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Overhead line insulators, as the name suggests, are used to electrically insulate pylons from live electrical cables. Overhead line insulators may consist of a string of insulator units depending on insulator type and application. The higher the line voltage insulated, the more insulator units used in the string. Overhead line insulators are mostly made of the following materials: 1) 2) Porcelain: Glass: which may be used for disc and pin types. It’s thermal stability is consistent up to 538 degrees C. 3) Composite synthetics: which may be a combination of fibreglass, plastic and resin. These are sometimes used for the long rod and post type insulators and have been in service for more than 25 years . When modern composite synthetics are used, often the insulative core consists of glass fibers in a resin-based matrix to achieve maximum tensile strength.
The housing that encloses a composite synthetic also forms the water-sheds and may be hydrophobic (water repellent), which helps reduce leakage current. Some housings are designed to remain hydrophobic when polluted, giving composite synthetics a distinct advantage over porcelain types. A rule of thumb operating temperature range spec for housing is -50 to 50 degrees Celsius.
Locking mechanisms may be ballsocket. 1) Disc type: where insulation discs (also called insulation units) are strung together depending on the insulation level desired. with a capacitance of 30-40pF. 2) Longrod type: These may also be strung together for higher insulation and may have similar ball-socket and clevistongue locking mechanisms used among the disc types. Each disc is typically rated at 10-12kV. The pin type does not take main transmission . Their longer length makes them applicable for phase-to-phase insulation to reduce line galloping during strong winds.Types: Different types of line insulators are used. Both disc and longrod-type insulators are commonly used in suspension or strain (tension) insulator applications. 3) Pin type: Pin types are screwed onto a bolt shank secured on the cross-arm of the transmission pole or pylon. Discs are strung together via their caps and pins. depending on voltage and mechanical strain (tension) requirements. The cap is insulated form the pin via the porcelain (or glass) disc which adheres to the cap and pin via adhesive cement.
5) Post type: These may have thicker insulation and more discs than pin types and can be mounted via clamp or pin method. but can take more mechanical strain due to internally insulated steel bolt interlocks holding discs together instead of cement. post-type insulators normally have a Maximum Design Cantilever Load (MDCL) rating. 4) 5) Shackle type: These are mostly applied to support line strain (tension). the Hewlett type has higher internal electrical stress due to its internal steel bolts. Since post-type insulators may also act as a cantilever to support line weight.line strain (tension). such as at changes of transmission line direction. On the other hand. but rarely as a suspension type. 6) Hewlett type: A variation of the disc type. They may be applied as a pin or strain type insulator. . and functions as a jumper line insulator.
is an excellent conductor of electricity and can be readily spliced. These materials are characterized by atoms with only one valence electron. Gold.CONDUCTORS A conductor is a material that easily conducts electrical current. medium drawn and hard drawn. They are flexible and resistant to breaking even under high stress. very loosely bound to the atom. while hard-drawn copper . All conductors contain electric charges which will move when an electric potential difference measured in volts is applied across separate points on the material. Silver. These loosely bound valence electrons can easily break away from their atoms and become free electrons. The best conductors are single-element materials such as Copper. Copper conductors exist in one of three forms: soft drawn (or annealed). Aluminum etc. Conductors used in over head transmission lines are Hard-drawn Copper Hard-drawn Aluminium Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Greased ACSR All-Alimnnium Alloy Conductor Alumoweld Conductor Phospher Bronzee Conductor 1) Copper It is abundantly available in nature. Medium-drawn copper conductors are used for medium-range distribution lines. Soft-drawn copper conductors are commonly used in short transmission line spans and to ground electrical systems.
and also used in power lines across great rivers. motors. 0.5% silicon. Aluminum conductors are commonly used for higher-voltage overhead transmission lines. ACSR transmission cables are available in specific sizes and varying amounts of central steel strands as well as outer aluminum conductors. lower strength. aluminum can rapidly oxidize. surrounded by outer aluminum strands.and extra-high-voltage (EHV) transmission lines. 3) Steel-Reinforced Aluminum (ACSR) : Steel-reinforced-aluminum conductors are commonly used in medium- high. It is. There are two types of aluminum commonly used as transmission line conductors: heat-treatable alloy and pure metal grade. ACSR transmission lines are highstrength. They are lightweight and used in overhead transmission lines. busbars. power cables. has higher thermal expansion. river crossings and longer spans.5% magnesium and remaining aluminium. however. contains 0. heating elements. They are also called ACSR or aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced conductors. lighter and half as resistant as copper. however. Their strength. heavy .conductors are used in longer spans (greater than 200 feet) and are the strongest of the three. These conductors have been widely used in power transmission lines with various voltage levels. makes them inflexible and often difficult to work with. 4) All-Aluminum Alloy Conductor (AAAC): These conductors provide good combination of tensile strength and conductivity. The steel conductor supports the weight of the transmission line while the aluminum is used for its conductive properties. ACSR transmission lines have a central steel strand. One alloy is SILMALIC. high-capacity and exhibit excellent conductivity. heat sinks and foil windings. and less than half the conductivity of copper. 2) Aluminum: According to "Electrical Craft Principles.
It has been used earth wire and for making cores of SCA conductors. 6) Phosphor-Bronze Conductor: It is used for very long spans such as river crossings. It is more costly than SCA conductor. It is stronger then copper conductor but has got a low conductivity. . Its conductivity may be improved by using a cadmium-copper core. large current carrying capacity. The conductor has excellent advantages of high strength. Its 75% area of conductor is covered by aluminum. good conductivity and excellent corrosion resistance. anti-crush and corrosion-proof with simple structure. 5) Alumoweld Conductor: It has high strength.ice area.