spurious frequencies . which may be lumped or distributed.ANTENNA COUPLING REASONS FOR COUPLING A network composed of reactances and transformers.
giving adequate harmonic suppression Used for balanced lines .ANTENNA COUPLERS Direct Coupler π Coupler Symmetrical π Coupler The antennas are coupled directly to their transmitters Affords a wider reactance range.
IMPEDANCE MATCHING Stub Matching Accomplished by connecting the coax or twin lead to the stub and sliding the connections up or down the stub until the proper SWR is indicated by a meter connected in the system. .
.IMPEDANCE MATCHING Delta Matching Accomplished by spreading the ends of the feedline and adjusting the spacing until optimum performance is reached.
IMPEDANCE MATCHING Gamma Matching A sliding clamp is included in the assembly to permit fine tuning for minimum SWR at the time of installation .
IMPEDANCE MATCHING Quarter Wave Matching BALUN A section of transmission line one quarter wavelength long placed between the load and the line Used to connect an unbalanced (coaxial line) to a balanced antenna .
Center fed half wave dipole or Marconi antenna .CURRENT FED (LOW Z FEED) An antenna is said to be current fed if it is fed at the point of current maximum Includes all feed point impedances below 600 ohms Ex.
VOLTAGE FED (HIGH Z FEED) An antenna is said to be voltage fed if it is fed at the point of voltage maximum Includes all feed point impedances in excess of 600 ohms Ex. Center fed full wave dipole .
REVIEW QUESTIONS .
Device that converts high frequency current into electromagnetic waves. antenna b.1. a. loudspeaker c. microphone d. lightning arrester .
A polar diagram or graph representing field strengths or power densities at various angular positions relative to an antenna. a. Venn Diagram b. Figure 8 pattern c.2. Radiation Pattern . Lissajous figure d.
polarization c. Refers to the orientation of the electric field radiated from an antenna. bandwidth . beamwidth d. a.3. radiation b.
a. polarization . counterpoise c. Pertains to a wire structure placed below the antenna and erected above the ground which is a form of capacitive grounding system. image b.4. antenna orientation d.
increasing antenna height .5. using image antenna c. loading b. using antenna arrays d. What is the technique used to electrically increase the antenna length? a.
broadside effect . end effect d. Antenna supported by insulators seems electrically longer than its physical length due to a. reflection c. image b.6.
7. antenna efficiency d. The ratio of the power radiated by the antenna to the total input power. a. directive gain c. radiation efficiency . power gain b.
8. front to back ratio c. front to side ratio b. minor to major ratio . The ratio of the front lobe power to the back lobe power a. back to front ratio d.
isotropic antenna c. half wave dipole . The standard reference antenna for directive gain a. elementary doublet d.9. infinitesimal dipole b.
64 dB .5 dB d. 2.15 dB c.76 dB b. 1. 1.10. 1. The gain of a hertzian dipole with respect to an isotropic antenna a.
15 dB gain over an isotropic antenna.11. 1640 watts b. How much power must be delivered to the isotropic antenna to match the field strength of the directional antenna? a. 3280 watts c. 3520 watts . 4300 watts d. A half wave dipole antenna is capable of radiating 2000 watts and has a 2.
acts as an antenna array d. is unlikely to need a ground screen c. An ungrounded antenna near the ground a.12. acts as a single antenna of twice the height b. must be horizontally polarized .
bandwidth c. beamwidth d.13. Top loading is sometimes used with an antenna in order to increase its a. effective height b. input capacitance .
Very low signal strength in an antenna a.14. nulls c. antenna patterns d. minor lobes b. major lobes .
15. vertically b. centrally d. circularly . horizontally c. A horizontal antenna is ______ polarized. a.
16. An antenna with unity gain. a. rhombic b. half wave dipole c. isotropic d. whip
17. What is the front to back ratio of an antenna which radiates 500 watts in a northernly direction and 50 watts in a southernly direction? a. 25000 dB b. 10 dB c. 100 dB d. 20 dB
18. Good grounding is important for a. Horizontal antennas b. Broadside array c. Vertical antennas d. Yagi Uda Antennas
19. If the radiated power increases 10.89 times, the antenna current increases by a. 3.3 times b. 6.6 times c. 1.82 times d. 10.89 times
flywheel effect c. skin effect d.20. end effect b. capture effect . Shortening effect of an antenna that makes it appear as if it were 5% longer a.
resistance in parallel d.21. resistance in series . If an antenna is too short for the wavelength being used. inductance in series c. capacitance in series b. the effective length can be increased by adding a.
