Gharo to Keti Bunder Wind Corridor

Inappropriate for the Development of Wind Farm
Although the site is enriched with high speed wind and clean wind rose with low level of turbulence. this document put light on the factors ,why the site is not suitable for wind farm development.

Dr. Abdul Qadeer Submitted By: Dur-e-Shehwar BS Applied Physics(E) 3rd Year .Course name: Renewable Energy Submitted to: Prof.

wind for the power utilized in wind farm is a clean energy resource which is neither consumed nor burnt during whole process. toxic or nuclear wastes. Wind energy creates no significant new environmental problems.e. The environmental and socio-economical assessment of the wind farm conducted in keeping with Pakistani legislation as well as national and international guidelines. relative humidity and most important the prevailing ambient temperature.and noise issues associated with wind energy production have been eliminated by advances in turbine design. as there is no carbon monoxide or other environmentally damaging emissions generated by wind energy plants. air and water pollution. reveal that wind energy is proven and commercially available and does not contribute to climate change. The blades run the generator which produces power. This is because the wind resource is called as renewable energy resource. Wind Energy is an environmentally superior means of generating electricity. While it requires more land than conventional energy sources. . the trend has been set to harness renewable energy resources to discourage environmental hazardous projects and encourage commissioning of environmental friendly power projects that would result in abatement of greenhouse gases.g. Wind farms only require the energy stored in the wind to rotate the blades of the wind turbine. habitat destruction. or the production of solid. agriculture and recreation). The wind leaving the first turbine requires some distance to regain its energy that can be further utilized to run next turbine. As the fuel i. hence this energy resource is the most environmental friendly resource for such purpose. and proper setbacks from residences. the wind projects do not add to the GHG emissions in the country. atmospheric pressure. As such. Wind turbines also have a very limited impact on birds – less than a house cat or a car . Due to current climate changes and hazards cause to the atmosphere due to emission of greenhouse gases. The regaining of energy by the wind depends upon the wind density.Wind Energy: A Clean & Green Source of Energy: Wind energy is a ‘clean’ resource. the land can be used for other purposes (e.

Pakistan. Sindh. a legendary fishing town and the last human settlement along the Indus River in Thatta district. por Mir Meharullah Talpur. Long before the plan for the Gwadar port was chalked out. Keti Bunder.e.(i. Gharo to Keti-bunder Wind Corridor: Pakistan is blessed with a God gifted wind corridor that is 60 km wide from Gharo to Ketibunder and extends up to Hyderabad with the span of 180 km. Bhanbore Museum Sindh. former prime minister Benazir Bhutto intended to make Keti Bunder the third port of Sindh to meet the country’s growing needs as well as that of the landlocked Afghanistan and Central Asia.Site under Study. Ketibunder is a city in Dadu district. Sindh. parks. And comprise of the ruin of the city Bhanbhore. Gharo is a city in Thatta District. is a prehistoric and agricultural city. por JanGasior. Whereas. Pakistan. Gharo on the other hand. . sunway Lagoon Park) and different farm houses.

As per the collected data from Pakistan Metrological Department. Balochistan and as well as in the desert areas of Punjab and Sindh. the coastal belt of Pakistan is blessed with a God gifted wind corridor that is 60 km wide (Gharo ~ Kati Bandar) and 180 km long (up to Hyderabad). This corridor has the exploitable potential of 50. not so far been utilized significantly. This renewable source of energy has however.000 MW of electricity generation through wind energy. .Energy Potential: Pakistan has a considerable potential of wind energy in the coastal belt of Sindh.

5 5.2 8.9 7.3 85m 5.9 11.Table 1.1 4.4 9.1 11.8 11.4 5.4 August 9.4 4.2 5.8 5.3 7.6 5.0 7.6 9.0 9.5 5.3 November 3.6 October 4.4 8.8 6 7.7 10.3 4.6 Annual 6.2 8. These wind speeds match the hourly summer load in the national grid.9 4.4 5.8 4.2 9.7 4.2 8.6 9.7 4.2 10.3 7.9 7.9 June 10.5 4.7 5.7 9.5 5. TABLEL 1: MONTHLY AVERAGE WIND SPEEDS FOR GHARO Month 30m January 4.2 7.6 Average speed (m/sec) Monthly Benchmark Wind Speed 50m 60m 67m 5.6 4.4 7.1 March 5.6 9.3 4.9 5.0 10.1 8.3 10.8 December 4.1 5.9 9.7 5.2 80m 5.3 April 7.1 5.9 11.0 May 8.1 7.4 9.2 4.4 5.3 July 8.8 10.4 This wind data was simulated to 50 meters height and it can be seen that wind speed at this height is seldom below 4 m/s.3 9.3 8.4 7.3 September 7. below shows the monthly average speed for gharo at different heights. .3 5.7 February 5.

