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THE AMERICAN SPORTSMAN'S LIBRARY
EDITED BY

CASPAR WHITNEY

GUNS, AMMUNITION,

AND TACKLE

•y^y^

Digitized by
in

tine

Internet Arciiive

2010

witii

funding from

Sloan Foundation

http://www.archive.org/details/gunsammunitiontaOOmone

GUNS. AMMUNITION.

AND

TACKLE
BY

CAPTAIN
W.
E.

A.

W. MONEY,
A. L. A.

CARLIN,

HORACE KEPHART HIMMELWRIGHT

AND

JOHN HARRINGTON KEENE

WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON
:

MACMILLAN &
1904
ySll rights reserved

CO., Ltd.

LIpVsBV

CONQI?ESS

SEP

14

1904

<5oo))rtrtt Entry

?
Na

CLAfiS CZ XXo.

6r9

COPY B

Copyright,

1904,

BY

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
Published September, 1904.

Set up and electrotyped.

Nornvood Press

J.

S.

Gushing

&

Co.

— Berwick

£f Smith C».

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.

CONTENTS
THE SHOT-GUN AND
By Captain
Conduct
in

ITS

HANDLING
PAGB

A.

W. Money
3
. .

the Field
prevent a

English and American Shooting Compared

.17
etc.

What may
Ammunition

Man from becoming a really
32

Good Shot — Selection of Gun — Ammunition,

47
.

How

Trap-shooting helps to make a Good Shot

67

Target-shooting
Live Pigeon Shooting

69
80
105
.

Some Useful General Hints Use and Abuse of Smokeless Powder

.

.

.107

THE HUNTING RIFLE
By Horace Kephart

The Hunting Rifle
Accuracy Trajectory
Killing Power
.

117
,
.
.

iig
128

«
. . . .

.

.

.

.

.

Rapidity of Fire

.131 .146
149
152 158

Weight
Sights

Trigger-pull

Stock

,

.

.

.

160

V

vi

Contents
PACK

Adjustment of Rifle Adjusting for Zero

i6i

165

Target Practice
Reloading Ammunition

168
i7S

Care of the Rifle

183 184

The Rifle of the Field

THE THEORY OF RIFLE-SHOOTING
By W.
E. Carlin
191

The Theory of Rifle-shooting
In

Vacuo

193

The Resistance of the Air
Time and Velocity

200 220

— (Table)

Energy
Penetration
Drift

.

229
231

232
.

The Drift of Elongated Projectiles
Recoil
in

.

.

.238
250

Guns

THE PISTOL AND REVOLVER
By
a. L. a.

Himmelwright
259
263

The Pistol and Revolver Arms
Ammunition
Sights
Position

276
294

296
298

Target-shooting
Hints to Beginners

3^9
32>^

Reloading Ammunition

Contents

vii

THE ARTIFICIAL FLY
By John Harrington Keene
PAGE

The Theory of the Trout Fly
Making the Trout Fly Using the Trout Fly The Theory of the Salmon Fly Making the Salmon Fly Using the Salmon Fly The Theory of the Bass Fly The Making of the Bass Fly Using the Bass Fly

359

369 379
389
398 405

414
417

422
427

INDEX

ILLUSTRATIONS
Salmon Flies
In Color
Frontispiece
FACING PAGB
"^

The Rabbit

in

the Brush Pile

30 82
122

Chance of a Double Standing them off An Unexpected Moment Revolvers
:

A

'^

'

170

New Military — Colt New Army & Wesson Russian Model Colt New Service — Colt Frontier Model — Webley " W. G." Army Model
Smith & Wesson

— Smith

.

.

.

266

267 268

Webley-Fosbury Automatic

Colt
Pistols

New Police — Smith & Wesson Pocket — Smith & Wesson Safety Hammerless
.

.

.

:


— The
Parabellum or
"

274

-

Colt Automatic
Automatic

Luger "
268

Mauser Automatic — Smith & Wesson Stevens, ^ Gould Model 270 WuRFFLEiN Remington Gastinne-Renette 271Stevens, Diamond Model 274 Walter Winans C. S. Ax tell 296 ^ Thomas Anderton C. S. Richmond 297'^ E. E. Patridge Sergeant William E. Petty 298 ^ R. H. Sayre 299 • J. E. Gorham

.

.

— —

....
.
.

ix

X

Illustrations
FACING PAGE

Correct Manner of holding the Revolver . Correct Position of the Sights in aiming at a Target The Travel of the Line of the Sights
.

.

320

about the Bull's-eye in aiming Lake Trout and Bass Flies
.

....
.

324
368

.

.

In Color

Hooked! Brook Trout Flies Determined to get Something

384

.....

In Color

416
424

THE SHOT-GUN AND

ITS

HANDLING

Bv Captain A. W. Money

THE SHOT-GUN AND
Conduct
in

ITS

HANDLING

the Field
all

America stands above
as a
soil

others in the world

game-producing country.
are
just

Both climate and

what

suit

the

numerous
It
is

varieties

found in such abundance.
surprising that
it

not, therefore,

should also produce the greatest

number

of shooters
that, in

and the best shots

;

there

is

no doubt
those
It
is

proportion to population, the

game-shooters of
of

America

largely

outnumber

any other country, England included.

equally true that they are, as a rule, better

shots,

use better guns and better ammunition,
far

and have a
all

more thorough acquaintance with
to

that

concerns guns, ammunition, habits of

game, and
sportsmen

how

shoot,

than

their

brother

in other countries.
is

The
ican

reason for this

not hard to find.
of

Apart from the natural tendency
to

an Amerin

excel

at

anything he
3

takes

hand,

4

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

whether as an amusement or as a business, there
are other strong reasons

why he should

take up

shooting in the

first

instance,

and why, having
an expen-

done
sive

so,

he

may and

should shoot well.
is

In most other countries shooting

amusement, and confined
levied

to

the wealthier

part of the population, partly on account of the

government tax which
gun, even
if

is

on the use

of the

not used on game,
partly,

— the
chiefly,

game-tax
because

being

still

heavier;
is

and

game-preserving

carried on to such an extent

in those countries that

without committing a

tres-

pass the non-owner or non-occupier of land cannot,

as a rule, find anything to shoot at;

and

lastly,

because the scale of wages and salaries

in those countries is so

low that no one but the
to

wealthy classes

has any money or time

spend

on shooting.
In America, on the contrary, there
is
;

no tax to
if

stop a

man from owning

or using a

gun and

he

wishes to go after game, he can do so quite easily
at present,

without trespassing

;

whilst throughout

the whole country, salaries and wages run high

enough

to enable a

man

to

spend something on
fancies.

shooting, or any other

amusement he

Probably

of all others,

however, the strongest

The Sboi-mn arid iy
reason
is

its

Handlim
some

the facility with which shooting of

kind or another, good, bad, or indifferent, can be
obtained by practically every gunner in America,

and the great variety
pursue.

of

game

the sportsman can

For instance, duck,

quail, geese, prairie-

chicken, ruffed grouse, woodcock, snipe, rail-birds,
rabbits, etc.,

tempt old and young
reason
is

alike,

and afford
should

a great variety of sport.

Another

why Americans

be
is,

ardent sportsmen

because North America

par excellence, the country for camping. And who would ever camp out without a gun of some sort
or another.''

it

seems

to

be so essentially a part

of the outfit.

Reader, have you ever camped out on a shoot-

ing trip

}

If
is

you have

not,

you have missed some;

thing that

too good to be missed

something the
never entirely
a fixed camp,

memory
die out.

of
I

which
don't

in later days will

mean occupying

with a built-up log-cabin and every luxury, but

your own moving and movable camp.

Nowhere on
life

the face of the globe are

all

the

conditions so favorable to this nomadic kind of
as they are in

most parts
}

of this continent.
out,

Are you an
see
if

invalid

Try camping
all

and

3^ou don't say

good-by to

the doctor's

6
stuff.

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

Are you brain weary and tired out from Only try it once, and you will never business ?
regret and never forget
it.

Go

to the

mountains
if

for choice

;

but camping anywhere, especially

are already a sportsman

you and can combine shooting
out,

and perhaps fishing with the camping
own.

has to

ninety-nine people out of a hundred a fascination
all its

You go
all

into

camp with a jaded appetempt
it.

tite

and wanting

sorts of delicacies to

After a few days you wonder

how you

ever can

have required those rich sauces and fine cooking

and one course
Appetite
!

after another.

You

never knew the meaning of

the word before.
like a top

And
be.

the

way you
is

sleep!
its

Off

almost before your head

on

pillow,

Awake, yes, wide awake at daylight, and wondering how on earth you have lived so long and never known the beauties and enjoyment to be seen and felt at that hour. Up and busy about camp breakfast, and then
whatever that
off for a day's shooting,

may

— duck on
if

the river or

lake, quail in the fields, ruffed

grouse in the bush

and on the
nial, this is

hills.
;

Companions, yes
are

and

he or they are congefriendships

when companionshijDS and
But
if

made

that last a lifetime.

you are a

The Shot-gun and
true

its

Handling
sporting

7
instinct

sportsman,

with

all

the
is

strong in you, your dog

the one companion
sort.

you need most, provided you have the right

You and he
Your eye
a time
;

are going to

work

all
it.

day together,

he to find the game, you
is

to shoot

never

off

him

and as you

realize

for many moments at how hard he is working
is

to give

you

sport,

you forget he
to look

only a poor

devil of a dog,
talk to

and begin

him
is

too, as a

companion,
it.

— and don't imag-

upon him, and

ine he won't appreciate

There
sport,

much

to be said
;

on behalf
real,

of every

branch of shooting

but for

downright, true
at

what can compare with a day

ruffed

grouse on the Jersey or Pennsylvania

hills,
I

with a

good dog and a good companion

?

have tried

them

all,

not only in this country, but in England,
Geese, ducks, quail, wood-

Scotland, and Wales.

cock, snipe, the red grouse of the Scotch moors,

pheasants, and partridges,

— each

gives one the
feel
;

pleasure which

all

keen sportsmen

but to

my

mind not one of them quite comes up to the pursuit of that most game and wily bird, the ruffed grouse. You cannot make a heavy bag of them, it is true,
but every one you do put into your pocket has a
story of
its

own

;

and when you stop to eat your

8

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

luncheon and lay several of these beauties before
you, you look at
of

them

as so

many

individual heads

game, and not as one morning's bag.

Each one

has cost you a hard tramp, and given you, and your

dog

also,

much
too,

pleasure and excitement before you
it

succeeded in laying

low.
rise,

Then,

when they

what an exhilarating
;

sound, that heavy whir of the wings

and what
a

wonderful

cleverness

they show in putting

branch, a trunk of a tree,

— between
know by

— something, anything,
!

themselves and the gun they seem to
is

instinct

pointing at them

But though

I am personally fond of shooting ruffed grouse, I am well aware that many who are as good or bet-

ter

sportsmen than myself prefer shooting
;

quail,

prairie-chicken, wild fowl, snipe, etc.

and each
its

of

these with

its

varying surroundings has

own

especial charm.

Quail shooting, like prairie-chicken shooting,
is

nothing without good ranging dogs, either
;

set-

ters or pointers

and the true sportsman takes

as
in

his

much interest in watching his dogs' work as own performance with the gun. But we are at this moment more interested
gun than the dog, and we
is

in

the

will

suppose that

the reader

about to start on a day's quail shoot-

The Shot-gun and
ing
;

its

Handling

9

and being somewhat
to

of a novice,

he wants a

few hints as

what he should do or what he
of

should not do.

Your gun should be
barrels cylinder bored
;

medium

weight, both

your

shells lightly loaded

as to powder,
of shot,

— No. 8
are

and with not more than one ounce
for choice.
in the field,

You

now

and your
be, to

first, last,

and ever present thought should
of

do noth-

ing that can by any possibility imperil the lives

your companions.

You have

in

your hand a dangerous weapon;
in

and accidents occur so quickly, and
thought-of ways, that
cautious.
I
it

such un-

is

impossible to be overif

am

not exaggerating; and

you had
times
in

been shot by careless companions as
as
I

many
and

have,
fatal,
it

and seen
do.

as

many
I

serious,

two

cases

accidents, as
I

have, you would feel

about
If

as

you are a novice with a gun, keep
on the
will
left

as

much

as possible

side of

whoever

is

with you.

Your gun

then most
it

likely

be pointing into

vacant space, as

is

usually,

when expecting

game, carried across the body, pointing to the
left;

and

if

by chance
it

it

goes off without your
will

intending that

should, you

hit

no one.

;

lo

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
the other hand,
if

On
on

you study your own
for a

safety

chiefly, or

have a novice

companion, keep

his right side.

Be most

careful, at all times,

that your

gun
it.

is

not pointing at or near any

human

being, but especially so

when

in the act

of closing

Never get over a fence without
;

taking out both shells

it

is

the only safe

way
it

and never,
muzzle.
accident.

after laying
etc.,

your gun down, resting
it

against a tree,

draw

toward you by the
fatal

This has been the cause of many a
a rule never to
is

Make

it

fire at

anything unless

you are sure that there
shoot

no person within range,

or in or near the line of the object you wish to
at.

Let any amount of game escape sooner

than run the slightest risk of blinding, maiming,
or killing a
If

human

being.
their

you see others handling or carrying
carelessly, call their attention to
will
it.

guns

This

can always be done in a way that

not give

offence; and it not only makes them and the other members of the party more careful, but will help you to be more careful yourself. Having been myself shot very seriously in both legs, when quite a boy, by a careless companion, I have always been most careful to run no risk of

1

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

ii

shooting others, and cannot blame myself in any

way
one
in

for the three

men and two boys

that

I

have

put shot into since

my own

accident, as in every

of these five instances the shot ricochetted,
off the

one instance
branches of

ground

;

in

another, off

the hinge
off

of a door; and in the other three,
trees, at

such angles as no one
that when, with every
still

would have thought
I

possible.

mention

this to

show

precaution, such accidents will

happen, the

chances of their occurrence must be enormously
increased

when

there

is

the slightest carelessness.

When
finger

carrying a loaded gun, whether you are

expecting

game

to spring or not,
until

never put your
to

on the trigger
carrying the

you put the gun

your shoulder.

When

always have the trigger

gun over your shoulder, guard upward otherwise
;

any one walking behind you
in a line with

will

have his head

your muzzle every now and then.
rises,

When game
deliberate
riedly
; ;

study to be quick, and yet

shoot quickly, and yet not over-hurall

never show yourself too greedy to get
if

the shots, even

you

feel that

way.

There
to

is

an unwritten law about leaving shots
strictly

your companion, which should always be

12

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
:

followed

this
is

is,

that a single bird rising in front

of a shooter
it,

his to shoot at until he has missed

when
If

the next

man

is

at liberty to kill
rises,

it if

he

can.

more than one bird

the shooter on

the right should shoot at the right-hand birds,

leaving the left-hand ones to the

gun on
is

his

left,

and

vice versa.

Remember
fined to the

that sport in shooting
fact of shooting at

not conkilling

mere

and

or missing your game, apart from handling or

watching others handle the dogs, and watching
the dogs themselves at their work.

There
of

is

also

what may

be termed the science
it,

woodcraft

belonging to

which no book can teach, but
will learn for himself

which every true sportsman
as speedily as possible.

This

will teach

you where game should be
times
of

found

at

different

the

day,

even on

ground you have never
flushed covey
is

visited before;

where a
though
;

likely to

have flown

to,

you have been unable

to

mark them down

it

will

make you get into ing the number of
so that you can

the instinctive habit of countbirds in a covey as they flush,

tell later

whether you have found
will save

them

all

after they

have scattered, as quail usually
;

do, after being flushed

it

your tramping

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

13

over miles of ground where the birds are not, and
tiring yourself

and your dogs for nothing

;

it

will

teach you the length of flight which each kind of

game

is

likely to take after
it

being flushed, so that
it

you can follow

up and spring

again.
of the

This naturally varies with the season
scription of

year, the nature of the ground, as well as the de-

game you

are in pursuit

of.

Thus,

for instance, a

woodcock will usually light again within one hundred yards of where it first sprung,
a ruffed grouse within three hundred, quail within,
say,

two hundred.
on
the

Ruffed grouse

will

almost

al-

ways continue
started
till

in the

same

straight line they

first

moment

of lighting, whilst the

flight of quail
tion.

and woodcock varies

in

any direc-

All varieties of game, whether winged or four-

more alarmed by a person walking straight toward them than if they are approached by a circling, sideways movement. When game is wild, and it is difficult to get
footed, are

within shot of

it,

bear this fact in mind; and,

when

your dog begins to make game,
ing him up,

in place of follow-

make a detour, circling round where you imagine the game to be, and trying to get it
between yourself and your dog.

You

will in this

14

Gims, Ammunition, and Tackle
often get a shot

way
It

where

it

would have been

hopeless otherwise.

does not often happen, except perhaps in the

case of wild-fowl shooting, that you have to stalk

your game

;

but

if

you ever have to do

so,

bear in

mind

that

nothing catches the eye of any wild

animal so quickly as the

human

eye.

And when

trying to see where the object you are in pursuit
of is located, look
if

through a fringe of grass, or

that

is

not possible, through half-closed eyelids.
early.

Don't be persuaded to go out too
will

You
and them
your

gain nothing by

it

in the

long run.

Let the

birds have their early

at eight, or better nine, o'clock,

morning feed you
lie

in peace,
will find

lying,

sunning and dusting themselves,
spot,

in their

accustomed

prepared to

well to

dogs and give you plenty
It is all

of sport.

very well for a pot-hunter,

who wants

to

shoot as
light

many

birds as he can, to be out at daytill

and work

dark, but this
all
;

is

not sport.
so

Nothing alarms
the

kinds of

game

much

as

human

voice

therefore

avoid talking, and

especially loud talking or shouting, while

you are
will

looking for game.
tion that

Carry a whistle in such a posiat
it

you can get

quickly.

This

not
as

alarm

game

to anything like the

same extent

The Shot-gun and
the voice.
It is

its

Handling

15

a good plan to arrange with your

companions a
meaning,
"
" I

series of simple calls,
"

such as one

sharp whistle, meaning,

Where
"
;

are

you

?

"

two^

am coming to you three, meaning, Come to me." As to dress, be sure that you wear wool next

your skin, from your neck downward,

light according to the season of the year,

— heavy or — unless
much
as a

you wish

later

on

to suffer

from malaria or rheu-

matism, or both.

Nothing

spoils a

man's sport so
;

chafed or blistered heel

therefore be careful that
be,
fit

your socks or stockings, as the case may
well

and are not so loose as
of

to

rumple up

in folds,

and yet are

proper thickness to guard the feet
in the

from any slight unevenness

boot or shoe,
soles

which must also be well
inequalities of the ground,

fitting,

and have

sufficiently thick to prevent

your

feet feeling the

and so getting bruised.
as sold

Canvas shooting-clothes,
goods
they resist thorns,
plenty;

by

all

sporting-

dealers, are the best for outside

wear, as

of

which you

will

come

across

and the prickly burrs, which
on
all

in several

varieties flourish
will not

ground that quail frequent,
will to

adhere to them as they
garment.

any kind

of cloth

1

6

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

Your hat should have
eyes
it is

a wide brim, so that the

may

be shaded from the sun, especially

when

getting low as the afternoon progresses.
is

In shooting, eyesight
tle
;

more than
this

half the bat-

and
to

if

a man's eyes are defective, he cannot
if

hope

shoot as well as

were not the

case.

He

can probably improve matters very
;

much by
in

wearing glasses

and a man soon becomes accusand except
wet

tomed

to shooting in them,
is

weather

not handicapped by their use to any
If

great extent.

the

left

eye

than the right, the only real
properly adjusted glasses.
Several

more powerful remedy is a pair of
is

mechanical

contrivances

have been

made which were

affixed to the barrels
this defect,

and were

supposed to remedy

but none of them

have proved successful.
If

a man, however, shoots with both eyes wide
to aim, but fires in-

open and does not attempt
stinctively as

soon as he throws the gun to his

shoulder, he will find that, despite the inequality
in the sight of his

two

eyes,

he yet points his gun

at the right spot.

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

17

English and American Shooting Compared

A

comparison between American and English

shooting will perhaps be interesting to

many who
difference

know
it is

only the one or the other.
is,

The

between the two sports
hard to

however, so great that
to begin.

know

just

where

I

have had exceptional opportunities for enjoyall

ing sport in both countries, having shot

over

England and Scotland, as well as having had a long and extended experience of all forms of AmerIn England shooting may be ican shooting.
divided practically under three heads,

— grouse
much
hares

shooting, partridge shooting, and pheasant shooting.

There

is

a

little

wild-fowl shooting, chiefly

around the

coast,

but

it

does not amount to
is

compared with what there
snipe,

in

America; while

and rabbits — come
ing the

woodcock, and ground-game

i.e.

— ptarmigan, pigeons, — which
game,
all

in as incidentals when shootgame mentioned under one of the three above heads. The same may be said of black

plover, curlew,

and wood-

of

are

occasionally

met

with,

and help

to vary the day's bag.

The open season on grouse commences on the 12th of August, and closes on December loth.

1

8

GiLUs,

Ammunition, and Tackle
to be

Grouse are only

found on the moors,

—that

is,

— or

on uncultivated land covered with heather or

fern,

in cultivated fields adjoining these moors.
bit of land

Every

on which grouse are found, as
preserved and guarded, and

well as practically every bit of land throughout

the country,

is

strictly

poachers, as a very general rule, meet with prompt

and condign punishment.
of

in
of

Most of the moors in Scotland and in the north England are rented, and a stipulation is made each lease that only a certain specified number
grouse can be killed during the season by the

lessee.

The amount

paid as rental for a

moor

varies according to different localities

and their

proximity to or distance from railroads or steamship

communication.
lodge

The

rental

usually

in-

cludes the use of a shooting-box (termed, as a
rule, "
")

of very varying size

and comfort,
usual to
sterling

also of

dogs and keepers, according to the extent
In fixing this rental
it

of the moor.

is

estimate

its

value at the rate of one

pound
"

(about five dollars) for each brace of grouse allowed
to be killed
killed,"

on the moor.
it

I

say

allowed to be
that

because

frequently happens

the

lessee finds himself entirely unable to kill even

one-half of the allowed number, because the birds

The Shot-gun and
are not there.
letting

its

Handling

19

There

is
is

as

much roguery about
;

moors as there
the

about selHng horses, and
only a

the agent's word should never be taken
visit to

moor

itself,

or

reliable
it

information

obtained on the spot, will
that

make

safe to

assume

you are probably going

to get the value of

your money.

On

the other hand, occasionally moors are to

be obtained where
stock
left for

many more

than the stipulated

quantity of birds could be shot, and yet a sufficient
the next season's breeding.
I

re-

member
It

one such moor in the wilds of Ross-shire.
its

had never before been leased by
invited

owner.

I

was

by the gentleman, an Englishman, who
it

had been fortunate enough to secure
season, to

for that

make one

of a party of six

guns

to

go

up and shoot on the opening and eight following Sunday intervening. The rental paid in this instance was one thousand pounds, equal to
days, one

about

five

thousand

dollars.

We

found a

large,

roomy, well-furnished, old-fashioned Scotch shooting-box, with ample

accommodation
ladies,

for our party,

which included several
ers themselves, but

who were

not shoot-

who used

to join us in a

sump-

tuous champagne lunch, with pate de foie gras

and

all

the delicacies of the season, at

some cosey

20

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

nook on the moor beside a brawling trout stream, of which there were several full of speckled beauWe went out daily in two separate parties^ ties. starting about 9 a.m., and getting back to the
lodge before dark, three guns in each party, and

working

in

entirely

different

directions,

each
his

shooter having a loader with

him carrying

second gun, ready to hand him whenever wanted,

and two brace

of

dogs accompanying each party,

as well as keepers, gillies,

and ponies

to carry out

the luncheon and spare ammunition and to take

home

the game.

The bag each day was
of grouse.

usually

from 150 to 200 brace
plentiful,

Hares were

but not considered worth shooting, as
is

the

Scotch mountain hare

very poor meat,

being dry and stringy.

The
ful for

scenery was magnificent and cover plentithe birds, but for

some reason the scent

was very bad or our bags would have been
larger.

much

At

the end of our stay the head keeper told us

that there

was good ground
really
of

left

that

we had not
to

been upon, and we
sened the

seemed not

have

lesall.

number

grouse on that moor at

In some parts of Scotland, and especially in the

north of England, where grouse are most plentiful,

The Sbot-gtm and
it

its

Handling

21

is

useless

to try

and shoot them over dogs.
rise far

They

are as difficult to get at as prairie-chickens

after they

have packed, and

out of shot.

On

these

moors, therefore, the only way in
is

which grouse are ever shot
over the shooters' heads.

by driving the birds
at the begin-

There are other moors
dogs only

where grouse
or leave

will lie to

ning of the season.

Later you must drive them,

On

them alone. some moors the sportsmen only
to dogs, for
all

drive the

birds, preferring that

kind of shooting to walking

and shooting
driven grouse

any one
:

of the following

three reasons or for
is

three

ist.

That shooting
than shoota

much more
2d.

difficult
if

ing them over dogs.
spare

That

man
kill

cannot

much

time for shooting, he can

more

in

two days' driving than he could
shooting over dogs.

in several days'

3d. That walking up grouse is, even on the easiest moors, hard work, and on some rough, hilly moors very hard work indeed


is

sometimes a blazing sun, sometimes wet to the
skin, almost always with feet

wet when you come
frequently.

to a

boggy

part,

which

is

This

work

that an elderly or a stout or a sickly

man

does not care to encounter; whereas, in driving,

he can ride a pony to the spot where he takes his

22
stand,

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
and
here, until the drive is over,
feet,
;

he can keep
sit

well

wrapped up and have dry
all

and even

down
spoil

the time

if

so inclined

and he does not

any other person's
if

sport, as

would be the

case

he were lagging behind and keeping the
stiff bit of

party waiting on a

ground.

On

the

first

of

September partridge shooting
almost entirely confined to
all

commences.
Grouse shooting
daily laborer,
is

the wealthier classes, but

classes except the
to fire a of

who can never afford
in

a country
as

where the agricultural rate
it is

gun in wages is
all

low

as

England, try to have a few days'
is

partridge shooting, and great

the banging

over the country on the

first

of September.

The weather

is

then usually hot, and the broods

of partridges are easily driven,

even

if

they have

not already gone there of their

own accord, to fields
chiefly fields

where there
cover from

is

not only shade from the sun but also
enemies.

all

These are

of root crops,
carrots,

such as turnips, mangel-wurzel, or
for cattle

which are grown as food

and

sheep during the winter.
casionally at the

Of course there

are oc-

commencement
and there
of

of the shooting

season, especially in the northern parts of Great
Britain, fields here

grain,

such as

The Shot-gun and
wheat, oats, and barley,
still

its

Handling

23

uncut.

This happens

when

the

summer

has been wet and cold and the

grain late in ripening, for
that the cereals

grown

in

must be remembered England and in Scotland
it

do not ripen with the

same

rapidity that they do

in this country, but of course

one would not think

of following partridges into standing wheat, barley,

or oats.

Times

in

England are hard enough
having their crops trodden

for the farmers without

down

by shooters and their attendants.
I

When

was a boy partridge shooting was as
from what
it is

different as possible

now.

In those

days the scythe was used on
ing the stubble on the
field

all

cereal crops, leavafford-

knee high, and
of
all sorts.

ing splendid cover for
setters or pointers
of;

game

Then

were always kept and made use

now

very seldom indeed.

The

reaping ma-

chines introduced in late years leave the stubble
fields as

bare as a lawn.
it

These must be walked
that the birds get their

over, for

is

in

them

food, grain that

is left

on the ground and young
are

clover forming quite a proportion of the partridge's
diet.

While the birds
another
sort.

on such stubble one
have been driven to

rarely gets a shot until they

cover of

Occasionally beaters are

sent out to walk the stubbles and drive the birds

24

Guns, Ammtmitiaii, and Tackle

to cover before the shooting party arrives, but the
rule
is

that the entire party do this
is

work themselves.
it

Partridge driving

day by day growing more
is

the custom, but where this

done
all

is

rare for

the partridges to be disturbed at

until well

on

in October, when all the latest broods are full grown and strong on the wing. The other way of shooting them is to form a
line as

you go into each

field,

with intervals be-

tween the shooters, loaders with second guns

(when they are used), and the keepers with
trievers following close behind.

re-

This

line

never

stops until the field
their assistants,

is

worked

out, keepers

and
as

both biped and quadruped, markfalls

ing where each bird

and picking

it

up

the line passes the spot.
either takes his other

As each man

shoots he

a pause or reloads
place in the
of
it

gun from his loader without as he moves on, keeping his
line is

line.

This

under the direction
like a regi-

one man, usually the head keeper, who wheels
first

one way and then the other,
each part

ment

of soldiers, so that
is

of the field

they

are then in

walked over and the birds put up.
pointers and setters
is

The use

of

in

English
to wilder

shooting of to-day
parts of the country

chiefly confined
is

where there

rough shoot-

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

25

ing and where the coveys of birds are few and far

between.

On the
mences

first of

October pheasant shooting comleaf

legally,

and from then on pheasants can
has

always be found in the market, but as the
not then begun to
their full
fall

and the birds have not got

growth and plumage, few people allow

them

to be shot or care to shoot

them
is

until later

in the year

when

the leaf

is off.

Pheasant shooting nowadays

all

driving.

The
and
is

guns,

who may number
end
of the

anything, from four

to eight as a rule, are placed forward at both sides
at the

to be beaten.

A

wood or piece of wood which small army of men, each fur-

nished with a good ash stick with which to tap

on the

trees in order to

make

a noise and on the

brambles and bushes

in order to drive

out the

game crouching under them, advance
line

in a regular

toward the shooters, driving everything bethem.

fore

Everything here

means

first

and

foremost pheasants, then hares, rabbits, and an
occasional woodcock.

The

majority of the pheasants prefer running
of the line of beaters
till

on ahead

they realize
usually

that they can get

no

farther,

when they

rush wildly about, getting more and more alarmed

26

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
till

each moment,
forces

the near approach of the beaters

them

to rise,

when they dash

out in a head-

long
as

flight,

twisting and rising high, or rocketing,

it is

called, in their

endeavor to avoid the guns
shooting than the

below, and giving

much harder

same

birds

would have furnished had they been

put up by dogs or walked up quietly by a few persons going through the cover.

