SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA (563-483 BC

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graphic testimony to the extraordinary supernatural power for this tantric yogic. and monastic orientations. The temples built after his visits were all devoted to honor his works. whose historical facts and achievements have taken on the dimensions of an epic. And through a succession of such great holders as Longchen Rabjampa (1308-1363). He widely propagated the teachings of the highest school of Buddhist Tantra 4(and his twenty-five main disciples were renowned for their spiritual accomplishments). Buddhism has played a predominant role in every tradition and culture of Bhutan. liturgy. He became an extraordinary historical figure in the Bhutanese theology. Guru‘s images are. given a central figure in the temples and the paintings. Jigme Lingpa (1729-1798) and Jamyang Khentse Wangpo (1820-1892) these teachings have been passed on and are still practiced today. Due to his tantric cult. Since his arrival. Since the arrival of Guru Rinpoche in Bhutan much historical transactions have taken place. The first advent of Buddhism had taken place in 2nd century AD or it has been in practice even much earlier. Singye Dzong7 in Lhuntse and Taktsang8 in Paro are some of the importance sacred sites of Guru Rinpoche. the Buddhism practiced in Bhutan differs significantly in its rituals. Kurje6 in Bumthang.PART-I History. most historians connote the historical advent of Buddhism taking place with an arrival of great Indian tantric sage Guru Rinpoche (746AD first arrival to Bhutan) in the 8th century AD. therefore. 2 . He is popularly known for the propagation of vajrayana2 (dorji-thegpa) teachings which is the central practice of Nyingma3. leaving behind his handprints and foot prints he impressed into solid rocks. Legends and the Significance of Different attire of Guru Rinpoche Chapter-I Buddhism and Guru Rinpoche A brief historical advent of Buddhism in Bhutan Most probably. and the caves he used for meditation can still be seen. He is known for the supernatural power and revered throughout the Himalayan ranges as a second Buddha by his followers. Guru Padmasambhava1 had made a notable contribution and had laid down the firm foundation of Buddhism in Bhutan. His legacy is found throughout the region. However. Guru Padmasambhave is popularly known as Guru Rinpoche (precious master) in Himalayan regions. the advent of Buddhism in Bhutan had taken place in two phases. By then.

Guru Rinpoche is always depicted as the central figure in Vajraparyankasana5.In most of the Buddhist artistic figures. A Brief Life History of Guru Padmasambhava (Lotus Born) 3 . surrounded by his disciples and the two principle consorts. the meditative posture with his feet hidden to represent his esoteric nature. and other bodhisattvas of the Nyingma order.

he appeared miraculously in the blossom of a lotus in the lake called "Ocean of Milk" in South West Uddiyana. one biography for each being. He converted the entire country and founded the Tibetan Buddhism and who became the patriarch of the Nyingmapa lineage. in presence of his disciples he speaks his last words: ―The world being transitory and death inevitable for all living things. he appears to every being of the three thousand billion world systems in a form to benefit them according to their personal karmic vision. in the country of Orgyen known as Uddiyana. Uddiyana) there will be born one who will be much wiser and more spiritually powerful then myself. The great river Sindhu. lying under the Sala Grove in the forest near Kusinagara. the present Swat province of Pakistan. the all-pervading Lord of the three jewels of Buddha. second of the third Dharma-kings invited Padmasambhava on the advice of the abbot Shantarakshita9 from India to subjugate the negative forces hostile to the propagation of Buddha-dharma in Tibet and spread the tantric teaching. yidam12. Prophesy of Guru Rinpoches Birth The birth of Guru Rinpoche has been predicted by Shakyamuni Buddha (563-483 BCE)‗the sage of the shakya‘. expires at the age of Eighty. Just before he passes to nirvana. the historical figure of Guru Padmasambhava‘s life-story as known to the common disciples follows that. Dharma and Sangha. on the tenth day of the fifth month of the Monkey year. In this way Guru Padmasambhava has countless unimaginable biographies. one 4 . Concerning Birth of Guru Rinpoche Although with the definitive biography of Guru Padmasambhava. in the north-western corner of the country of Orgyen (Skt. for 12 years after my departure. the time for my departure has come but weep not. and dakini13. The Tibetan king Trisong Deutsen( 790-844).Padma Sambhava was an Indian tantric sage who brought Buddhism from India to Tibet in the 8th Century AD. Guru Rinpochhe was born miraculously from a lotus in the middle of a lake Dhanakosha. meaning―born from a Lotus‖) Inseparable from the Primordial Buddha Samantabhadra10. and by him the esoteric doctrine will be established. From then he was known as Guru Padmasabhava (Pema Jungney. He will be called Padmasambhava. and master of the three roots of lama11. and particularly the secret mantra and Dzogchen15 teachings. from a lotus blossom on a Dhanakosha lake. which is also known as Lake Danakosha located on the Afghanistan-Pakistan frontier. In order to propagate and spread the teachings of the Dharma in general.” As predicted by Shakyamuni. When the time for Guru Rinpoche to liberate the beings of this world approached. the glorious Guru Padmasambhava should be definitively understood as being the essence of Buddha Amitabha14.

