CEBU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY – UNIVERSITY
N. Bacalso Avenue, Cebu City
ChE PE2: Chemical Engineering Elective 2
Report: Water Quality By: Group 1
»What is Water? Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces. Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. Only 2.5% of the Earth's water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter and may take many different forms on Earth: water vapor and clouds in the sky; seawater in the oceans; icebergs in the polar oceans; glaciers and rivers in the mountains; and the liquid in aquifers in the ground. »What is Water Quality? Water quality refers to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact and drinking water. The following categories are used to describe water quality: Physical Characteristics of Water: Physical characteristics relate to the quality of water for domestic use. They include color, turbidity, temperature, and, in particular, taste and odor. Color. Dissolved organic material from decaying vegetation and certain inorganic matter cause color in water. Occasionally, excessive blooms of algae or the growth of aquatic microorganisms may also impart color. Often the color in water is not true color but apparent color that results from a colloidal suspension. Tea is an example of apparent color. While color itself is not usually objectionable from the standpoint of health, its presence is aesthetically objectionable and suggests that the water needs appropriate treatment. Taste and Odor. Taste and odor (T&O) in water can be caused by foreign matter such as organic compounds, inorganic salts, or dissolved gases. These materials may come from domestic, agricultural, or natural sources. Algae are frequently the source of T&O in surface water supplies. T&O can also result as a byproduct of chlorine disinfection. Drinking water should be free from any objectionable taste or odor at the point of use. Temperature. The most desirable drinking waters are consistently cool and do not have temperature fluctuations of more than a few degrees. Groundwater and surface water from
mountainous areas generally meet these criteria. Most individuals find that water having a temperature between 100C–150C is most palatable. Municipal drinking water is not treated to adjust the temperature. However, the temperature of the water may be an important water quality objective for a client and may be an important consideration in the selection of the water source. Turbidity. The presence of suspended material such as clay, silt, finely divided organic material, plankton, and other particulate material in water is known as turbidity. The unit of measure is a nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU). It is determined by reference to a chemical mixture that produces a reproducible refraction of light. Turbidities in excess of 5 NTU are easily detectable in a glass of water and are usually objectionable for aesthetic reasons. Clay or other inert suspended particles in and of themselves may not adversely affect health, but water containing such particles may require treatment to make it suitable for disinfection. In general, turbidity reduces disinfection efficiency by consuming the disinfectant and shielding the microorganisms. Following a rainfall, variations in the groundwater turbidity may be considered an indication of surface or other introduced pollution entering the aquifer. Chemical Characteristics of Water: Chemical characteristics of waters are sometimes evidenced by their observed reactions, such as the comparative performance of hard and soft waters in laundering. Most often, differences are not visible. However, in some cases, such as the oxidation of iron, the reactions result in highly objectionable color. The following are elements or substances that are commonly found in water: Arsenic. Arsenic occurs naturally in some geologic formations. It is widely used in timber treatment, agricultural chemicals (pesticides), and the manufacture of computer chips, glass, and alloys. Arsenic in drinking water has been linked to lung and urinary bladder cancer. Chloride. Most waters contain some chloride. The amount present can be caused by the leaching of marine sedimentary deposits or by pollution from sea water, brine, or industrial or domestic wastes. Chloride concentrations in excess of about 250 mg/L usually produce a noticeable taste in drinking water. Domestic water should contain less than 100 mg/L of chloride to be palatable. Fluoride. In some areas, water sources contain natural fluoride. Where the concentrations approach optimum levels, beneficial health effects have been observed. In such areas, the incidence of dental caries (tooth decay) has been found to be below the levels observed in areas without natural fluoride. Many cities choose to add fluoride to the water supply to reduce the incidence of dental caries. The optimum fluoride level for a given area depends upon air temperature because temperature greatly influences the amount of water people drink. Excessive fluoride in drinking water supplies may produce fluorosis (mottling) of teeth, which increases as the optimum fluoride level is exceeded. Iron. Small amounts of iron frequently are present in water because of the large amount of iron in the geologic materials. The presence of iron in water is considered objectionable because it