Of course they do
again an occa-

not

all

run forward, but

now and
will

sional bird rises
of the beaters.

and seeks safety and quiet ahead
Pheasants

seldom

fly

back

if

the line
I

is

well kept.
I

think
of

am

right in saying that the greater

number

pheasants shot in England have been

reared by hand.

To

the uninitiated, this would

imply that these so-called tame birds would differ
materially from those hatched out

and brought

up by the hen pheasant shows this not to be the
clever

herself,

but experience
ever detect any

case,

and he would be a

man

indeed

who could

difference, either in appearance or in the flight,

when once
hand-reared

well

on the wing, of the wild or

birds.

As

the

guns

are

always

placed some distance from the cover, no birds are

consequently shot at until they are well on the
wing.

The Shot-gun and
Pheasants are so loath to
pelled to

its

Handling

27

fly

unless they are comto

do

so,

and are so prone

running from
it

one part of the cover to another, that
ally necessary, especially in large

is

usu-

woods, to have

a

number

of

boys stand in line at the sides to

head

off these

running

birds,

and thus keep them

in front of the line of beaters.

These boys have
until the

a pair of sticks, one in each hand, which they

keep tapping together the whole time,
drive
is

over.
is

The

technical term for boys

so

employed

"stops."
it

There are many reasons why
bring up pheasants by hand,
i.e.

is

necessary to

to place the

eggs

them run with their foster mothers until they are fully grown and can fend for themselves. These are, first, that you could never get what is nowadays called
under hens, and afterward to
let

a properly stocked covert from wild reared birds

alone

;

they would stray away elsewhere, to seek

some spot for their nest where they had not so much company in the shape of others of their

own

kind.

Secondly, pheasants are very fond of
etc.,

nesting in a growing crop of grass, clover,

which would have
birds

to

be cut before the young
nests,

were out of the

and numberless

eggs

and chicks

would be destroyed by the

28

Guns, Ammmiition, and Tackle
Thirdly, the pheasant appears

mowing machine.
to take pleasure in

making her nest near a
is

foot-

path or road, or wherever she
to be disturbed

most

likely

and driven

off,

or to have the

eggs
etc.

carried

off

by poachers, children, dogs,
usual on estates to have

For these reasons
as soon as they find

it is

keepers and helpers on the lookout for nests, who,

one with
the
sit,

its

complement

of

eggs, take

the latter to

hennery, where a
are kept in stock

supply of hens, anxious to

for the purpose of hatching the pheasant eggs.

pound represents the cost of a pheasant to the owner of an estate, by the time it is shot, where there is strict
It is

commonly estimated

that one

preserving

;

this includes rearing, feeding, watchall

ing night and day, and

the incidental expenses

connected with the keeping up of a good head of

game on

the property.
is

No

bird

so easy to poach as a pheasant.

He
to

roosts at night, not very high,
choice,

on a larch

tree for

and the cock
to

birds,

when ascending

roost, proclaim

the whole
just

neighborhood, in

most unmistakable terms,
their hens can be found.

where they and

A

number

roost

on

the

same

tree,

like

barn-door fowl, where, on

The Shot-gun and
anything but a dark night,

its

Handling

29

it

is

easy to see their

large bodies outlined against the sky.

What
America.

a different state of things

prevails
to

in

When

you

feel

inclined

go out

shooting, you do not have to take out a license,

and you do not need to wait
asks you to

until

make one

of his party,

some friend and that prob-

ably for one day only.

You

are not limited to

shooting in just this or that one spot, but can
take your choice, and go north, south, east, or
west, as fancy or the prospect of

game tempts
it

you.
that

There

is

a delightful freedom about

all

immensely increases the enjoyment.
of that sort of

Then,
all

perhaps, also you are camping out, with

the

charms

life.

You do

not have to study your dress very par-

ticularly, as

long as

it

is

workmanlike and

fit

for

the season of the year, and no one will criticise

what you have
shooting at

on, especially

if

it

looks as

if

it

already had done good service.

Again, you are

game

that has

all

the

charm

of

being

absolutely wild, not brought

up

in

coops and fed

by hand

;

not counted
if

over every day by the

keeper to see

any tom-cat or fox prowling
of

round has made a meal
are free to shoot

some

of

them.

Others

them

as well as yourself,

and

-30

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

you have the incentive of wishing to get your
share.

You may,

if

you do not know the ground

well,

perhaps take a guide with you, but you can do as

you choose, whereas in England you must do as you are told. There you do not handle your own
dogs; you do
is

not, usually,

where there

is

what

called "
it,

carry

good shooting," load your own gun, or except when you expect a shot. You pay
else to

some one

do

all

this for you, and, unless

you are on your own property, you have no choice,
but must do as the others do.
it

Even

as to dress,

must not be too much worn, or too much soiled, but you must appear very much as you would if
going into
ladies' society at a golf

club.

And

who

ever heard, in England, of having a shoot-

ing-coat with pockets for carrying your game.

All shooting has a charm about

it

to a sports-

man, and

I

am

not saying that
of

I

have not had the
a day in
it

keenest enjoyment out

many

England
is

with the gun, but to

my mind

does not, and

never has, compared with shooting where there

nothing
please
like;
;

artificial,

and where you can do as you

begin when you like, leave off when you go where you like, and eat when you feel inclined; carry your own gun, load it yourself,

Tbe Shot-gun and
and be content
dogs, and
to use

its

Handling

31

one only; own your own

work them yourself, and carry your own game, as done in America.
It

seems

to

me

that in the one case a

man

is

a

game shot only. I have been comparing game shooting as it exists to-day in America with game shooting in England, and trying to show why an American
sportsman, and in the other, a

ought

to be a better shot than

an Englishman,
it

and have given several reasons why
so.

should be

But so

far

I

have said nothing
consider

of the differ-

ence between the flight of English and American

game, and
in the case.

in this

I

lies

one great factor

There

is

no game bird
kill

in

England

that

is

nearly as difficult to

as the ruffed grouse of
at all shot at

America, where that bird has been

and has learned to distrust the

man

with a gun.

This

is

especially true where, as in

New

Jersey

and Pennsylvania, these birds are chiefly found

on rocky
which
is

hills

covered with timber, and on ground

constantly overrun by rabbit hunters, for

the ruffed grouse and the rabbit love the same

ground.
Neither
land which
is

there, to

my

mind, any bird in Engkill

is

as difficult to

as the

American

32
quail.

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle These are the birds which teach a man shoot, and if he can shoot them well, he
of

how

to

need not be afraid

any other kind

of

game.

English snipe, as they are called in America, are
not easy shooting, except in places where they are

very tame.

They

are to be found in
in

much

greater

numbers here than

England, therefore an Amer-

ican shooter can have

Duck
tries,

shootinsf

is

much more practice at them. much the same in both counin

the flight of the bird being practically the
in

same

England

as

America, but of course

they are to be found in this country in
greater quantities than in England.

much The English
ducks
skill

do not do anything in the way
to the utmost, especially

of shooting

over decoys, a sport which tests the shooter's
if

he

is

lying

down

in a

sink box or battery, and has to raise himself to a
sitting posture before

he can shoot.

What may

prevent a

Man

Really Good Shot

Gun

— Ammunition,
there

— Selection
etc.

from becoming a
of

So much has been written about guns and
shooting, especially of late years, that
it

would

almost seem as

if

was nothing

fresh to be

The Shot-gun and
said

its

Handling

33

on the

subject.
is

Yet hardly a day passes
first

when shooting

going on and several shooters
one point

are together that one does not hear

and then another discussed, with no one, perhaps,
appearing to have any very definite idea as to the
true

answer to the question which has been
is

raised.

This

especially the case with regard to the

reasons for the misses, which even with the very
best shots will occur

now and

then,

and

it

is

a

question of such great interest to

all

shooters,
I

from the very worst

to the very best, that

propose
misses

to point out the chief reasons

why

a

man

and how he may cure the weakness.

A
may

moment's thought

will

show

that the fault

either lie with the shooter himself, with his

gun, or with his ammunition.
First,

as to the shooter's

own

possible fault.

Much depends upon
when
the whole

a man's attitude and balance

in the act of shooting.

As

far as possible

body should be

flexible

and evenly

bal-

anced, from the sole of the foot to the crown of the
head.

Of course a man out

after

game cannot
will

always choose the
called

moment

at

which he

be

upon

to shoot,

and therefore cannot always
But very often
in a blind waiting for

have his body

in the best position.

he can, as when standing

34

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
or

wild-fowl,

when waiting

for

game

to

flush

which

his

dogs have pointed.

Nothing

will so

quickly show the necessity for acquiring the right

way

of holding the

body when

in the act of shoot-

ing than shooting at some clay pigeons or targets,

thrown from a
neither
the direction
into view.
to

set of traps in

such a way that you
is

know where the
it is

target

coming from nor
it

going

to take until

springs

This

is

one way target-shooting helps
shot.

make

a good

game

in

Having got the right position, study to shoot good time, neither too fast nor too slow. Be

ready to snap as quick as lightning at a bird rising
wild or in thick cover where only a

momentary
is

glimpse can be had of the object, but, on the other
hand, never shoot too quickly at an object that
so close to you that your shot has not time to
spread.

Keep

the head well up and both eyes
all

open, so that you can see
get in a

that

is

going on and

good and quick second barrel if necessity requires. Keeping the head down low or shutting
of

one eye are both faults

which no

really

good

game shot is ever The position of
also be studied.

guilty.

the hands

when shooting should
firm, the

The

grasp of the stock with the

right

hand should be very

thumb

well

The Shot-gtm and
over the grip.

its

Handling

35

hand guides the gun more than most shooters are aware of, and if not
right
firmly grasping the grip,
erly.
is is

The

not able to do so propthe

A

loose grip also

common

cause of
prolific

flinching, that

most uncomfortable but

cause of misses.

Another reason
is

for the very firm

grasp with the right hand

that then both hands

take a great deal of the recoil off the shoulder, and

may
The

prevent a sore shoulder at the end of a hard

day's shooting, or a sore middle or index finger.
left

hand should not be extended too

far,

or

the shooter will find himself handicapped

when

aiming

at

an object coming quickly toward him.
if

On

the other hand,

held too far back, he will be

less likely to hit

an object going away from him

or crossing.

Some men depend
the

entirely

upon the swing

of

gun when shooting

at crossing birds, whilst

others depend altogether too

much upon judging

the correct distance to lead them, whereas the

very best shots combine both swing and lead.

The heel
the

of the stock

must rest squarely against

same

part of the shoulder every time, or regular
is

shooting

impossible.

When
is

in the act of firing

his gun, the shooter has
rib to see that his

no time

to look

eye

aligned truly

down the down the

36
centre.

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
If it is not,

and he
is

is,

as

it

were, looking
If

across the
is

rib,

a miss

sure to follow.

your gun
a

thrown to your shoulder so that you are pointstraight
at a stationary object, or
at the
if

ing

it

is

moving one
and yet
you
way,
if

proper point to be intercepted,
is

your eye
rib,

not looking truly

down

the
it,

centre of the

but from the right side of

will surely

shoot too

much

to the right;

if

the contrary, too
if

much
is

to the

left.

In the

same

the

stock

low on the shoulder one
first

time and high up another, in the

instance

your shot
in the

will strike

higher than

is

intended, and

second lower.
will watch,

A
and
if

good shot

every time he

fires,

whether he has centred the object he
not, will note

fires at;

whether he

hit

it

too far back,

too far forward, too high, or too low, and will try
to correct his fault next time.

A

poor shot, so

long as he brings his game to bag, thinks nothing
of

such fine points as
is still

this,

and so next time, permark, and misses

haps,
it

a

little

more

off his

altogether.
I

now come

to the faults in the

gun

itself,

which

may
kill

prevent good shooting.
shot can take any kind of a

Any good

gun and
shoots at

a certain percentage of the

game he

The Shot-gun and
with
it,

its

Handling

37

but to be sure of doing himself justice, a

good shot requires a
other words, a
his shoulder, at

gun which suits him gun which, when he throws
;

or, in
it

to

once points where he wants

it to,

without any apparent aiming on his part.

The
in

shooter has enough to do in measuring in his

mind's eye the required elevation, lead, and,

case of a high wind, allowance for drift of shot, to

be occupied also in looking along the barrels to
see
if

the alignment of the

gun
if

is

correct.

It

therefore follows, that
if

the

gun

is

not well

balanced,
straight
;

the

stock

is

too

crooked or too

too
;

much
it

cast off or on, or not
;

enough

of either

too long or too short
rests against the
;

too thin or too

thick where
too
or

cheek

;

the heel

much

sloped

the grip too large or too small

gun is not the kind that suits him, and there is more difference in ribs than most shooters have any idea of, some are flush with the barrels, some are sunk, some are hollow, some are flat, some have a dip in the middle, and
if

the rib on the

others run true with the barrels from breech to

muzzle,
if

some
is

are plain, and

some checkered

;

or

the sight

not just right, too large or too small;

or in the case of the boring of the gun,

making

the pattern too close, or the reverse (depending

38

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle

upon what kind of shooting the gun is required for); or if the gun is badly bored, so that you get
a very close pattern one time, and a very open one
another, or a stringing pattern,
i.e.

some
of)

of the
;

charge reaching the mark before the
(and here
is

rest
if

or

a point few shooters

know
if

the

striker, or firing-pin, is too short; or

the main-

spring

is

weak, so

that,

although your gun does

not actually miss
is

fire,

yet the ignition of the primer

not

full

and instantaneous, and the
hang-fire,

weak shot or
will

— any one

result a slow,

of these causes

be sufficient to affect your shooting to a

greater or less degree.

But over and above
is

all

these, in

my

estimation,

the pull-off of your trigger.

heavy,

some a

light,

Some men like a and some a medium pull-off.
at

No

one can shoot

really well with a pull-off that

does not suit him, and that does not answer

once to the finger in place
is

of

having a drag, which
its

quite a different thing to

being too heavy.

Also remember that the
harder,

pull-off of all

guns

will

vary from use, some growing lighter and some

and

it

is

very necessary, occasionally, to
if

have the

pull-off tested to see

it

has changed.

The
less

pull-off of the

second barrel should never be
it

than four pounds, or

may

at

any time

jar

The Shot-gun and
off

its

Handling

39

when

the

first

barrel

is fired,

but three pounds

is sufficient for the first barrel for

most people.
it

In speaking of a

gun being

well balanced,

same balance will suit every shooter, and a man must find out for himself just what suits him best. Much depends on the way in which he holds his gun,
must not be taken
for granted that the

especially with regard to the position of the left

hand.

The weight

of the

gun and the shape
it is

of

the fore end also affect the question of balance,
and, to

my way

of thinking,

one

of the hard-

est points to determine in
this,

choosing a gun.
it

In

as in
off

most other matters,
the happy medium.

is

best, usually,

to hit

gun that is muzzle heavy will be very likely to make you shoot low on birds, but at the same time it steadies your swing when shooting at game moving fast to right or left, therefore use a gun which
is

A

neither too light nor too heavy in the muzzle.

As
it

to the

bend

of stock,

if it is
;

too

much bent
it

will

will

make you make you

shoot too low

if

not enough,

shoot too high.

Therefore, in

choosing the bend of your stock, you must bear
these two points in mind, and, as in other cases,
hit off the

that

it is

better to have a

happy medium, remembering, however, gun too straight rather

;

40

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
;

than too crooked

for

it is

far easier

when

in the
it,

act of firing to depress a

gun than
is

to raise

and

nine-tenths of the
shot.

game missed

under, not over,

The
i.e.

question of too
it

much

"

cast off," as

it

is

usually called, or, as

should be called, "cast on,"

the heel of

the stock being slightly thrown
of the

outward from the body, so that the breech

gun comes nearer
very vexed one for
of shooters, in this

in

under the
a year.

eye, has

been a

many

The tendency

country especially, seems to be

toward using a gun without any "cast off" or
"cast on," but perfectly straight from centre of
heel and toe of butt to centre of rib at muzzle

and

I

believe

it

is

the best plan, and for a long
all

time past have had

my

guns

built in that way,

and have shot better
If

in consequence.
it

the stock

is

too long,

will

hamper you

in

throwing the gun to your shoulder quickly and
unexpectedly, a thing which in

game shooting
is

must frequently occur, and a long stock
able for snap shooting, shooting in a
sition, or at
is

unsuit-

cramped poIf
it

an object coming toward you.
it

too short,

will

not

come

into the
it

same spot
If

in

your shoulder each time as
thin,

should do.

too

and

I

think stocks are usually

made

too thin,

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

41

on the side next the cheek, you are handicapped

by not having that proper
which
likely
is

rest for

your cheek
If

a great assistance in shooting.
is

the

heel of the stock

too
slip

sometimes to

much sloped, the gun is down from the shoulder
and prevent your put-

after firing the first barrel

ting in a

good second.

As much
one.

to the grip of the stock,

better with a larger

some men shoot and some with a smaller
I

The

smaller one gives the handsomest look

to the stock, but is

more

liable to get broken.

have seen the stock of a gun, more than once in

my

experience, break off at the grip only from the

recoil of the

gun when

fired.

A

small grip, howin a light

ever, suits

most people, especially
for

gun

and when intended

game shooting

or any-

where that quick snap-shots are expected.
Just what sort of rib suits a

hard to say.

I

man best is very have seldom met a man who exknow
else,

pressed any great preference for one pattern or

another; but

I

that as regards

my own
it

shooting the rib will have more to do with

than

almost anything

and
it

I

believe this to be the

case very often, only

is

not a point that has
of guns,

been taken up much by handlers

and

when they

find they cannot shoot well with this

;

42

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

or that gun, they attribute the fault to almost

anything except the

rib.

No good

shot, so far as

he knows, either closes one eye or looks along the

and theoretically as regards or that rib should make no kind
rib,

his shooting this
of difference.
it
I

say theoretically, but practically

does, as

I

have

proved to myself and others beyond any doubt.

Some

ribs

when you look along them, aiming
at

in cold blood

a stationary object, appear to
voleiis

keep your eye nolens

along the very centre

between the two

barrels, whilst others

appear to

do the very reverse.

gun makes. Nothing is more absurd than to go into the field for all-round field-shooting with a gun which is full
as to the pattern your

Now

choked

in

both barrels.

The

best shot in the

world could not make good shooting with such a gun at any game which, as in the case of quail and woodcock especially, has usually to be shot
at distances varying

from

fifteen to thirty
it.

yards

yet

many men
full

try to

do

Even

if

the

gun

is
it

not

choked, yet with one so bored that
close pattern at forty yards,
it is
if

makes a
is
fit

the

game
it

killed

terribly

mangled, and some of

not

for use.

A

game gun

for all ordinary shooting

and with

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

43

an ordinary game load should

at thirty yards scat-

ter the shot equally all over a thirty-inch circle,

leaving no space where a bird as large as a quail

could have escaped.
a
close

But that same gun
wild.
it

is

not

enough shooter
these are at

for wild-fowl or ruffed
all

grouse when
In testing a

gun

to see

what pattern

makes,

do not be
a

satisfied

with firing a few shots with
It

one sized shot

only.

frequently happens that

gun will pattern well with, say. No. 7 shot, and will make a most indifferent one with a size larger A well-bored gun should pattern or smaller.
well

and evenly with

all

sizes of shot.

It is also

common

to find a

gun which

will per-

haps make

several very nice, evenly distributed

patterns in succession, and the next time give

such an open or patchy one that no matter
straight
it

how

was pointed the object shot
left

at

would

very likely escape through the gaps
the pellets.

between
scientific

As

far as

I

know, no exhaustive and

experiments have ever been carried out with a

view of showing why one gun or one load
string the charge of shot so

will

much more than

another.

Mr.

Griffith,

in

England, carried out experi-

44

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
this point
I

ments to elucidate
broke
trials,

some years

ago, on a

circular revolving plate, but

believe his apparatus

down
and
I

before he had gone very far in his

have never heard

of their

being

re-

peated

by any
that there

one

else.

These
to a

experiments

showed

was stringing

much

greater

extent than was generally supposed, but failed to

prove the cause or discover a remedy.

That some guns do throw the charge
or a very large percentage of
it,

of shot,

so that at forty

yards the greater

number

of pellets reach the ob-

ject fired at simultaneously, whilst others

send a
in

few

pellets in
less
;

advance and the

rest

come

a

more or
doubted

lengthy string behind, cannot be

also that certain shells will act in the
fired

same way, even when
different

from a gun which, with
this stringing to

ammunition, reduced

a

minimum.

You may

test

your gun for pattern at a fixed
is

metal target, and the result

most

satisfactory:

the pellets are evenly distributed, and on counting

them you

find the percentage of

those in the
;

thirty-inch circle all that

you can wish

but on

close examination

you

will see that a

good many

of these pellets have not struck nearly as hard as

the others, this being

shown by

the larger splash

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

45

made by some
still farther,

;

and

if

you carry your examination
find evidence

you

will

that only a
first,

moderate percentage struck the target
that

and

the

remainder

came up

in

an

extended

string.

This means that the

first pellets

had the

most velocity (and therefore penetration), whilst
the rest had less velocity and less penetration,

and yet these had
analyzed

all

made

their

mark on the
But
it

tar-

get and produced the pattern which until you
it

looked so satisfactory.

also

means that if you were firing at a very rapidly moving object, that object would only have been struck by the few pellets that came first, which
might have been altogether
outright.
insufficient to kill
it

The moral

of this

is,

beware of a gun or load
of shot.

which strings the charge

Another bad feature
is

in a

gun or a

load,

which
sev-

very often present,

is

the shot balling,

i.e.

eral shot,

perhaps three or four, or perhaps thirty
passing up the

or forty in bad cases, are driven together into one
solid

mass whilst the charge

is

barrel.

Not only does such a mass of shot travel faster than the individual pellets composing the charge,
but
it is

probable that these masses are formed by

46

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

the shot in the rear, and therefore as the whole

charge emerges from the muzzle these balled shot
pass through, knocking other pellets right and

and producing a patchy pattern and perhaps causing you to miss what you have shot at.
left,

These balled shot
countable accidents.

travel very long

distances

and have been the cause of many so-called unac-

A

shooter should always
is

uncommon occurrence, and never fire in the direction of human beings, buildings, etc., although such may be well
bear in mind that balling
not of

beyond the range

of ordinary shot.

A
bly.

case occurred at the
ago,

Gun

Club, London,
this

some years

which exemplified

very

forci-

The ground is surrounded by an eight-foot fence or wall made of slabs of concrete, with no openings in front of the traps. The wall is eighty yards from the traps. The adjoining field is used
as a cricket ground,
field at least thirty

and a lad standing

in that

yards from the wall had one of

his eyes shot out

by what must have been a balled

shot fired in the club grounds.

The boy

could

not have been less than one hundred and thirty

yards from the shooter, and perhaps a good deal

more.

Experiments have shown that

this balling

may

The Shot-gim and

its

Handling

47

be caused either by the shoulder of the shell

chamber being too abrupt, or by very hard wadding, or lastly by powder which ignited too rapidly and caused the charge of shot to move up the
barrel too rapidly.

Any
may
all

one

of these

may

cause balling, and they

balling

same time, in which case the would become excessive.
exist at the

Mr.

W. W.

Greener, the well-known English
"

gun-maker, in his book on
at

Modern Shotguns,"

page

79, says,

"

Occasional bad patterns or

patchy patterns prove the gun to be improperly
bored."

Mr. Greener being himself a practical

gun-maker, should

know

better than

most people
I

whether

this

is

the case or not.

Yet

cannot
I

agree with him altogether in this statement, for

have often seen a gun make such patterns from
faulty

ammunition

alone,

where the blame could

not be laid on the gun.

Ammunition
I

will

now

pass on to the defects which
in

may be

and often are found

ammunition, and which

when they
lar

exist

may be

as fatal to

good and regu-

shooting as any fault in the shooter himself or

in his gun.

48

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

The
the

length of the shell used should always
of the
;

fit

chamber

inch shell used in

gun a two and three-quarters a gun only bored for a two
the usual length for

and five-eighths
shooting,

shell,

game
is

may
if

give very irregular shooting, and

more so
not,
I

a

still

longer shell

is

used.

This

however, always found to be the case, and

have come across some guns which would pat-

tern better with a longer case than the

chamber

was bored
If

to receive.

too

much

pressure has been put upon the
loading, a greater degree of lateral
;

powder during
port,

pressure will be set up

there will be a louder re-

more

recoil, less penetration,

and irregular

patterns.

The proper amount

of pressure varies
;

with different makes of powder
rule the

but as a general

that

if

the

powder should be slightly compressed, so wadding is removed and the shell held
till

upside down, no powder will run out

it

has

been gently disturbed with a penknife or something of that sort; at the same time
it

should not

be necessary to dig the powder out, and none of
the grains should be broken.
If,

on the other
all,

hand, the powder

is

not compressed at

but

is

loose in the shell, slow and imperfect ignition will
follow, with great loss of penetration.

With

nitro

The Shot-gun and
powders, as
called, since
all

its

Handling

49

the powders of the present day are
its

black powder went out, killed by

own

noise

and smoke, much depends on the wad-

The amount of wadding is not of so much consequence as that it should fit very tightly
ding used.
into the shell
first

and the

barrel of the

gun

after-

ward.
as

One
his

of the best shots in the world, as well

one
all

of the

most

practical shooters

I

ever met,

has

ammunition loaded with
all

at least

one

ten-bore wad, though his guns are
It is,

twelve-bore.

however, extremely difHcult to press
is

down

a

wadding which
shell

so

many

sizes larger than the
it tilt

without a risk of having
is

at

one side or

the other, which

sure to give ragged patterns,

or of bulging the case, which

makes

it

difficult to

gun or extract it after firing. I never use a larger wad than eleven, and consider eleven and a half quite large enough for all
get the shell into the
practical purposes.

Some
"

people like a thick, hard wad, like the
"
;

Express

but

I

have seen so many guns bulged
of

at the

muzzle by the use
it
;

such wadding, that
is

I

would never use
of the

and there

also a

danger
of the

heavy, hard

wad

deflecting

much

charge of shot, producing bad pattern.

All hard

wadding

is

likely to

produce poor pattern, and

50
that

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
If

means poor shooting in the long run. wadding is insufficient in quantity, or too
it

the

small,

allows the gas, as

it

begins to form from the
it

ignition, to escape past

and penetrate the shot

charge, sending
one.
If

it

in every direction but the right

the

allowed to

wad over the powder is ever go down edgeways, a weak shot will
first

be the

result.

The crimp

of the shell
If

materially affects the
is

shooting of a gun.
to hold the top

there

not enough crimp

wad

firmly over the shot, there will
If

be loss of velocity and penetration.

there

is

an undue amount of crimp, there
patterns.

will

be uneven

Some

people fancy a round crimp, and some a

square, but experiments

show

that one

is

the

same

as the other as regards actual results.
If

either the
in

fulminate in the primer or the

powder

the

charge

has

been affected

by

moisture, the result will be a
loss of velocity;

weak discharge and but a charge of powder is still
if

more

affected

and rendered useless
which
in the

shells are

kept even for a short time in such a hot place
that the grease
is
is

paper of the shell

melted sufficiently to be absorbed in ever so

slight a degree

by the powder; standing

in a hot

The Sbot-gmi and
sun
will

its

Handling
is

51

soon do

this.

If

there

any

fault in the

primer

of the shell,

it is

fatal to regular shooting.

All nitro powders require a strong, hot flash

them thoroughly and produce proper combustion. A weak primer means slow combustion of powder and consequent weak action in propelling the shot. On
from the primer
to ignite

the other hand, too a primer

much

fulminate or too strong
ignition of the powder,

means too rapid
loss of velocity

and causes
If
is

and poor pattern.

the class of cheap shells
it

now on

the market

carefully examined,

will

be found that in

some
tially

cases the flash hole of the

primer

is

par-

or wholly stopped up by part of the paper
shell.

forming the base of the

In every such case
is

a misfire or imperfect combustion
low.
shells

sure to

fol-

The same must happen even
if

with the best

any foreign substance has

fallen into the

flash hole.

Very few shooters have any idea how much the
quality of the shot they are using

may

affect their

shooting.
is

It is

easy to understand that shot that

irregular in size or shape
;

would give irregular
is

and poor patterns

but not only
is,

that the case,

but the harder the shot
pattern, as well as the

the closer will be your
regular.

more

Even with

52

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

chilled shot,

some

is

much

harder than
that

others,

and

it

is

invariably the

case

the

hardest
pat-

chilled shot will give closer

and more even
is

terns than another

make which
is
it

not quite so

hard

;

and the difference
has not
tried

greater than any one

who

would

imagine possible.

When you come down to soft shot, the difference is even more apparent, and you may have your gun loaded with most perfectly regular shot as to
size

and shape, which you may

will yet give

such poor pat-

terns that

easily find yourself missing

shots without any apparent reason.

The

expla-

nation of this

is,

that the shot

is

flattened in passits

ing up the barrel, in proportion to

softness.
is

Much
tion,

has been written on shooting, but this

a fast age, and what was true of guns, ammuni-

and shooting yesterday, requires modifying
to

and adding

to-day

if

we intend

to

keep up

with the times

we

live in.

There

are,

I

believe, very

few shooters who
perfect they are

would not wish, no matter
already, to be able to do
all
still

how
I

better;

and amongst

the

good shots

I

have met,

have never yet

come across the man who was not trying to find out some way of avoiding that inevitable miss that will put in its unwelcome appearance now and then.

The Shot-gun and
It is

its

Handling
living,

53

probable that few,

if

any men

have
vari-

burned up more ammunition, shot a greater
ety of

game, and handled more guns than

I

have,

in the field

and

at the traps, or in

experimenting

at a stationary target,
tion,

with

all
I

kinds of ammuni-

and

in these articles

am

endeavoring to

give to others, in as practical a form as possible,
the result of

my experience.
is

At
great

the present time, in this country, there

a

demand for lighter guns and smaller bores, and many are becoming advocates of guns with
only one trigger.