Guru Rinpoches Adoption The Second King of Uddiyana. Indrabodhi was residing in his nine-tufted palace with his queen as well as hundreds and thousands of attendents. ―If they do not receive alms. R is the sound of fire. Samantabhadri. it is called "Ocean of Milk. he made great offerings to the Triple Gems and recited the Dharma Cloud Sutra. The king did not have a son and to make a wish. and some claim that he appeared instantaneously on the summit of Mt. it forms a lake filled with lotuses. But Guru Padmasambhava‘s treasure teachings confirm the version which states that he was born spontaneously from a lotus. The syllable dissolved into light and instantly. Prior to Guru Padmasambhava‘s birth. a large. the symbol of all life. Charumati. whatever was done in the past would be meaningless‖. in the centre of the lake.of the four great rivers that flow from the four directions of Kailash Mountain. red lotus grew. but I have nothing to grant‖. daughter of Naga. He then exclaimed. I is the intensity which stands for the highest spiritual activity) fell about eight cubits above the collora of the lotus. As the lotus roots produce a sweet-milky juice. they hold on the king and said. "Beggars have not yet ceased. My mother is the sphere of reality. on the full moon day of the fifth summer month. there arose an eight-year-old child perfectly adorned with the characteristic of major and minor marks17. inspired to acquire inexhaustive wealth for the beggars. Trig Na Dzin. flows towards the Western Land of Uddiyana and finally enters into the Arabian Sea. The king was pleased by this news and went to the child and inquired about his genealogy and to which caste and country he belonged. he immediately began giving teachings to the gods and dakinis of the area. Holding a vajra18 and a lotus in his hands. And my name is the glorious Padmasambhava 5 . While travelling. so he travelled to the ocean to procure the wish-fulfilling jewel from the crown of the mystical creature. the minister. He procured the jewel without mishap and sailed back with his boat filled with the seven varieties of jewels. Some Indian historians affirm that he was born to a minister or a King of Uddiyana. beautiful. When some of the beggars did not receive the alms. fully mature. The king felt compassionate at them and. a red syllable HRIH 16(H is sound of breath. without depending on the causes and conditions of father and mother. My caste is the union of primordial wisdom and the Dharmadhatu. From the three thousand treasuries he offered alms to the poor until his wealth was exhausted." However there are different interpretations regarding his birth. The child exclaimed: My father is the self-arisen Samantabhadra. finds the extraordinary child on the lotus blossom and he narrated the full story to the king. When the river reaches Uddiyana. Malaya in Sri Lanka. and from the heart of Buddha Amitabha in space.

it means ancient in Tibetan. Vimalamitra and Shantarakshita and Vairotsana during the reign of King Trisong Deutsen(790-844) and in the subsequent period up to Rinchen Zangpo in the 9th century.literally means ‗continuity‘. Soon he became renowned for his excellence in poetry and philosophy. generally containing the vajrayana system of meditation. it was developed out of Mahayana Buddhism and based on highly developed ritual practices. the incarnate emanation of the AdiBuddha (Kuentu Zangpo).the indestructible ―diamond vehicle (yana-a vehicle or path of realization)‖ or the ‗secret vehicle‘ often synonymous with mantrayana and Tantrayana.The king regarded this as an answer to his prayers and adopted as his son. iii Nyingma. End Notes i Guru Padmasambhava. music and meditation. This set the stage of Padmasambhava as prince of Orgyen. After few years later he was married to a beautiful princess named Bhasadhara (Woechangma). the precious master or a teacher.the meditative posture usually seen Guru Rinpoche with his feet hidden to represent his esoteric nature vi Kurje – literally means ‗body print‘. or the secret teaching of a lineage passed from the Buddha to the present lineage holders without interruption. He undertook a period of extended meditation and learnt the teachings from the numerous masters.referes to teaching brought to Tibet and translated mainly by the great master Guru Padmasambhava. after defeating the Seljing Karop. and also popularly known as Guru Rinpoche. He soon realized that there was no real meaning to life based on the exercise of political and other worldly pleasures and happiness. the daughter of the King Chandra Kumar of a nearby country in India.literally means ‗lotus born master‘. ii Vajra-yana (dorji-theg-pa) . thus the place came to be known as ‗Kurje‘ 6 . So he renounced the kingdom just as Buddha Shakyamuni had done some twelve years earlier to perform many of the same deeds that Shakyamuni performed as Prince Siddhartha. the most famous of whom was Prabhahasti. the secret teaching in vajrayana. v Vajrapayankasana. iv Tantra. the lotus born. He was given the name Padmakara. the early transmission school or old translation school. the local deity of Kurje Guru Rinpochhe has meditated in the cave Drakmar Dorji Tshegpa for a period of three months and had left a body print. a term for various kinds of texts. arts.

