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a)Manifest Destiny i)Reflected pride of American nationalism + idealistic vision of social perfection that had fueled reform movements- US destined by God & history- to expand over a vast area that included North America. ii)Extend liberty + US political system to others, but also racist justifications- superiority of ―American‖ race, ppl of territories unfit for republican system iii)By 1840s idea of Manifest Destiny had spread thru ―penny press‖ (mass audience). Almost all but not everyone embraced- Henry Clay feared tension b)Americans in Texas i)1820s Mexican govt encouraged American immigration into Texas hoping to strengthen territory’s economy and increase tax revenues, buffer against Indians, would prevent US expansion- 1824 Mex bill offered cheap land ii)Thousands took deal, land suitable for cotton, soon American population larger than Mexican. American intermediaries to Mex govt brought settlers- most famous Stephen Austin. Later attempts to stem US immigration failed c)Tensions Between the United States and Mexico i)Tension btwn US settlers and Mex govt grew b/c immigrants continued cultural + economic ties to US, also b/c desire to legalize slavery after it was outlawed in 1830 ii)Mid 1830s Mex General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna seized power as dictator- new law increased power of nat’l govt over state govts, Austin imprisoned. 1835 Mex sent more troops, 1836 Texans declared independence iii)Santa Anna led large army into TX, Americans unorganized and easily defeated (Battle of the Alamo in San Antonio). Then General Sam Houston defeated Mexicans 1836 at Battle of San Jacinto, the captured Santa Anna signed treaty making TX independent. [MXs living in TX called tejanos] iv)Texans wanted to be annexed by US, delegation sent to D.C. had expansionist support, but northerners feared large new slave state + empowering the south w/ more Congressional/electoral votes- incl. Andrew Jackson who feared sectional controversy, Pres Van Buren and Pres Harrison also ignored issue
largest numbers from Old Northwest – majority sought mainly new economic opportunity ii)Some wanted riches after CA gold discovery 1848. Pres Tyler sought TX to reapply for statehood 1844. GB refused.v)TX sought allies in Eur who wanted to check US power. Polk proposed Oregon border @ 49th parallel. soon outnumbered GB’s settlers. Missionaries. rejected by Senateissue in 1844 election d)Oregon i)Both GB and US claimed sovereignty over Oregon region.native rejection Christianity=repudiating right to land iii)Large amt of Americans began emigrating to Oregon early 1840s. trade developed w/ Natives 2)Expansion and War a)The Democrats and Expansion i)Two candidates for 1844 election Whig Henry Clay and the Democrat/former president Martin Van Buren. but many Southern democrats supported TX annexation. led to US cry ―Fifty-four forty or fight!‖. others Santa Fe Trail ii)Trip very difficult. e)The Westward Migration i)Growth of TX and Oregon population part of greater movement of population westward 18401860. Fear of conflict w/ Indians (although very little fighting occurred). 1846 GB accepted treaty w/ border at 49th parallel . others on religious mission (Mormons) f)Life on the Trail i)Most migrants gathered major depots in Iowa or MI. thereby appealing to both northern and southern expansionists iii)Outgoing Pres John Tyler saw election as mandate for annexing TX. especially in mountain and desert terrain. others take advance of cheap land fed govt selling. Southerners went mainly to TX. Polk ii)Polk able to win b/c wished to occupy Oregon and annex TX. Mid-1840s desire for annex. Main route Oregon Trail to CA + WA. Clay chosen. chose stronger support James K. joined wagon trains led by hired guides. 1818 treaty allowed citizens equal access to area-―joint occupation‖ for 20 yrs ii)US interest grew 1820s/30s b/c desire to convert Indians and oppose Canadian Cath. destroyed native pop. did so in 1845.