As many

to lighter

guns and smaller
there was a strong
I

bores,

I,

like

others,

caught the infection some twenty

years ago,

when

move

in

Eng-

land in that direction.

had twenty-bores and
I,

sixteen-bores, but gradually
I

like

every one else

knew, came to the conclusion that for all-round

shooting, and to get the most that could be got

out of a gun, there was nothing to beat the me-

dium

weight. No. 12 bore.
said about length of barrel,

The same may be
its

twenty-six, twenty-eight, thirty,

and

thirty-two.

Each has had
length.

advocates, but

thirty

inches

stands as the standard and most useful all-round

54

Gtms, Ammimition, and Tackle

As
is

to the single trigger action on a gun,

which

being pushed very hard at the present time,
it

theoretically

ought to be a vast improvement
I

on the old-time action, and at one time
suaded that
it

was per-

was only necessary

for a

man

to

get used to handling one of these guns to beat

anything he had ever done before.

I

remained

unconvinced that

I

was wrong

for

nearly two

years, despite repeated failures,
;

and spent much

money on this new fad but, like every good shot I know who has tried them, I went back to the
old two triggers,
if

and

I

am

fully assured that

even

the action were quite perfect, and as

little liable

to fail as the

two

triggers, that there is

no

real

benefit to be gained, but rather the reverse.

American-made guns, which are otherwise so good, is the rough finish and poor quality of the locks, as compared with English-made guns of a good grade, and I hope to see the time come soon when this will be Not only is it of great consequence to remedied.
undoubted weakness in
a shooter that his lock should not get out of order, or the pull-off vary, but the quicker the action,
i.e.

An

the

less interval there is

between the press-

ure of the finger on the trigger and the blow of
the striker on the primer, the

more

likely

you are

The Shot-gun and
to hit the object

its

Handling
of

55
the

aimed

at.

The advent
is,

chronograph has taught us many things that we
only surmised before, and one of these
interval
is

that this

an appreciable quantity and should be

lessened as

much
what

this
is

much may be
is

as

possible.
I

To show how
will

the case,

here mention,
that to hit an

a clearly demonstrable

fact,

object which

crossing you at right angles forty

yards away, and moving at only the very slow
rate (for a bird's flight) of forty miles

an hour, you

must make the centre
feet

of

your shot strike eight

ahead of that

object, or,
trigger,

owing

to the interval

after pulling the

and allowing
you shot

for

the

time

it

takes for the charge of shot to reach forty
at,

yards, the bird, or whatever

will

have
it.

passed on, and your charge will strike behind

Some makes

of

guns are appreciably quicker

in

the lock action than others, and hammerless guns
are usually quicker than those

made with hammers. Such lamentable accidents are continually happening with guns from careless handling or from the want of a true knowledge of where the danger comes from, that a few words on this subject cannot be out of place. The breech-loading gun is
unquestionably safer than the muzzle-loader, and
the hammerless safer than the

gun with hammers.

56
It
is

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

always
raised
;

hammer gun you can see that it is cocked, when the hammer is but the same hammers are an endless
true that with a
etc.,

cause of accident from catching in a bush,
or from escaping from under the shooter's

thumb
this is

when
are

in the act of

cocking or uncocking

;

especially the case
stiff

on a cold day, when the hands
source of accidents with
confi-

with cold.
fruitful

The most
guns
arises

from shooters having too much
Thus, a

dence

in their

guns never doing anything they

should not.

man

has closed his
it

gun
off

hundreds of times and never known
in the act of closing,

to

go

and yet
at

it

is

quite possible

that this
fore,

may happen
is

any time. Always, there-

be specially careful in closing your gun that

the

muzzle

not pointing toward any person.
to

Also be careful when closing a loaded gun
have a sufficiently strong hold of
barrel does
it,

so that

if

one

gun will not fly out of your hand from the recoil. I saw this nearly end in a fatal accident once, when one barrel of the gun of an old sportsman and well-known game shot
go
off,

the

standing near
loading.

me went

off as

he closed

it

after

The gun

flew out of his hand,

and the

butt

being the heaviest end struck the ground

The Shot-gun and
first,

its

Handling

57

jarred

off

the

other barrel, and sent the
of the shooter's

whole charge through the brim

hat so close to his forehead that the skin

was cut

by the

shot.

Remember always that a loaded gun, no matter how good the action is, may go off at any moment
either from being jarred off or even without a
if,

jar,

as

is

always possible, a piece of

grit,

or metal,

or any foreign substance has
action.

got into the lock

A

loaded gun, whether with the safety bolt on
fail),

or not (for even safety bolts are liable to

should always be regarded as a danger, and in
getting over a fence or any difficult spot, or
resting the

when
it

gun against a

tree, etc., or

putting
is

down

in a boat, the

only really safe plan

to

remove the cartridges for the time being. To show how much caution is required, and

how common accidents with guns in the field are, I may mention that I have myself been shot
three times, twice owing to gross carelessness on

the part of
I

my

companions.

Besides these times
I

have seen more men shot than

care to think

about, and in one case fatally.

Make

it

a rule never to shoot at

game on

the

ground or flying low, unless you are positively

58

Gims, Ammunition, and Tackle
is

certain that there

no one

in the line of

fire.

Don't take any chances,

or, for

the sake of killing

one more
a friend,

quail,

run the risk of killing or maiming
be, or at

it

may

any
of

rate a fellow-creature.

Whilst on the subject

danger

let

me

say a

word about guns bursting.

Some

people have an erroneous idea that since

the advent of smokeless powders there have been

more guns burst than used to be the case with black powder or, in other words, that smokeless powders are in themselves more dangerous than This most certainly is not the old-time black.
;

the case.

All good

gunpowder
its

of
it

every description

is

very strong in

action or

would be
lateral

of

no

use,

and

it

must be used with
nearer
the

discretion.

Smokeless
or bursting
is

powders exert their greatest
pressure

breech

than

the

case
of

with black powder, and
the

therefore

this

part

gun should be always strong, and a gun which has not a good thickness of metal at and just in front of the cartridge chamber should be avoided.

The tendency
powders

of

manufacturers

of

smokeless

of late has

been to make the powders

stronger, so that a smaller charge should

do the

same work

that a larger charge of another

make

The Shot-gun and
would
"

its

Handling

59

do.

Such powder

is

called condensed or

dense powder," as against the other kinds, which

are

termed "bulk" powders.
it

In

using a con-

densed powder

is

necessary to take even more

precaution than with a bulk powder, to be sure
that an extra quantity of
it

has not inadvertently
loading, otherwise
just as safe as
is

been placed

in the shell

when
is

the action of such powders

the case with the bulk powders.

Up

to the present

I

have been treating of

all-

round game
for the same.

shooting, and guns and ammunition

There
of

are people

who

think that one kind of

gun should be
shooting,

sufficient for all

and every kind
in

and Mr. Teasdale-Buckell,

his

work on guns and shooting, published 1900, at page 103, gives that as his opinion. This is perfecdy true
if

a

man

is

willing to be content with
;

something

less

than the top notch

but

if

he has

the wish, as well as the ability, and also the spare

cash at his disposal, to

make

himself as good or

better than his neighbor at every kind of shooting,

he must not rest content with only one gun,
well that suits him,

no matter how

any more than
the

with using only one sized shot or one fixed load.

One bend

of

gun,

when you have found

6o

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
suits

bend that
kinds of
the

you

best,

may perhaps do

for

most

did

game shooting; but I have never seen man yet who was a really good trap shot who not use a straighter gun for that than he
to use

would choose

on game, especially

if

the

game was coming toward
grouse or partridges
in

him, such as driven

England, or flight-shoot-

ing at wild-fowl in America.

A
in

very few years ago the majority of shooters

America were using very heavy and very much bent guns. To-day all that is changed. The
schoolmaster,
in

the shape of

trap-shooting at

targets especially, has been abroad,
in

and the gun
bent.
later

general use
this

How
on,

has

now is neither heavy nor come about will be explained
on game shooting.

when we
its
is

are speaking of this form of shooting

and

effect

A

very heavy

gun

an abomination for any kind of shooting,

unless the object in having such a

gun

is

to get

the heaviest kind of load into

it,

with a view to
killing

shooting into flocks of
greatest possible number,

birds

and
is

the

which

only done by

market hunters and the
so
to

like.

A

lighter

gun can

be handled and brought to bear on single birds

much
bag

quicker, that

many more

will

be brought

in the long

run with the lighter than with

The Sbot-gun and
the heavier gun.

its

Handling

6i

On

the other hand, for really
easily
prefer,

good shooting a gun may whilst everybody would
day's tramp, to carry a

be too

light,

and

through a long
six

gun weighing

pounds

or

less,

yet the average shot will find that he will

miss fewer times, other things being equal, with a

gun weighing
This also
is

six

and one-half
I

to seven

pounds.

a lesson which

believe trap-shootelse.
kill

ing has taught more than anything
lighter

The
as
far,

gun

will

shoot just as well and
is

but the extra weight
swing, and
it

required

to steady the

is

easier to point, time after time,

where you wish with the heavier, so long as you

do not overdo

it,

than with the lighter guns.
to the length of barrel.

The same remarks apply

Twenty-six and twenty-eight

inch

barrels

are

delicious to handle, but are not so easy to control

as thirty inch,

when swinging on

or ahead of a

quickly moving object.

The moral
this
:

to be

deduced from the foregoing
in the theory that

is

if

you are a believer
suffice for all

one

gun should
shooting,

your wants, and those
all

wants are supposed to cover

kinds of

game
that
feet,

from

the

soft

little

woodcock

swishes up so quietly from under your very
to that

grandest of birds, a wild turkey, then you


62

Guns, Amnmnition, and Tackle

should supply yourself with a twelve-bore hammerless
der,

gun

of

medium
choke,

weight, right barrel cylin-

left

full

an ejector with stock of

medium

bend, and be especially careful that you
will

have one that
equally well.

throw large or small sized shot
if

But

you want

to be

on equal

terms with others
various

who have
shooting,

various guns for
fol-

kinds

of

then have the

lowing:
I

St.

A

light twelve-bore

hammerless

ejector,

with twenty-six or twenty-eight inch barrels, not

weighing over

six

and one-half pounds, which
small-sized
shot.

will

give a regular but open pattern with both barrels
at thirty-five yards with

The

stock should be rather more bent than you would

have with guns which you intend to use on
larger game, because

you are going
as quail

to use this

gun chiefly on such game
birds that love cover,

and woodcock
to

and where you want
all

keep

your head up in shooting and snap at
shots, with

sorts of

perhaps occasionally only a momentary
at.

glimpse of what you are shooting

Do

not get

a sixteen or twenty bore, because the grasp of
these in your
twelve-bores,
left

hand

is

quite different to that of

and may

spoil

your shooting when

you next use a twelve.

The chambers should be

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

63
shell,

bored only for a two and five-eighths inch
as

you should never use anything but a light load

with such a gun.
2d.

For

all

kinds of wild-fowl a
will carry a

man

should
of both

have a gun which

heavy load

powder and
by
their

These birds are so protected thick plumage that if you do not wish to
shot.

run the risk of maiming
shoot at but do not
kill,

many

a one that you

you

will use larger sized

shot, according to the size of the
after,

game you
is

are

with a heavy charge of powder behind to
it

drive

home.

As most

of this shooting
full

done

in the open,

where you have a
at,

view

of the

object

you are shooting

your gun should be
in cover, the bar-

straighter than the ones
rels

you use

should be thirty inch, and the gun weighing
for
full

about eight pounds, with chambers bored
three-inch
shells.

Both

barrels

should be

choked.
If

ygu intend to shoot
any one

at the traps, either at live

pigeons or clay targets, you will hardly be content to use
of these guns.

Under the

best rules governing

trap-shooting you are not

allowed to use a

gun weighing more than eight
No. 12 gauge.
in
it

pounds or

of larger caliber than

This rule was made because

was found that

64
this

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
form
of shooting, at all events, a very

heavy
there
could,

gun was an
was no
over a
limit

advantage according to a man's
it,

strength and power to handle

so that

if

made, a powerfully built

man

by using an extra heavy gun, have an advantage

man

of slighter physique.

The

reasons for this being so are plain.
it

A man
be pulled

at the trap stands in readiness for

to

when he gives
before
calling

the word, and

may

hold his gun up

to his shoulder, or in
" Pull."
is

any position he chooses,

He knows
going to shoot

pretty well
at will start
it is

where the object he
from, and just

how

far
If

away from him
he
is

at the

moment
eons, he

it

starts.

shooting at live pig-

must not only kill the bird he shoots at, but he must kill it so dead that it is unable to cross the boundary line, which is sometimes a
fence, but

more

often a low wire

boundary
is

less

than three feet high.
if

This boundary
yards,

seldom,

ever,

more than

fifty

and often
If

only^thirty,

and sometimes twenty-one, the boundary being
measured from the centre
not killed or so severely
cross that boundary,
if it

trap.

the pigeon
that
it

is

wounded
it is

cannot
or even a lost

falls just outside,

perches on the boundary,
bird as
if it

just as

much

had flown away absolutely untouched.

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling
load,

65

He

therefore requires a
all

fast,

smashing

and

nearly

pigeon shooters use heavy loads in both

barrels.

But
will

if

this
"

heavy load

is

put into a light

gun,

it

barrel

is

fired,

"jump from the recoil when the first jumping sufficiently to disconcert
would
like.

the shooter, and prevent his getting in his second
barrel either as fast or as true as he

Also the heavy gun, provided
for your strength,
will

it

is

not too heavy

swing with a more even

motion, and enable a
object.

man

to hold truer

on the

The same remarks apply
targets,

to shooting at clay

with the one exception that, as you are

good many targets in rapid succession, you would never dream of using as
going
to shoot at a

heavy a load as for

live birds,
it.

because your shoul-

der would never stand
good, strong load, and
if

Still,

you do want a
to put that

you were

same

load into a light gun, you would soon have to stop shooting, or find yourself flinching, and misses

coming faster than they should. There being so many known quantities in both live bird and target-shooting from traps, a man is at liberty to choose a gun which specially suits him
for just that

one particular kind

of shooting.

For
is

instance, the ground,

wherever traps are used,

66

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
;

generally level and free from trees
fore,
at,

you

are, there-

looking each time for a rising object to shoot

whereas

a bird
tions

game shooting you may be firing at going up or down hill. Again, the condiin
live bird trap-shooting

between
a person,

and

target-

shooting from traps

are sufficiently different to

who wishes to excel at both, choose a somewhat different make of gun for each. These
make
differences will be mentioned later on.
I

have

not, so far, said

bores of guns,

much as to the various and many men are great advocates
No.
12.
I

of smaller bores than

have seen won-

derful

work done and twenties, and
deal myself
;

in the field with both sixteens
I

have shot them both a good
will

but the average shooter
in the
it

always

do better work,

long run, with a twelve-bore,
has been the standard bore
will, I

and
for
to

for that reason

many

a long year, and
all

think, continue

be so for

time.
its

For women or
is

children, the

small bore with

small grip

suitable,

and also

you can get better shooting out

of a small bore,

when it is an object to use a very light load, than the same load will give out of a twelve-bore.

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

67

How

Trap-shooting

helps to make a

Good

Shot

A
the
will

great deal has been said and written on the
its

subject of trap-shooting as regards

effect

on

game

shot,

some believing
it

that trap-shooting

not only not teach a

man or boy how to become
will

a good

game

shot, but that
if

make him

a bad
injuri-

shot in the field

he

is

a beginner, or
if

ously affect his shooting

he

is

already a good

game

shot.

Speaking from
that of others,
I

my own

experience, as well as
itself,

think that trap-shooting by

whether

at live birds or targets,

would never make
is

a first-class

game

shot, but there

no way
to

in

which a beginner can so quickly learn
his

handle
his

gun with ease and
at the

safety to himself
traps.

and
also,

companions as
other

There

is,

no

way

in

which he can learn as much about
all

the technical points, which
learn, so as to find out

good shots should
is

whether the gun he
;

using
it

suits
is

him or not

in

shape and balance

whether

a regular shooting

gun

or the reverse, or whether
is

the ammunition he

is

using

the best, etc.

There

undoubtedly

is

no school
if

for a shooter like the

traps, especially

he mixes freely with others,

68
attends

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
shoots where the best shots are to be

found, and gathers knowledge from them.

When

he goes into the field he will have to unlearn

more which must be learned before he can become a really good shot at game.
nothing, but he will there find a great deal
I

have heard a great

many men

say that trap-

shooting spoils them for shooting in the brush for
a time, but
I

never remember an instance where
all

the speaker was at

a

good

trap shot, and

I

have
not

never
also

known a really good a good game shot.
no exaggeration

trap shot

who was

It is

to say that in the last ten or

fifteen years clay-bird

shooting has revolutionized

both the manufacture of guns and also of
nition.

ammuto

Before that time

it

was quite usual

find a

man

using a heavy, badly balanced gun,

whilst ten-bores were

common.

Now

it is

a very

rare exception to find a

man
;

using anything but a

gun

of the

most modern type

and

ten-bores, except

occasionally for wild-fowl shooting, are extinct.

The same might be said of ammunition. Each man used to think he could load his own ammunition

and get the best

results.

Now

it is

a rare

thing at tournaments to see any except factory-

loaded ammunition, for the reason that the

shell-

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

69

loading companies have kept up with the times,

and can and do load

their shells with

all

the vari-

ous kinds of powder and shot in a way to get the
best possible results from this or that load, and
this or that

make

of

powder.

Target-Shooting
America who have obliged the shell-loading companies to give them perfect ammunition, quite as much as or more than the keen competition which exists between those
It
is

the trap shooters of

companies, the reason being that where so

many

shooters are collected together in competition as
is

the case at clay-target shooting, and where five
at a time are standing in a row, shooting
is

men

rapidly one after the other, nothing
to detect a cartridge

easier than

which

is

slow

in ignition or

weak

in action,

and such ammunition would be
not easy

at

once condemned.
Target-shooting
to excel at
it

is

;

it

is difificult,

and

a

man must

not only be a good shot

and have a gun which suits him perfectly, but must also have ammunition which will give him a
perfectly regular pattern every time,

and reach the

object with the least possible delay.

When

target-shooting was

first

introduced, the

70

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle

targets were sometimes

made much more
if

brittle

than

is

now

the case, consequently

it

was

at-

tempted to throw them any great distance, they

would too often break up. Now, with improved traps and improved targets, they are thrown much
faster
case,

and

travel

much

farther than used to be the
to hit,

and must be hit with several pellets to make them break. No one in his senses would ever compare trap-shooting in any form to shooting wild

and are correspondingly harder

game

in the fields, mountains, or

woods, and

it

must be understood that
shooting
to
I

in writing

about trap-

only speak of

it

as a valuable assistant
in field-shooting, or as

one who wishes to excel

a pleasant

way
all

of

spending a few hours at any

time when

game shooting are barred. It is true that some men get very enthusiastic over it, but that is more on account of the way it brings
kinds of
shooters together from
all
if

parts,

and the conse-

quent emulation to

be,

not the best, as near as

one can get to
It
is

it.

wonderful

how

clay-target shooting has
it

grown and
not so very

flourished since

was

first

introduced,
of clay
all

many

years ago.

The number
is

targets sold annually in
belief,

America

beyond

and year by year the quantity increases

in

The Shot-gun and
place of diminishing.

its

Handling
article,

71

In

an

therefore,
of the

which

is

devoted to shooting,

this

branch

more than a mere passing notice. In 1 90 1 a match was arranged between a team of American trap shots and an English team, to be shot in England, the Englishmen to have use of both barrels at each target, the Americans to I was asked to act as referee for use one only. both the Americans and Englishmen, and therefore had an opportunity of watching and hearing
sport deserves

everything that passed.

On

our

first

arrival, the

common
English,

talk

was

that, as the

Americans generally

practised target-shooting so
it

much more
if

than the

was quite

likely that the

English team

would not have much chance
terms
;

they shot on level

but the arrangement made, that the Amer-

icans should use only one barrel to their opponents' two, would,
it

was thought, equalize matters.

Before the match

came

off a live

bird shoot

from traps was arranged, open to any who chose
to compete.

This was a different kind
talk

of

game,

and there was much
a

and conjecture as to how
just landed in the coun-

number
none

of of

Americans

try,

whom had ever before shot at
hold their

English
with
pro-

blue-rock pigeons, would

own

some

of the best shots that

England could

72

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
mere
shots,

duce, especially as the Americans, from the
fact

that they were accomplished
to be so

target

were presumed not

good

at live pigeons.

After that and some subsequent live-bird contests,

however, there was no talk of Americans being
inferior to

Englishmen as pigeon

shots.

Then

came
over

the clay bird contests, and before they were
it

was universally admitted that not only could the Americans beat the English at any kind
of shooting, but that they

were better equipped as
their antagonists,

to

guns and ammunition than
this

and that
riority

had very much

to

do with the supe-

shown by them.
I

Here,

think,

is

a great point of difference be-

tween an English and American shooter.
one
is

The

content very
tell

much
tell

to take
stick to

what other
it,

people

him
in

as gospel

and

and the

gun-makers
suits them,

England

the shooters

what
starts
half-

the

gun-makers, best;
for himself.

whereas the

American judges
out to do, he
hearted
is

Whatever he

never satisfied to do in a
rests until

way

;

he never

he has acquired

the highest possible results, and he generally succeeds.

He

long ago realized that he could not

break target after target with the necessary degree of accuracy to put him in the
first flight
if

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

73

he used the same gun or ammunition that he used

game and so he changed. The members of EngHsh team were using light guns, Hght loads, and the same make of gun that suited them for field-shooting and I should be very much surfor
;

the

;

prised to find that many,

if

any, of that English
since.

team have made any change

The advent

of

smokeless powders has no doubt
its

helped to bring clay-target shooting to

present
care

high state of popularity.
to shoot in a

Few men would
if
;

squad long

they as well as their
but with the

neighbors were using black powder

absence of smoke to blow back into the eyes, the
less noise

and

less recoil

given by smokeless powis

ders as

now made,

there

nothing to detract
the only kind of

from a man's enjoyment.

It is

shooting in the world where a number of

men

stand shooting in line in rapid succession, and

having the result

of

each shot scored for or against

them, where squad after squad follow each other
without a moment's delay; and a
of firing a

man who

is

fond
will

good many shots
in getting

in

an afternoon

find

no

difficulty

through about as

much ammunition

as he can comfortably carry.

74

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
TO BECOME ExPERT AT TaRGET-SHOOTING
be a real adept at target-shooting a

How
To

man

re-

quires keen eyesight in a greater degree than for

any other kind, as not only
small, but the

is

the object shot at

one point
is

of all others that a target
of

shot must study
saucer-like

to catch sight

the small,

object the

moment

it

emerges from

behind the screen covering the traps and the boys

working them.
Don't try to see
it

one foot or one yard beyond
it.

the screen, but at the very edge of

This

will

mean

that

you
at

will
it

be well on your target and
if

ready to
sighted
it

fire

ten yards nearer than
of a

you

an infinitesimal part

second

later.

This ten yards means a great deal on an object
as small

and moving as
will

fast as a clay target, be-

cause ten yards farther you

may have openings
it

in

your shot which

allow

to escape altogether
to break
it.

unhit, or too few pellets

may have struck

In target-shooting
a

it is

not so necessary to have

smashing load as

in live

pigeon shooting, because
falls to pieces,

the target after being struck at once

provided

it

has been hit by enough

pellets.
is

The

usual load adopted by the best shots
of

3

drams or 3J drams

any bulk nitro powder, or

The Shot-gun and
its

its

Handling

75

equivalent in a dense powder, with ij oz. No.

7J chilled shot. Constant practice

is

an absolute necessity
shot,

if

a

man
he

aspires to be a

good target

and even
he negasked a

when he has acquired a great degree of proficiency
will quickly find himself

out of form

if

lects to practice.

When

I first

began shooting

targets,

I

professional

who

then, as he does to-day, stood in

the very front rank as a target shot,

how he

ac-

counted for being so good as he was.
taught
tice,
I

His answer

me

a great deal.

It

was, " Constant prac-

using

my

head, and never firing a shot that
all

did not put
is

my mind

into."

This

last sen-

tence

worth taking to heart and thoroughly
but especially at targets,

assimilating.

In shooting of
three things

all sorts,

must work
is

in perfect
viz.,

harmony and
else,

at
;

the same instant of time,

hand, eye, and brain

and

if

the latter

thinking of something

or

not keenly fixed on what the hand and eye are
doing, you
at,

may

succeed in hitting what you shoot

but you are very likely to miss.

Though personally I do not agree with them, yet so many people are of opinion that live bird
shooting from traps
is

cruel,

and

like neither to

"jG

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
it

take part in
so,
it

themselves nor see others doing

may
there
there

well be
is
is is

claimed for target-shooting
of

that

no shadow

cruelty

about
in

it.

Then

no betting carried on
Also,
fly

target-

shooting as

so often the case in live-bird shootit

ing from traps.

is

much

less expensive,

and

lastly, targets

equally well in wet or dry
live

weather or on any kind of ground, whilst
birds will not fly well

and are therefore useless to
fly at all fast

shoot at in wet weather, and will not

and afford no sport on some grounds,
can only be guessed by a
has undergone

for reasons

which seem apparent to the birds themselves, but

human

being.
first

Since this form of shooting was
it

introduced

many
it

changes.

As

first

practised

soon became too easy for

the crack shots, and changes not only in the targets themselves, as well as in the traps they were

thrown from, but also
at them,

in the

method

of

shooting

were introduced with a view

to

making
to

the

game more difficult. The usual plan adopted now

at clubs

is

have

three traps placed four feet apart behind a screen

which entirely hides them, as well as the
boys working them, from the shooter.

men

or

The

shooters, in squads of five or six, stand in

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

tj

the segment of a circle sixteen yards in rear of the
traps,

with an interval between each shooter of

four or five yards.
of

The
dead
"

shooter

is

allowed the use
fired

one barrel only, and the moment he has
calls "

the referee

or

" lost,"

as the case

may

be

;

the next
till

line

the last

man then fires, and so on down the man has shot, when No. again
i

shoots, followed

by the

others, the shooters changleft

ing their position from

to right after

each

shot, or in case of the event gets, after every third shot;
after every fourth shot,
etc.,

being
if

at fifteen tar-

at

twenty

targets,

so that each

man
each

shoots

the

same number

of

times from

position.

The quickness and
follows shot
is

regularity with which shot
is

very noticeable in a squad that

made up

of

men

used to the game, and

it

is

very

disconcerting to such

men

to

have

in their

squad

one who needlessly loses time, who
his neighbor, or

will talk to

who does anything which breaks

the even regularity of shot following shot.

Any

one, therefore,

who

shoots targets, should

study to be quiet, quick, and regular.
find not only that
it

He

will

improves his own shooting,

but he thus avoids making a nuisance of himself
to others.

78

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

The

shooter

is

not supposed to
is

of the three traps

going

to

know which be pulled when he
just pulled

gives the word

" Pull,"

and the trappers should
which the trap

change the direction

in

was

set, after

each shot, so that no one of those
tell

shooting can
starting

either just

where any target
it

is

from or the direction

will take.

The

traps are so arranged as to throw the tar-

gets not less than forty nor

more than

sixty yards,

and should be so adjusted that the
target will at ten yards

flight of the

from the trap be not

less

than six feet in height from the ground nor more

than twelve

feet.
is

Target-shooting
healthy,

a game, not a sport.
in

It is

a

open

air

game

which any one, old or
preparation,

young,

man

or

woman, can indulge without any

very great expense or
which, started as
already
it

much

— a game

was only

in the eighties, has

become

national in America, and grows in
It is

popularity from year to year.
its

hard to overrate

usefulness as a

means

of

teaching

how

to shoot.

A new
which
It will
is

form of trap has lately been introduced,
held in a person's hands, and the spring
trigger.

working the trap released by pulling a
throw the same form
it

of clay target as the
far,

other traps, and throw

as

and

at the will

The Shot-gun and
of the person

its

Handling

79

handling

it

can be made to throw in
to alter the

any direction without having
nism
I

mecha-

in

any way.
this trap in

was told the other day that targets could be
such a puzzling manner
fair

thrown with

that, whilst the

shooter had a perfectly
it

shot at

the target, so far as seeing

and distance from
at

him went, he would
he was, not be able

yet,

no matter how good a shot
break much,
I if

to

all,

over

one-half of the targets so thrown.
lieving that
I

was so unbeand found

went

to see for myself,

that

I

had not been misinformed.
targets were

The

thrown diagonally across the

some low down, some edgewise, others flat, and owing to their speed and irregular flight not half of them were broken. This trap weighs only eight pounds, and can be put in your valise when going into the country.
shooter,

some high

up,

In trap-shooting

bringing the
their less

many ways have been tried crack shots down to the level

of
of

accomplished brethren by some form

or another of handicapping.

The
traps,

only satisfactory way of doing this
i.e.

is

by

distance,

putting the poorer shot nearer the

and the expert
is

man

farther back,

— sixteen

yards

considered the ordinary standard distance.

8o

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
it

— and
much,

used to be thought that the pattern of
if

guns would open up too much
if

a

man

stood

any, farther back

;

but experience shows

that the best shots can

still

break nearly ninety

per cent

at

such distances as twenty and even

twenty-two yards

— a wonderful exemplification
of the present

of

what the guns and ammunition
are capable of doing.

day

Trap-shooting can be made of great benefit to

both
his

game and pigeon

shots by showing a

man

weakest point, and enabling him, by practice

at targets

thrown repeatedly
it.

in that direction, to

overcome

Most men shoot a
left

bird crossing from right to
left to right,

better than
it is

one flying from

but

sometimes

just the other way.

After shooting for a time at targets thrown
rapidly, first at

one angle and then at another, yet
is

never knowing beforehand which
will

coming, you
lies,

soon discover where your chief weakness
to

and by having that bird thrown
again, will easily

you again and

remedy your

fault.

Live Pigeon Shooting
Live pigeon shooting from traps
humanitarian point
of
is,

from a
is

view,

cruel.