The most costeffective designs typically require excavations 10-15 m (33-49 ft) deep. In addition. the blade passage height can be 25 m (82 ft) or even less  Proximity to Transmission Lines (Grid Accessibility) and Required Transmission Upgrades Having a good wind energy resource will only be beneficial to a project’s developers if the energy generated by the project can be delivered to the purchaser in a cost-effective manner. Soils that are not readily excavated or graded can significantly increase project costs. Factors that would eliminate a site from consideration include: • National parks or airports or other areas officially protected from development • Migration routes of migratory bird species • Areas with high concentrations of rare or endangered birds • Urban areas • Some military areas • Highly culturally sensitive areas (e. While modern wind turbine towers are on the order of 50 m (164 ft) in height. and Complexity The more remote and/or complex the terrain. Accessibility. the higher the development cost is likely to be. wind energy projects require roads and equipment pads sufficient to get the turbines to the sites and accommodate the cranes required to install the turbines.g. religious. and terrain than others. or archeological sites). An additional consideration when examining site soil conditions is erosion..  Site Terrain.Typical Criteria for Site Selection for Wind Farm:  Site Capacity The first screen is to eliminate all sites that are not expected to have a sufficient wind resource  Land Suitability An initial land suitability screening will eliminate sites where wind turbines either cannot or should not be installed. historic. weather conditions.  On-Site Vegetation Vegetation increases the turbulence intensity at the site and decreases the wind speeds. .  Soil Conditions Wind turbine foundations are typically reinforced concrete blocks or cylinders. Controlling erosion will be more difficult for some combinations of soils.

development opponents become project supporters. then the site will have greater capacity and energy production than would otherwise be possible. perpendicular) The orientation of the terrain features relative to the prevailing wind directions will heavily affect the site’s capacity potential as well as its energy production.This is because more complex terrain will require more grading and earth movement than less complex terrain.  Exposure to Extreme Wind Speeds (Typhoons) or Other The sites with a relatively low incidence of strong typhoon-induced winds are preferred  Cultural and Environmental Concerns Protected or endangered flora and fauna can increase the costs of wind energy project development.  Landowner concerns and Social Acceptability of Wind Energy Development If the landowners for the site under consideration. Frequently. Projects usually can be built in a manner that minimizes their effect on these species. the costs of development may increase significantly and the time required for project completion can also increase. Complex terrain may also limit the size of turbines that can be installed due to limitations in the ability to get the turbines or cranes to the site or to create sufficient lay-down areas for site construction.  Terrain orientation to prevailing wind (parallel v. opposition to wind project development is based on incorrect information concerning the technology and when fully and accurately informed. It can also lead to less-than-optimal turbine sitting because terrain features affect the project layout. sites with no endangered or protected species are preferred to sites containing endangered or protected species. however. ridgelines that are perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction are preferred to ridgelines that are parallel to the prevailing wind direction. All other factors being equal. At sites with no clear prevailing direction. are opposed to wind energy development on the site. . For example. or the owners of adjacent land. ridgelines limit the capacity that can be installed due to larger turbine-spacing requirements than for sites that have a prevailing wind direction. this takes time and money.  Visual impacts Terrain should be as flat as possible. If the terrain features are conducive to a project layout that maximizes the number of turbines exposed to the prevailing winds while minimizing the array loss effects.

