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Course Code: ME-331 Assignment-01 Prospect of Cutting Tool in Developing Countries
Group Number: 02
Level & Term Department Submitted to Date of submission
: Level: 03 Term: 02. : Mechanical Engineering (ME-08). : Lec Mustasim Sir : 16th July, 2012
Signature of Teacher
Single-point tools are used in turning. and margin size. Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic singlepoint cutting edge (although of high negative rake angle). shaping. all of the above must be optimized. Figure: View of Few Cutting tool Materials . plus the speeds and feeds at which the tool is run. and the tool must be able to withstand the heat generated in the metal-cutting process. with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can contact the workpiece without the rest of the tool dragging on the workpiece surface. the tool must have a specific geometry. a cutting tool (or cutter) is any tool that is used to remove material from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. and shears a tiny chip. The angle of the cutting face is also important. Milling and drilling tools are often multipoint tools. Also.Prospect of Manufacturing Cutting Tools in Developing Countries Introduction : In the context of machining. as is the flute width. number of flutes or teeth. Grinding tools are also multipoint tools. In order to have a long working life. Cutting tools must be made of a material harder than the material which is to be cut. and remove material by means of one cutting edge. plaining and similar operations. Cutting may be accomplished by single-point or multipoint tools.
In these. such as bandsaw blades. Common materials for tips include tungsten carbide. reamers. milling cutters. and saw blades. Other cutting tools. Cutting tools with inserts (indexable tools) Cutting tools are often designed with inserts or replaceable tips (tipped tools). countersinks and counterbores. and cold saw blades. hacksaw blades. fly cutters). Rotary cutting tools include drill bits. either brazed. taps and dies.Types Linear cutting tools include tool bits (single-point cutting tools) and broaches. polycrystalline diamond.Tools using inserts include milling cutters (endmills. . and cubic boron nitride. the cutting edge consists of a separate piece of material. tool bits. and fly cutters. welded or clamped on to the tool body. combine aspects of linear and rotary motion.
Toughness — toughness. being generally softer and thus tougher. Small tools cannot be designed with exchangeable inserts. which increases the overall hardness of the material at the expense of some its original toughness. Since heat is the mechanism to alter the structure of the substance and at the same time the cutting action produces a lot of heat. Tool setup The detailed instruction how to combine the tool assembly out of basic holder. Materials To produce quality p. Most stable materials are hard enough to break before flexing. which results in higher cutting forces due to an increased shear area. generally can stand a bit of flexing without breaking. Holder To use a cutting tool within a CNC machine there is a basic holder required to mount it on the machines spindle or turret. tool and insert can be stored in a tool management solution. such as those encountered in hand tools and light machinery.  Wear resistance — having acceptable tool life before needing to be replaced. To avoid chipping at the cutting edge. Fragility combined with high cutting forces results in most stable materials being unsuitable for use in anything but large. as they don't attain their hardness through heat. . which makes them much more suitable for unfavorable machining conditions. Stable materials (usually tungsten carbide) are substances that remain relatively stable under the heat produced by most machining conditions. most tools made of such materials are finished with a sightly blunt edge. Cutting tool materials can be divided into two main categories: stable and unstable. so that tools don’t chip or fracture. Unstable materials. a cutting tool must have three characteristics: Hardness — hardness and strength at high temperatures. such substances are inherently unstable under machining conditions.Solid cutting tools The typical tool for milling and drilling has no changeable insert. The cutting edge and the shank is one unit and built of the same material. Unstable materials (usually steels) are substances that start at a relatively low hardness point and are then heat treated to promote the growth of hard particles (usually carbides) inside the original matrix. which makes them very fragile. heavy and stiff machinery. but generally don't change their properties much during use. They wear down due to abrasion.