imparts a reddish color to the water, stains bathroom fixtures and laundered goods with a yellow to reddish-brown color, and affects the taste of beverages such as tea and coffee. Lead. Lead occurs in drinking water primarily from corrosion of lead pipes. Lead exposure is associated with a large number of pathological effects including but not limited to interference with red blood cell formation, kidney damage, and impaired cognitive performance. Manganese. Naturally occurring manganese is often present in significant amounts in groundwater. Anthropogenic sources include discarded batteries, steel alloy production, and agricultural products. It imparts a dark brown or black color to water and stains fixtures and cloth that is washed in it. It flavors coffee and tea with a medicinal taste. Sodium. The presence of sodium in water can affect persons suffering from heart, kidney, or circulatory ailments. When a strict sodium-free diet is recommended, any water should be regarded with suspicion. Home water softeners may be of particular concern because they add large quantities of sodium to the water. Sulfate. Waters containing high concentrations of sulfate, caused by the leaching of natural deposits of magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts) or sodium sulfate (Glauber’s salt), may be undesirable because of their laxative effects. Zinc. Zinc is found in some natural waters, particularly in areas where zinc ore deposits have been mined. Zinc is not considered detrimental to health, but it will impart an undesirable taste to drinking water. Toxic Inorganic Substances. Nitrates (NO3 - ), cyanides (CN-), and heavy metals constitute the major classes of inorganic substances of health concern. Methemoglobinemia (infant cyanosis or “blue baby syndrome”) has occurred in infants who have been given water or fed formula prepared with water having high concentrations of nitrate. Cyanide ties up the hemoglobin sites that bind oxygen to red blood cells. This results in oxygen deprivation. A characteristic symptom is a blue skin color, which gives the syndrome its name, cyanosis. This condition is called cyanosis. Cyanide also causes chronic effects on the thyroid and central nervous system. The toxic heavy metals include arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), and silver (Ag). The heavy metals have a wide range of effects. They may be acute poisons (As and Cr6+, for example), or they may produce chronic disease (Pb, Cd, and Hg, for example). Toxic Organic Substances. There are over 120 toxic organic compounds listed on the U.S. EPA’s Priority Pollutant list. These include pesticides, insecticides, and solvents. Like the inorganic substances, their effects may be acute or chronic. Microbiological Characteristics of Water: Microbiological agents are very important in their relation to public health and may also be significant in modifying the physical and chemical characteristics of water. Water for drinking and cooking purposes must be made free from pathogens. These organisms include viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths (worms).
Some organisms that cause disease in people originate with the fecal discharges of infected individuals. Others are from the fecal discharge of animals. Unfortunately, the specific disease-producing organisms present in water are not easily identified. The techniques for comprehensive bacteriological examination are complex and time consuming. It has been necessary to develop tests that indicate the relative degree of contamination in terms of an easily defined quantity. The most widely used test estimates the number of microorganisms of the coliform group. This grouping includes two genera: Escherichia coli and Aerobacter aerogenes. The name of the group is derived from the word “colon”. While E. coli are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract, Aerobacter are common in the soil, on leaves, and on grain; on occasion they cause urinary tract infections. The test for these microorganisms, called the Total Coliform Test, was selected for the following reasons: 1. The coliform group of organisms normally inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Thus, the presence of coliforms is an indication of fecal contamination of the water. 2. Even in acutely ill individuals, the number of coliform organisms excreted in the feces out number the disease-producing organisms by several orders of magnitude. The large numbers of coliforms make them easier to culture than disease-producing organisms. 3. The coliform group of organisms survives in natural waters for relatively long periods of time but does not reproduce effectively in this environment. Thus, the presence of coliforms in water implies fecal contamination rather than growth of the organism because of favorable environmental conditions. These organisms also survive better in water than most of the bacterial pathogens. This means that the absence of coliforms is a reasonably safe indicator that pathogens are not present. 4. The coliform group of organisms is relatively easy to culture. Thus, laboratory technicians can perform the test without expensive equipment. Radiological Characteristics of Water: Radiological factors must be considered in areas where there is a possibility that the water may have come in contact with radioactive substances. The radioactivity of the water is of public health concern in these cases. The use of atomic energy as a power source and the mining of radioactive materials, as well as naturally occurring radioactive materials, are sources of radioactive substances in drinking water. Drinking water standards have been established for alpha particles, beta particles, photons emitters, radium-226 and - 228, and uranium. Although no standard has been established for radon, it is of concern because it is highly volatile and is an inhalation hazard from showering. Its decay products ( 218 Po, 214 Po, and 214 Bi) release alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