Actual height of an antenna should be at least a. ¾ λ .22. 1λ b. λ/4 d. λ/2 c.
parabola .23. The directivity pattern of an isotropic radiator a. unidirectional cardioid d. a sphere c. figure 8 b.
What is the frequency of its third harmonic? a. 436 kHz d. 6546 kHz c. 6. A Hertz antenna is operating on a frequency of 2182 kHz and consists of a horizontal wire that is hanged between two towers.546 kHz .24. 727 kHz b.
8. 6 dB b. 3.25.9 dB d.1 dB c. 10 d . What is the gain of an antenna over a half wavelength dipole when it has 6 dB gain over an isotropic radiator? a.
BASIC TYPES OF ANTENNAS .
a standard reference antenna , radiating equally in all directions, so that the radiation pattern is spherical.
A theoretical antenna shorter than a wavelength used as a standard to which all other antenna characteristics can be compared
= 60π le I sin θ / λr Where
θ – angle of axis and point of maximum radiation
Le – antenna length I – antenna current
r – antenna length
Ex. An elementary doublet is 10 cm long. If the 10 MHz current flowing through it is 2 A, what is the field strength 20 km away from the doublet in a direction of maximum radiation? a. 6.28 uV/m b. 62.83 uV/m c. 15.92 uV/m d. 1.59 uV/m
DIPOLE An antenna made up of two wires bent at 90 degrees to each other so as to be in the same line and signal is fed at the center .
HALF WAVE DIPOLE Length is λ/2 and radiation pattern is a toroid (bidirectional) .
VOLTAGE AND CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS .
.NON-RESONANT ANTENNA One in which there are no standing waves Radiation pattern is directional Standing waves are suppressed by the use of a correct termination to ensure that no power is reflected. so that only a forward traveling wave will exist.
it provides gain and a multilobe radiation pattern. When terminated at one end. it becomes unidirectional.LONG WIRE ANTENNA Lengths in the order of several wavelengths When an antenna is 2 or more wavelengths long. .
e.RHOMBIC ANTENNA Consists of non-resonant antenna elements arranged differently. planar rhombus Length of equal radiators = 2 to 8 ‘s Angle of tilt: 40 to 75˚ Rt = 800 ohms Rin = 650 to 700 ohms . i.
.RHOMBIC ANTENNA Non-resonant antenna used for long distance sky wave transmission or reception of horizontally polarized waves over distances from 200 to over 3000 miles at frequencies from 4 to 22 MHz.
Antenna whose length is a multiple of λ/4’s .RESONANT ANTENNA Standing waves exist. caused by the presence of both a reflected traveling wave and the forward wave.
HERTZ ANTENNA An antenna system in which the ground is not an essential part Half wave antenna used for frequencies above 2 MHz Half Wave Dipole .
omnidirectional Vertical Monopole .MARCONI ANTENNA Grounded Quarter Wavelength antenna Quarter Wavelength antenna used for frequencies below 2 MHz.
ANTENNA ARRAYS .
ANTENNA ARRAY A radiating system consisting of individual radiators or elements placed close together so as to be within each other’s induction field .
DRIVEN ELEMENT Element of an array connected to the output of the transmitter PARASITIC ELEMENT Radiation not directly connected to the output of the transmitter Receives energy through the induction field of a driven element .
REFLECTOR A parasitic element longer than the driven element and close to it reduces signal strength in its own direction and increases it in the opposite direction. DIRECTOR A parasitic element shorter than the driven one from which it receives energy. tends to increase radiation in its own direction .
BROADSIDE ARRAY Simplest array which consists of a number of dipoles of equal size. equally spaced along a straight line with all dipoles fed in the same phase from the same source. Typical antenna length: 2 to 10 ‘s Typical spacing: λ/2 or λ/4 Number of elements: dozens .
ENDFIRE ARRAY Physical arrangement is the same as that of the broadside array The magnitude of the current in each element is still the same as in every other element. . there is now a phase difference between these currents.
half wave antennas mounted at right angles to each other .TURNSTILE ARRAY Consists of two horizontal.