Hardness up to about HRC 65. Used almost exclusively on turning tool bits. Unstable. The most common ceramic materials are based on alumina (aluminium oxide). Moderately expensive. Very inexpensive. Expensive. which involves running the tool nitride(CBN) or the part fast enough to melt it before it touches the edge. Stable. hacksaw blades. It provides higher abrasion resistance compared to tungsten carbide at the expense of some toughness. Sharp edges generally not recommended. the only drawback being their high fragility. HSS cobalt Castcobalt alloys Cemented carbide Ceramics Cermets Stable. It is offered in several "grades" containing different proportions of tungsten carbide and binder (usually cobalt). Used extensively on milling cutters and drill bits. It is used where abrasive materials would wear anything else. Hardness up to about HRC 90. Sharp edges generally not recommended. Binder is usually nickel. Sharp edges generally not recommended. Used extensively on drill bits and taps. Sharp cutting edges possible. Inexpensive. Stable. Being the second hardest substance known. Sharp cutting edges possible. although it is still commonly found in non-intensive applications such as hobbyist or MRO machining. Hardness up to about HRC 93. Sharp cutting edges possible. High resistance to abrasion. Sharp cutting edges and positive rake angles are to be avoided. Expensive. ceramics are usually desirable in high speed applications. Hardness up to about HRC 93. and reamers are still usually made of it (because of its affordability). Ceramics are considered unpredictable under unfavorable conditions. Mostly obsolete in today's commercial machining. Used almost exclusively on turning tool bits. Not used much. Hardness up to about HRC 65. Chemically inert and extremely resistant to heat. it is also the second most fragile. steel(HSS) Sharp cutting edges possible. High solubility in iron requires the additions oftantalum carbide and niobium carbide for steel usage. Another cemented material based on titanium carbide (TiC). It offers extremely high resistance to abrasion at the expense of much toughness. Stable. Used almost exclusively on turning tool bits although it can be used as a coating on many kinds of tools. where economy-grade drill bits. softening it considerably. It is Cubic boron generally used in a machining process called "hard machining". Carbontool steels Unstable. The high cobalt versions of high speed steel are very resistant to heat and thus excellent for machining abrasive and/or work hardening materials such as titanium and stainless steel. Stable. Somewhat fragile. Used primarily on turning tool bits although research is being carried on producing other cutting tools. Moderately expensive. Hardness up to about HRC 67. Hardness up to about HRC 70. silicon nitride and silicon carbide. Stable. Hardness higher than HRC 95. Sharp edges generally not recommended. Extremely fragile. The hardest substance known to date. Despite its stability it doesn't allow for high machining speed due to low hardness. Moderately expensive. Its main use is in turning tool bits although it is very common in milling cutters and saw blades.Tool material Properties Unstable. The most common cutting High speed tool material used today. taps and dies. Superior resistance to abrasion but also high chemical affinity to iron which results in being unsuitable for steel machining. Moderately inexpensive. Retains hardness at moderate temperatures. Extremely sensitive to heat. Very Expensive. The most common material used in the industry today. Extremely high resistance to abrasion. It is far more chemically inert than it too. Diamond .
2. Unwillingness to produce. 5. 4.Prospects of Manufacturing in Developing Countries Even though the western world has shown significant progress in manufacturing cutting tools the developing countries are still lagging behind in this sector due to following reasons: 1. the suppliers are more attracted to import rather than producing cutting tools. 3. Lack of skilled manpower Lack or sophisticated technology Unparalleled development activities with technological innovations Lack of raw materials for producing cutting tools Economic problems and lack of investment opportunities for producing cutting tools 6. Figure: Industrial Cutting tool .
Initiatives from the government to encourage manufacturing cutting tools rather than importing them Use the locally available resources or making way for getting raw materials from the developed countries rather than buying the finished product itself.Proposed Development Plan for manufacturing the Cutting tools Build up adequate teaching resources to train and make skilled manpower To unite the technical training institute with the minor producers like for example: Creating a bridge between BITAC(Bangladesh Technical Training Center) and the literate manpower in Dholaikhal. To collaborate with foreign trainers and learn how they manufacture a part in their countries To bring sophisticated technology to manufacture Cutting tools To help and encourage the younger generation in guiding them the way to manufacturing and production engineering of cutting tools Thank You .
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