7 . the tutelary or chosen meditation deity. the lama is seen as the Buddha. Shyiwa Tsho) . He was invited to Tibet by King Trisong Detsen where he founded the temple and monastery of Samyé and ordained the first seven Tibetan monks. This great Indian pandita of the Mahayana school was abbot of the Buddhist university of Nalanda.the spiritual master or guru in Tibetan Buddhism. and he khandro as the Sangha. venerated by students. but it‘s now used as a polite form of addressing any Tibetan monk.one of the three roots (lama.‗Khandro‘ literally means ‗sky-goer‘.Buddha of infinite light. the ultimate indivisibility of samsara and nirvana and the potential for Buddhahood inherent in all sentient beings.literllay means ‗tiger‘s nest‘ Shantarakshita (Tib.vii Dzong. ‗always well‘ or ‗unchanging goodness. red in color." Samantabhadra means to extend such great compassion that every sentient being is benefited and to practice so extensively and profoundly that all virtue is perfected. x Samantabharda (Tib. xi Lama. Kuntuzangpo) — In the Dzogchen teachings. the yidam as the Dharma. viii ix Taktsang. khandro). yidam.literally means ‗fortress‘. regardless of the level of spiritual development. thus establishing the Tibetan Sangha. is our ultimate nature." Bhadra means "great virtue. either to celebrate the victory over the defeated internal and the external enemies or as a monastic centers. is given the name the 'Primordial Buddha'. according to Nagarjuna‘s Sarvastivadin tradition. It is also used as a title for the spiritual consort of enlightened masters. the essence of the enlightened mind of all the Buddhas. Dharma and Sangha are in reality lama.‘ What this signifies is that unchanging goodness. "Universally extending.he is also called Khenpo Bodhisattva. Istadevata) . xiii Dakini (Tib. indicating one who traverses the 'sky' of the expanse of wisdom a female embodiment of enlightened energy. he is associated with the western direction. The practices related to Amitbha are able to transform the poison resulting from desire into discriminating wisdom. Sometimes refers to as female dharma protector. or fundamental goodness. As it says in the Longchen Nyingtik Ngöndro Refuge Buddha. Samantabhadra. which is the root of spiritual accomplishment According to the Vajrayana. His name means ‗always good'. the female primordial Buddha. Embracing Samantabhadri. xiv Amitabha. Kandro) . that state of the Ground. ‗Bodhisattva Abbot‘. our true nature. the primordial Buddha is pure omniscience. belonging to the Padma or Lotus family. the dzongs were built during the time of the Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyel. xii Yidam (skt. yidam and khandro. their union represents the fusion of wisdom and compassion. Samanta means.

This is often represented by the scepter held by a practitioner in his or her right hand in a ritual practice. or ‗the end‘. xvi HRIH- Major and minor marks-The major and minor marks of a Buddha‘s body are a description of his special physical characteristics. Traditionally ‗Dzogchen‘ can be traced to two original Sanskrit term. Mahāsaṅdhi or Atiyoga. Mahasandhi means the gathering of all or the quintessence. for example the Longchen Nyingtik. Hence many of the teachings are known as ‗Nyingtik‘ or ‗Heart Essence‘. and ‗chenpo‘ means ‗great‘. 8 . and the Sanskrit term Atiyoga means ‗primordial yoga‘.meaning ‗thunderbolt‘ which is an irresistible force. so literally it means ‗Great Perfection‘. It represents the adamantine. the cream and the heart juice of all teachings. Ati indicates the topmost.xv Dzogchen. together with a bell held in the left hand. diamondlike. signifying that Dzogchen is the very essence. Dorji) . summit or zenith. There are 32 major and 80 minor marks. xviii xvii Vajra (Tib. spiritual power of enlightenment. this symbolizes the union of compassion (vajra) and wisdom (bell).Dzogchen is an abbreviation of the Tibetan word Dzogpachenpo. where ‗Dzogpa‘ means ‗complete‘. or ‗Great Completeness. and ‗diamond‘ which can cut any substance but not be cut itself.

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