So

all

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

8i
felt this

shooting at live animals, and no one has
all his life

more than the writer. Yet, carry this sentiment a little farther, and you become of necesit is

sity a vegetarian, for

cruel to put an animal
it

to death in order that

you may feed upon
I

after-

ward.

Some

years ago, in England,
a

was

in the

man whose whole idea was to save animals from suffering. At dinner, one evening, he told me of a great case that the Society for
same house with
the Prevention of Cruelty to

Animals had against

a builder at Brixton, a suburb of London.

His story was that
field at

this builder
hill,

owned

a brick

the foot of a steep

and was building
hill,

miles of houses on the top of the
bricks had to be carted up the

so that

all

the

hill.

This was done

in the usual two-wheel, one-horse cart,

common
the

for
hill

that sort of

work

in

England

;

but

when

had

to be ascended, the cruel drivers

had been

in

the habit of getting on to the horses, so that not

only had they a heavy load to drag up a steep
hill,

but had, in addition, to carry up the brutal

drivers,

who were

too lazy to walk.
for trial that day,

He

added

that the case

was up

and he was

very anxious to see the evening paper, and find

out

how much
fined.

the cruel builder in question had

been

82

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

My
less

friend

was a heavy man, and
that,

I

myself weigh
;

than one hundred and thirty pounds

but

I

astonished

him by saying
back,
I

if

he would

let

me
our

take another fairly heavy man,
party,

who was one

of

on

my

could pull the speaker out of

the room, whereas, without the weight on
I

my back,
I

certainly could not

move him, and

that

thought
being

he would find
brutal
best

that, in place of the drivers

and unfeeling, they had been doing the very
horses.
trial,

thing they could for their

This

turned out to be the defence at the
verdict

and a
for

was given

for the defendant.

No

one blames the society or their friends
stop
all

striving, in every way, to

unnecessary

cruelty to animals

;

but

it

remains yet to be proved
;

that shooting pigeons

comes under that head

and
far

though the society

is

very strong in England and

on the European continent, yet they have so
shooting,
to

utterly failed to prove their case against pigeon

though they have

tried again
is

and again

do

so,

and pigeon shooting
still.

legal,

and

flour-

ishes over there

Pigeon shooting
America, and
is

is

a popular

amusement

in

here looked upon as an amuseit is

ment only
so

;

in other countries

carried on, not

much

for

amusement, as

for the sake of the

A CHANCE OF A DOUBLE.

The Shot-gun and
betting,

its

Handling

83

which
times

is

an ah-nost invariable accompaniof
sport.
I

ment

of this

form

have myself at
thousand

various

seen as

much

as five

dollars bet
shot.
It
is

by one man on the
therefore,
is

result of a single

not,

surprising that

when
sums

so

much money

at stake,

men who

indulge in this
of

sport should be willing to spend large

money and much time
cost of a

in getting

guns and ammu-

nition that are the best that can be procured.

The
or the

gun and equipment
a shooter

is

nothing in comfor,

parison to the value of the prizes shot

money which

may win

or lose in back-

ing himself during a single afternoon's shooting.

Whilst there
in

is

a great deal of pigeon shooting

America,

it is it

not carried to anything like the
in

extent that
Italy, etc.

is

England, France, Belgium,
countries,

In

those

however,

it

is

strictly

confined to the wealthy classes, whilst in
it.

this country all classes alike take part in

In

America, pigeons can usually
a cost to the shooter of not
five cents each,
is

be provided at

whereas

in

more than twentyEngland the price paid

considerably more than double that amount.
birds in England, however, are
faster than

The
and

much

stronger
this

any that can be procured on

84

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle and though the
fast

continent,

English blue-rock

has been imported into this country in considerable

numbers by

lovers of the sport, in the

hope

of rearing

pigeons from that stock, the experiment
failed,

has invariably

owing

to difference in climate

and the ease with which pigeons
have to encounter over there.

in this

country can

obtain food as compared with the difficulties they

In Europe as here a hand-fed blue-rock
tame, too
fat,

is

too

and too lazy

to leave the trap with

the lightning-like rapidity of a bird that has been
reared, as they usually are there, in places specially
built for them, as far

removed
wild.

as possible
;

from

any other buildings or from human beings
where they are practically

in fact,

Under

these conditions the inherent wildness
is

of the birds (and there
cliff-bred blue-rock)

no wilder bird than a
wherever and on
their roost-

remains in them, and as they
living,

have to seek a precarious

whatever they can
food have to go
ing-place in
follows
whilst
strong.
all

find,

and

in their search for

many

miles

away from
all

weathers and at
bodies
are

seasons,

it

that their
their

keep small and wiry,
abnormally large
the

wings

and
birds

Many

people

imagine that

trapped in England and

Europe generally are

The Shot-gtm and
caught
in

its

Handling
inhabit
in

85
the

the caves

that they
cliffs

steepest and rockiest

which abound round

the coasts
this
is

of

Great Britain and elsewhere, but
it

not the case, as

would be impossible

to catch those birds in

any numbers.
in

To

give an idea of the difference in the rapidity
the birds trapped

of flight of

England and
only necessary
if,

those trapped in this country,
to

it is

mention that whereas

in this

country

as

is

sometimes the
is

case, there is

any betting

at

all, it

usually at the odds of anything from six to one

to ten to

one

laid

on the shooter, provided he
;

is

a good pigeon shot

in

England the odds on the
the

same

class of shooter

would not be one-half those

mentioned, and the

man backing

gun would

then probably be a loser.

The handling

of the

pigeons before and while
is

being trapped in England
rule than in this country,

much

better as a

and that alone makes a
in

vast difference in the

way

which the birds
all

fly

when
the

the trap

is

sprung.

In England

pigeons
of

for trap-shooting are supplied

on the morning
are to be used

same day on which they
of

by

one or other
but the

two or three concerns who make a

regular business of supplying not only the birds,

men

to trap

and the dogs

to retrieve them.

86

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle These pigeon purveyors, from years
of practice,

are very clever in handling the birds, and have
large, airy cages to

keep them in

until

taken to

the ground where they are to be trapped.
birds arrive
riably
fit

The

to fly for their lives,

having invastrong and
tail

been just caught up.
the

Each
if

bird as he was

caught was examined, and
healthy was put back
;

not

rest

had their

feathers squared off with a pair of shears so that

whilst confined in a basket or coop their

tails

would not become
birds treading on
their flight.

dirty or ruffled

from the other

them, and so retard them in

The matter

of food

and water

Is

most carefully

attended to so that the birds are neither surfeited
with overfeeding nor yet faint from want of food
or water: each bird
is in

the pink of condition.
is

When
dling
;

trapping them, there

no rough han-

the

utmost care

is

taken not to injure
to
is

them when being lifted out of the baskets, nor hold them in the hand one moment more than
necessary.

In cold or wet weather, after the trapit

per takes the bird from the coop, he will hold
inside his jacket or
it

under his arm, so as to keep
Whilst in the coops they are

warm and

dry.

guarded from wet,

cold, or too

much

sun.

In this

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling
is

87

country none of these matters

sufficiently at-

tended

to,

and

it

is

no

uncommon

occurrence to

see birds brought to a shooting
at

ground or used
they look

some

club, which,

from their appearance beforefly,

hand, are palpably unfit to
fit

or even

if

and strong do not
properly.

fly

with any vigor, because

those in charore of them have not

known how

to

handle them

There
tised

is

no doubt that great cruelty was pracin

on pigeons

former days, with the mistaken
fly faster;

idea of

making the birds
flies

but this has

all

been given up, as those handling them have found
out that no bird
so fast as one that
is

feeling

well and strong and has had no tricks played

with

it.

Every pigeon shooter should do
handling
clipping
all

his

utmost
cruelty

at all times to stop
in

anything approaching
birds.

the

There
as

is

no

cruelty in

the

tail

feathers

above

described, but

attempts to maltreat the birds

should be met with condign punishment whenever discovered.

Wounded

birds

should

be

caught and de-

spatched as speedily as possible, and
ever to allow such a thing as
to

shame a wounded bird
it is

a

remain anywhere within reach without putting
it

an end to

either

by shooting or otherwise.

88

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle

ing

With regard to this, the usual plan of retrievnow is far better than formerly. It was usual
or sometimes more, minutes in
If

to allow three,

which a wounded bird could be gathered.
gathered within that time
bird."
limit,
it

not

became a
is

" lost

the

The moment

rule

now

generally adopted

that

a bird

has been shot at and has
is let

touched the ground, the dog
it;

go

to retrieve
is

or where there

is

no dog, the man
it
it
if

to

go

straight

up

to the bird and catch

possible,

but not to lose time in going round
for
it

or waiting

to die.

Not only does
strongest
for
it

this

plan do away
is

with one of the

arguments which
the

used

by
to

the

Society

Prevention of

Cruelty

Animals, but

makes the shooting

quicker and prevents vexatious delays.

The

chief difference

between shooting pigeons
lies

from traps and shooting clay targets
that

in the

fact that the clay target leaves the trap so fast
it

is

impossible to hit
it

it

with any degree of

certainty until
trap,

has got some distance from the
the

also

that you only have

use of one

barrel.

With
to shoot

live birds,
is

on the contrary, the very time
and before they

as they leave the trap

have attained

their fastest flight, especially as,

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

89

having the use of two barrels, you should be in a
position to use the second before the bird has got

too close to the boundary.

Nothing but
enable a

practice,

and plenty

of

it,

will

man

time after time to pitch his gun to

the right spot so as to catch the pigeon on his
first

spring, but

it

is

wonderful what practice

will

do

in this as in

most things.
faces the five traps, he should

When
full sight,

a

man

take care that he has got the whole five in his

and on giving the signal
moving, not wait
left
it,

to the puller
first

to open a trap he should watch for the
of a trap
till

sign

it is

open and the

bird has

but have the muzzle of his gun

pointing a
is

little

over that particular trap before

it

fully open,

and as the bird springs he then

instinctively points his

gun
and

just

ahead of the

direction

it

is

flying in

pulls the trigger;

he must not pause to take aim, but trust to that
instinctive

working together

of

brain, eye,

and

hand, without which a

man can

never excel as a

pigeon shot.

Having

fired the first barrel,

he should use his
second

judgment as

to

whether he
it

rattles in the

without a pause or uses

deliberately.

In the case of a bird flying directly toward the

90

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
is

boundary, especially when, as
case, that
is

now

so often the

a very short distance from the trap,
to pause, or the bird will

there

is

no time
it

have
if

either reached
killed with the
If,

or got so close to
barrel,
it

it

that,

even

second

may drop beyond.
round
it

however, the
is

bird

circles

or,

being

wounded,

on the ground,

is

better to be

deliberate with the second barrel.
It is a
is

golden rule with pigeon shots that a bird
till

never dead
to

it

is

gathered, therefore don't

trust

appearances, but

make
tell

sure

that

you

centre your pigeon with the second barrel.

numerous cases where birds, apparently as dead as any bird could be, had suddenly taken wing and escaped over the
old pigeon shot can
of

Any

boundary.
bird
is

Also, do not imagine that, because the

on the ground, only a short distance from

you, that

you cannot miss
your shot

it,

especially

if

you are

using a very straight gun

;

for then, unless
will
all

you
its

aim
easy,

at its feet,

pass over
it

head.
if

But with any kind

of

gun

is

strangely

the shooter does not take great pains to
if

aim as
a
little

he were shooting with a

rifle,

to shoot

to

one side or the other, or too high or

too low.
I

remember one extraordinary exemplification

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

91

of this at the Westminster Kennel Club, when a match between two of the best amateur pigeon shots in America was taking place, at two hun-

dred pigeons each man, for one thousand dollars
a side.

One
birds,

of the contestants, in his first

one

hundred
been

had three

of them, after they
barrel, light

had

fired at

with the

first

on the

ground, giving him an easy stationary object to
shoot at with his second, not more than thirty yards off
escaped.
;

but in each case he missed, and the bird

Yet

this

man was

a good wing shot,

either at the traps or in the field.

This

is

especially likely to

happen

if

there

is

a

strong cross wind blowing, for the whole charge
of shot

may

then be drifted by the wind to one
if

side or the other,

you have not thought
such a contingency.

of,

and

made allowance
It is

for,

not difficult for a
if

man

to

become a

sfood

pigeon shot

he

will take the trouble to learn the
it

chief points about
self

from any one who has himof

learned

it all,

and then give himself plenty
where he
is

practice, striving to find out

weak, and

using every effort to overcome that one weak
point which so

many

shooters have.

He must
that he
is

have plenty of nerve, or the knowledge
others,

watched closely by so many

and

92

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle

his every
ing.

movement criticised, will
are

affect his shoot-

Some
;

people, however, shoot

much

better
of a

when they
crowd
feel
it

keyed up by the presence
alone.

acts as a stimulant,
if

and makes them

keener than

In pigeon shooting, whether you are shooting
a match or merely a sweepstake, a single bird

missed so constantly means the loss of the match
or sweep, that each bird shot at must be given
the care
last shot
all

and attention that you would give
in a

to the

match, when the result depended

upon your

killing that

one

bird.

Keep

cool,

and

never allow yourself to be upset or put out by

anything that
it

philosophically.

may happen. If a miss They will come,

comes, take
but do not
shells, or

lose

your temper, and blame your gun, or

anything but your own want of holding straight.

Note

in

what direction the bird was
it,

flying

when
of,

you missed

and which trap

it

came out
If

so

as to discover your

weak point
to correct

as soon as possible
it.

and take measures
enced
shot,

you go on

missing and cannot account for it, get some experi-

whom you
if

can

trust, to

stand behind

you as you shoot and
It is

tell

you what you did wrong.
is

not

difficult,

a

man

in the right position

at

your back, for him to see whether, at the

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling
of

93

moment
over, or
I

of firing,
it

you stopped the swing

your

gun, or pulled

down, or shot
bird.

in front of, behind,

under your

have already written on the most suitable gun
pigeon shooting, so there
is

for
it

no need

to repeat

here.

The

size of shot best for
7.

pigeon shooting

is

generally allowed to be No.

Under

exceptional
it

circumstances, such as a gale of

wind blowing,

may

be well to use No.

6,

chiefly because the

larger size of shot will drift less with the force of

the wind than the smaller; but the larger your
shot, the smaller

your killing

circle.

On

the other

hand, the smaller your shot, the less the absolute killing power, just as
it

has been found with

modern small-bore rifles, which have penetration enough to go through the body of a man after
the

passing through a moderate-sized

tree, yet

even

then leave him able to shoot back at you unless

he has been hit in a vital spot.
shot
;

So
left

it is

with small
speedily,

your bird

may

die,

and that very
to get

but yet have vitality enough
the boundary.

beyond

In England the various sizes of
differently to
is

shot are
here,

numbered
7

what they are
6.

and our No.

the same as their No.

Pigeon shooting and game shooting are so

dif-

94

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
you cannot make them
pigeon shot, a
all

ferent that

alike.

To

be

a first-class

man must

be able to

concentrate

his

thought and energy on the

work he

is

doing.

Good luck
;

or bad luck must

make no difference to him he must not be easily Nothing brings out cast down or easily elated.
the points of a man's character
shooting.
If

more than pigeon
it is

he has a weak spot
to the front.

sure, sooner

or

later,

to

come
all,

The niggardly
kicker,

man, the
and, above
to grief;

selfish

man, the bad-tempered

the crooked man, will surely

come
life

but the nervy, high-principled, hearty
take,

good fellow who can give and
and good-fellowship,
ing his
leisure
will find

and enjoy
in

few ways

of enjoy-

time more than

competing

with others like himself at the traps.
a gregarious animal, and
likes

Man

is

companionship;

therefore the

company

of fellow-shooters

makes

pigeon shooting appeal to many.
season for
is

Besides, the

game shooting

is

short,

and often one
it,

unable to devote the necessary time to
at

whereas an afternoon's shoot
little

pigeons takes

time and requires no preparation.
too,

Then,
for

many men
its

are not physically fitted

game shooting and
advanced

attendant fatigue.

Bad

health,

years, stoutness, lameness, etc.,

The Shot-gun and
incapacitate a

its

Handling

95

man from game
it.

shooting

who would
Give
it

otherwise be devoted to

To

such

I

say, try
trial.
if it

pigeon shooting.

a

good, thorough

In your early efforts don't
at first too

be discouraged

seems
it

hard

;

it

only

wants practice.
try to help

Make

a sport, and not an art In sweep-

your neighbor to succeed.

stake shooting always be willing to divide with

another man, whether you think you can beat him
or not,

when he and you
offers, don't

are

left in it

alone.

Never

watch for an unfair advantage over an adversary,

and

if it

take

it.

If

a disputed point

arises, leave

the decision to any unbiassed brother

sportsman,
decision.
I

and

then

cheerfully

abide

by

his

have before remarked, that to be a good

pigeon shot a
each shot he
so well

man must
fires.

concentrate his mind on
is

This

so

much

the case and
if

known among
is

trap-shooters that

a loose
little

pigeon
thing

flying over the

ground, or any
in

is

happening which might,
will wait until

the slightest

degree, take off the attention of the
score,

he

it

has ceased.
this

man The

at the

extent
ludi-

to

which some crack shots carry

seems

crous,
will

and yet perhaps they are
if

right.

Some men
paper

not shoot

an empty

shell or a piece of

;

96
is
I

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
lying on the platform in front of them.
I

think

am

as free from

what might be termed fancies
I

as

any one, and yet

am

aware that

I

have missed

many
slight,

shots from one thing or another quite as

— something
my
all
I

catching

my

eye

and

dis-

turbing
" Pull."

attention at the

moment

of calling

Nearly

shooters have their special fads and

fancies, but

think the most curious

I

ever met

with was a

man who would

never shoot, no matter
of

what the weather, without wearing a pair
shoes, to give him, as he said, a

rubber
of the

good grip
finical.

ground.

This

man
and

is is

a very fine shot at the traps

and

in the field,

by no means
I

Another man

whom

know, and than
will,

whom no
every

finer shot exists in shot, slightly raise

America,
his hat

before

from his head and

replace
to give
their

it

again.

Others breathe upon their hands
;

them a firmer grip of the gun some wipe hands for the same reason some think they
;

can only shoot well

in a thin-soled pair of boots

others believe in wearing thick soles, and so on.

Now,
ally

are these
in

mere fancies

?

There
all

is

generif

something

them, and, at

events,
it,

a

man

has a fancy, he would better
is

humor

for

nothing

so necessary for good, effective shooting

The Shot-gun and
as for a
tion,

its

Handling

97

man

to feel that his gun, his

ammuni-

and everything about him, including himself,

are right.

Absolute freedom for the arms and a firm bed
for the butt of the

gun

are very essential.

Starched

shirt fronts, brace buckles

where the butt
is

of

coming on the shoulder the gun will rest, a coat which
will

so loose that
is

it

wrinkle differently each
or,

time the gun

thrown up,

on the other hand,

one that

in

any way holds the arm, or a waistcoat
as the

which
catches

is

not cut out enough at the arms and

them

gun comes up

to the firing

position, are

all

causes for poor shooting.
better at one part of the day

Most men shoot
in the afternoon,

than at another, some best in the morning, others

and so

on, showing,

I

think, that

good shooting is often a question of good digestion and affected by a man's habits with regard to eating and drinking. As a rule, I think most men shoot well on a comparatively empty stomach, but this is by no means always the case some men
;

also require a little stimulant,

some a good

deal

some do

best with none at

all.

The

position

which different men assume at

the traps varies, and

some

are ridiculously awk-

ward and constrained.

98

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

A

man's position

at the traps

should be per-

fectly free
It is

and unconstrained.

easier for a right-handed shooter to

swing

his
left

gun
left

to the left than to the right, therefore the
left

shoulder and

leg should be in advance,

the

knee very slightly bent, and the body

slightly inclined forward, so as to resist the recoil

of the first barrel

and prevent the shooter being

thrown
be

off his balance.

The

right

knee should
both

straight.

The gun must
hands, the
left

be

firmly

grasped with

holding the barrels just in front of

the fore end, the right grasping the small of butt,

but kept well back so as to get a lateral pull on
the trigger in place of an

upward pressure, the
to fire

reason for this being, that whereas with a lateral
pull

on the trigger the pressure required

the

gun

will

not

be more than three or four

pounds, with an upward pull as

much

as six or
this

seven pounds pressure may be needed, and
increased weight of pull

depress his
flinch,

gun

at the

may cause the shooter moment of firing or
is

to
to

and

in either case a miss

likely to result.

Since the rule as to holding gun to shoulder
before calling " Pull
"

has been changed there has

been great variety of opinion amongst the best

The Shot-gun and
shots as to which position

its

Handling

99

is best,

but the majority

are in favor of keeping the stock fully

shoulder
ing

when

sighting the

" Pull,"

whilst the

up to the gun previous to callremainder hold the gun not

more than two or three inches below the top of the shoulder, and even then they raise it before the bird is on the wing, or, in the case of clay-target shooting, before they have sighted the target.

Some

people
it

when about

to

shoot a pigeon

match think

necessary to go through a course

of training for
I

some days

previous.

believe this to be a mistake, and could

name
per-

several instances that have

come under my
life,

sonal observation where

men by

departing from
especially as

their usual everyday routine of

regards eating and drinking, have shot

much
in

be-

low their average.

There

is

nothing fatiguing to a

man
if,

good
usual,

health in shooting one hundred shots in alternation with his antagonist, especially
as
is

he

sits

down

whilst his antagonist takes his place

at the traps.

As
what

to taking food or stimulant before or during
it

a match

is

impossible to lay

down any

rule
;

suits

one

man
I

is

another man's poison
little

but

as a general rule

think a

stimulant both

L.ofC.

loo

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

before and whilst the
ficial

match

is

in

progress

is

beneto

and helps

to

keep the nerves quiet and

make

the hand and eye

work quickly and

in per-

fect unison.

Once more
It is

I

would

say,

do not be content with

simply bringing your bird
true
it

down and gathering

it.

counts as a dead bird on your score,

but never be satisfied with any shot you

make

unless you are sure you had the bird in the very

centre of your charge.

In nine out of ten crossing shots the birds, even

though gathered, are shot with the outer edge
the charge and not with the centre.
afraid of shooting too far ahead,
to miss
it

of

Don't be
easier

is

much

by shooting behind.

A

crossing bird at

forty yards struck with the centre of the charge,

when

a proper load and a proper pigeon

gun

is

used, will double

up and
no

fall

stone dead.

A

man who

finds

fault with himself, as bird
killed, will

after bird falls

only partially

soon miss

one and then perhaps several
will

in succession.

He

wonder why he is doing so, and think he is holding the same as when he was killing. So he
is,

almost, but not quite.

At

first

he was getting

his birds with the outside of the
later

charge only, but

he

failed to

do even

that.

At

first

he was

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling
leading

loi
still

not leading enough, later he was
less.

To

get a big lead on a pigeon, provided you are
i.e.

keeping up your swing,

that the muzzle of

your gun
it

is

following the exact flight of the bird,

is

only necessary to

move

the muzzle very

slightly indeed,

much
at

less

than most people sup-

pose.

For instance,
it is

an object forty yards away

from you

only necessary to deflect the muzzle

three inches to

make

the body of the shot strike
left,

eight feet higher, lower, to right or

as the

case

may

be.
this,

In connection with

don't forget that

I

have
bird

before called attention to the fact that a

crossing you at right angles flying at the slow rate
of forty miles
fly

an hour and forty yards away

will

eight feet during the interval of time that will

elapse between your pulling the trigger and the
instant that the shot will reach the point he
is

passing.

Putting these two facts together and
in

bearing them

your mind

will

be of great

assist-

ance to you in pigeon shooting.
that forty miles an hour
is

Only remember

the rate of speed of an
I

ordinary crow, or perhaps

should say a crow

under ordinary conditions, but the word seems
really to
fit

the bird so well

I

feel inclined to leave

I02
it

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

there.

A

pigeon usually

flies

very

much

faster,

probably more than sixty miles an hour, up to
eighty or ninety under special conditions.
I

cannot lay too

much

stress

upon the necessity
after

of

being able to use the

first

barrel with lightning-

like rapidity

and following with the second
This
it

scarcely an appreciable pause.

is

not always
absolutely

necessary or even advisable, but

is

necessary with some birds and under certain conditions,

such as a gale of wind, an extremely short
fast bird.

boundary, or an unusually

Nothing shows the difference between a good and an indifferent pigeon shot more than the
ability the first will display in

judging the right
is

time in which to shoot.
certain,

A

beginner

almost

when an

extra fast bird leaves the trap,

to be slower in using his first barrel, at all events,

than he would have been had the bird not been
so quick on the wing;
whilst the

experienced

shot will be quicker than usual on that description of bird.

In the winter of 1893-94 a picked team of the
best four amateurs of

New York

challeno;ed an

equal

number

of Philadelphia

amateurs to shoot

a match at the traps.

The

challenge was promptly

accepted by the Riverton Club, of Philadelphia,

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

103

who named
shooting
in

as a

team four men who were then
form

wonderful
them.

and had carried

everything before

Macalester, Yale Dolan,

Tom

These were Charles Dando, and Bob
where

Welch,
the
first

all

members

of the Riverton Club,

It

match was would be hard
else,

to be shot.

or anywhere

to find four men in America, who would have felt at all con-

fident of beating these

men, either singly or as a
comparatively speaking,

team.

They were
at least,

all,

though not old

in years, yet old as

pigeon shots,

and two,

had made

their record in

Europe

;

but they were

all

what would be termed

delib-

erate shots at that time.

the

The day of the match two teams journeyed down together by train
Riverton,

from Philadelphia to
such a
terrific

and there was
it

gale blowing that
rails.

easily rocked

the carriages on the

When we

reached the

ground, which

is

very exposed, branches of trees

and shingles
flying in
all

off the roof of the club

house were
twenty-

directions.

The boundary was

one yards, and consisted of a three-foot wire fence.

The wind was
out-goers

directly behind
fast lot,

the birds, which
all

were an exceptionally
;

and made them
the

each

man was

to shoot at fifty birds.

The New York team

consisted of

late

I04

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

George Work, Edgar Murphy, Fred Hoey, and
myself,

and without an exception we were
all

all

quick shots and

shot throughout the match,
style,

which lasted a long time, in the same quick

letting the first barrel off as the bird left the trap,

and never pausing on the second.
theirs before

The

conseof

quence was that our score was a long way ahead

many rounds had been

shot and that
shot, a

we won
weeks

easily.
later,

A

return

match was

few

at

the Westminster
I.,

Kennel Club
team,

grounds, Babylon, L.

between the same two

teams, when, fortunately for the

New York

was again blowing directly behind the birds, and again we scored a victory. I have mentioned this to show that, under these exceptional conditions, the

a high wind, though not this time a gale,

men who

could shoot quickest were the

winners, though had the conditions been reversed,
it

would have been hard

to

pick the winning

team.

Always be on your guard when pigeon shooting against acquiring some bad habit; you

may

do

this
;

without being aware of

it,

unless on the

watch

such as leaning too

much

forward, a com-

mon
to

habit, acquired

from a too great eagerness
bird, or getting into

be quick on your

a ner-

The Shot-gun and
vous, jerky

its

Handling

105
to

way

of

throwing the

gun

the

shoulder;

or,

deUberate

on the other hand, growing too with either barrel, or too snappy;
a pigeon shooter.

equally bad faults, which must be guarded against,

day by day, as long as a man

is

Some Useful General Hints
It

often happens to a

man when
gun over

shooting or

returning

home

after a day's

shooting that he
his back, so

would be glad
It

to sling his

as to leave his hands free.

may

be his hands are so cold that he would
in his pockets, or

like to

keep them

he wants to

carry something else in his hands, or light his
pipe, etc.

When
just long

shooting

I

always carry in

my

pocket a

stout piece of cord, with the ends tied securely,

enough

to pass loosely over the
it

head

and right shoulder and arm, so that

hangs

down on

the right side in a loop.

Pass the stock of your gun through the loop,

muzzle to the front and downward, so that the
cord catches behind the trigger guard.

The

gun,

hanging
hands

like this, is perfectly safe,

and leaves the

free.

io6
I

Gims, Ammtmition, and Tackle
have used
this device

both on horseback and
it.

bicycle,

and can strongly recommend

This same piece of cord often comes in handy
for other purposes, such as temporarily fastening

up a dog,
in

etc.

Never go
need

into the brush without a stout knife
;

your pocket
it.

you never know when you may
pass over the head of a shell

The

ejector

may

and you want
but

to cut a stick to force the shell out.

You may want to build a fire, but can find nothing damp wood then you can slice enough inside
;

wood to start the fire, and the rest is easy. I make it a rule before starting out shooting to run over in my mind the articles I never go without, to make sure that I have them
:

(i)

Gun.

(2) (3) (4)

Ammunition.
Flask.

Matches.

(5) (6)
(7)

Gun

carrier (string).

Knife.

Dog
I

whistle.
this very useful.

And

have found

The Shot-gim and

its

Handling

107

Use and Abuse of Smokeless Powder
Smokeless powders have been
in

use for about

twenty-five years, and yet the average sportsman

knows very
loaded with,

Httle
its

about the powder his shells are

properties, or

why

it

does

its

work,

or where possible danger
there
are

lies

in its use.

That

fewer accidents to guns, or to those

using them, from modern smokeless powders than

used formerly to be the case, when only black

powder was
the people

used,

is

a well-established

fact,

but

if

knew more about
are using,

the action of the

powder they

and

of its properties,

many

of the accidents

which are

of constant occurrence

would be avoided.
In the charge of smokeless powder which
is

in

your gun when
that

it is

loaded, no matter
of

how

small
in

may

be,

you have an element

danger

the
in

powder

itself, if

due care has not been taken

loading the shells

you are using.
it

Properly
safer than

handled, as has been said before,
its

is

equivalent in black powder.

This element of danger arises from the fact
that
all

nitro powders, without

any exception, can

be made to detonate.