YAGI UDA ANTENNA An array consisting of a driven element and one or more parasitic elements arranged collinearly and close together. .
. one is fed directly and the other coupled conductively at the ends.FOLDED DIPOLE Single antenna which consists of 2 elements.
LOG PERIODIC ANTENNA Main feature is frequency independence for both radiation resistance and pattern Bandwidths of 10:1 are achievable with ease Radiation patterns: uni and bidirectional .
LOG PERIODIC ANTENNA Main feature is frequency independence for both radiation resistance and pattern .
PYRAMIDAL ANTENNA It looks and works in much the same way as a standard log periodic antenna. so each half of the transmission line is in effect a single wire transmission line. a type of log periodic antenna . with one big difference: the two halves of the transmission line are separated and positioned as a V.
UHF AND MICROWAVE ANTENNAS .
PARABOLIC ANTENNA Works on the principle of a parabola Parabola – a plane curve defined as the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from another point (called the focus) plus its distance from a straight line (directrix) is constant. .
. no matter from what point on the parabola they are reflected.PARABOLIC ANTENNA All waves coming from the source and reflected by the parabola will travel in the same distance by the time they reach the directrix.
.CASSEGRAIN ANTENNA an antenna in which the radiator is mounted at or near the surface of a concave main reflector and is aimed at a convex secondary reflector slightly inside the focus of the main reflector.
BEAMWIDTH Where: D= mouth diameter. meters Ф = 70λ / D Ф0 = 2 Ф Ф0 = beamwidth between nulls. degrees Ф = beamwidth between half power points. degrees λ = wavelength. meters .
meters .GAIN OF A PARABOLIC ANTENNA Ap = 6 ( D/λ)2 Where: D= mouth diameter. meters Ap = Power Gain λ = wavelength.
1.Ex. Calculate the beamwidth between nulls of a 1m paraboloid reflector used at 6GHz. 7˚ c. a. 14˚ .5˚ b. 3.75˚ d.
a. 1600 d. 9600 b. Calculate the gain of the paraboloid reflector in the previous problem.Ex. 2400 c. 2800 .
HORN ANTENNA Ideal as primary feed antenna for parabolic reflectors and lenses .
LENS ANTENNA Used as a collimator of frequencies in excess of 3 GHz .
which is simply a screen made of chicken wire .HELICAL ANTENNA Broadband VHF and UHF antenna which is used when it is desired to provide circular polarization characteristics Consists of a loosely wound helix. backed up by a ground plane.
low gain antenna. omnidirectional .DISCONE ANTENNA A combination of a disk and a cone in close proximity Characterized by an enormous bandwidth for both input impedance and radiation pattern A constant angle.
LOOP ANTENNA Used for direction finding. because they do not radiate in a direction at right angles to the plane of the loop. For portable domestic receivers Circular or square shaped .
whose radiation beam can be adjusted electronically without physically moving parts.PHASED ARRAY Group of antennas. used in radars. . connected to one transmitter or receiver.
an antenna with a single driven element and a ground plane. . The whip antenna is a stiff but flexible wire mounted. with one end adjacent to a ground plane. usually vertically.WHIP ANTENNA the most common example of a monopole antenna.
usually a flat plate. When the plate is driven as an antenna by a driving frequency. the slot radiates electromagnetic waves in similar way to a dipole antenna. with a hole or slot cut out.SLOT ANTENNA consists of a metal surface. .
we may cut the ground plane here to make a notch antenna. .NOTCH ANTENNA An open ended slot antenna Since the currents are zero at the middle of the slot.
ANTENNA SUPPORT STRUCTURES .
ANTENNA SUPPORTING STRUCTURES POLE Used to signify one piece of structure similar to the common telephone pole .
is constructed of metal . which in most cases.MAST Used to designate a structure made of metal or wood which may be either in a form of a one piece or sectionalized structure TOWER Applied to a very large. high structure.
REVIEW QUESTIONS .
A non-resonant antenna that is capable of operating satisfactorily over a relatively wide bandwidth. making it ideally suited for HF transmission. log periodic . rhombic c. end-fire array b.1. broadside array d. a.
