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Overview of Applications

Introduction Biomedical
Utility and difficulties
Type of images Overview of the approaches The interaction with the medical doctor

Document Analysis Visual Inspection


Definitions System components Type of images and problems

Image Processing Applications

Overview of Applications

Introduction
Application areas
Agricultural (Fruit grading, harvest control, seeding, fruit picking ...) Communications (compression, video conferencing, tele X, ...) Character recognition (printed and handwritten) Commercial (Bar code reading, bank cheques, signature, ...) Document processing (electronic circuits, mechanical drawings, music, ...) Human (Heads and faces, hands, body, ...) Industrial (Inspection, part pose estimation and recognition, control,...) Leisure and entertainment (museums, film industry, photography,...) Medical (Xrays, CT, NMR, PET, SPECT, ultrasound, intensity, ...) Military (tracking, detection, ...) Police (firgerprints, surveillance, DNA analysis, biometry, ...) Traffic and transport (Road, airport, seaport, license identification, ...) X application (remote sensing, astronomy, biology, surveillance, ...)
Overview of Applications 2

Image Processing Applications

Biomedical Images
Utility Medical images give information of shape and function of organs of human body, being one of the most important mean for establishing the diagnosis. Medical images are a special mean for controlling the therapeutic action. Difficulties A medical doctor uses images for diagnosis, together with many other information. In most of the cases it is qualitative and subjective evaluation. The information conveyed by medical images is very difficult to exploit quantitatively and objectively.
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Image processing of biomedical images


The new capabilities offered by IP for diagnosis Quantitative measurement of several image parameters (colour, shape, texture) in 2D or 3D. Change detection among images acquired in different instants. The time interval can be a few seconds as in an angiographic sequence or several months, for follow-up purposes, using images of the same modality. Data fusion, among different imaging modalities, allowing the combination of complementary information of the same patient.

Image Processing Applications

Overview of Applications

Image processing of biomedical images


The new capabilities offered by IP for diagnosis (cont.) Comparison of images from the same imaging modality, but from different patients. This will be useful for studying a particular pathology of for indexing an image database. Image movement characterisation of human organs and articulations. Data visualisation of volumes and dynamic scenes.

Image Processing Applications

Overview of Applications

Type of images
X-rays

Mammography

Chest radiography

Head radiography

Computed tomography (CT images)

Image Processing Applications

Overview of Applications

Type of images
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Others : Ophthalmology, pedobarography, human surface,


echocardiography, ...
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Overview of the approaches


Image restoration: for removing degradations introduced by the acquisition process (removing bias and amplification correction). Image segmentation: Thresholding, deformable models, multiresolution analysis, mathematical morphology, and many other methods. Image registration: allowing the comparison of images, being rigid or non-rigid. Motion analysis: useful in angiographic sequences or body movement characterization. Morphometrics: shape geometry, similarity among images, ... Visualization: 2D/3D sementation, multimodality registration and volume rendering, Surgery simulation: geometric and biomechanical models of organs and tissues for training. Medical robotics: robotics surgery.
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Image Processing Applications

The interaction with medical doctor


Signal processing expert
Images

Medical doctor

Signals

Patient

Many other information

Image Processing Applications

Overview of Applications

Visual inspection
Definitions
Computer Vision is the combination of image processing, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence technologies that focuses on the computer analysis of one or more images. The output of a computer vision process is often a model of the imaged scene. Machine Vision refers to the image capturing of an object and automatic interpretation of the corresponding image in order to obtain information and/or control machines or processes. Functions of machine vision includes locating, inspecting, gauging, counting, identifying, recognizing, ... Visual Inspection: Measure and interpretation of imaged objects in order to assess is they have been manufactured within the specified tolerances, being geometric, aesthetic, surface finishing. It is an image based quality control process. Must be automatic to be of practical use in the factory.

Image Processing Applications

Overview of Applications

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Visual inspection
System components
Image Sensor A/D Digital System Control Measurement Interpretation

Illumination

Monitor

System components:
Image sensor Lighting and optics Image processing and Analysis Image measurement and interpretation Mechanical interface and part feeding
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Image Processing Applications

Visual inspection
Type of images and problems
Fabric inspection Optical worm disk inspection

TYPE CUT

tangential light

light segment

dark segment

characteristics dark blob(s) detectable smaller nearby light regions possible Obs: the use of back-lighting allows clear identification of this defect type long and thin light line long and thin dark line

SCRATCH

SCAR

clouds of small light and dark spots covering a concentrated area

BEND

large and long light and dark blobs Obs: the use of back-lighting allows discrimination from the CUT type

Image Processing Applications

Overview of Applications

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Visual inspection
Type of images and problems
Fruit grading

Cork inspection

Inspection of parts

Image Processing Applications

Overview of Applications

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The interaction with the inspection problem


Images

Image researcher and engineer

Specifications

Production Engineer

Makes the work of 2 or 3 human inspectors Improve the inspection speed Decrease the production cost Increase the flexibility, allowing the inspection of several products.

Image Processing Applications

Overview of Applications

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The interaction with the inspection problem


The growth of the use of machine vision systems in industry is far from its enormous potential. In 1992, Pavlidis* identified several reasons for this slow growth. They are still valid: Absence of systematic testing and experimentation. This suggests that machine vision lacks one of the key features of engineering. Researchers are not facing up how difficult the problem is. No-accepted sub-goals. There is a tendency to adopt all or nothing strategy.
* T. Pavlidis, Why progress in machine vision is to slow, Pattern Recognition Letters 13, 221-225, 1992
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