intensified as war cont and public aware of casualties and expense iii)American forces successful in capturing NE Mexico. Alternative―popular sovereignty‖.TX and Polk believed it to be at Rio Grande. but w/ election soon Polk wanted war ended quickly. Despite to Mex annexations Polk accepted treaty 3)The Sectional Debate a)Slavery and the Territories i)Rep David Wilmot’s ―Wilmot Proviso‖: prohibit slavery from territories acquired by Mexfailed Senate. Sent envoy Nicolas Trist for settlement v)Feb 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo agreed to where Mex ceded CA and NM to US and acknowledged Rio Grande boundary of TX. US agreed to pay Mex $15 million. Polk extended Missouri Compromise line to territory on West coast. Settlers dreamed of annexation iii)Polk wanted California and New Mexico for US. Interest in California growing as well as US fur traders gave way to merchants and farmers arriving. sent Gen Zachary Taylor to protect from invasion ii)Part of disputed area was New Mexico where Mex had originally invited American settlers into. After taking city new Mex govt took power that was willing to negotiate treaty. Polk ordered offensive against New Mexico and California. then aided US forces in CA’s ―Bear Flag Revolution‖. Whig General Zachary Taylor.b)The Southwest and California i)Oregon treaty accepted readily by Pres b/c tension growing in Southwest with Mex. After TX became state 1845 dispute over border. Slavery opponents formed ―Free-Soil‖ Party w/ Van Buren for pres. Col Stephen Kearny captured Santa Fe. Some in US wanted to annex part of Mexico. Whig critics of war b/c thought Polk instigated.states decided ii)1848 election Polk didn’t run again. captured CA iv)When Mex refused to cede defeat Polk sent Gen Winfield Scott to capture Mexico City. When Polk heard MX rejected offer sent Gen. Dem candidate Lewis Cass. Showed inability of existing parties to contain slavery passions . ordered navy seize CA ports if Mexico declared war c)The Mexican War i)Polk attempted diplomacy by sending special minister to Mex to purchase lands. At same time ordered Gen Taylor to TX. Taylor’s army from Nueces R to Rio Grande R January 1846 ii)May 1846 US declaration of war.
rallied N Whig support v)Douglas proposed Clay compromise split into smaller measured and voted on (difft sections could vote for measures that they supported).b)The California Gold Rush i)Taylor won 1848 election. but many sated in CA and swelled agricultural + urban populations. Population diverse. Jefferson Davis of MI saw slavery in terms of South’s economic self-interest. Labor shortage in CA (due to ppl flocking to fold fields) created opportunities for ppl who needed work. new Pres Millard Fillmore supported compromise.white Americans. South feared admission of New states would upset balance. used govt bonds and railroad construction to gain support. free blacks. Congress refused b/c at time 15 free and 15 slave states existed. new territorial govts w/o slave restrictions. Comp passed in September. migrants known as ―Forty-niners‖ mainly men ii)Gold Rush led to many Chinese migrants to Western US. therefore pressure to create a stable and effective govt to bring order c)Rising Sectional Tensions i)Taylor believed statehood solution to territory issue b/c territories controlled by fed govt. Stephen Douglas of IL iv)W/ death of Taylor in 1850 (who refused compromise until CA admitted). pressure to resolve slavery in territories urgent b/c of events in CA1848 Gold Rush lead to dramatic increase in CA’s population. Chinese. new tough fugitive slave law ii)First phase of debating comp led by older voices of Clay. ―Indian hunters‖ iii)Most didn’t find gold. Tempers rising d)The Compromise of 1850 i)Henry Clay proposed compromise to Congress in 1850. Also led to exploitation of Natives. make South minority in Sen. Mexicans. Webster and broad ideal of settling slave issue once and for all iii)After Clay proposal defeated. Eurs.less widespread agreement on ideals then victory of selfinterest 4)The Crisis of the 1850s .admitted CA as free state. slaves of southern migrants—tension led territory to be a turbulent place. decide slavery w/in state. second phase of debate led by younger group: William Seward of NY opposed compromise. Calhoun. but states govt could settle slave issue w/in own state ii)Taylor 1849 proposed CA (which had constitution banning slavery) and New Mexico apply for statehood.