It has bandwidth ratios of 10:1 or greater. Antenna that is independent of their radiation resistance and radiation pattern to frequency.2. Log periodic antenna . helical c. Yagi Uda antenna d. loop antenna b. a.
Hertz b. Parabolic d.3. Vertical Monopole . A half wave antenna a. Marconi c.
log periodic . Antenna which is used very frequently but almost entirely as a reception antenna and is usually found at the back of table radios. a.4. folded antenna c. rhombic d. loop antenna b.
folded dipole d. helical .5. a. loop antenna b. One of the special purpose antennas which has broadband VHF and UHF that is ideally suited for applications for which radiating circular rather than horizontal or vertical polarized electromagnetic waves are required. phased array c.
driven and reflector b.6. What are the two types of antenna elements? a. parasitic and director d. director and reflector c. driven and parasitic .
parasitic elements c. high gain . folded dipole d. good bandwidth b.7. Which one of the following terms does not apply to the Yagi Uda array? a.
helical d.8. Marconi . folded dipole c. Indicate the antenna that is not wideband. a. discone b.
halfwave dipole b.9. Marconi . One of the following is not an omnidirectional antenna a. discone d. log periodic antenna c.
One of the following consists of nonresonant antennas a. end fire array d. broadside array . rhombic b. folded dipole c.10.
helical d.11. discone . biconical b. horn c. Which of the following is best excited from a waveguide? a.
An antenna that is circularly polarized a. Yagi Uda c. Helical d. parabolic reflector b. Circular loop .12.
spiral . vertical b. circular d. horizontal c. What is the polarization of a discone antenna? a.13.
image b. When speaking of antennas. quarterwave . ____ is a section which would be a complete antenna by itself. top loading c.14. a. bay d.
antenna array b. rhombic .15. ______ is an antenna with a number of half wave antennas in it. omnidirectional d. tower c. a.
16. Marconi b. Discone c. Helical . Horn d. Which antenna radiates an omnidirectional pattern in the horizontal plane with vertical polarization? a.
horn d. discone c. parabolic dish . a.17. helical b. An antenna with very high gain and very narrow beamwidth.
notch d. An open ended slot antenna a. rhombic c. helical b. cassegrain .18.
Yagi Uda . Marconi b. Dipole d.19. Rhombic c. Which antenna is properly terminated? a.
What is the radiation characteristic of a dipole antenna? a. omnidirectional b. hemispherical .20. unidirectional d. bidirectional c.
loop antenna c. a. hertz antenna b. Marconi antenna d.21. An antenna which is one tenth wavelength long. Elementary doublet .
5 d. What is the minimum number of turns a helical antenna must have? a. 3 b. 6 . 4 c.22.
whip . An antenna made up of a number of full wavelengths a. long wire d. log periodic c. elementary doublet b.23.
24. Which of the following improves antenna directivity? a. driven element b. reflector c. director d. parasitic element
25. The frequency of operation of a dipole antenna cut to a length of 3.4 m a. 88 MHz b. 44 MHz c. 22 MHz d. 11 MHz
26. Where are the voltage nodes in a half wave antenna? a. at the ends b. three quarters of the way from the feedpoint towards the end c. one half of the way from the feedpoint towards the end d. at the feedpoint
27. A simple half wavelength antenna radiates the strongest signal a. at 60 degrees to its axis . at right angles to its axis d. parallel to its axis c. at 45 degrees to its axis b.
End fire c.28. Broadside b. Turnstile d. Log periodic . An antenna array which is highly directional at right angles to the plane of the array a.
λ/4 b. What is the usual electrical length of a driven element in an HF beam antenna? a. λ/2 c.29. 3/4 λ d. 1 λ .
30. 300 Ω c. 73 Ω . 50 Ω d. 72 Ω b. The input terminal impedance at the center of a folded dipole antenna a.
31. 200 ft b. 500 ft c. 999 ft . 250 ft d. The length of a Marconi antenna to operate with 985 kHz is a.
increased gain c. all of these .32. The purpose of stacking elements on an antenna a. sharper directional pattern b. improved bandpass d.
Which of the following antennas is used for testing and adjusting a transmitter for proper modulation. amplifier operation and frequency accuracy? a. dummy .33. elementary doublet b. real c. isotropic d.