This term "detonate" means that the powder

io8

Gims, Ammunition, and Tackle

has been so completely and thoroughly ignited
that
it

evolves

all its

gases in one instantaneous
rapidity that
is

moment, with such extraordinary
any
solid substance
all
it

is

in actual contact with

shattered

to pieces.
for

So

that,

example,

a

comparatively small

quantity of nitro powder lying on a slab of rock,

and ignited

in this

way, would

make

a hole in the
it

rock, although there

was nothing

to confine

in

any other direction.
But to do
in contact
sive,

this the

powder would have

to be

with a most powerful detonating explofifty

such as

grains of fulminate of mercury,

whereas the ordinary quantity of that fulminate
in a shell
is

one-quarter grain.
it

To
borne

understand this thoroughly
in

should be

A

mind a form of explosion. stick of wood or a piece of coal or a simple
that
all fire is
is

match burning

exploding

;

that

is

to say,

it is

changing from a
bustion that
ity to

solid

mass

to gas, but the gases
to the

are not being released,
is

owing

slow com-

taking place, with sufficient rapidis

cause what
far as
I

usually termed an explosion.
writ-

So

know, there has been nothing
first

ten since the

smokeless powders came into

use which has conveyed to the shooter any real

The Shot-gun and

its

Handling

109

information as to the actual difference between
the old black powder and the various nitro com-

pounds which have taken For want
of
this

its place.

knowledge there has been
as to

much misconception
to
or,

how

shells

should be

properly loaded, and shooters have had furnished

them

at times shells

which had no proper

force,

on the other hand,
to use.

shells

which were positively

dangerous

distance,

Between these two extremes there is a wide and the shooter should take care that he
that he has in his
safe to use

always has his shells so loaded that he hits the

happy medium, that is, shell which is perfectly
will give

gun

a

and which yet

him

the highest velocity

combined with

the best possible pattern and no undue recoil.

Black powder, noisy, smoky, and bad smelling,

had been
it

in use so long that every

one knew how
at of

should be handled, but

how many sportsmen
all

the present time

smokeless powders,

know how

the

peculiarities

to get the best results,
in their use
?

and how

to avoid

any possible danger
or no

These powders
from their

differ very materially
little

from black
resulting

powder, not only in

smoke

ignition, but in the

extreme sensitive-

ness of the material of which they are composed

no
to the
tions
If

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

way

in

which

it is

ignited,

and the condiby a match,
a

under which the ignition takes place.
black powder
is

ignited, either

percussion cap, a spark of electricity, or by direct
heat,
it

at

once explodes with more or

less violence,
;

according to
say,
if

how

closely

it is

confined

that
plate

is

to

you place black gunpowder on a
it

and
puff,

touch

with a spark,

etc., it

goes off with a

but makes no report and exerts no great force because there
into.
If
is

plenty of space for the gas to escape

confined closely in a cartridge and fired
exerts

same way, it makes a loud report and a considerable amount of pressure.
in the

Nitro powder, on the other hand, will not ignite

when only

a small spark or low degree of heat
is

is

applied, but

far

more

sensitive to the effects of

various degrees of heat
strong.

when

these are high and

Thus, if some black powder were placed upon one plate and an equal quantity of smokeless powder on another, and a very minute spark applied to each in turn, the black

would

ignite,

but

the smokeless would not.
If

the

same conditions were observed, but a
same way
as before, that
is, it

stronger ignition applied, the black powder would

burn
all

in the

would

go

off together in

one quick

puff, whilst the

The Shot-gun and
nitro

its

Handling

m

slowly and even leave
the plate.

powder would now ignite, but would burn some particles unburned on
confine both of these powders in a prop-

Now
apply a

erly loaded shell
still

and place them

in a

gun and
which

more powerful
flash,
;

ignition,

such as the
shell,

cap employed to explode an ordinary
not only gives a hot

but drives the same

through the entire charge
plosion of

you

will

get an ex-

about the same force

in

both cases,
it

but

it

will

be of that gradual form that

will

drive the shot out of the
velocity

gun with an amount

of

which

will

be the same, according to the

charge used, in black as in smokeless.

But
of

if

you again increased very much the power
larger quantity of fulminate of mercury,
different results from the

your igniting agent by using a cap containing

a

much

etc.,

you now get very

two powders.
give the

The

black powder cartridge will
result as before,

same or nearly the same
will

but the nitro powder

probably burn with such
it

enormously increased velocity that
to find

has no time

an

exit for its rapidly
will

forming gases, and

such pressure
that the

be exerted in every direction

gun
this

will burst.

When

happens the powder

is

said to have

112

Gims, Ammunition, and Tackle
;

detonated

in other words,

it

has

all

burned up

in

one moment

of time, in place of a gradual

comof a

bustion taking place.
I

have before mentioned the large quantity
required to
;

detonating agent, such as fulminate of mercury,

which

is

make

a loose

mass
is

of

powder

detonate

but when nitro powder

closely con-

fined in a shell

and that placed

in the barrel of a

gun so as further to confine it, only a small amount of such detonating agent in excess of what is usually used would be required to make the powder in that shell detonate. I have endeavored to show that nitro powder
differs materially

from black, and requires special
results with-

and careful treatment to get the best
out risk of accident.

No

one

is

more

alive to this fact than the

manua

facturer of the powder.

He

can

at will

make

powder which is slower or faster in its initial ignition, and when ignited will burn slower or faster, as is most advisable. His object is to make a powder which will always act the same under
given conditions, and under these conditions will
give the greatest possible velocity without sacrificing the pattern.

He

has to

make

his

powder

suit the ordinary requirements of the shell loader,

The Shot-gun and
and therefore
in the

its

Handling

113

experiments which are always

made

at

every powder factory with each batch of
it is

powder before
ding as
the
the
is

issued, to see that

it is

fully

up

to standard, he uses

such a

shell

and such wad-

generally in use, and the same with

amount of pressure put on the powder and amount of crimp in the turn-over.
shell loaders,
of the

Some
at

however, especially

if

they

have none

mechanical appliances for testing

command which every powder maker has, think that they know a great deal more about how to
else,

load shells than any one
to suit their

and load

their shells

own

fancy, believing that they are

getting a better result by doing so, but entirely

ignorant of the fact that, the powder having been
specially

made

to suit a different set of conditions,

they are either sacrificing pattern to increased
velocity or velocity to pattern, or they

may even

be running the risk of setting up a dangerous

amount

of pressure in the breech of the gun.

The powder maker knows what
often does not,
viz.,

the

shooter
will

that extra hard
fast to
is

wadding

make
the

the

powder burn too
if

give the best

results; that

extra pressure
that

put on the powder
is

same thing occurs;
stiff it will

if

the turn-over

un-

duly

also affect the discharge,

though

114

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

to a less extent, in the

three are done to
violent action
is

same way; but if all these one and the same shell, then a

set up,

— there

is

more
is

recoil,

louder report, more lateral pressure on the chambers of the gun, and the danger point
off.

not far

This too rapid action

is

further increased
of black

if,

as

some people
is

still

do, a

priming

powder
of
I

put into the shell before the charge of nitro
or,

powder,

worse

still,

if

two kinds
shell,

nitro

powder are put

in the

same

which

have

known

to

be done repeatedly, with the conseof the

quent result

bursting of several guns.
is,

The

lesson to be learned by the shooter
is

that
it

whatever powder he

using he must have

loaded according to the directions issued by the

powder manufacturers, and not according vidual whim and fancy.

to indi-

THE HUNTING RIFLE
By Horace Kephart

THE HUNTING RIFLE
A
RIFLE for big

game should shoot
it

accurately,

with low trajectory, and
out blow.
Its
;

should strike a knock-

mechanism should be safe, simple, and positive its trigger-pull, smooth and easy its sights, strong, firmly fitted, and so adjusted to the eye that they will not blur. The stock must
be strong, especially in the grip, and
fit

it

should

the user.

The gun should
rifle
;

not be heavier, at

most, than a military

but the recoil should
stiff

be moderate, and the barrel

enough not

to

jump

or

flip

excessively.

Many sportsmen would go no
in their specifications
;

farther than this

but to

my mind
rifle

there

is

one more quality that a hunting
have
:

ought to

it

should be capable of using cheap and

accurate ammunition suitable for small
target
practice, so

game and

that

its

owner,

by frequent

practice near home,

may become
all

expert in the

use of his weapon.
It is

not possible to have

desirable features,

at their best, in

one and the same gun.
117

Extreme

ii8

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

accuracy, for example, can only be attained by an
inordinately heavy barrel and a
"

weak charge.

A
it

schuetzen

" rifle

may place
at

shot after shot within

an inch of dead centre
is

200 yards range, but

good

for nothing but target-shooting.

Simithat

larly,

we may have
a charge
it

a

6 or 7

pound

rifle

shoots

heavy enough for the largest
its

game, but
recoil
rifle
flict
is

is

not likely to be accurate, and

will

be excessive.

A

practical

hunting

a compromise between qualities that conless

more or

with each other, and one must

know where to draw the line between them if one would make sure of getting an all-round good
weapon.
Rifle

makers turn out a great variety
to suit the

of

arms
of the

and ammunition,
sportsmen in
all

needs and fancies of

parts of the world.
sell

Many
for the

guns and cartridges that they
for special purposes, and, while

are designed

good

work

that they are intended

to perform, they

cannot
In the

be recommended for average hunting.
following remarks
I

will

keep

in

mind what seem
Ameri-

to be the needs of a majority of hunters of

can big game.
I am aware that some of may seem over finely spun.

the details here given
"

Any

rifle

by a good

The Hunting

Rifle

119

maker
hold."

will

shoot closer than the average

man

can

True enough.

But

I

am

writing for

men

who wish to be better than average shots, and who take some pride in superior weapons.

Accuracy
Every
that
fault.
its

rifle

should shoot with such precision

user

may

be sure that a miss
it

is

his

own

This means that

should drive

its

bullets

as close to the

mark

as an expert rifleman can

hold,

under favorable conditions.

Such a man
it

would not be

satisfied with a rifle unless
all
its

could

be relied upon to group nearly

shots in or

on a

I

-inch circle at 25 yards, 2-inch at 50, 4-inch

at 100, 8-inch at 200,

and 12-inch
to use
it

at

300 yards.
ranges

He
but
at

might not expect
if

at longer

the

rifle

were sure
hunting

of the standard bull's-eye
it all

500 yards, he would

like
is

the better.

Men whose
bered regions

confined to thickly tim-

may

be content with a lower standI

ard of accuracy than this; but
too

do not think
for

it

much

to expect of

a

weapon
I

all-round

work, to be used on the plains and mountains, as
well as in

woods and swamps.

do not wish,

however, to be understood as counselling any one

I20
to
risk

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
long shots when there
is

a reasonable
I

chance of getting nearer.

By

a long shot

mean
that

anything beyond 150 yards.

The

notion

improved weapons have more than doubled the
distance at which sure shots can be
is

made

at

game
miles

a delusion.
military

We
rifle
is

read

in newspapers
kill

that a

modern
is

can
;

a

man two

away, and this

true

but we do not read, what

equally true, that the best of

marksmen would
under
rifles,

do well
only

to hit a 40-acre field at that distance,

service conditions.

Similarly with hunting
so
"
:

much more
"

the trajectory of the bullet,

the difficulty of judging distances with precision,

the neutral color of the

mark blending with

the

background, the movements of the game, the
intervention of trees or brush, and
obstacles, often
less,

make long

shots

many other futile. None the
will

a

rifle

should shoot with accuracy to a conit

siderably greater distance than
fair

be used in
it

hunting; because,

if

it

does not,

is

not

likely to

prove accurate at shorter distances, par-

ticularly

when wind
most
part,

is

blowing.
of

The shooting
for the

qualities

a

rifle

depend,
it

on

its

barrel,

and how

is

loaded.

So

far as material
all

and workmanship go,

the barrels of

reputable makers are reliable.

The Hunting

Rifle

121
in designing

them — usually
that
rifle
is

But mistakes are sometimes made
in response to a
infallible.

popular demand

not always

For example, a
chambered.

barrel

may be
if

too thin and springy to shoot
it is

accurately the charge for which

A
or

thin barrel,
flip
is

heavily loaded,

is

likely to

jump
terms

when

discharged.

What
or flip

these

mean

defined by Mr. Carlin in another part

of this book.

The jump

may
In

be fairly
that
it,

constant with a given charge.
the sights can
this is usually

case,

be adjusted

to allow for
factory.

and
the

done

at

the

Then
;

purchaser
so
if

will

not detect any fault in his gun

long as he uses the standard charge

but

he

tries a

reduced load, or perhaps a batch
of

of

cartridges

some other make, he

will

be

puzzled and annoyed by the extraordinary antics
of

his

gun, which will shoot several

inches to

one

side, or

higher or lower, than in

all

reason

it

should, as though possessed by an imp.
barrels
of

The

most military
for instance,

rifles

of

modern type
70 yards

are

longer and

thinner than

they should be.
shot at

The Krag,
tion
sight,

when

with suitable reduced
of

loads, requires

an eleva-

from 325 to 420 yards on the rear and an allowance of from i to ij

122
points

Gtms, Ammtmition, and Tackle
left

windage.

This

is

not

due
this

to

any great difference in trajectory between the
reduced and the service charge, at
range, but to

short

what Dr. Hudson
barrel

calls the " terrific

whip

"

of

the

when

fired

with
for
it

service

charge, and to the correction
rear sight.
I

made
in

on the

have often noticed similar results

from
rifles.

changing

ammunition
I

light

hunting

On

the other hand,

have had a single3

shot
barrel

Winchester .30-40-220 with No.

round

which shot both

full

charges and reduced
with

charges with accuracy and

no change

of

alignment, the elevation being shifted no more

than the trajectories

required.

A
I

Remingtonhad made
to

Lee

of the

same

caliber,

which

order with slowly tapered barrel, although weighing only a fraction over 8 pounds, was similarly
stiff

and

reliable.

The
it

maker's brand has nothis

ing to do with this;
thickness of barrel.

merely a question of

In our reaction from the unnecessarily heavy
rifles

formerly in vogue,
extreme.
its

we

are tempted to

go

to

the opposite

Smokeless

powder

exerts

most

of

pressure in the chamber of
of inches in front of it;

the

rifle

and a couple
all

consequently

of the barrel forward of this

may

STANDING THEM OFF.

The Hunting
be made quite
barrel
is

Rifle
safe.

123

thin,

and yet be

But such a
its

objectionable, not only because of
flip,

tendency to

but because

it

is

too

sensitive
firing,

to varying conditions of heat

from rapid

fouling,

etc.,

and hence does not shoot so

steadily
of

as a thicker barrel.

Another bad feature
it

such
front

a barrel
sight,

is

that
is

requires a very high

which

likely to cause overshooting

when
also

one aims quickly or

in

bad

light,

and

is

more

apt to get
If

knocked out

of

alignment than

a low sight.

weight must be trimmed down,
of the

and none can be spared from other parts
gun, the barrel should be

made

short, with gradual

taper from breech to muzzle, the front sight being
set

low on the
for a

barrel.

A

24-inch barrel

is

long

enough

magazine

rifle.

The

character

and
to

distribution

of

breech
of stock

mechanism and the bend and stoutness
have something
qualities,

do with a
in

rifle's

shooting

but not enough to be considered here.
factor

The
rifle
is

chief

a

rifle's

accuracy
"

is

its

ammunition.
of
less

In these days

the

make

"

of a

consequence than the choice of
is

a cartridge.

It

much more

to the point for a

rifleman to study the differences between, let us
say,

a .30-30-160 and a .30-40-220, than to

124

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
merits
of

argue the respective
or what not.
novices,
fact

a

Winchester,

Marhn, Mannlicher, Remington, Savage, Stevens,
This
to
will

sound
old

like heresy to

many
is

and

some

marksmen, but
First
it.

it

a

capable of demonstration.
;

choose a

cartridge
If

then a gun to handle

the reader will pardon a slight digression,

I

will

say here that the subject of breech mechanif

isms,

thoroughly treated, would require a vol-

ume.

I

have only space to

call attention to a

few

general principles that should be borne in mind

when making
workmanship,

a choice.
if

As

for

materials

and

one

is

not himself a good judge,
is.

he should consult some one who

Any good
forg-

mechanic can immediately detect malleable
ings or faulty finish.
to look well

Cheap guns may be made
of soft or brittle

on the outside, though their essential
metal and

working parts may be
roughly finished.
block
is

See that the bolt or breechbecause

capable of pushing into the chamber a
it

shell that protrudes a little

is is

slightly

over

size.

A

more important matter
This must be

the ex-

tracting

mechanism.

of

strong
par-

material and powerful action.
ticularly single-shot

Some
test

rifles,

weapons, are defective in this
rifle,

respect.

In a repeating

the feed of

The Hunting

Rifle

125

cartridges from magazine to chamber, holding the

gun

in various positions.

If

there

is

any tendency
especial at-

to jam, reject the

gun

at once.
rifle

Pay
is

tention to this matter in a
zine.

with tubular maga-

Be sure

that the trigger-pull
"

smooth and
and has
de-

positive, not "

creepy

or irregular.
is

Other things

being equal, a bolt-action gun

stronger,

simpler mechanism than one operated by a lever;

but

it

is

more awkward
which
can

to fire rapidly.
rifle

It is

cidedly advantageous to have a

the mechan-

ism of

be dismounted without a

screw-driver or other tool.

The

fewer the parts

and the more
complicated
them,
it

easily they are

dismounted and
actions are so

assembled, the better.
that,
if

Some

rifle

anything goes wrong with

may

take a hunter an hour or more to

take them apart and put them together again.

Remember
in regions

that rifles for big

game
;

are to be used
that your only
it

remote from gunsmiths
at the

tool

may

be a screw-driver; and that even

may

be reposing
drift.

bottom

of

some creek

or snow-

The

accuracy or

inaccuracy of ammunition

can only be determined by experiment.
there are a few general principles that

Yet
aid

may

one

in the selection of a cartridge.

126

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
at

Smokeless powder, formerly very bad, has
last

been improved, until we have one or two

brands that are as reliable as black gunpowder.
Since smokeless powder has unquestionable advantages,
is I

will

here assume that black powder

obsolete.

Bullets for

high-power
be.

rifles

are

not always
fit

what they should

The shape and
lay

of

mantled bullets are of the utmost concern to a

marksman.
of

Here we may

down

a few rules

thumb
1.

that will

be found to work well in

practice.

An

ill-proportioned

or

misshapen bullet

will

be more erratic when flying at high velocity

than when moving slowly.
2.

Bullets

with

hollow points are likely to
spirally),

"

corkscrew

" (drift

and have a tendency

to

tumble and "keyhole," unless they are long
holes.

and have shallow
3.

Bullets with split points are liable to
fly wild.

open
not

prematurely and
4.

Accuracy

at

200 yards and upwards

is

to be

expected of any bullets that are shorter

than
3 times their caliber, for
.25 caliber bullets,

2^ times

their caliber, for .30 to .35 caliber bullets,

The Hunting

Rifle

127

2 times their caliber, for .40 to .45 caliber bullets,

if times their caliber, for
5.

.50 caHber bullets.^

A

mantled bullet does not upset from the
;

force of explosion

consequently

it

must be large
rifling
it
;

enough
wise
its

to

fill

the grooves of

the

comother-

pletely, so that
flight

no gas can escape past
will

be unsteady.

So small a

deficiency in diameter as a thousandth of an inch

work mischief, and will cause a good rifle to be condemned when the only fault is a loose
will
bullet.

Since

rifle

barrels

are

not bored with

absolute uniformity (differences of several thou-

sandths of an inch being sometimes found in
barrels
^

that

are

supposedly of the same

cali-

Bullets should not be lighter than the following, unless used at
:

shorter ranges than 200 yards
.25 caliber, 115 grains

.40 caliber, 300 grains
.45 caliber,

.30 caliber, 160 grains .32 caliber, 165 grains
.38 caliber, 250 grains

350 grains

.50 caliber, 400 grains

In .25, .30, and .32 caliber the weight
larger calibers
if
it

may well be

greater, but in
recoil,

cannot be increased much without excessive

charges giving upwards of 1800 feet a second velocity are used.

Such cartridges
which have

as the .38-40-180, .44-40-200,

and .50-110-300,

bullets of only i^ to i\ calibers length, are not reliable

beyond 150 yards.
their drift

The .45-70-300 and

.45-90-300, with bullets

of If calibers length, are of doubtful accuracy
is

beyond 200 yards, and

an extra 50 grains of lead improves them, but increases both pressure and recoil.
quite noticeable
;

;

128
ber),

Guns, Ammiinition, and Tackle
nor are mantled bullets made of precisely

uniform diameter, the bullets should be made a

shade larger than the distance between grooves
the rifling.
of our

of

Marked improvement
rifles

in the shooting

Krag

has followed the use of superactual diameter of a bullet
caliber.

caliber bullets.
is

The

not that of

its

nominal

The
of .400

difference

is

sometimes very marked, as

in the .38-40-180,

and the .44-40-200, which are
inch diameter, respectively.

and .424

The
caliber
bullets
fitting

trouble
rifles

formerly experienced with small

using nitro

powder and mantled

was mostly due
bullets.

to poor

powder and

ill-

Improvements have been made

within the last year or two, and

we now have
is

some

rifles

and ammunition of high velocity that

shoot very accurately.

A

notable example
velocity

the

new .32-40-165 H. V. (muzzle
ten consecutive shots can be
circle

somewhat

over 2000 feet a second), with which groups of

made

in a 4-inch

at

200 yards, shooting from a
rifle.

common

hunting

Trajectory
Probably not one rifleman in ten ever takes the
trouble to test the trajectory of his

ammunition

The Hunting
yet
I

Rifle

129

do not know how a few hours could be

spent more profitably by one

who

wishes to

know

what
what

his rifle can do, and,
it

even more important,

cannot do.

Misses from shooting over or

under the game are more frequent than
others,

any

and they are often caused by misjudging

the allowance to be the bullet.

made

for the curved flight of

Men whose
trajectories.

practice with rifles

is

limited to
"

short range target shooting take no account of

They merely
firing,

" find

the bull's-eye

by experimental

and then take no heed

of

anything but accuracy at a measured distance.
I

have a wide acquaintance among target shoot-

ers,

and have shot with them hundreds
are

of times.

Among them
some
a

some

successful

hunters, and

ex-soldiers

who know how

to allow for dis;

tance in shooting over unfamiliar ground
class,

but, as

our city target shooters have

little

or no
field.

experience with practical

weapons

in

the

Many of them are extraordinarily fine shots at known distances better than nine-tenths of our

hunters and soldiers, but they have more to learn

about practical marksmanship than the hunters

have to learn about tarwts. I have O seen a squad of them, after firing at 200 yards
soldiers

and

130

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
rarely missing the bull's-eye, suddenly turn

and

their rifles

upon an
it

inquisitive rabbit that

bobbed

up on the range not 50 yards away, and
bullet

— not a

touched

!

Not
to

a

how much allowance
longer range.

man in the squad knew make for the rise of the

bullet at that short distance, with sights set for a

Even among experienced hunters there

are

many who
that his
is still

hold very absurd theories about the

flight of bullets.
rifle

The
"

old

woodsman who swears
level " for

shoots

dead
is

200 yards

with

us,

and so

fondly believes the

new woodsman who statements of some gun catathe
"

logues about shooting

practically point-blank

"

up

to

300 yards.
a matter of
rifles

As

fact,

bullets

from the best

of

modern
for 200,

rise

from 4
to

to 6 inches

above the
sighted

line of fire at

100 yards when the

rifle is

and from 12
for

18 inches at 150 yards

when sighted
"practically

300.

This

is

by no means
at

point-blank."
at

Most shots
high
will

big

game
range
to say

are

made

from 50 to 100 yards, and a
inches too
I

bullet flying
is

several

at

short

a bullet badly aimed.

have more

about this under the head of "Adjusting

for Zero."

Meantime the reader

is

referred to

The Hunting

Rifle

131

the trajectory data given in the
table
;

accompanying
rifles

but with the warning that

have their

personal equations, and also that trajectories vary

according to atmospheric density.

In the table

no allowance
of sight

is

made

for the angle between line

and

line of

fire,

which varies according
above axis
of
of bore.
rifle

to the height of front sight

Nothing short
itself,

of

actual
first

test

each

for
at

by shooting

at

one distance, then

same elevation of can teach one what his rifle will do. should do such testing for ourselves.
another, with the
" It

rear sight,

All of us

wad

frae

monie a blunder

free us,

And
In
all

foolish notion."

kinds of hunting with the
is

rifle

a low

trajectory

a high merit; but
it.

it

is

the

ammu-

nition, not the gun, that gives

Killing Power
It is

neither

humane nor sportsmanlike merely
Instant death
as
is

to cripple

an animal.

the true

sportsman's motto.
best

So long

we
is

eat meat, the
to put

we can do for our victims

them
bullet,

out of the
sible.

way

as quickly

and painlessly as posan

For

this

reason

expanding

132

Gtms, Ammiinition, and Tackle

driven at high velocity so as to deHver a smash
ing,

knock-out blow,

is

not the barbarous missile
it is.

some good people think trary, it is the most humane
that

On

the con-

projectile that

we
its

can use.

The
and
its

killing

power

of a bullet

depends upon

weight, velocity, diameter

when

upset by impact,

ability to penetrate far

enough

to strike
to

a vital organ, deal

a paralyzing shock

the

nerve centres, or exhaust the animal by loss of
blood.

The

penetration of full-mantled bullets, such
is

as those of military cartridges,

excessive from

a hunter's standpoint.
will

A

.30 Krag, for example,
tree,

shoot through a large

or through the
little

length of almost any animal, with
tion of the bullet.
If

deforma-

such a missile strikes an
it

animal through the brain or spinal cord,
kill
it
;

will

or

if

it

strikes

an organ distended by

fluid

may, by hydrostatic pressure, produce a burstkills.

ing effect that
tional.
If

But such shots are excepprobably run

a bullet of this sort hits the abdominal
far,

viscera, the beast will

and may
is

escape, to die a lingering death.
hit, it
is

If

a bone

not likely to be shattered.

An

animal

shot through the soft parts of the body by such

The Hunting

Rifle

133

a bullet feels only a sharp sting at the time, as

though a whip had been smartly cracked on

it.

The

bullet, piercing easily,
its

expends but a small
the victim.

part of

momentum upon
to

Another objection
bullets
in

the use of full-mantled

hunting

is

that they are
trees,

not easily
etc.,

stopped by branches of

brush,

and

are dangerous to hunters and others

who may

be *within their range but beyond view of the
firer.

The

best results are obtained with solid bullets

the side and base of which are incased in hard
metal, but with the soft lead core left exposed at

the

point.

Such

projectiles,

known
to

as

"soft-

points,"

when properly made
normal

are very destructive,

as their points

expand on impact
diameter,

much more
large
It
is

than

their

making a
shock.

wound and imparting
essential

a

severe

that such bullets should be driven at
If

high speed in order to upset properly.
point lodges in an animal, the
full
it.

a softits

force of
If,

momentum
contrary,
its
it

is

expended upon

on the

goes clear through the body or limb,

hole of exit will be so large that the beast
is

bleeds freely and
the result
is

easily trailed.

In either case

likely to be deadly.

134

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
is

Dissatisfaction with soft-point bullets

some-

times expressed, on the score that they expand too readily, or prematurely fly to pieces, and

hence

fail

to penetrate deeply
If

enough
it

to inflict

a mortal wound.

this happens,

is

because

the mantel was too thin or too soft, too

or because

much

of

the

lead

core

was exposed, or

because the bullet was too short.
latter fault,

As

for

the

one should consider

it

before select-

ing a

rifle.

Compare,
at the

for example, the

.30-30-160
If

and the .30-40-220,
lets

in this respect.

both bul-

travel

same

velocity and

meet the
inside

same
ficial

obstacle, the former

may be turned
owing
to
its

out, or

may go

to pieces, inflicting only a superlatter,

wound, where the

greater

length and weight, and harder envelope, would

only

mushroom

at the

point, leaving the long,

firmly encased

body

of

the

bullet

intact,

thus

ensuring ample penetration.
says in his
is

What Van Dyke
hollow-point bullets
:

" Still

Hunter
of

" of

equally

true

soft-points

"

Penetration

is

just as essential as striking surface.

... If the ball is to penetrate or crush far, it must have momentum. To have momentum, it must have weight. To have weight, it must hold together.
. .
.

There must be weight behind

to force the

The Hunting
widening front
solid flesh, or
of

Rifle
ball

135

an expansive

through
of the

even through the contents

stomach."

By

firing into

a clay bank free from gravel,
bullets,

and digging out the

one can judge

fairly

well whether the soft-points will merely mush-

room, as they should, or

will

fly

to

pieces on

big-boned animals covered with thick hair and

tough hides.

Ever since small-bore

rifles

began

to

be used

in

war and

in the chase, there has

been a

lively dis-

cussion as to the relative killing powers of large

and small

calibers.
is

At

least,

that
;

is

the form in
it is

which the question

usually put

but

a loose

way
ber,

of stating the point at issue,

and

is

likely to
cali-

lead far afield.

More than
If

a mere matter of

and more even than

killing power, underlies

the discussion.

the latter were the only factor

to be considered, then nearly every
after big

one who went

game would

take a large caliber

weapon
best to

using ammunition of high velocity, as a matter of
course,
err

on the general principle that
safe side.
of clearness let us

it

is

on the

For the sake
"small-bore"
caliber.
It is
is

assume that by
of less

meant any

rifle

than .33

convenient to draw the line here

136

Gtms, /Ammunition, and Tackle
it

because

will include
rifles,

under small-bores
all

all

mod-

ern military

and

sporting

rifles

that use

The many sportsmen because the
military ammunition.
to carry

latter are

favored by

cartridges are lighter

and easier

to procure in unsettled regions

than larger ones.

There are many
call "

riflemen, too,
rifle,"

who want what
yet

they

a good all-round
to kill big

which shoots hard enough

game and
in."

may be used
targets,

with satisfaction on small game,

or at

"to keep one's hand
of

Few
rifles

Americans carry a "battery"

different

when they go
they

hunting, no matter

how many guns
if

may own.

Such men

prefer small-bores

they will do the work.
Killing power depends
tration.

upon shock and pene-

Shock
is

varies as the energy or

momenof

tum

that

checked by the victim's body, and the
hit.

sensitiveness of the part

The amount
and the

energy checked depends upon the striking force
of the bullet, its striking surface,
resist-

ance encountered.