 EarthQuake: A geological tectonic line runs under Karachi through Khirthar Hills / Mountains to north-west of Sindh and Thar desert. RANN OF KUTCH: E-W Trending.6 on Ritcher Scale. 1993.0 on Ritcher Scale. June 1926. Nov. 2004 were also felt along the Pakistan coastline. June 1998. the tropical cyclones formed over the Arabian sea and making landfall at the coastal areas of Sindh. Located west of Larkana. . A number of epicenters are located on the fault. May 1999 and June 2007 (Cyclone– 02A). The effects of tsunami of December. The maximum magnitude of the earthquake associated with the fault is of the order M=6. Recent studies have revealed that this fault traverses the Karachi Metropolitan Area. 2004 were also felt along the Pakistan coastline. Located in the eastern part of Pab range. The fault has produced an earthquake of the order M=7. It cuts Quaternary deposits.  TSUNAMI The Sindh province can be a recipient of a tsunami disaster. Abnormal rise in water detected by tide gauge station at Keti Bander area created panic in the coastal population including Karachi. The effects of tsunami of December. The maximum magnitude of the earthquake associated with fault is of the order M=7. PAB FAULT: NN-W Trending.  Cyclones: Historically. June 1964. Major cyclones reaching Sindh during the last 100 years happened in May 1902. Keti Bunder town was wiped out four times in recent history. due to which Sindh has risk of a major earthquake in the future. The major active faults in province are as under: SURJANI FAULT: N-S Trending. The fault has produced an earthquake of M=5.1 on Ritcher Scale. And structurally Sindh generally contains gently folded anticlinal features trending in north-south direction.6 on Ritcher Scale. JHIMPIR FAULT: N-W Trending.Why The Site Is Inappropriate? First considering the Climate Condition of Site under Study: Gharo to Keti-bunder wind corridor lies in the province of Sindh. Abnormal rise in water detected by tide gauge station at Keti Bander area created panic in the coastal population including Karachi.

Jamshoro and Thatta (Keti-Bunder) on the right bank of River Indus and Tando Muhammad Khan. dusty soil creating a small. The districts in the lower Sindh prone to Riverine flooding includes Dadu (Gharo). When storms appear in these areas. The length of River Indus along the province is 750 kms long. is prone to following types of floods Thatta (Ketibunder) Riverine Flood Dadu (Gharo) Riverine Flood. intrudes into city and cause destruction at a large scale. the rain water cuts into the dry. . fast-moving river. Because of its rapid nature flash floods are difficult to forecast and give people little time to escape or to take food and other essentials with them. That eventually. Matiari and Hyderabad. with enough power to wash away sections of pavement. Flash Floods FLASH FLOODS: An arroyo is a water-carved gully or a normally dry creek found in arid or desert regions. RIVERINE FLOOD: Due to an increase in water level in rivers. Flash flooding in an arroyo can occur in less than a minute.Figure 1: Seismic Hazard zones in Gharo ~ Keti bunder Wind corridor  Floods The site under consideration.

. Moreover the city is agricultural. we know that Kati Bandar is on the western edge of cyclone prone areas that hit coasts of Pakistan and India. The effects of tsunami of December. Different crops like rice and cotton are irrigated there. Abnormal rise in water detected by tide gauge station at Keti Bander area created panic in the coastal population including Karachi. And thus. lies on the geological tectonic line.Conclusion : From the above mentioned topographical data of the wind corridor. And the mob is below the average paid Pakistani. and was wiped out four times in recent history. can be susceptible to erosion. Keti bunder which lies on coastal region is susceptible of tidal waves. But in case of any natural disaster. It is usually prone to typhoons and wind turbulences. the Gharo city. the site is under developed. The turbulence intensity is much higher at such places. the soil condition is contended.e. due to insufficient mitigation plan against Natural Disasters in Pakistan. Gharo is much developed than Keti bunder. 2004 were also felt along the Pakistan coastline. Whereas. The soil is muddy and the site is very much prone to riverine and flash floods. if in case . Moreover. Another reason. KESC grid. Such changes may damage a wind turbine more than an extreme change in wind speed. And there’s a nearby Grid existence for Gharo. for the unsuitability of the site is. the Gharo city is a pre-historic city. the gharo ~ keti bunder wind corridor would be swept away by flood or tsunami. i. Thus. and it encloses the ruins of a historic city Bhanbhore. por JanGasior and the Bhanbore Museum. This eliminates those areas of Gharo from the suitable areas of Wind farm. But Keti bunder has been too much subtle for natural disasters that there’s been a poor living standard.

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