divided northern Democrats (disagreed w/ repealing Miss. Dem Franklin Pierce. R. but N opposition to Fugitive Slave Act after 1850 as mobs prevented slave catchers in cities..attempts to capture Cuba opposed by antislavery northerners who feared administration trying to bring new slave state to Union. Whigs suffered from massive defection from antislavery members. RR from Chicago) ii)Nebraska North of Missouri Compromise line. south opposed acquiring Hawaii b/c prohibited slavery c)Slavery. S angered. Whig Gen Winfield Scott. sweeping consequences: divided and destroyed Whig Party (disappeared by 1856).a)The Uneasy Truce i)1852 pres election candidates very sectional. dislodge Indians from reservations there.saw expansion of US democracy throughout world as way of diverting attention from slavery ii)Efforts to expand entangled in sectionalism. movement for transcontinental RR. and the West i)1850s settlers began moving into plains to areas suitable for farming. Railroads. alarmed b)“Young America” i)Pierce supported Democrat’s ―Young America‖. Disagreement over whether eastern terminus should be in North’s Chicago or in the South. repealed Missouri Compromise entirely iv)Kansas-Nebraska Act passed 1854 w/ Pres Pierce support. Free-Soil John Hale. Settlement led to issue of railroad and slavery ii) RR used to solve communication problems btwn old states + areas W of Miss. Democrats won ii)Pres Pierce tried to ignore divisive issues. Jefferson Davis organized Gadsden Purchase 1853 from Mex to make S route possible d)The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy i)Stephen Douglas 1854 proposed opening Nebraska Territory for white settlement (to clear Indians in way of possible transcont. therefore had to be free iii)To gain passage Douglas proposed dividing Nebraska in two (Nebraska and Kansas) and each would decide slavery by ―popular sovereignty‖ (state legislature). Comp) v)Ppl in both parties opposed to bill formed Republican Party 1854 e)“Bleeding Kansas” . Had immediate.
others later gave ideology name The Pro-Slavery Argument. which was superior to any other. helped nat’l econ iii)Also argued slavery good b/c basis of way S way of life. replace it with closed aristocracy of S. allowed for peace btwn races. Butler’s nephew Preston Brooks came to Sen. S stagnant + rejecting individualism. progress. legalized slavery. destructive.both became hero f)The Free-Soil Ideology i)Tension from economic.every citizen had right to own property. To them South closed. beat Sumner w/ cane. Led to armed warfare by armed bands. but also sectional vision of US ii)North believed in ―free soil‖ + ―free labor‖. access to opportunity. abolitionist John Brown then killed 5 pro-slave settlers (Pottawatomie Massacre). N greedy. Clergy also gave religious + biblical justification . protected worker welfare iv)Defense also on biological inferiority of blacks. but for 1855 elections southerners from Missouri traveled to Kansas to vote. inherently unfit to care for themselves and be citizens.―slave power conspiracy‖ iv)This ideology @ heart of Repub Party. Free-state supporters in state formed own Const.but S stable. breakup= smaller size+ less econ power g)The Pro-Slavery Argument i)Incompatible Southern ideology result of desire for security after Nat Turner 1831 uprising. cities crowded + immigrant filled. Committed to Union b/c growth + prosperity central to free-labor vision. orderly. lucrative nature of cotton economy into Deep South and expansion there. control labor. factories horrific. static society where slavery preserved entrenched aristocracy & common white had no opportunity iii)North growing + prospering. slaved enjoyed better conditions than industrial workers in N. Pro-slavery legislature elected. growth of Garrisonian abolition movement against S society ii)Intellectual defense of slavery begun by Professor Thomas Dew. Slavery not so much immoral but wrong b/c threatened whites. applied statehood ii)Pro-slave forces burned down anti-slave govt. territorial interest. ―Bleeding Kansas‖ became symbol of sectional controversy iii)1856 anti-slavery Charles Sumner of MA gave speech entitled ―The Crime Against Kansas‖ critical of slavery defender Sen Butler of SC.i)Settlers from N + S settling Kansas.said that S should not apologize for slavery b/c was a good thing. Believed S conspiring to extend slavery thru whole nation and thus destroy N capitalism.