At
that
I

the end of this section will be found a table

have prepared, giving the

ballistic qualities

of those

smokeless cartridges that are at present

most used
and
of a

America for hunting large game, few black powder cartridges that are inin

The Hunting
troduced for comparison.
to the fact that this table
I

Rifle
call special

137
attention

and the present discus-

sion relate only to ammunition, and not to differ-

ent

makes of

rifles.

In order clearly to distinguish
it is

the various cartridges from each other,

necesas,

sary to give

them

their

factory names,

for

example, .38-55 H. V. Marlin, .38-55 H. V. Winchester, 7
arfd so

mm. Spanish Mauser,
;

8

mm.

Mannlicher,

on

but these terms do not necessarily de-

note the

rifles

from which they are
for example, are

shot.

Remto use

ington-Lee
cartridges

rifles,

made

designated
U.S.A.,

as
etc.
;

Remington,

Mauser,

Mannlicher,

some

Savage

and

Stevens

rifles

use

cartridges

called

Marlin or
rifles

Winchester; some Marlin and Winchester
use ammunition that
uals
is

interchangeable

;

individ-

sometimes

fit

a barrel of one
;

action of another

make

and so

on.

make to an The make

of rifle cuts practically

no figure so
of

far as ballistic

qualities are concerned. in

There may be differences
grooves and twist of

number and depth

rifling,

but these differences are so slight in the

barrels of various

makes

that a given cartridge

will give practically the same results in all well-

made
use
it,

rijles

that are bored, chambered,

and rijled to

length of barrels being the same.

138

Guns, Ammunitwn, and Tackle
its

In the table are given for each cartridge

muzzle energy and the remaining energy
bullet at
1

of the

50 yards.

These are computed by Mr.

Carlin's formulcc.

The

values of

— are calculated w
example, the
10),

from the actual diameter of the bullet in each
case.

This often varies considerably from the
rifle (note, for

nominal caliber of the

•35 Winchester, .38-40, .44-40, and .50-1
it is

and

the only accurate datum.

The

other figures

are

furnished by the

Winchester, Marlin,
I

and

Union Metallic Cartridge companies.
that
I

regret

was not

able, at the

time the table was

compiled, to give the exact figures for the 9

mm.

Mannlicher and 9 mm. Mauser cartridges. They vaiy but little from those of the .35 Winchester,

which may be considered as typifying them.
Glancing
at the "

energy

"

columns
is

of the table,

we
at

see at once that caliber alone
all.

no

criterion at

Here is a cartridge of only .28 caliber that has more energy at all ranges than another of .50
Neither
ciency.
let of .31
is

caliber.

weight any index, by

itself,

of

effi-

The energy of
1

the 219-grain Mauser bul-

caliber

is

about the same at the muzzle

as that of the 450-grain .50-100 black

powder

The Hunting
cartridge,

Rifle

139

and

it

quickly gains as the distance
relative

increases. bullet

The speed and

length of

are very important

factors in developing

and sustaining energy.
It will

be noticed, too, that the penetration of
bullets
in

soft-point

pine

compares favorably
In

with that of the unsheathed lead bullets used in
the large caliber
steel
it

rifles

using black powder.
theirs.

is

greater than
of

Of

course, full-

mantled bullets
be used
if

much

greater penetration

may

preferred.
for the table.
It
it

So much
of

shows the amount
cannot show how

energy developed,
is

but

much

utilized in a

given case.

That depends

largely

upon the

striking surface and the resistis

ance met.

The advantage
all

generally with a large
its

caliber bullet, unless the missile lodges in

victim

and thus spends

of its

energy upon

it,

in

which
is

case the bullet of greatest striking energy

the

most

effective, regardless of caliber.

As

regards the expansion of soft-point bullets,

I

have never personally seen a failure, unless the
shooter ignorantly used a reduced charge of powder.

When

properly loaded they will expand on

a rabbit's paunch.
to

Neither have

I

seen a failure
fairly struck.

smash bone, when the bone was

HO
There
after

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle
is,

however, some danger of a short and

light soft-point failing to penetrate deeply

enough

passing through a cushion of thick hair
hide.

and

This

is

as true of large calibers as
is

of small ones.
bullet.

The remedy

a long, heavy

Personally,

I

would not use full-mantled

bullets

on any American game.
lets is

The
"

fault of
"

such bultissue.

that
all

they do not

pulp

enough

There are

sorts of directions in

which an

ani-

mal may be pierced through and through by a
non-expanding bullet and seem
it;
little

the worse for
its

but there are comparatively few parts of
in

body
not

which a properly expanding

bullet will

damage important nerves or blood-vessels, and thus communicate a shock to the whole system that will knock a good deal of the fight out of it.
Yet there are amazing exceptions sometimes.
I

do not

like to

go

into such details

;

but this

is

a technical discussion.

Every one who has had
field

much

experience in the

has witnessed

in-

stances of vitality in wild animals (not speaking
of species, but of individuals) that

his senses

— has seen one shot through the brain
fight with fury until
it

made him doubt

and

still

crawl into a den, or another literally dis-

embowelled and yet

dropped

The Hunting
from sheer loss
of blood.

Rifle

141

An

animal apparently

dead may spring upon the melodramatic greenhorn who approaches to bleed
it,

and may upset

both his calculations and his equilibrium.
it is

an old maxim among hunters of
till

Hence big game to

"

shoot

the critter's down, and then put a bulits

let

through
I

head."

give below

my

personal opinions of the relaof the various

tive killing

power

smokeless carI

tridges in the table that follows.

never

knew

any one's opinion
lenged
err
it
;

in

such matters

to
I

go unchalfound to

but

I

believe that

where

am
fit

will

be on the safe

side.

In ranking the .30
for grizzly

New

Springfield
I

among
for

cartridges

bear hunting,
bullet will be

forecast that a reliable expanding
it,

made
as

which

is

no great

task.
it

The

superior ballistics of this cartridge place
itself

in

a class by

compared with

all

other small-

bores on our

list.

The

grizzly

and

his big cousin,

the Kadiak bear, are formidable brutes

— quite

as

much

so, in

the opinion of competent judges, as
of the

any animals

Old World

;

and he who hunts

them takes
of his

his chances, whatever be the caliber

weapon.

The work
killing

calls for a

good man

behind a good gun.
I

would rank the

power

of the following

142

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

cartridges

strongest

:

about as stated, beginning with the

For Grizzly Bears.
1

Calibers, .30 to .50.

Energies at 150 yards,

32 1 to igj I foot-pounds.

Petietration, 13 /^ 15 inches.
.30 Springfield.

.405 Winchester.

9mm.
•35

Mauser.

.50-110 H. V.*
-45-90 H. V.* 8

9 mm. Mannlicher.
Winchester.

7.65

mm. Mannlicher. mm. Mauser.

B
For Moose,
7

Elk, Caribou,
iz^)"]

etc.

Calibers, .30 to .45.

Energies at 150

yards, 835 to

foot-pounds.

Penetration, 10 to 14 inches.

mm. Mauser.
U.S.A. (Krag).

-38-55 H. V.

.30

.32-40 H. V.
.32

.303 British (Lee-Metford).

Winchester.

.45-70-300 H. v.*
.33

.303 Savage.

Winchester.

For Deer, Black Bear,
to
.44.

Antelope, Sheep, Goats,
to

etc.

Calibers, .25

Energies at 150 yards, 479
Penetration, 9^ to
12

ji^j

foot-

pounds.
.30-30.

inches.

.38-40 H. v.* .44-40 H. v.*

.25-36.
•25-35-

The

cartridges starred (*) are not

recommended

for shots

beyond

150 yards.

It

will
if,

save

a

rifleman

much

trouble

and
will

chagrin

when he buys ammunition, he

The Hunting

Rifle

143
of the carlabel

invariably give the full trade
tridge wanted, and personally
of every

name

examine the
It will

box that he buys, to make sure that the

clerk has

made no

mistake.

not do, for

example, merely to say, "Give

me some

.32-40
five

Marlin smokeless cartridges."

There are

different .32-40 Marlin cartridges using
less

smoke-

powder, with velocities ranging from 1575 to over 2000 feet a second, not to mention a dozen

other .32-40 cartridges that can be used in the

same gun.

Especially should one guard against

getting low power smokeless ammunition

high velocity cartridges are wanted.
these
is

when Each of
rifle.

good

in its way, but they

cannot be used
the

interchangeably

without
test just
it,

re-sighting

Find out by actual

what cartridge pleases

you best; then

stick to

and examine the

label

on every box

of

ammunition that you buy.

144

Gtuis,

Ammunition, and Tackle
BALLISTIC

DATA OF

(Results are variable, being affected by atmos-

Velocity

Cartridgb

Diameter Weight Value of
OF OF

Bullet

Bullet
At Muzzle

At 150
yards

inch

grams

feet

feet

25-35 Winchester 25-36 Marlin

.

.

.

....
.

.257 .257

117 117 173 160

3-952

1925

1497

3-952
3-271

2000 2260
1885

1559 1837

mm.

Spanish Mauser

.

.2843
.306 .308
.308

30-30 W. and Marlin 30-40 U.S.A. (Krag)
30 Springfield 303 Savage

.

.

4.097
3.018 3.018
3-761

.

.

220 220
180
215

i960

1450 1622
1861

....

2250
1840
i960

303 British
65

mm. Mauser mm. Mannlicher

....
. .
.

•3" •3" •3"
•317
•319 •319

3-149 3-093
3-099

1445 1608 1648 1648 1033 1523
1519

219 227
165 165 165

2000
2000
1385

32-40 Black Powder

.

.

4-317 4-317

32-40 High Velocity 32 Winchester Special
.

.

2000
2000

.

.3205
•336
.358
•375
•375

33 Winchester 35 Winchester

.... ....
. . .
. .

4-358
3-951

200

2000 2150
I321

1560
1717 XO59

250
255 255 255 180
180

3-589

38-55 Black Powder 38-55 H. V. Marlin

3.860 3.860

1700
1593 1268

1322 1240
955 146

38-55 H. V. Winchester 38-40 Black Powder
.

•375

3.860
6.222 6.222
3-941

.

.400

38-40 H.

V

.400

1700

1

405 Winchester 44-40 Black Powder

....
. .

.411

.424

300 200

2204
1245

1720

6.292 6.292 3-594

943
1039

44-40 H.

V
.

.424 •456 •456 •456
.456 .512
.512

200
405 300

1500
1275 1825

45-70-405 Black Powder 45-70-300 H. V. . . 45-90-300 Black Powder

1046
1333 1098 1410
1061

4.852
4.852 4.852
6.117
6.1 17

300
300

1480
1925

45-90-300 H. V. 50-1 10-300 Black Powder
.
.

.

300
300

1536 2150
1383

50-110-300 H. V.

.

.

.

50-100-450 Black Powder

.512

450

4.078

1458 1084

The Hunting
CERTAIN CARTRIDGES

Rifle

145

pheric conditions, length of rifle-barrels, etc.)

Ene

146

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle

Rapidity of Fire

There are
rifle is

certain points in

which a single-shot

superior to a repeater.
its

A

larger propor-

tion of

total

weight

is

in the barrel,

and

this

makes
equal.

for greater accuracy, other things being

A

single-shot

rifle

can have a

Lyman

or other aperture sight placed on the tang, and
at the

proper distance from the eye, whereas

only those repeaters that have short bolts, or
bolts that
this.
rifles

withdraw inside the
it

action, will permit

In general,

may be

said that single-shot

permit the use of more accurate sights than

repeaters do.
set triggers,

They

also are better adapted to
in

which are a decided advantage
though not

deliberate offhand shooting,
at

in firing
all

running game.

They can be

(but not

of

them are) simpler and stronger in mechanism, and less liable to get out of order, than magazine rifles; though in this respect some of our boltaction military and sporting rifles leave little to
be desired.

marksman, who depends on making every shot count, will do more accurate shootfirst-class

A

ing with a single-shot
rear

rifle,

fitted

with aperture
sights,

and

open wind-gauge front

and

The Hunting
double set triggers of
"

Rifle
" pattern,

147

schuetzen
rifle.

than

The very fact pump lead will make him a that he cannot more careful stalker and a deadlier marksman than he who relies on rapid fire. To those who do not hunt for count, but who take an honest
he
will

with a repeating
"

"

pride in skilful woodcraft and clean
first

kills at

the

shot,

the

light-triggered

and fine-sighted
artist's

single-loader

will

ever remain the true
is

weapon.

Theirs

the school of the nail driver

— that

good old school of the American backwoodsman, who tanned his boy's jacket for every miss, or of the South African Boer, who said to
his son
:

"

Here
I

is

a cartridge

;

go fetch

me

an

antelope."

would there were no other school

for riflemen to-day.

From
from

the flint-lock to the percussion system,
to

muzzle-loaders

breech-loaders,

from

single-shots to repeaters, from magazines

worked

by hand to automatics or
are inevitable.

self-loaders, these are

stages of mechanical progress, no doubt, and they

The day in which the rifleman becomes a scatter-gunner, by raining lead from an automatic, has come, and with it true marksmanship
declines.
rifles

But we must bow to
are

facts.

Repeating

more convenient,

in

some

148

Guns, Ammumtion, and Tackle

and they are safer, to the extent that the chamber may be left empty,
respects, than single-shots,

with the magazine
use.

filled

and ready

for

instant

They

are

good

for stopping crippled

game,

and, once in a long while, to forestall the mauling
of a hunter.
tail

Some
it is

of us

have seen even a whiteits

buck turn
testify that

fiercely

upon

assailant,
at.
is

and
But

I I

can

not to be sneezed
that, unless

have often thought

one

seeking

undeniably dangerous game, he should give the

animal that turns upon him a fairer fight than by
riddling
it

with a repeater.
rifles

Lever-action magazine
bolt-actions in

are superior to
fire,

rapidity of

aimed

and autoin this re-

matics, of course, outclass
spect.

them both

While on this subject, I feel bound to condemn the use of automatic .22's on wild-fowl or other birds in flight. It does not seem as though one owner of such guns, out of ten, realizes or
cares

how
life,

far they will carry,

and endanger huat

man

when they

are
is

fired

high angles.

Nobody but
of them.

the shooter

safe within half a mile

As

for automatic
is

rifles

for big

game, sports-

manlike sentiment

against them.

They tempt

young hunters

to rely

more upon luck than upon

The Hunting
skill,

Rifle

149
the

and are

likely to increase

number

of

paunch-shot or broken-legged cripples in proportion to the clean
kills.

On

the other hand,

when
be

a cool and accurate

marksman

uses such a gun,
It

he
but

is

tempted to

kill

immoderately.

may
is

true that "the
I

gun does not make

the butcher,"
rather

submit that a fraction of a second

too brief an interval in which to trust an acquired

sentiment to check a natural impulse.

Let us

give the sentiment of fair play a reasonable chance.
It is all

that distinguishes sport from slaughter.

Even from
automatic

a cold-blooded technical standpoint,
are

rifles

open

to

serious

criticism.

They

are necessarily

dinary guns.

An

more complicated than orAmerican hunter seldom takes
If

with him more than one gun.

that

weapon
More-

breaks

down when he
it

is

in

the depths of the

wilderness,

leaves

him

in a sorry scrape.

over, the automatics are apt to
trigger-pulls,
cision,

have abominable
of pre-

and they are then not arms
class.

but scatter-guns of the worst
rifle

Good

shooting with a

depends more upon a delicate
of the trigger than

and positive control
other factor.
action of cocking
is

In a recoil-operated
is

upon any mechanism the
and
jolt;

practically instantaneous,

accompanied by a considerable

conse-

150

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

quently the security of the sear against slipping

must be beyond question.
enough, but to give
as well,
It
is
is
it

To make

it

so

is

easy

a smooth and easy release,

another matter.

a

much
rifle

simpler problem to produce a

satisfactory automatic

shotgun than
safe to use

automatic

that

is

make an with ammunito

tion of high velocity
for big

and adequate

killing

power

game, and simple and strong enough for
chosen,

wilderness hunting.
If

a repeating
as

rifle is

it

should be used

primarily

a
life

single-loader.

though your

Van Dyke
you would
erately.

says,
is

Always aim asdepended upon that one shot. and says well " The most im:

portant point

never to be in a hurry.
;

Fire as
delib-

at a target

that

is,

as coolly

and

Never hasten a second because the game
of starting, or

shows signs

because there

is

more
bullet.

than one deer or antelope waiting for your
Place no dependence upon speed of
fire."

Weight
While
ounce
it

is

folly to

add a single unnecessary

to a hunter's
it

equipment, and especially to

that part of

that he carries in his hands, yet a

The Hunting
rifle

Rifle

151

may

be too light for good shooting.
stiff

Even
kick

though

the barrel be

enough, and the gun
it

strong enough for hard service, yet
so hard that
It
is
it

may

will

cause the shooter to flinch.

true that he will not think of recoil
at

when
at

aiming
at large

game

;

but he will
fire

when shooting
to one.

marks, and he will

ten shots at targets to one
It is

game

— perhaps a hundred
" call his

by target shooting that he becomes familiar with
his
rifle.

Unless he can

shots

"

with con-

fidence (announce just where they struck before

the result
will

is

signalled),

when shooting

at marks,

he

have no confidence
he

in himself or in his

weapon
call his

when he takes
shots correctly
"

to the field.
if

No

one can

flinches.

Nothing short

of

buck-ague

" is

so fatal to accuracy.

The

least

shrink or blink at the instant of firing will send a
bullet wide of the mark.

Anything
rifle

that induces
chief of

flinching

is

a downright nuisance, and
is

such nuisances

a light

overcharged.

The
rifles

recoil

caused by different cartridges in

of the

same weight may be compared by
(See
footof

the

muzzle energies that they develop.

table.)

For cartridges

1000
rifle

to

1400

pounds muzzle energy, the
less

should not weigh
of

than

7^^

pounds; for those

1400 to 1800

152

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
;

foot-pounds, not less than 8J pounds and for more powerful cartridges I would say not less

than 9 pounds, unless the rifle is to be used as a saddle gun, or for some other special purpose.

Sights

Granting that one's

rifle

and ammunition are

what they should
consists in true
right

be, the art of hitting the

mark
unless

aim and a steady

pull-off at the

moment.

Good aim cannot be taken

the

rifle

sights are clearly seen

and aligned with

precision.

The

sights ordinarily fitted to

American
desired.

rifles

at the factory leave

much

to be
"

The
"

German
pattern
in

silver front sight of
is

Rocky Mountain
it

badly shaped, too coarse, and

glitters

sunlight.

The

"

buck-horn

"

rear

sight with

flaring

wings hides a great part

of the

foreground

and sometimes obscures the outline
itself.

of the

game
I

The combination

is

very liable to blur.
sights, other

can see no good reason for such
the one once given

than

me by Gemmer

of St. Louis,

successor of Samuel and Jacob
rifles

Hawken, whose
the

w^ere

almost universally preferred by the
trappers
in

Rocky Mountain

days of Jim

The Hunting
Bridger and
Kit Carson.

Rifle

153

made no difference," he said, " what kind of sights we would put on a rifle a mountain man would knock them
" It
;

off,

anyway, and rig up something
In this
respect

to suit

him-

self."

our

riflemen

have not
is

changed much

good Eyesight differs. Even when globe and reason. peep sights are used, it often happens that when
to this day.

And

there

two men

try to shoot with

the

same gun they
the
difference

cannot use the same elevation;

may amount
It is

to a full point at

200 yards.

hard to aim accurately with open sights.
rifle-barrels are short, the sights are not

Modern

far apart,

and the rear sight

is

near the eye.

A
of

man's eye cannot focus simultaneously on the

two sights and on the target; one or other

them

is

sure to blur.

Again,

it is difificult

always

to catch

the same

amount

of

fore

sight

to

"draw the same bead,"
one
is

as riflemen say.
is

When

nervous, or overconfident, or
is

obliged to

aim quickly, he
bead, and

prone to draw too coarse a

so he misses by overshooting.

The
is
is

varying play of light and shade on open sights

another source of error.

An

ivory bead
It

the

best front sight for most men's eyes.

should

be smoked with a

match when hunting over

154

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
Combination front sights
of

snow.

the

Beach
use.

and Lyman patterns are
target shooting, as they

far too frail for field

Globe sights with hoods are only suitable for

do not

let in
is

light

from

above, and hence the pinhead
in the forest,

often invisible

or in any bad

light.
is

A Lyman

open ivory bead with wind-gauge
not that a wind-gauge
is

a good sight,

used in hunting, but

because

it

is

easy to adjust on the range, where

the light bullets used in target practice are quite
sensitive to wind.
If

an open rear sight

is

used,

it

should be a

plain bar, with only a small notch in the centre.

Some

riflemen use no notch at
line, for
I

all,

but

it is

better

than a vertical
Personally

the latter blurs.

nearly

always use a

Lyman

or

Savage peep-sight with large aperture, preferably
on the tang.

Such a

sight takes care of
it

itself,

the shooter paying no attention to

in aiming,

but merely looking through
tively finds the centre,
it
if

it

;

his eye instincis

the sight

as near as

should be.

He

does not draw fine or coarse,
the

but

merely
is

centres

bead

on

This

a corrective of overshooting

— that

the

mark.
cardi-

nal vice, so prevalent

used hurriedly, or in

when an open rear sight is bad light. With the rear

The Hunting
peep-sight there
is

Rifle

155

nothing to attend to but the
All the foreground
is

bead and the mark.
view.

in

Elevation

can be changed quickly and
is

accurately.

There

no

blur.
it

When
a
little

such a
in one's

sight

is

fitted

on the tang
;

is

way sometimes but this slight inconvenience is more than atoned for by the greater accuracy of aim. A peep-sight mounted in the rear sight
slot,

on the

barrel,

is

good
light.

for

nothing.
is

One

fitted to
light,

the rear of the receiver

good

in clear

but not so in dim
it

To

get the best

out of a peep-sight
or two of the eye.
to the

must stand within an inch
sight can be fitted

A Lyman

head

of the firing-pin of

such a bolt-action

gun

as the Remington-Lee,

and cocking the piece
the best of
sights
for

brings the sight close to the eye.

A

good telescope sight

is

all

for shooting at a considerable distance, but

shooting at running animals, or at large beasts
near by, a tube sight
is

useless.

A telescope

tube

attached to the barrel by such mountings as were

formerly used

is

more

of a

hindrance than a help,

being

in the

way

of plain sights,

and too delicate

for

rough

service.

The
is

lenses are liable to get out of

adjustment from the strains and blows to which a

hunting

rifle

exposed, and the tube

may

be

156

GtmSj Ammunition, and Tackle
of

knocked out
hunter
has

alignment, in

which case the

may not discover what is wrong until he made some exasperating misses then he has
;

an hour's work
scope tube,
as

to readjust the

sight.

A

telerifle-

ordinarily

mounted on a
in the
It

barrel, is like a sore

thumb, always
hurt.
obstacles,

way

and frequently getting
bridle reins,

catches in brush,

and other

and

is

contin-

ually a source of anxiety.

A

tube mounted on

the side of the barrel

is

an awkward thing to aim

through, and

it

disturbs the balance of the gun.

A
the

telescope sight

made by Harry M. Pope
Co. can be removed from

of the Stevens

Arms

gun

in

a few seconds, and
it

remounted as
will return to

quickly, with the certainty that
its

proper aligment without any adjusting.
slides

The

tube

forward when the gun

recoils, so as

not to strike the eye, and can be carried thus,
offering no projection at the breech to catch in
obstacles.

A

recent invention, the Brayton tubeless teleIt

scope sight, deserves mention.
principle of

works on the

a

Galileo telescope, having neither

tube nor cross-hairs, but using the front and rear
sights of the

gun

for

alignment and elevation.
lens, so

It

consists of a front

and rear

arranged that

The Hunting
they can be folded
sights are wanted,

Rifle

157
only the open
in a

down when

and turned up

moment
The
opti-

ready for service.

They can
is

readily be attached,

or detached and carried in the pocket.
cal centre of the front lens

placed exactly at the

top of the front sight.
the rear sight
lens,
is

To

the elevating part of

attached one-half of a concave

divided horizontally.

Thus

the

Brayton

sights correspond to the upper half of a telescope

placed immediately above the open In sighting,
all

rifle

sights.

objects below the lower edge of

the lenses are seen without magnification, while
Avhat
is

seen through the upper half

is

magnified.

The

lenses add practically nothing to the weight

of the rifle.

consist so

The advantage much in

of a telescope sight
its

does not
in cor-

magnifying power as

recting aberrations of vision, eliminating blur and

mirage, and enabling the shooter to see clearly a

mark

that

is

dim

to the unaided eye.

It

corrects

near-sightedness

and far-sightedness, since

the
It

focus of the lenses can be adjusted for any eyes.
is

also useful in identifying doubtful objects.

The
its
is

best

power

for field use

is

four diameters, which

apparently brings the mark within one-fourth
actual distance from the
shooter.

Nothing

158

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

gained by increasing the power, but
for
it

much

is lost,

reduces
in

the

illumination,

magnifies the
the field
of

tremor
view.
I

aiming, and

cuts

down

think that the greatest improvement in

rifles

that

we may expect

in the

near future

is

in

de

vices for aiming them.

Trigger- Pull
Nearly
all

shooting at

game
rifle

is

done offhand.

Since no one can hold a

so steadily offhand

that his sights are truly aligned

upon a small
of the

mark

for

more than

a very brief interval, perhaps

a fraction of a second, a perfect
trigger
is

command

good marksmanship. One must know the exact amount of finger pressure that will discharge the piece, and he must be capaessential to

ble of applying

it

with such nicety that the bullet

will start at precisely the right instant.

This

is

a difficult art to acquire.
feres with
it

Anything

that interIf

is

a serious handicap.
stiff,

the trigtell

ger-pull

is

too

or irregular, one cannot the

to a certainty

when

gun

will

go

off,

and

his

attention
of

is

distracted from the proper business

aiming to the exasperating uncertainty of the

The Hunting
trigger.

Rifle

159

Military rifles are required to have a

6-pound,

or at

least

5-pound,

trigger-pull,

by

which
pin.

is

meant
is

that

it

takes such a weight,

hung

from the trigger, to release the
This
shooting, and the
tional.

hammer
it

or firing-

entirely too hard for

good offhand
are excepfor

men who master
is

A

2-pound pull

enough

any one,

and 1 1 pounds is not too light for a careful marksman. I am speaking now of single triggers. The standard trigger-pull of American hunting
rifles
is

3 pounds.

To

ease

it,

do not tamper

with the springs.
the sear
fits.

Examine

the notch into which

It is

toothed, so that, in order to

release the

hammer

or firing-pin,
lifting.

it

is

necessary
if

for the sear to

do some

Obviously

the

notch were cut square instead of at an angle, and
the tooth of the sear trimmed accordingly, the
pull
of

would be easier and the sear would slip out This should be the notch more smoothly.
oilstone, particular care
all

done with a small
notch and

being
of the

taken to grind squarely across, so that

engaging parts of the sear bear evenly
other.

upon each
telling

Unless one

is

skilful in

such

work, he should give the job to a good gunsmith,

him what

trigger-pull he wants.
starts,

A

creeping pull-off (one that

then

sticks,

i6o

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
jerk),

then goes off with a

or a long drag (the

distance through which
releasing the
nation.

a trigger

moves before
is

hammer

or firing-pin),

an abomi-

Set triggers are only
shot
rifles.

recommended

for single-

Stock

Showy mountings,
are out of
there
is

engraving, and other

frills

place on a practical weapon.
rifle

But
extra

one part of a

on which a

little

money may be
is

the stock

— not on fancy wood, but on a handit

spent to good advantage, and that

made

stock specially fitted to the user, of such
will "

bend and length that
well-fitting

come up
sights

"

like a

shot-gun

stock,

the

coming

properly to the eye at once, without any craning
of

the

neck, and

without bringing one's nose
that

against his

thumb, for

causes

flinching.

Choose

straight-grained walnut, and see that the
is

grain runs lengthwise of the grip, which

the

weakest point.

A

half-pistol grip

adds a
is

little

to the firmness with

which the gun
if

normally

held to the shoulder, but

it

is

so cut as to

A weaken the grip it should be discarded. checked grip and forearm are aids to good hold-

The Himting
ing.
rifle

Rifle

i6i

A

shot-gun butt

is

better for a hunting

than the conventional crescent butt.

The

long prongs of a Swiss butt-plate are designed
for nothing but offhand
hip-rest

target shooting in the

position,
rifle.

and should never be used on
Metal
heel-plates

a hunting

are

more

serviceable than those of hard rubber.

There should be
as possible, for
it

as little glitter about the rifle

bothers the eye of the shooter
of

and catches the eye

game.

One

has trouble

enough

in

hunting without flashing signals to the
a good thing.

animals hunted.

A sling for the

rifle is

It relieves

the strain on the arms in long tramps to and from

the hunting grounds, and leaves the hands free
to assist in climbing, parting

brush, etc.

The

sling

on the gun-cover
is left

is

not enough, for the

cover

in

camp.

Adjustment of the Rifle

When
of

the

rifle

and

its

appurtenances have
level

been procured, one should look for a
the adjust
It
is

range
test

300 yards or upward, upon which to
rifle,

sights,
folly for

and practise shooting
one to
start off

at marks.

on a

1

62

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle
trip

hunting
tested

with a
its

new

rifle

that has not been
at

and

zero

determined

measured

distances.

In the vicinity of

most

cities

there are

rifle

ranges, either military or civilian,

where one can
this,

get permission
natural

to

shoot.

Failing

seek a
or by

range

backed by a steep
the

bluff,

water at least a mile wide, and facing in such
direction
targets.

that

sunlight

will

fall

upon the

At 300

yards or more from the back-

stop build a rest from which to do your testing.

A

stout table will do, with a
to
rest

bag
rest

of

sand upon

which

the

rifle-barrel,

and a coat or

other pad for the elbow.

The

must be

solid

and
Its

firm, for the least

tremor

will spoil the

work.
sits

height should be such that
it

when one

close beside

on a
the

stool, in

a natural position

for aiming, one's

elbow

will

be at the right height

when placed on

rest.

rested, as well as the

gun —

The elbow must be
this
is

important.
rifle

The sandbag

or pad

on which the

rests

should be built up to such a height that one

does not crane one's neck in aiming, but
in

sits erect,
is

an easy, natural attitude.