Approved Methods of Water Quality Analysis: Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate Method Colorimetric analysis is a method of determining the concentration of a chemical element or chemical compound in a solution with the aid of a color reagent. It is applicable to both organic compounds and inorganic compounds and may be used with or without an enzymatic stage. The method is widely used in medical laboratories and for industrial purposes, e.g. the analysis of water samples in connection with industrial water treatment. Arsenic is determined by the silver diethyldithiocarbamate method.Arsenic in the reaction solution is converted to arsine, which is evolved and then complexed with silver diethyldithiocarbamate. The intensity of the color of the Complex is determined with a spectrophotometer or colorimeter. Arsenic concentration is ascertained by reference to a calibration curve prepared with the aid of standard arsenic solutions. Azide Modification Principle: The method consists of filling with sample, to overflowing, an airtight bottle of the specified size and incubating it at the specified temperature for 5 d. Dissolved oxygen is measured initially and after incubation, and the BOD is computed from the difference between initial and final DO. Because the initial DO is determined shortly after the dilution is made, all oxygen uptake occurring after this measurement is included in the BOD measurement. The Azide Modification of the Winkler Method is the standard test for dissolved oxygen. It uses a burette and 0.025 N sodium thiosulfate. The standard APHA reagents in solution form also are available. In the analysis, manganous ion reacts with the dissolved oxygen present in the alkaline solution to form a manganese (IV) oxide hydroxide flocculent. Azide is added at this time to suppress interference from any nitrite present which would react with the iodide. The solution is then acidified and the manganese (IV) floc is reduced by iodide to produce free iodine as I3- in proportion to the oxygen concentration. The liberated iodine is then titrated to the starch-iodide end point. CARMINE METHOD Boron is readily measured in multi element analyses of air, water, and solid waste samples by ICP-AES atomic emission spectroscopy, the method of choice for the determination of boron in modern practice. Although not multi element procedures, colorimetric cucumin and colorimetric carmine methods are still reliable methods for the determination of boron in water, air, and solid waste samples (APHA 1998b; 1998c; EPA 1983). These colorimetric procedures provide adequate methods when ICP instrumentation is not available. Alkali fusion or wet digestion with hydrofluoric acid or a mixture of hydrofluoric acid and other acids are used to digest soils and other geological and silica-rich materials (Sah and Brown 1997). A highly sensitive and selective method for determining boron at ng/dm3 levels was developed by Takahashi et al. (2008) by derivatization reaction of boron with reversed-phase partition highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and ultraviolet spectrophotometric detection. A detection limit as low as 22 ng/dm3 was achieved without any preconcentration. No significant interference was observed in the determination of 16 μmol/dm3 of boron with the addition of nine metal ions (Al3+, CuI2+, Co2+, Fe2+, F3+, Ni2+, Mn2+, V5+, and Zn2+) at concentrations 100times greater than that of boron.
curcumin method: boron has to be transferred to boric acid or borates on reaction with curcumin (diferuloylmethane – C21H20O6) in acidic solution, a red colored boron – chelate complex rosoeyanine [B(C21H19O6)2Cl] is formed. Carmine method, which involve combination with carmine or carminic acid in sulphuric acid are followed by photometric measurement. The curcumin method is recommended for water with boron concentrations between 0.1 and 1.0 mg/l whereas the carmine method is optimum for determination of boron level in the range of 1 – 10 mg/l (11).
ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY (WEST ASHING WITH CONCENTRATED HNO3, + HCl)
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements employing the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state. In analytical chemistry the technique is used for determining the concentration of a particular element (the analyte) in a sample to be analyzed. AAS can be used to determine over 70 different elements in solution or directly in solid samples. The technique makes use of absorption spectrometry to assess the concentration of an analyte in a sample. It requires standards with known analyte content to establish the relation between the measured absorbance and the analyte concentration and relies therefore on the Beer-Lambert Law. In short, the electrons of the atoms in the atomizer can be promoted to higher orbitals (excited state) for a short period of time (nanoseconds) by absorbing a defined quantity of energy (radiation of a given wavelength). This amount of energy, i.e., wavelength, is specific to a particular electron transition in a particular element. In general, each wavelength corresponds to only one element, and the width of an absorption line is only of the order of a few picometers (pm), which gives the technique its elemental selectivity. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations, GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture. In gas chromatography, the mobile phase (or "moving phase") is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen. The stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside a piece of glass or metaltubing called a column (an homage to the fractionating column used in distillation). The instrument used to perform gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph (or "aerograph", "gas separator"). The electron capture detector is used for detecting electron-absorbing components (high electronegativity) such as halogenal compounds in the output stream of a gas chromatograph. The ECD uses a radioactive beta particle (electron) emitter in conjunction with a so-called makeup gas flowing through the detector chamber. The electron emitter typically consists of a metal foil holding 10 millicuries (370 MBq) of the radionuclide 63Ni. Usually, nitrogen is used as makeup gas, because it exhibits a low excitation energy, so it is easy to remove an electron from a nitrogen molecule. The electrons emitted from the electron emitter collide with the molecules of the makeup gas, resulting in many more free electrons. The electrons are accelerated towards a positively charged anode, generating a current. There is therefore always a background signal present in the chromatogram. As the sample is carried into the detector by the carrier gas, electron absorbing analyte molecules capture electrons and
thereby reduce the current between the collector anode and a cathode. The analyte concentration is thus proportional to the degree of electron capture. ECD detectors are particularly sensitive to halogens, organometallic compounds, nitriles, or nitro compounds. Diphenyl Carbazide Colorimetric Method Dissolved hexavalent chromium, in the absence of interfering amounts of substances such as molybdenum, vanadium, and mercury, may be determined colorimetrically by reaction with diphenylcarbazide in acid solution. A redviolet color of unknown composition is produced. The reaction is very sensitive, the absorbancy index per gram atom of chromium being about 40,000 at 540 nm. Addition of an excess of diphenylcarbazide yields the red-violet product, and its absorbance is measured photometrically at 540 nm. Visual Comparison Method (Platinum Cobalt Scale) It was developed as a way to evaluate pollution levels in wastewater. A commonly used color of scale to evaluate the pollution levels in both water and waste water is the platinum-cobalt scale. This method is specific to the colour yellow and is based on dilutions of standard platinum cobalt solutions. Specific Ion Electrode Method The Specific Ion Electrode Method or Cyanide Ion-Selective Electrode has a solid-state crystal membrane. The electrode for the detection of cyanide ions (CN-) in aqueous solutions and is suitable for use in both field and laboratory applications. The Cyanide ion is a monovalent anion. One mole of (CN-) has a mass of 26.018 grams, 1000 ppm is 0.038 M. Dissolve 2.503g anhydrous potassium cyanide (KCN) In 1 litre water is hazardous. Azide Modification (Winkler Method), Membrane Electrode (DO meter) The Wrinkler method is a technique used to measure dissolved oxygen in freshwater systems. Dissolved oxygen is used as an indicator of the health of a water body, where higher dissolved oxygen concentrations are correlated with high productivity and little pollution. This test is performed on-site, as delays between sample collection and testing may result in an alteration in oxygen content. Multiple-Tube Fermentation Technique or Membrane Filter The Membrane filter (MF) technique is highly reproducible, can be used to test relatively large volumes of sample, and yields numerical results more rapidly than the multiple-tube procedure. The membrane filter technique is extremely useful in monitoring drinking water and variety of natural waters. However, the MF technique has limitations, particularly when testing waters with high turbidity or noncoliform bacteria. For such waters or when the membrane filter technique has not been used previously, it is describe to conduct parallel tests with the multiple-tube fermentation technique to demonstrate applicability and comparability.
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry In analyzing waters for lead content, the major concern is the precise determination of lead in large numbers of samples. The lead concentration may range from trace levels to quite high concentrations. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry is the preferred method of analysis of lead in water for the following reasons- it is fast, accurate and simple, it involves minimal preparation, it is specific and free from interferences and it can be used for both high and low concentration of lead. Bruccine Method for Saline Waters, specific Ion Electrode Meter for Fresh Water Brucine Method is applicable to the analysis of drinking, surface and saline waters, domestic and industrial wastes. Modification can be made to remove or correct turbidity, color, salinity or dissolved organic compounds in the sample. Gravimetric Method (Petroleum Ether Extraction) The oil and grease contents of domestic and certain industrial wastes and the sludge, is of an important consideration in the handling and treatment of these material for ultimate disposal. Knowledge of the quality of the oil and grease present is helpful in proper design and operation of wastewater treatment system. The term grease applies to wide variety of organic substance that is extracted from aqueous solution or suspension by hexane. Hydrocarbons, esters, oils, fats, waxes and high molecular weight fatty acids are the major materials dissolved by hexane. All these material have a greasy feel and are associated with the problems in wastewater treatment related to grease. Three methods by which oil and grease are estimated are (i) the partition-gravimetric method (ii) partition infrared method, and (iii) the solvent extraction method. Though method (i) does not provide needed precision, it is widely used for routine analysis of samples with high oil and grease contents because of its simplicity and no need of special instrumentation. In method (ii) adequate instrumentation allows for the measurements of as little as 0.2 mg oil and grease. Method (iii) is identical to gravimetric method but it is designed for the samples that might contain volatile hydrocarbons that otherwise would be lost in the solvent removal operation of gravimetric method.In the Partition-Gravimetric method, dissolved or emulsified oil and grease is extracted from water by intimate contact with trichlorotrifluoroethane; petroleum ether (40/60) or hexane. Gravimetric analysis describes a set of methods in analytical chemistry for the quantitative determination of an analyte based on the mass of a solid. A simple example is the measurement of solids suspended in a water sample: A known volume of water is filtered, and the collected solids are weighed. Gas Chromatography (FPD) The reason to use more than one kind of detector for gas chromatography is to achieve selective and/or highly sensitive detection of specific compounds encountered in particular chromatographic analyses. The determination of sulfur or phosphorus containing compounds is the job of the flame photometric detector (FPD). This device uses the chemiluminescent reactions of these compounds in a hydrogen/air flame as a source of analytical information that is relatively specific for substances containing these two kinds of atoms. The emitting species for sulfur compounds is excited S2. The lambda max for emission of excited S2 is approximately 394 nm. The emitter for phosphorus compounds in the flame is excited HPO
(lambda max = doublet 510-526 nm). In order to selectively detect one or the other family of compounds as it elutes from the GC column, an interference filter is used between the flame and the photomultiplier tube (PMT) to isolate the appropriate emission band. The drawback here being that the filter must be exchanged between chromatographic runs if the other family of compounds is to be detected. Gas Chromatography (ECD) The electron capture detector is used for detecting electron-absorbing components (high electronegativity) such as halogenal compounds in the output stream of a gas chromatograph. The ECD uses a radioactive beta particle (electron) emitter in conjunction with a so-called makeup gas flowing through the detector chamber. The electron emitter typically consists of a metal foil holding 10 millicuries (370 MBq) of the radionuclide 63Ni. Usually, nitrogen is used as makeup gas, because it exhibits a low excitation energy, so it is easy to remove an electron from a nitrogen molecule. The electrons emitted from the electron emitter collide with the molecules of the makeup gas, resulting in many more free electrons. The electrons are accelerated towards a positively charged anode, generating a current. There is therefore always a background signal present in the chromatogram. As the sample is carried into the detector by the carrier gas, electron absorbing analyte molecules capture electrons and thereby reduce the current between the collector anode and a cathode. The analyte concentration is thus proportional to the degree of electron capture. ECD detectors are particularly sensitive to halogens, organometallic compounds, nitriles, ornitro compounds. Glass Electrode Method is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific ion. It is an important part of the instrumentation for chemical analysis and physico-chemical studies. In modern practice, widely used membranous ion-selective electrodes (ISE, including glasses) are part of a galvanic cell. The electric potential of the electrode system in solution is sensitive to changes in the content of a certain type of ions, which is reflected in the dependence of the electromotive force (EMF) of galvanic element concentrations of these ions. Glass electrodes are commonly used for pH measurements. There are also specialized ion sensitive glass electrodes used for determination of concentration of lithium, sodium, ammonium, and other ions. Chloroform Extraction Method This method relies on phase separation by centrifugation of a mix of the aqueous sample and a solution containing water-saturated phenol, chloroform and a chaotropic denaturing solution (guanidinium thiocyanate) resulting in an upper aqueous phase and a lower organic phase (mainly chloroform). Nucleic acid (RNA, DNA) partitions in the aqueous phase, while protein partitions in organic phase. In a last step, RNA is recovered from the aqueous phase by precipitation with 2-propanol or ethanol. DNA will be located in the aqueous phase in the absence of guanidinium thiocyanate and thus the technique can be used for DNA purification alone. Guanidinium thiocyanate denatures proteins, including RNases, and separates rRNA from ribosomes, while phenol, isopropanol and water are solvents with poor solubility. In the presence of chloroform or BCP (bromochloropropane), these solvents separate entirely into two phases that are recognized by their color: a clear, upper aqueous phase (containing the nucleic acids) and a bright pink lower phase (containing the proteins dissolved in phenol and the lipids dissolved in chloroform). Other denaturing