Repubs chose John Fremont (platform against Kansas-Nebraska Act and of Whiggish internal improvements reflecting N economic aspirations). Supreme Court had multiple decisions.argued if nation didn’t accept blacks had human rights then it could accept other groups such as immigrant laborers could be deprived of rights too. to solve Kansas problem supported admission to Union as slave state. blacks had virtually no rights under Const. but fed govt now powerless j)Deadlock Over Kansas i)Pres Buchanan endorsed Dred Scott decision. Know-Nothings chose Millard Fillmore ii)Buchanan won.Scott was slave who after masters death sued widow for freedom on grounds that master had moved residence to a free state. but proved indecisive at critical moment in history. After taking office financial panic + depression hit country iii)In N Repubs strengthened b/c manufacturers. KS entered Union as free state k)The Emergence of Lincoln i)In 1858 Congressional elections Repub Abraham Lincoln ran against famed Dem Stephen Douglas. Lincoln-Douglas debates attracted attention ii)Lincoln’s attacks on slavery prominent. but John Sanford (brother of deceased owner. 1857 new KS Const legalized slavery.widely rejected ii)1858 Buchanan pressured Congress to admit it as slave state anyway but Cong rejected. farmers joined--depression seen as result of unsound policies of southern Dem administrations i)The Dred Scott Decision i)March 1857 Supreme Court ruled in Dred Scott v Sandford. compromise allowed KS to vote on Const again—rejected again iii)1861.h)Buchanan and Depression i)In 1856 pres election Dems wanted candidate unassociated w/ ―Bleeding Kansas‖ so chose James Buchanan. misspelled name) claimed ownership of Scott ii)Defeat for antislavery movement. Sup C. workers. but election of new legislature saw antislavery majority who put Const to ppl to vote on. after sever S states had already seceded. . Chief Justice Roger Taney: Scott could not bring suit in fed court b/c was not a citizen. slaves property & 5th Amendment forbid taking property w/o ―due process‖ and therefore Congress had no authority to pass law depriving persons of slave property in territories (thereby ruling Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional) iii)Did not challenge rights of state to limit slavery.
rest chose Stephen Douglas iii)Still others formed Constitutional Union Party w/ John Bell as candidate. homestead bill. internal improvements.endorsed Union but remained silent regarding slavery iv)Republicans tried to broaden appeal to earn majority in North who feared S blocking its economic interests. eventually nominated John Breckinridge of KY. within weeks process of disunion began . believed raid supported by Repub party and that North now wanted slave insurrection m)The Election of Lincoln i)In Pres election of 1860 Dems torn btwn southerners (who demanded strong endorsement of slavery) & westerners (who supported popular sovereignty) ii)After popular sovereignty endorsed by convention southern states walked out. extension of slavery in territories would lead to lost opportunity for betterment by poor white laborers iii)Lincoln opposed slavery but not abolitionist b/c did not see easy alternative to slavery in areas where it existed. Uprising never occurred. Dems lost maj in House. kept Sen l)John Brown’s Raid i)1859 antislavery zealot from KS John Brown led followers to capture fort in Harpers Ferry VA hoping to lead slave rebellion. tried for treason by VA and hanged ii)Convinced white southerners that they could not live safely in Union. Platform endorsed high tariff. popular sovereignty but Congress nor territory legislatures could legalize slavery in territories v)Repubs chose Abraham Lincoln as nominee b/c moderate positions on slavery. Pacific railroad. Prevent spread of slavery to territories. trust institution would gradually die out in areas where it existed iv)Douglas won but Lincoln gained following.Also. relative obscurity. Brown surrendered. and western origins to attract votes from region vi)Lincoln won presidency w/ majority of electoral votes but only 2/5 of popular vote but failed to win maj in Congress vii)Election of Lincoln final signal for many southerners that their position in Union hopeless.
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