Accurate work
;

to be done,

and these

details are essential
rest
is

for

accurate shooting from

not so

simple

Tbe Hunting
and easy as
it

Rifle

163

looks.

A

soft

rubber recoil pad
for the recoil
rest
off-

may

well be fitted to the
is felt

rifle butt,

much more when firing from of a gun and braced against it than when shooting
hand.
In shooting, rest the
First
rifle

about 6 inches
sure that the

back from the muzzle.
ation

make
at

sights are truly aligned so far as sidewise deviis

concerned.

Shoot
If

a 4-inch

bull's-

eye 100 yards distant.

the

gun shoots

to

the right, tap the front sight over to the right,

and

vice versa.

Shifting the rear sight has the
It
is

opposite effect.

ridiculous

how

riflemen

get mixed up about this simple
rule
is,

matter.

The
the
to go,

Move
iit

the front sight

away from
bullet
If
it.

directioji

which you wish the
sight toward

or

move the rear
is

the front
it

sight

correctly centred

on the

barrel,

should

be

let

alone and adjustment

made with

the rear

sight, for that looks better to the eye.

Do

this

work when no wind is blowing. Having aligned the rifle with
find

precision, next

the

exact elevation
firing

of

rear sight for
until

100

yards,

by

and shifting sight

you get

a group of at least five consecutive shots close

together and close to the centre of the bull's-eye.
In aiming, hold the front sight barely grazing

1

64

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
("

the lower edge of the bull's-eye
target shooters say, as

at six o'clock,"

though the

bull's-eye

were
to

a clock

dial).

If,

on the contrary, you were
bead inside the
of always holding

aim with the top

of the

bull's-eye,

you could not be sure

on the

same

spot,

and your shots would
of

straggle.

Hold
it,

your breath while aiming, or slowly expire
in the

and,

name

Davy

Crockett, do not blink nor
of

flinch the

hundredth part

an inch when you
of

draw
is

trigger!

A
two

good corrective
after firing.

flinching

to try to

continue holding on the bull's-eye

for a second or

Of course you
firing.

cannot do

it,

but try; this helps to keep you

steady at the critical

Make
tion.

a

moment of memorandum of the
at
1

loo-yard eleva-

Shoot similarly

200 yards, and at 300,
your
note-book,

using 8-inch and

2-inch bull's-eyes, respectively.
in

Enter the elevations

with

memorandum
of course, that

of the

ammunition used

(the same,

you expect

to use in hunting), but
sight.

do not score the elevations on your rear
tally exactly, particularly

Rest elevations and offhand elevations seldom
with heavy charges in
the sights should
off-

guns

of

medium weight; and

not be marked until the correct elevations for

hand shooting have been found and

verified

by

The Hunting
repeated practice,

Rifle

165

when you
call

get so skilful that

you can generally

your shot.

Adjusting for Zero

By

the

"

zero

" of

a
it

rifle

I

mean

the

minimum

distance for which

should be sighted, and be-

low which the rear sight should never be lowered.
This depends upon the trajectory
of the bullet
will

and the kind

of

game

hunted.

I

assume
so that

that the rifleman wishes his

gun sighted
killing

he can decapitate a squirrel or grouse at 50 to
100
rifle

feet,
is

and yet get as wide a

zone as the

capable of
I

when

so aimed.

By

"killing

zone"

mean
fatal

the extreme distance throughout

which a

shot can be delivered at a given

animal without allowing for distance in aiming.

Thus, for example,

let

us say that an 8-inch disk

represents that part of a deer in which a bullet

may

be counted upon to

inflict

a mortal

wound
dis-

then the deer's killing zone would be that
tance throughout which the trajectory of
bullet

the

would

cut

an 8-inch

disk.

For open
rifle

country, where long shots are the rule, the

may

then be sighted for an extreme rise of 4
the killing zone

inches above line of aim, and

1

66

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
where the dedifferent
bore),

for deer will extend to that point

scending bullet

falls

4 inches below line of aim.
is

Remember
from

that line of aim or sight

line of fire (prolongation of
it

axis of

and that

is

in

the shooter's favor, as will be

seen below.

Assuming, for example, that the highest point
of the trajectory

above line of

fire

is

4^ inches,
is

for a given
at

rifle,

when

sighted to strike centre
at

160 yards, and that this highest point
(it

80 yards
target,

would
the
that

really

be a
is

little

nearer the
at

but

difference

trifling

short

range), also

the

top of front sight stands
;

one inch above axis

of bore
:

would be about as follows
Trajectory

then the trajectory

The Hunting
are fired at from

Rifle

167

40 to 100 yards, a rise of 2 inches at 40 yards, and 3 J inches at 60 yards, would be excessive. For hunting in a locaHty
where there
will
is

plenty of cover, this

rifle

should

be sighted to strike centre at about 80 yards
it

then shoot on a line practically level up

to 100 yards.

A

rifle

giving the above trajectory should be

sighted for a zero of 80 yards, and the rear sight
fixed so that
point.
of
it

cannot be lowered below that
filed in

A

notch should then be
(if

the stem

the rear sight

a

Lyman)

at

the 160-yard

elevation,

deep enough to be found with the
so that the hunter need not take his

thumb

nail,

eyes from the
the rear sight

game when he
is

shifts elevation.
its

If

of

open

pattern,

steps should

be

filed for
all

80 and 160 yards.

tions are
to

These two elevathat are needed for any shooting up
Elevations for longer ranges

200 yards.

may

then be marked, after determining them with care

by a

series of tests in
results.

varying weather, and aver-

aging the

In the above manner, the proper zero for any
rifle

may be found by

experiment.
trajectories

Atmospheric conditions modify the
of bullets,

and so do differences

of altitude.

The

1

68

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
is

difference

quite noticeable
rifle

when one

takes to

the Rockies a

tested at sea-level.

In shooting at a small
at the

mark very

close by, as

eye of an animal, or in trying to behead

a snake, allowance must be
of front sight

made

for the height

above axis

of bore, or

one

will

shoot

too low.
feet

Try the gun

at a nail-head

lo or 15

away.

Target Practice

Men who do
under actual
best thing

not live near good

game

regions,

and who consequently can seldom
field

try their rifles

conditions,
at

must do the next
If

— practice

targets.

such prac-

tice is carried
it

out intelligently and persistently,

go a long way toward making a man a shot. Clay birds do not fly like live wild birds but no one will deny the value of trap shooting to city men whose hunting days are few and far between. It is the same with
will

good

field

;

rifle

practice at targets.

A

beginner should
rest, until

first

try his

hand

at shoot-

ing from a

he can keep ten consecutive

shots in a standard bull's-eye at the corresponding
distance.
is
I

repeat that good shooting from rest
it

not so easy as

looks.

Then he should

try

The Hunting

Rifle

169

offhand shooting at measured distances.

The
Guess-

measuring should be done with accuracy.

work
rifle

is

poor policy

in

anything connected with
is

shooting.
self,

Another poor policy

to cheat

one's

by omitting bad scores from the target
beginning a new score whenever a
is

register, or

bad shot

made.
;

It

is

the

wild

shots

that

should be studied
themselves.

the good ones take care of

Start offhand practice at 25 yards, on a i-inch
bull's-eye, so

that

you can see the
straining

bullet holes
easy,

without running back and forth.
natural position, without

Take an

any muscle,

and not holding the gun as though you were
afraid of
it.

Do

not crane the

neck forward,

but hold the head almost erect, the right shoulder

being thrown back so as to bring the rear sight
(if

mounted
target

on the
(unless

tang)

within

at

least

2

inches of the eye.
the
rifle

Stand with

left side

toward

you

are
left.

left-handed),

and
rifle

pointed well to the
left

Hold the

with

arm

free from the body.

Body-rest

and
in

hip-rest are positions suitable only for prize

shooting at targets.

One

can seldom use them

hunting; and, even when he can, previous

exertion

may have made

the

heart

thump

so

lyo
that

Guns, Ammiinitioii, and Tackle
supporting
the

elbow
than

against

the

body

would

do more harm
is

good.

Free-arm

shooting

necessary for shots at moving objects,
of
it

and one should get the knack
stick to
If
it.

at once,

and

the rear sight
in

is

a

Lyman, pay no

attention
it

to
fix

it

aiming

;

merely look through

and

your eye primarily on the mark, secondarily
of front sight.
its

on the bead
used, front
just

If

open rear sight
with

is

bring
sight,

notch

in

alignment
latter
blur.

the

with the

bead of

standing

high enough so as not to

Aim

at 6

o'clock, barely
bull's-eye, or

touching the lower edge of the
a

with

very

little

white

showing
cant
the

between
rifle

it

and the bead.
side,

Do
it

not

to

one

but hold

so that the sights
affects

are
tion.

perpendicular.
It

Canting

the

eleva-

makes no

difference whether

you keep
shooting,

both eyes open or close one of them; the twoeyes theory amounts to nothing in save
byin
rifle

snap-shooting at

moving

objects close

Draw
stop,

a

deep breath, and hold

it

;

if

your

breath gives out before you are ready to shoot,

and

try again.

You

will

find that

you can-

not

hold steadily on the bull's-eye.

No one

AN UNEXPECTED MOMENT.

The Hunting
can.^

Rifle

171

The
and

art consists in
its

steadying

down

until
bull'sit

the bead does
eye,
lets

bobbing close around the

in steadily

drawing the trigger so that
It is really

go

at the right instant.
of

not the

tremor

the sight that gives the most trouble,

but the lack of

command
do.

of

the

trigger.
is

We
just

speak of "pulling" the trigger, but that

what we must not
account
the
finger,

The

trigger

must on no
novice

be pulled or jerked, but pressed with

gendy and
is

evenly.

A

is

likely to

keep his finger away from the trigger
ready to shoot, and then
it

until

he thinks he
it,

grope for

only to pull
it.

off

with a jerk

when

he does touch
finger

That

will

never do.

The

must
first

feel the trigger

from the time that
is

aim
This

is
is

sought until the gun

discharged.

the case even with set triggers, no matter

how

delicately they

may

be adjusted, although
is

in using

them the

trigger finger

only slightly

crooked, the additional pressure being sometimes

given on the side of the trigger.
It is

impossible to shoot well with a

rifle

unless

^

In shooting from the position

a time,

now and

then,

for several seconds.

known as hip-rest, there comes when a good marksman can hold immovably He is " frozen stiff." The trouble then is to
it is

work the

trigger finger, for

most

likely " frozen " too.

'

172

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
of the trigger that

one has such command
can press
it

he

off at exactly the right instant, with-

out the slightest jerk, quiver,
of the eye.

shrink, or

blink

One's eye must be riveted on the
of

mark and on the bead

front

sisfht.

o

There

must be no nervous anticipation of explosion and recoil, no anxiety about the result until the
shot has sped.

Many
ally

imagine that a

man who

is

constitution-

nervous cannot become a good shot with
rifle.

the

This
"

is

a delusion similar to the one

about the

cold gray shooting eye."
it.

There
rule

is

nothing

in

Temperament does not

in

marksmanship.
Dr.

Some

of

the best offhand

rifle

shots of our time are

noticeably nervous men.

W.

G.
:

Hudson, himself an expert marks"

man, says

Much

has been

said
'

about

the

ability to shoot well

being due to

strong nerves

— whatever
refer to

that

may mean.

Riflemen often

an anticipated day's shooting by saying

they are 'going to try their nerve.'
to

According

my

observation as a physician, however, nerve
to

has

little

do with
care

it.

I

have had expert

rifle-

men under my
neurasthenia,

suffering from pronounced

— and they

— the very word means weak nerves,

could, even during the height of their

The Hunting
disorder,

Rifle

173

shoot almost

if

not quite as well as

when they were in good health. We really do not know exactly what physical element it is that
is

the chief factor in making one an expert
I

rifle-

man, but

am

inclined to think

it

is

a certain

education or development of coordination more

than anything

else."

Some men
aptitude for
it.

never become good shots, despite

the most faithful practice.

Some have
is

a natural

But no one

born a marksman,

in the sense that

he can become expert without

persistent

and

intelligent practice.
shot,

Almost any
if

one can become a pretty good

he

tries,

and

is

not easily discouraged.

Some must

try

harder than others.

The

next step

is

target practice at

unknown

distances.

For

this

purpose one should go to

the woods or coast and shoot at natural objects,

purposely choosing those that are not very
tinct to the eye, because

dis-

game seldom

is,

and the
first.

shooting should be at short ranges, at
is

It

both wasteful and dangerous to use full-power
in
this

hunting ammunition

work.

Reduced

charges of powder, and lead bullets, loaded by
the shooter himself, should be used.
gestions

Some

sug-

about

reloading

ammunition

will

be

174

Gims, Ammunition, and Tackle
hereafter.

given
tances,

Shooting
hunting

at

estimated

dis-

amid surroundings as nearly
field, is of

as possible

like those of the

the greatest
first

benefit to a beginner.

He

should

try his

hand

at

stationary marks,
It is of little

and then

objects.

benefit to

moving shoot at marks
at

tossed into the air by an assistant, because

does not behave that way.
a hill of
is

keg rolled moderate gradient but rough surface
It
left,

A

game down

good mark. right and to the
a

should be tried both to the

and from behind,
uphill

at different

angles.

Practice

shooting

and downhill, and
to

across
across

ravines from
water.

one

hill

another;
the

also

Try shooting toward
it

sun,

and
it.

at

varying angles toward

Practice in the dimness of

and away from dawn and twithe

light.

In

the

winter,

try

shooting over

snow.

Frequently choose large objects of unicolor,

form

not very distinct from

the

back-

ground, and try to hit the centre.

This

latter class

of

shooting at marks

is

of

much more
and
it

value to a hunter or soldier than

shooting at regular targets at

known

distances,

should be done in

all

kinds of weather,

whenever one has an opportunity.

Light charges

The Hunting
and lead
practice
bullets loaded

Rifle

175

by the sportsman himself
that

are so cheap that he can indulge in plenty of
;

and

it

is

practice

makes

the

marksman.

Never shoot
it,

at a

mark

unless

you know that
it,

or something immediately back of

will stop

the bullet. Always handle a gun as though it were loaded then the habit will become second nature. It is awkward to face a man's relatives
;

after

you have shot him.

Reloading Ammunition

When small-bore
and mantled

rifles

using smokeless powder
rifle-

bullets

were introduced, our
to

men immediately began
were abortive.
used in such
in

experiment with

re-

loaded ammunition in them.

The

first

efforts

Black gunpowder could not be
rifles,

owing

to excessive fouling

the quick twist.

Shells that

had been

fired

with service charges were
that they

rendered so brittle

would

split or

crack off at the neck,

and the necked part would sometimes be blown up into the rifling. Ordinary lead bullets would
strip,

or fuse at the base, and would lead the

barrel.

Cartridge manufacturers

declared

that

1/6
it it

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
to reload the shells,

was impracticable
was unsafe
for

and that

amateurs to experiment with
rifles.

smokeless powders in

In so far as these

warnings applied to reckless and unintelligent per-

who merely " guessed at it," they were fully justified, as many a bulged or burst rifle proved.
sons

But users

of

high-power

rifles still insisted

that

they must have ammunition of moderate strength
for target practice

and small game shooting, so

that they could learn to handle well the
that they

weapons

would use

in

hunting big game.

The

regular factory-loaded ammunition was too expensive for ordinary shooting, too in settled districts,

dangerous to use

and

its

erosion of the barrel

was so great as
field

to limit its usefulness to actual
this

work.

To meet
out

demand, ammunition
short-range
car-

makers
less

brought

certain

tridges charged with very light loads of smoke-

These, as might have been

powder and naked, unlubricated lead bullets. expected, were so
as
to be quite

weak and inaccurate

worthless.

Then
nest.

the amateurs tackled the problem in ear-

After

many

disappointments, they have

at last

succeeded in devising light and
rifles

medium

loads for high-power
rate,

that are cheap, accu-

and

satisfactor}' all

around.

The Hunting

Rifle

177

Full instructions for loading such ammunition
are given in the
"

Ideal

Handbook

"

(Ideal

Manu-

facturing
I

Company,
Rifle

New

Haven, Connecticut).

can also cordially recommend the book on

"

American Standpoint," by Dr. W. G. Hudson (Laflin and Rand Powder Company, New York), for details
Shooting

Modern

from

an

as to the proper loading

and handling

of rifles.

In

1899

I

designed for the .30 U.S.A. car-

tridge the bullet

Handbook."
casting bullets
respectively.
to

numbered 308206 Moulds were made
of

in the " Ideal in

two

sizes,

125 and

170 grains weight,
satisfactory

The former was
longer ranges

up
as

150

yards,

but the latter did
as

not
I

give

good
for.

results at

had hoped

Moulds casting
for
all

bullets of this pattern are

now
pany

furnished by the Ideal Manufacturing

Comfor

American high-power

rifles

and

several foreign arms.

Recently Dr. Hudson has

designed two bullets (Nos. 308256 and 308259)

which give excellent
upward.

results

at

200 yards and

He

was,

I

believe, the first

who

called

attention to the fact that rifles supposedly alike

vary considerably in actual caliber, and that
bullets

if

used
fill

with
the

smokeless
to

entirely

rifling

powder did not the bottom of the

178

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

grooves, the

powder gas would leak
flight.

past, caus-

ing unsteady

He

also

discovered that
liable to fuse

bullets cast of ordinary alloy

were

around the edges

of the base

from the heat genHis
bullets
of

erated by smokeless powder.

recent pattern, cast of an alloy consisting of 7 per cent tin, 7 per cent antimony, and 86 per

cent lead, and properly lubricated, are excellent
for target practice, riot service, etc.,

when used

with such loads of smokeless powder as he rec-

ommends.

Ammunition

for the .30-40-220, thus

reloaded by the rifleman himself, costs only $5.50

a thousand (or $3.15 a thousand

if

the metal

is

gathered up at the targets and remoulded), not

counting the

first

cost of the shells,

which are

bought
again.

empty and

are

used

over

and

over

Bottle-necked shells give more trouble in re-

loading than

straight

or tapered

shells,

being
are
ser-

somewhat bothersome to resize, and they weaker. Those which have been fired with
brittle

vice charge should not be reloaded, as they are
;

but empty primed shells should be bought
of times with
re-

and these may be used scores

duced

charges.

Decidedly the

best

all-round

cartridges are those like the .32-40, which was

The Hunting
originally designed
bullets,

Rifle

179

for black
rifles of

powder and lead
slow
twist.

and

is

used in

Rifles

for this cartridge are

now made

with barrels of

extra strength, which are safe

and accurate both

with black powder and with high power smokeless.

The

latter

should not be used in old-fash-

ioned .32-40

rifles,

which have weak

barrels.

Any

intelligent person

may be

trusted to re-

load his own ammunition, provided he follows
implicitly the instructions given

facturers

and makers

of

by powder manuBut no reloading tools.
of

one should experiment with different loads

smokeless powders, or with different brands, unless

he has accurate scales with which to weigh
nor unless he tests progressively,

the charges,

increasing his loads by only one grain at a time

and watching the

effect of

increasing pressure

on the primers.
Smokeless powders
distinct classes
1.
:

for small

arms are

of

two

Quick-burning, for shot-guns,
rifles.

pistols,

and

very light loads in
2.

Slow-burning, for regular charges in
a
full
it

rifles.

If

charge of shot-gun smokeless
If

is

used in

a

rifle,

will

burn too quickly,

set

up excessive

pressure,

and probably burst the gun.

A

charge

i8o
of

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
is

shot

much more

easily started in a

gun-

barrel than a solid bullet.

The

latter,

if

too sud-

denly started, has a tamping
rifle

effect.

Smokeless
if

powder burns slowly and

progressively,
its

not

tightly confined,

gradually increasing

press-

ure until the bullet leaves the barrel.

Its effect

may

be likened to that of a steadily increasing

push, and that of shot-gun smokeless (behind a
bullet) to a blow.

The

latter

should never be

used in

rifles,

save in minute charges, loose in

the shell, for indoor practice with light bullets.

Smokeless powder should never be compressed
in the shell, as black

powder usually
tightly

is.

It re-

quires an air space.
bullet, it

If

packed behind the

develops a dangerous pressure.
filling

No
used

wads, sawdust, or other

should be

between powder and
loads be used.
If

bullet,

even though very light
of

the

powder and primer be
shell

the right kinds, the ignition will be perfect the powder
is

when

loose.

The

should be crimped

on the
If

bullet.
is

a small heap of smokeless powder
it

ignited

in the open,

does not explode like black gunIn

powder, but merely burns away.
explode,
it

order to
its

must be confined.

The

rate of

explosion and the

amount

of pressure

developed

The Hunting
depend very much upon how
and how much resistance
pansion of
shell,
its

Rifle

i8i
it is

tightly

confined
the exin the

is

offered to

gases.

If

packed tightly

or

if

loaded behind a heavier bullet than
is

the charge
lently, like

intended

for,

it

may

explode vio-

dynamite, and burst the barrel.

Riflemen should not draw hasty conclusions

from the

fact that

high velocity ammunition
certain

is

now

supplied

for

old-fashioned
I

rifles

with ordinary soft steel barrels.

refer to the

.38-40-180, 44-40-200, .45-70-300, .45-90-300,

and .50-110-300 H. V. cartridges loaded
initial velocities of

to give

from

1

500 to 2150
in

feet.

These
their
press-

have very
calibers,

light

bullets

proportion

to

and hence do not develop great
in

ures.

The same powder charges behind heavy
would be decidedly unsafe
of

bullets

such guns.

Strong loads

smokeless powder should never
bullets.

be used behind unjacketed lead
latter
effect.

The

may upset enough They will at least
thickness of a
I

to

have a tamping

melt at the base, and

fly wild.

The mere
antee of
barrel
its

rifle

barrel

is

no guar-

strength.

have seen the ponderous
single-shot

of

a

14-pound

target

rifle

(.32-40) broken short off about 6 inches in front

1

82

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
and the rear portion
by a charge
fired
split lengthdif-

of the breech,

wise into two pieces, which were hurled in
ferent
directions,
of

quick-burning

smokeless powder
bullet.

behind a

common

lead

The breech

action of the

gun was blown
was

to fragments,
left in

and the butt

of the stock alone

the shooter's hand.

Both he and the by-

standers were seriously imperilled by this ignorant

and foolhardy experiment.

The

eyesight of

the

man who
of
steel.

fired

the

shot was saved

by his

thick glasses, which were ruined by flying particles

He

escaped with a burst ear-

drum and wounded

hands.
^^^^"^

Cast lead bullets should be at least yww^ larger than the diameter between grooves of
barrel, to

rifle-

prevent gas-cutting.

The

base of the

bullet should

be quite clean, as grease affects
seriously.

some smokeless powders quite
bullets should
shells
first
;

The

fit

with uniform tightness in the

consequently the latter should be resized,

by swaging them down so that they will enter freely into the chamber, and then expanding the necks to their proper diameter, so that
they will not injure the bases of the bullets, which
invariably should be sharp and true.

A

rifle-barrel

that

has

been

shot

with

full

The Hunting

Rifle

183

power charge should be thoroughly cleaned before lead bullets are used in it, as some smokeless
powders leave a tough,
patched with
paper

gummy

residue
it.

in

the

barrel which makes lead adhere to

Bullets
rifle

require

that

the

be

cleaned after every shot, and they are nuisances.

Care of the Rifle

The
less

residue

left

in the barrel

by some smokecases
the barrel

powders causes the
does not
;

steel to rust, while that
all

of others

but in

should be thoroughly cleaned after using,
let

and not

stand dirty until the next day, for the products

of

primer combustion are extremely corrosive.

gun that has been shot with smokeless powder is more troublesome to clean than one
used with black gunpowder, because the residue
is

A

so

sticky.

Dr.

Hudson recommends
it

dip-

ping a brass wire cleaning brush in a special
nitro-cleaner, scrubbing

back and

forth,

from
to

the breech,

if

possible,

and allowing the brush
;

turn and follow the rifling

then letting the gun

stand for a time, afterward thoroughly swabbing

with a dry rag on the knob of the cleaning rod,

and finishing with a rag wet

in the solution.

The

;

184

Gims, Ammunition, and Tackle
is

composition of this nitro-cleaner
(tested

Astral Oil
2

and found
Oil,
fl.
i

free
;

from

acid),
i

fluid
oz.
;

oz.

Sperm
tone,
I

fl.

oz.

Turpentine,
It is

fl.

Ace-

oz.

Mix.

a

good

rust preventive
oil

as well.

Vaseline or cosmoline, or any animal

good body and is free from acid, is a good enough preventive of rust if the gun is frequently looked after but if it is to be put away
that has a
;

for a considerable
its

time, or exposed to salt

air,

bore should be swabbed with mercurial oint-

ment.
Before going on a hunting
trip,

see that you
shells

have

in

your

kit

an extractor for broken
fits

and a copper plug that
barrel rather easily.

the bore of the
it

gun
the

between the lands, so that

will slip

down

The

latter is to drive

out

the neck

of a shell that

may have been blown
it

too far up in the rifling for the other extractor to

reach

it.

A

brass rod for driving
of

is

required.

Extra parts
liable to

the breech

mechanism

that are

break should also be carried.

The

Rifle in the Field

A

novice's notion of the appearance of
visit to

game

is

such as he gets from a

the Zoo, or from

The Hunting
a picture like Landseer's
"

Rifle
at Bay."

185

Stag

When

he looks
will

for

anything like this in the woods he
it.

not see

Let him study good photographs
their nests,

of wild

birds on

and note how the

protective resemblance of

their

plumage makes
It is

them hard
is

to catch with the eye.
in cover.
it is

so with

most animals,
motionless,

So long

as a wild animal

difficult to distinguish

from the

brush and the grass and the tree trunks.

No

matter

how

close a hunter

may be

to

game,

he should not shoot at the animal as a whole.

He

should pick out a particular spot, a small spot, a
vital spot,

and shoot

for

it

with nail-driving aim.

Otherwise he
range.

may

miss a deer within brickbat

The

best broadside

mark

is

immediately behind

the shoulder and only one-third of the
the lower edge of
the chest —
It
is

way from

in other words, the

region of the heart.
little

much
this,

better to hit a

farther forward than

and thus smash

the shoulder, than to hit farther back or higher
for either of the latter shots will probably result
in a
If

long chase.
the

game runs away
and along
its
trail.

after

you have

shot,

look for blood on the ground and bushes where
it

stood,

If

you do not

find

;

1

86

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
signs of staggering, give
it

blood, or

up.

You

might

as well chase after a rainbow.
of

Beware

overshooting when aiming downhill,

because you then see more of the top of the ani-

mal than when you are on a

level with in

it.

Make
or

no allowance

for

distance

either

uphill

downhill shooting, unless the shot be an uncom-

monly long one. For what seem downhill remember that, so far
that from the

to be long shots

as

trajectory

is is

concerned, the only distance to be considered

game

to a point level with the

animal

and directly under you.

In shooting uphill, re-

gard only the air-lme distance from yourself to
the mark, and do not try to allow for any extra
"lift"

required by the high angle, or you will
it.

almost surely overdo

When
rifle

shooting at running game, pick out an
will cross, raise the

open space that the animal
deliberately,

and be sure that you see the
shooting.
to the

sights as clearly as in target

Then,
also

and not

till

then,

pay attention
pass,

game

aim
the

for a particular spot in the

open space that
it

animal

will

and shoot just before

reaches that spot, the distance ahead depending

upon the angle and speed of the beast's Unless the ground is uncommonly open,

flight.

this

is

The Hunting
better than holding
first

Rifle

187

on the game and then
at least sure

swinging the gun ahead, for you are
of a clear space to shoot through.

This
rest

is

all
it

— and

that can
is

be told on paper.

The
be

indeed a great deal

— must

learned by experience.

THE THEORY OF RIFLE-SHOOTING
By W.
E. Carlin

THE THEORY OF RIFLE-SHOOTING
,

There

is

among

shooters
is

more or

less of a

feeling that theory
of a

thing —

necessarily an ideal sort

of little practical value.

At any

other stage of the world's history this
;

would not seem strange
twentieth century,
to

but at the dawn of the

when

scientific

thought

is

about

rule

the civilized world, and

when on every
and luxuries
feel that

hand we see our

necessities, comforts,

supplied by scientific means,

we can but

ignorance and prejudice are responsible for such
a
belief.

Science

is

organized thought.
Its

It

has no emois

tions, hobbies, or bias.

business

to investiIts

gate and discover reason for phenomena.

one

end

is

the establishment of the highest probability

of truth.
It is

extremely

difficult for the

human mind
this.

to

free itself

from conventional prejudice, and science
191

has always had to struggle against

192

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

thought,

time, at the dawn of scientific when reasoning was deduced only from observed phenomena and experiment. These

There was a

fragmentary laws were established,

listed,

and were

gradually pieced together into a logical system,
until the time

came when science could reason

both inductively and deductively, and could point
out the road for practice to follow.

The inventor who designs and the mechanic who perfects a piece of mechanism could do
nothing without the principle
work.

upon which

to

The

great value

lies

in the established
it.

principle
If

and not

in the perfecting of
lost to

everything were
it

us except the underto

lying principle,

would take but a few years
;

develop them again

while the principles them-

selves have taken untold ages to discover.
It is

but a few years ago that arms, ammuni-

tion,

etc.,
all

were designed by the mechanic.
of

To-

day

the great pieces are designed by experts.
detail

Every
recoil,

the manufacture

range tables, velocities,

etc.

— the — are

strains,

found

upon paper before the making of the gun is begun. Unfortunately for the layman the study of ballistics is

an

intricate one, requiring the use of the

highest mathematics, but that does not prevent

The Theory of Rifle-shooting
one from gaining a
of the subject; and
little
it is

193

insight into the elements

well to

do so

in order that

he
are

may

not entertain certain false notions that
less prevalent

more or

among

shooters.

In simplifying this subject,
sacrificed.
pirical,

The methods

are

some accuracy is more or less emto pursue

and can be understood by any one who
arithmetic.

knows
list

Those who wish

the subject further are referred to the following
of

books:

Works referred to
The
Bashforth Chronograph.