chemicals such as 2-mercaptoethanol and sarcosine may also be used. The major downside is that phenol and chloroform are both hazardous and inconvenient materials, and the extraction is often laborious, so in recent years many companies now offer alternative ways to isolate DNA. Stannous Chloride Method This is applicable to laboratory analysis particularly in the determination of water pollution. Such an analytical test may be either qualitative or quantitative. A Quantitative method to determine the amount of phosphate present in samples such as boiler feedwater is as follows. A measured amount of boiler water is poured into a mixing tube and ammonium heptamolybdate reagent is added. The tube is then stoppered and vigorously shaken. The next step is to add dilute stannous chloride reagent, which has been freshly prepared from concentrated stannous chloride reagent and distilled water, to the mixture in the tube. This will produce a blue color (due to the formation of molybdenum blue) and the depth of the blue color indicates the amount of phosphate in the boiler water. The absorbance of the blue solution can be measured with a colorimeter and the concentration of phosphate in the original solution can be calculated. Alternatively, a direct (but approximate) reading of phosphate concentration can be obtained by using a Lovibond comparator. This method for phosphate determination is known as Deniges' method. A simple Qualitative method to determine the presence of phosphate ions in a sample is as follows. A small amount of the sample is acidified with Concentrated Nitric Acid to which a little ammonium molybdate is added. The presence of Phosphate Ions is indicated by the formation of a bright yellow layer. Imhoff cone method A test for settleable solids in water, wastewater and stormwater uses an Imhoff cone, with or without stopcock. The volume of solids is measured after a specified time period at the bottom of a oneliter cone using graduated markings. Methylene blue method (Colorimetric) A color reaction in an acidified, aqueous methylene blue solution containing chloroform can detect anionic surfactants in a water sample. Such a test is known as an MBAS assay(methylene blue active substances assay). The MBAS assay cannot distinguish between specific surfactants, however. Some examples of anionic surfactants are carboxylates, phosphates, sulfates, and sulfonates. Use of mercury filled thermometer Calibrated marks on the tube allow the temperature to be read by the length of the mercury within the tube, which varies (nearly linearly) according to the temperature of the mercury. To increase the sensitivity, there is usually a bulb of mercury at the end of the thermometer which contains most of the mercury; expansion and contraction of this volume of mercury is then amplified in the much narrower bore of the tube. The space above the mercury may be filled with nitrogen or it may be less than atmospheric pressure, which is normally known as a vacuum.
Multiple tube fermentation method The standard test for the coliform group may be carried out either by the multiple-tube fermentation technique (through the presumptive-confirmed phases or completed test), by the membrane filter (MF) technique, or by the proposed chromogenic substrate coliform test. Each technique is applicable within the limitations specified and with due consideration of the purpose of the examination. When multiple tubes are used in the fermentation technique, results of the examination of replicate tubes and dilutions are reported in terms of the Most Probable Number (MPN) of organisms present. This number, based on certain probability formulas, is an estimate of the mean density of of coliforms in the sample. Coliform density provides the best assessment of water treatment effectiveness and the sanitary quality of untreated water. Cold vapour technique (mercury analyzer) Mercury analyzer — A self contained unit or assembled apparatus capable of mixing stannous chloride solution with analytical solutions, separating mercury (0) vapor that forms upon mixing from the liquid stream, and sweeping mercury (0) vapor into the path of an atomic absorption detector; consisting of a multichannel peristaltic pump for controlling liquid flow, liquid mixing tee, device for regulating carrier gas flow, gas-liquid separator, device for drying carrier gas, thermally stable double beam optics (temperature controlled sample and reference cells), and ultra stable mercury vapor lamp and detector capable of measuring atomic absorbance at 253.7 nm. Analyzer must have computerized control of operating conditions, an autosampler, and software for calculating mercury concentration in solutions. Analyzer should be capable of determining concentrations in solution ≥0.05 µg/L with precision ≤2% relative standard deviation during a period of 2 to 3 hours. Analyzer with capability to determine 0.0005 µg/L with precision ≤2% relative standard deviation during a period of 2 to 3 hours is preferable. Gravimetric Method Gravimetric analysis describes a set of methods in analytical chemistry for the quantitative determination of an analyte based on the mass of a solid. A simple example is the measurement of solids suspended in a water sample: A known volume of water is filtered, and the collected solids are weighed. In most cases, the analyte must first be converted to a solid by precipitation with an appropriate reagent. The precipitate can then be collected by filtration, washed, dried to remove traces of moisture from the solution, and weighed. The amount of analyte in the original sample can then be calculated from the mass of the precipitate and its chemical composition.
References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_quality http://www.sciencesclub.com/library/engineering/books/english/Water/Waste%20Water%20Engine ering/Waste%20Water%20Engineering.pdf