Text-book of Gunnery, 1887 (Royal Military Academy).
Problems
in Direct Fire.

Captain James

M.

Ingalls.

Hyde's Gunnery.
Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution
;

and Notes on

Guns and Gunnery, by the Author.

In

Vacuo
it is

When
of

a bullet emerges from a gun-barrel,

acted upon by three forces
the

— the propellent

force
air,

powder

gases, the

resistance of the

and the force

of gravity.
air

We

will at first neglect

the resistance of the
jectile as fired in

and consider the pro-

a vacuum, acted upon only by

the propellent force and the force of gravity.

;

194

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle

Terrestrial gravitation, or the force of gravity,

compels every unsupported body to

fall

immedi-

ately in a straight line toward the centre of the
earth.
It

has been found from experiment that
rest will fall a distance of

an object starting from
1

6

ft.

at the

end

of

one second, and that
will fall

at the

end
this

of the

second second the body
ft.

through

four spaces of i6

or 64
is

ft,

and so on.

From

we

learn that gravity

an accelerating force
will

also

that the

distance fallen

vary as the

square of the time.

Gravity being a constant force at any one point

on the
twice

earth's surface,

it is

therefore an uniformly
force
is

accelerating force.

Such a
fallen

measured by

the space

through in one second
ft.,

of time.
will

This being 16
ft,

the velocity of

fall

be twice 16

or 32

ft.

per second.

(The

force varies

from

32.5ft.-sec. at the poles, to 32.1

ft-sec. at the equator.)

As shown,
ft.-sec.

the velocity of a falling body

is

32

at the

end

of the first second,

64

ft.-sec.

at the

end

of the

second second, and so on for any

number
In
-J

of seconds or fractional parts of a second.

would be J of 32 ft.-sec, or 16 ft.-sec; in \ second, \ of 32, or 8 ft.-sec, etc So that to find the velocity of a falling body, mulsec. the velocity

The Theory of
tiply the

Rifle-shooting

195

time in seconds by the acceleration of

gravity.
letter g.

This acceleration

is

represented by the

The space fallen through in each second is equal to the mean velocity for that second. Thus,
a falling
of o,

body

starting

from

rest,

or with a velocity
ft.-sec. at

would have a velocity of 32
second
16,
;

the end

of the first
•J

the

mean

velocity would be

of 32

+0=

so that the

fall in

the

first

second

is

16

ft.

A

body

starts at the

beginning of the second
ft.-sec,

second with a velocity of 32
of the

and
is

at the

end

second second the velocity
velocity
is

64

ft.-sec.

The mean
the

therefore J of 32

+ 64 = 48 ft.,

space fallen through in second second, and

so on.

The
The
tions.

total distance fallen in the first
is

and second

seconds

therefore

1

6

-f

48

= 64

ft.

following table will illustrate these rela-

;

;;

196

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
formula, giving the total drop for
rest) is
:

The simple

any given time (from

H= time^
in

><

2 .^ 5

usually

H= J

gt"^

;

which

H= total height fallen,
= time in seconds, g = acceleration of gravity.
/

Also, the

otherwise

:

fall

in

any given time, from

rest or

H= time x mean velocity
= time
The
32
ft.

initial vel.

x
2

final vel.
.

value of

g

has been roughly stated to be

The

value of
16.084

g in New York is
or

32.1685

ft.

and J

^=

ft.,

193

in.

In ^00

of

a

second a

bullet

will

drop (using the

formula)

^=
No
some
it

193

[1^

X

Tk] = -oi93in.
the time, there must be

matter
drop.
free

how short The bullet
mind

begins to
of

fall

the instant
gun-barrel.

is

from the support
at

the

This

will free one's

once of the idea that

a bullet can travel a short distance in a straight
line.
"

" "

Flat

"

trajectory
is better.

is

an incorrect

term

low

trajectory

The

bullet starts

under the

influence of the

The Theory of Rifles booting
force of projection,

197
in a

and would move forward
it

straight line unless
force.

was affected by another
free

The

instant that the bullet passes from
is

the

gun muzzle and

from support,

it

begins
of

to drop toward the earth
gravity.

under the influence

The forward motion does
it

not alter the

drop

;

it

simply carries the bullet over a certain
is

space while

falling.

And

as the

drop

is

constantly increasing, the path or trajectory of
the bullet
is

a curve.

Let

AC represent the axis of the bore produced
an imaginary
line

(this is
is

from which the bullet
traversed in a

constantly dropping away), and suppose each
i,

of the equal spaces

2,

3,

etc., is

second of time.
bullet

From what
X 9
ft.

has been said, the
at
i,

would have dropped
at 3, 16

16

ft.;

at

2,

Drawing a line through these points thus found, we have the curve of
the bullet.

16x4 ft,

In a

vacuum
If

all

bodies

fall

equal distances in
let

equal times.

a bullet

were

drop from C,

and another,
they would

fired with a

higher velocity than our
at the

original bullet

from A, both

same

instant,
al-

reach the plane

AB

together,

though the

bullet fired with the higher velocity

would have traversed a greater horizontal range

198

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
this time,

during

and would consequently have a
to give

lower trajectory.
It
is

of

no practical value

examples

of

problems in vacuo, excepting

the following

simple method of finding the ordinates of
trajectory.

the

The

ordinates of the trajectory are the heights

of the bullet y,

y

';

above the horizontal plane

AB

Fig.

I.

the angle of elevation

is

the angle

made by

the

axis of the bore produced,

AC,

with the line

AB.

The
it

line of sight

makes a constantly diminishing

angle with the horizontal plane
at the point

AB,

intersecting
i.)

aimed

at.

(See

EB,

Fig.

To

find the height of a bullet

above the

line

AC at any point of the

range,

we have the

follow-

ing simple formula, deduced by Colonel Sladen,
R.A., from the conditions in vacuo:

The Theory of

Rifle-shooting

199

y=ll{^T-t\
y = the
vertical distance

in

which

above the plane

AC,
at

^=the acceleration of gravity, 32.16, t = time of flight from muzzle to point
ordinate y
is

which

to be found,

T= total

time of flight over the whole range.
Example

Given a

bullet having

a muzzle velocity of 1200
its

ft. -sec,

the angle of elevation such that the bullet in

descent cuts

the horizontal plane at a distance of 200 yd. from the muzzle.

To

find the height of the bullet

above the plane

AC at

50, 100,

and 150 yd.
Find
first

the value of T, or total time of

flight, as

follows

Divide the range in feet by the muzzle velocity in foot-seconds,
or YTu^

—i

s^c-» tot^^ ^'"^^

of

flight.

The time of
manner.

flight at 50, 100,

150 yd.

is

found in the same
sec.
sec. sec.

Value of

/ at

Value of /at Value of /at

= y^sj)^ = .125 100 yd. = ^gW =-25 150 yd. = -^^ = .375
50 yd.

Substituting these values in their proper places in the formula,

we

have, for 50 yd.

:

y
which

= 32.16 2X

.125

,

^-5

~ -^^5) = -7537

.

-,

ft.

= 9-04
is

.

m.,

is

the height of the bullet at 50 yd.

In the same manner, the height at 100 yd.
12.06
in.
;

found to be

and

at

150

yd., 9.04 in.

200
As
will

Guns, Ammunitimt, and Tackle
be explained,
this

formula, slightly modified, gives
air.

fair results for

the trajectories of high- velocity bullets in

The
an

Resistance of the Air
the earth
is

The atmosphere which surrounds
elastic fluid,
is its

and the nearer the
pressure,

earth's surface

the greater
of gravity

owing

to the attraction
strata.
air,

and the superincumbent

The

bullet in its flight

must displace the
in so

and the
the

resistance that

it

meets
first

doing

is

far greater
all
ir-

than one would at

suppose, while

regularities in the flight of a projectile are caused

by the resistance
chapter on
Drift.

of the air, as will

be seen in the
used

Since
to

much

of the

energy of the bullet

is

overcome
to

this resistance, its velocity is

being

constantly reduced.
it

We

all

know how
of
ft.

difficult

is

walk against a wind

60 mi. an hour,
per
foot,
sec.)

while wind of 100 mi. an hour (147
exercises a pressure of 50
will
lb.

per square

and
or

uproot large trees.

It is

immaterial whether
at
rest

the

wind blows against an object

whether the object moves with the wind's velocity
against
still air.

It is little

wonder, then, that
1

rifle bullets, travel-

ling at such great velocities as

200 to 2000

ft.-sec,

The Theory of

Rifle-shooting

201
lose their

meet with tremendous resistance and
speed rapidly.

The
and 4

following are examples of actual resistances

experienced by ogival-headed projectiles of
in.

diameters

:

i

in.

Velocity

202

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
still

be

more apparent
loses
its

in the case of a lighter

bullet,

which

velocity so
in

much more
due
to the

rapidly.

This difference
lost

drop

is

projectile having
air,

much

of its velocity in the

and has therefore taken longer

to reach each
in

range, and gravity has
to act.

had a longer time

which

The

resistance encountered
its velocity,
it

by a

projectile de-

pends upon
the

smoothness and shape of

head, and the area
air.

presents to the resistance of

The
The

area of surface depends upon the sectional
its

area of the projectile and

steadiness in flight.

resistance varies directly with the area.

A

projectile

which has twice the area

of another

will

experience twice the resistance.

In order to compare bullets, one with another,
in

their

ability to

overcome

air resistance

and

sustain
relations

their
:

velocities,

we have

the following

The
bullet

area of a circle varies as the square of the
8^
;

diameter or
is

and

as the horizontal section of a

a circle,
h^.

we may

say that the resistance

varies as

The

ability to

overcome

this resistance

depends

upon the weight

of the bullet, written W',

and

in

The Theory of
order to

Rifle-shooting

203

make

use of a convenient set of tables,

these values are combined into a ballistic coefficient as follows
:

— m w
;

which

8 = the diameter of the projectile in inches
a/

= the

weight

of the bullet in

pounds.

We

have said that the resistance varies also
Unfortunately no
;

greatly with the velocity.

in-

tegral exponent will represent this law

but Pro-

fessor Bashforth found, as the result of his classic

experiments, that the following laws were practically correct

between their
1300

limits

:

For
For For For For

velocities greater than

ft.-sec, the resistance varies

as the square of the vel. or V^.
velocities

between iioo and 1300
between 1000 and iioo

ft.-sec, the resistance

varies as the square of the vel. or V^.
velocities
ft.-sec, the resistance

varies as the square of the vel. or V^.
velocities

between 820 and 1000
820

ft.-sec, the resistance

varies as the square of the vel. or
velocities less than

V^

ft.-sec, the resistance varies as

the square of the vel. or
It will

V.
rise in re-

be noticed that the sudden
to

sistance

the

sixth

power occurs about the
this fact
it

velocity of sound.

Although
in 1742,

was noted

by Benjamin Robins

was neglected by

204

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackk
Mr. Bashforth

subsequent experimenters, until
reaffirmed
this
If

Robins's views and fixed a value to
rise.

sudden

we wish to express the resistance to a promoving
at

jectile

1400

ft.-sec,
is

we may

write

it

h'^V^.

Since the resistance
projectile,

overcome by the

weight of the
varies as the

and since the weight

cube

of the diameter, or 8^ the re.

tardation

may be

expressed by

This

is

an

o
interesting relation, for

by examining the formula
is

we see that an elongated
round
elongated

greatly superior to a

projectile, for the length

and weight

of the

may be

altered at will without chang-

ing the diameter.

A

good weight and small

diameter are necessary to preserve velocity.
also see that a large

We

round shot has the advantage

over a small one

;

for as

the weight will increase

we increase the diameter, more rapidly than the area.
it

All of us have, no doubt, seen

stated

that

small round shot are to be preferred, as they penetrate farther

than large ones.
!

As

just explained,

this is not the case

It

makes no

difference

what

the resistance be, whether from air or flesh, the
result is the same.

The shape

of

head has considerable influence

The Theory of

Rifle-shooting
It

205

on the resistance experienced.
that

has been found

when

the resistance to a hemispherical head
i

may be

represented by

(unity),

the resistance
are about

to the other forms of the

as follows
1.

:

same diameter

When
The The The The

the resistance to a hemispherical head

=

i,

2.
3.

resistance to a hemispheroidal

head
i

= 0.78

resistance to an ogival head of
resistance to an ogival

diam.
diam.

4.
5.

head of

2

= 0.78 = 0.83

;

resistance to a

flat

head

=

1.53.

The
The

resistance to projectiles in

common

use

is

about that shown by Nos.

2, 3, 4, etc.

slope of the point seems not to be so im-

portant as the shoulder
the body.

— where

the head joins

The

density of air depends upon

its

nearness

to the earth's surface, its temperature,

and the
each
will

moisture

it

contains.
of
:

The warmer it

is

the lighter.

The weights
make

aqueous vapor and
i.oooo.

air are to

other as 0.6235

The

tables

which we

moisture, but any difference

use of are calculated for 66f per cent of may be neglected for

our purposes.

As has been said,
cient.

— w
S^

is

called the ballistic coeffi-

2o6

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle
Example

Find the value of

for a .45 bullet of

500

gr.

Substituting

the values in the formula,
easier
, ,

we have

500'

"

'soo

^^ ^^

now

to invert the
,

denominator of
,
,

this fraction

and

multi-

ply by 7000, then divide this result by 500,
2.835, which
is

,•

1

,

.2025

X 7000

=

the value of

.

(The 7000

is

introduced in

the

denominator to reduce grains to pounds.)

the value of the ballistic coefficient

By knowing we may make use of the

tables to find the remaining velocities, times of flight, etc.

There are two
bullets,

tables for
for

use with elongated
shot.

and two
table

round

The Sv
represents
table
bers.
tiles

represents the relation between

space or distance and velocity.

time and velocity.
in

The Tv table The difference
numfor projec-

shows the difference

the tabular

While the values are calculated
rifle

with ogival heads of i^ diameters, they
bullets without

may
any

be used for ordinary
great error.

To

use the Sv table,

we have

the relation

-s =

S^

w

SV-Sv]
in

in

which

s is the
feet).

range

feet

(always reduce

yards to

SV\s

the tabular

number

repre-

The Theory of
senting the
range.
velocity
is

Rifle-shooting

207
of

at

the

beginning

the

Sv

the tabular

number representing

the velocity at the end of the range.

Example
In what range will a .45
in velocity
J,

cal. bullet of

500

grs.

be reduced

from 1200

ft.-sec. to

1024 ft.-sec?

We

must

find

and therefore transposing, our formula becomes,

SV-Sv

§2

Now, looking

in the table

we

find the velocity 1200 ft.-sec,

and on the same horizontal
find the tabular

line

under the heading

SF

we

number 405 1 4.1 1, but we do not find any As the tables are abridged to to 1024 ft.-sec. corresponding intervals of 10 ft.-sec, we therefore select the nearest velocity that is less

than 1024, and this
is

is

1020 ft.-sec; and the

corresponding tabular number
ing

39,030.04.
is

The correspondwhich
is

number

in the difference

column

125.74,

for a
.4 of

difference of 10 ft.-sec, so that for 4 ft.-sec.
125.74, which
is

we

take

50.29

;

this

we add

to

39030.04 and we have
50-29

39080.33

which

is

the required

Now, subtracting

the tabular

Sv number for 1024 ft.-sec. numbers 405 14. 11
39080.33

we have

1433.78

diff.

2o8

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
dividing this difference by

And

w
which
is

2.835

3

J'

»

the required range.

The
tables

following examples illustrate the use to which the

may be

put

:

Problem

i

Given the muzzle velocity and the value of

— w

,

to find the

remaining velocity at any distance from the gun.

Example

I
rifle

The

bullet from a

new

military

of .303 cal,
ft. -sec.

weighs

215 gr. and has a muzzle velocity of 1900
velocity of the bullet at 200

Find the

and 500 yd. from the gim.

— =2.989.
Transposing, the formula becomes

Sv=SV--s. w
From
Multiplying
table,

— by range in feet,
Sv number.

= 43753.43 2.989 x 600 = 1703,40
1900
ft.-sec.

Subtracting,

41960.03

which

is

the tabular

Looking

in the tables,

we

find the nearest

number,

less

than

41960.03, to be 41945.77, which corresponds to 1470

ft.-sec.

Subtracting these numbers,

41960.03
41945-77

we have

14.26

The Theory of
The
how many

Rifle-sbooting
ft.-sec. is

209
46.10.

tabular difference for intervals of lo

To

find

foot-seconds the difference 14.26 repre-

we multiply it by 10, which gives 142.6, and divide this number by 46.1, which gives 3 ft. per second. Adding this 3
sents,
ft.-sec. to

1470

ft.-sec.

gives us 1473 ft.-sec, remaining velocity

at

200 yd.

For 500 yd.

(as before)

:


=
4375343
4483.50

1900

ft.-sec.

2.989x1500=
Subtracting,

39269.93 39155-78
1

Nearest tabular number,
Subtracting,

14.15

= 1030 = 9.5
1039 -5

ft.-sec.

ft.-sec.
ft.-sec.

Remaining

velocity at 500 yd.

=
II
rifle

Example
In the
138
gr. field trials

a

.50-cal.

double

by Jefferies, shooting
muzzle velocity

powder and a

bullet of 132 gr., gave a
is

of 1946 ft.-sec.

What
?

remaining velocity at 200 yd. from

the gun,

— = 5.1 16
1900

The
ber
is

nearest velocity in the tables which
ft.-sec,

is

less

than 1946

ft.-sec. is

and the corresponding tabular num43905-78

Adding

.6 of

the corresponding difference 37.66
ft.-sec.

which gives the tabular number for 1946

= 22.59 = 43928.37
3069.60
40858.77
ft.-sec.

Now,

as in

Example

I,

5.116x600

Sv number
which corresponds
at

= =

to a

remaining velocity of 1256.9

200 yd.
p

2IO

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
is

Table II for round shot Table
I.

used in the same manner as

Example

A
yd.

.50-cal.

round

bullet,

weighing 200

gr., 'has

a muzzle
at

velocity of 1900 ft.-sec.

Find the remaining velocity

200

— = 8.75.
Tabular number for 1900

= = 8.75 Subtracting = Nearest tabular number = Difference =
ft.-sec.

15869.98

X 600

5250.00

10619.98
10602.60

=

800

ft.-sec.

17.38=

1.3 ft.-sec.

Remaining

velocity at 200 yd.

= 801.3 ft.-sec.

One

will notice that the bullets in these

examples started

out with about the same
differ greatly

MF,

but the remaining velocities

owing

to the difference in the relative value of

their

ballistic
is still

coefficients

.

At longer ranges the

differ-

ence

more

noticeable.

Tables

I

and II are calculated on the supposition that the
at 60° F.,

thermometer stands

and the barometer at 30 in., atmosphere contains 66| per cent of saturation. The weight of a cubic foot of air will be, under these condi-

and

that the

tions, 534.22 gr.

Any

increase or decrease in these normal

conditions

may be

allowed for by using Table III.

Example
Taking the data from Example
II,

suppose that the therin.

mometer stood

at 35° F.

and the barometer 30.2

The Theory of
Referring to Table III,
in first

Rifle-shooting

211

we

find the

thermometer heading
line

column under

F.

and on the same horizontal
is

under the head 30 (which

the barometer reading),

the

number
.035,

1.053,
is

^^^

i"

the

difference
y^^°;

column the number
This added
to 1.053

which

the difference for
2

but as we have in this

case 3^°, multiply .035 by
gives 1.06, which
conditions.
is

=

.070.

the

new

tabular

number

for the stated

The allowance
by multiplying
g2

for the increased density of the air
5.

is

made

116 by 1.06, which gives 5.422 for the

new

value of

w
as in

Now, proceeding
1946
5.422
ft.-sec.

Example

11,

we have

X 600

= 43928.37 = 3253-20
40675.17

40638.76
36.41

=1220

ft.-sec.

=

5.9 ft.-sec.

1225.9
locity at

ft.-sec.

remaining ve-

200

yd., at
air

a loss of 31

ft.-sec.

from the normal.

Should the
will

be lighter than normal, the tabular number

be

less

than unltv, so that multiplying the value of

— w

8^

by

it,

the value of


g2

will

be diminished, and consequently

there will be a gain in velocity over the normal.

Problem
Given the value of
find the

2

— and

the velocity at any range, to

muzzle velocity.

212

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
Reversing Example
II
.50
in.,

Given, a bullet weight 342
velocity at 200 yd. 1256.9

gr.,

cal.

remaining

ft. -sec.

Find muzzle
40818.36
40.04

velocity.

Sv number

for

1250

Difference for
1

= = 256.9 ft.-sec. =
ft.-sec.

6.9 ft.-sec.

40858.40
3069.60

5.116x600=
Nearest tabular number
Difference
.*.

43928.00

=

43905.78= 1940
22.22

ft.-sec. ft.-sec. ft.-sec.

muzzle velocity

= =

5.9+

1945.9+

When

taking velocities of bullets and shot by means of
it

a chronograph,

is

customary to do so over short ranges,
ft.

such as 100
is

ft.

or 120

In this case the velocity obtained

the

mean

velocity over the range,

and

this is

assumed

to be the actual velocity at

For example

:

mid range.
gr.,

A
1200

bullet of .45 cal.,
ft.-sec.

weighing 140

has a mean velocity of

over a range of 100

ft.

Find

MV. Assuming
and using Table

1200

ft.-sec. to

II for spherical shot,

be the actual velocity at 50 we have
(tabular

ft.

w

— = 10.125

number

for)

1200

ft.-sec.

10.125

X 50

= =

13554-86
506.25
1

Adding,
Nearest tabular number
Difference

4061. 11

= 14022. 11
39.00

=1310

ft.-sec.

=

9.8 ft.-sec.
ft.-sec.

Required

MV= 13 19.8

The Theory of

Rifle-shooting
3
velocity,

213

Problem
Given the value of
maining velocity
at


w

,

the muzzle

and the

re-

any range, to find the time of

flight.

Example

I

A

.45-cal. bullet of

500

gr.

has a muzzle velocity of 1310

ft.-sec.

and a remaining
flight

velocity at 200 yd. of 1257 ft.-sec.

Find the time of

over the 200 yd. range.

We make use of the Tv table. The same relations hold good
as for the
t

Sv table, the formula being
seconds over the range,

— /= TV — Tv, w

8"

in

which

= time

in

TV— tabular number corresponding to MV,
Tv = tabular number corresponding to remaining velocity. In this case we wish to find /, and the formula becomes
,

TV- Tv
J?

w

.

214
flight.

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
When making
this last division,

do not carry out the
i.e.

decimal places beyond the number used in the table,
otherwise there will be a slight sacrifice in accuracy.

four

;

You
at

will see at

once that
If the

it

is

not necessary to
is

remaining velocity.

muzzle velocity
velocities,

given,

know the we can

once find the remaining

and from them the time

of flight.

Example The 32-40 cartridge has The bullet weighs 165 gr.
range of 200 yd.

II
ft.-sec.

a muzzle velocity of 1470

Find the time of

flight

over a

-=
Sv
1470
4.344
ft.-sec.

4.344.

Tv
156.6677

=41945.77

X 600

=

2606.40

39339-37

= remaining vel.

1045.9

=

i54-532i

2.1356

and 2.1356

-r-

4.344

=

.4916 sec, time of

flight.

Problem 4
Given the range, the muzzle velocity, and the remaining
velocity, to find the value of

The formula thus becomes

w —= w

~\
s

Example
In designing a
rifle

of

.303 cal.

it

is

required to have a
at

muzzle velocity of 1900
500 yd. of 1059.5

ft.-sec,

and a remaining velocity
of bullet will

ft.-sec.

What weight

fulfil

The Theory of
these conditions
?

Rifle-shooting

215

We

find first the value of

??

,

as follows

:

Tabular Sv number for 1900 ft.-sec. Tabular Sv number for 1039.5 ft.-sec.
Subtracting,

= 43753-43 = 39269.93
4483.50

and dividing the difference by the range
^^ ^'^ 1500

in feet

= 2.9S9 =
of

value of

w


by dividing

Having found the value
it

w

— we
,

8"

find the weight

by the square of the diameter, or
This division gives .030715
lb.,

(.303

X

.303).

which we reduce

to grains

by multiplying by 7000, and
the bullet as 2 1 5 gr.

this in turn gives the

weight of

Problem

5

Given the muzzle velocity and the value of '
drop of the bullet
at

— w

8"

,

to find the

any range.

We

proceed much as we

did in vacuo, using the formula
a
trifle

H=

\gt'^.

This formula gives

greater drop than
;

it

should, for the bullet in falling

meets a slight resistance but the difference may be neglected,
as
it is

very

slight.

Empirical formulas have been put forward for the drop in
air,

but they are complicated, and for ordinary ranges they

are not required.

Example
The muzzle velocity To find the drop
4.728.
of the

45-90-300 cartridge
200 yd.

is

1540

ft.-

sec.

in inches at

—=

Finding the time of

flight as

before explained,

2i6

Guns, Ammiuiition, and Tackle
Sv
1540
ft.-sec.

Tv
156.8787
Remaining
vel.

=

42263.27
2836.80

4.728x600=

39426.47

= 1054,2 ft.-sec. = 154.6238
2.2549

2.2549
.4769

-r-

4.728
.4769

.2274

X X

193

in.

= .4769 sec, time of flight. = .2274, square of time. = 43.88 in. drop at 200 yd.
Problem 6

To

calculate the ordinates of a trajectory in air for small
«

angles of elevation.

e ,-^"^
a'

a-

a"

Fig. 2.

Suppose that
length.

in

the above figure the height be
a',

is

4

ft.

and that the points
its

a'\ a'", divide the line

ab into

\, ^,

f

Now,

at one-half the distance ab, or at a", the
is

angle height a"c"
a'c' is

one-half of 4
4,

or 2

ft.;

at a' the height

one-quarter of

or

i

;

and so on

for

any other propor-

tional part of the distance a3.

We may now
or range.
at

suppose that the
rifle.

line ac is the axis of the

bore produced of a

The

line

ab

is

the horizontal plane

The points a', a", a'", are points along this plane which we wish to find the heights of the ordinates to the

trajectory.

The Theory of
Suppose that the height
bullet

Rifle-shooting

217
drop of the

be represents the total

from the

line ac at

any range.

Knowing

the range or
be,

length of line ab, and the drop or height of line

we may

construct a triangle as above, and from this drop or height be
find the proportionate heights at an}^ other points along the
line

ab.

points,

Having established these heights at the desired we may find the drop of the bullet from the line ae at
this

each of these points, and by subtracting
height (between the lines ac and ab),

drop from the

we

shall

have

left

the

height of the bullet, at this point, above the line ab, or the
ordinate to the trajectory above the horizontal plane ab.

Suppose, for instance, that the bullet has dropped from the
line ae, a distance of
e'e.

the whole height a'e\

If we we have

subtract this distance
the distance
a'e,

c'e

from
is

which

the
a'.

height of the bullet above the horizontal plane at the point

Finding a series of these heights, we have the ordinates, or

what we generally term the trajectory
Let us now apply
ing,
all this to

of the bullet.
;

an actual case
in the
;

first

remark-

however, that (as will be seen
is

chapter on Drift)
projectiles are
less resistrifle is

steadiness of flight
steadier than

merely relative
therefore

some

others and
air.

meet with

ance from the

The

bullet

from the modern

more
cus-

accurate and steady than those from which the coefficients of
resistance were

deduced

for the tables.

So that

it

is

tomary

to

reduce the value of
If for

— according
modern

to the factor of

steadiness.

the accurate

bullet

we

multiply

— by
*

.9,

we

shall closely

approximate to

this correction.^

For the new small-bore
7.

projectiles the value of

— should

be

multiplied by

to .75.

:

2i8

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle

In order to compare a calculated trajectory with one taken

through screens, we

will take that of the

45-70-500 cartridge
muzzle velocity

as given in the Forest

and Stream
cal.,

trajectory test.
gr.,

Given, a bullet of .45
13 10
ft.-sec.

weighing 500

Find the height of bullet above the horizontal

plane at 50, 100, and 150 yd.

when shooting 200
it

yd.
its

Reducmg— by

w

multiplymg

by

.9

gives 2.551 as

new

value.

trajectory

The atmospheric conditions on the day the screen was made still further reduce it, and our new

value for

—=

8^

2.^21.

First find the total drop at 200 yd.

Sv
13 10
ft.-sec.

Tv
156.0970
„ Remaining vel.
.

=

41154.54
I^Q2.6o
"^
.

2.321 **

X 600=

39761.94

=

1092.3

ft.-sec.

=

154.9265
I.

1705

1.

1705 -H 2.321

•5043

-2543

X X

-5043

= =

-5043 sec, time of flight.
-2543. square of time.
in.,

193 in.= 49.07

drop at 200 yd.
at the required in-

Now, dividing

this

drop proportionally

termediate ranges as before described, and finding the drop
of the bullet in the

same manner

as has just been shown,
50 YD.
100 YD. 150 YD.

we have
Height of angle deducted from
49.07
in.

at 200 yd.

12.26

in.
in.

24.53

^"-

36.80
26.30

in. in.

Drop

of bullet
of bullet

2.66

11. 15 in.

Height

above the hor9.60
in.

izontal plane

13.38 in.

10.50

in.

25 YD.

2 20

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

TABLE

I.

— TIME

AND VELOCITY
Heads of
ij^

For Elongated Projectiles.

Diameters'

Radius
[Recalculated by Professor Greenhill from Mr. Bashforth's Data]

Velocity

The Theory of
Velocity

Rifle-shooting

221

2 22

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

Velocity

The Theory of Rifles bootlug
Velocity

223

2 24

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

Velocity

The Theory of
Velocity

Rifle-shooting

^25

2

26

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle

Velocity

The Theory of
Velocity

Rifle-shooting

227

2 28

Gims, Ammunition, and Tackle

Velocity

The Theory of

Rifle-shooting

229

Energy
Since any moving object requires force to stop
it,

it is

capable of doing a certain amount of work.
is

This mechanical work
light projectiles
is

called " energy,"

and
;

for

expressed in foot-pounds
lift

the

unit being the force required to

a one-pound

weight one foot from the ground.

Energy
as

varies

as the weight.
velocity, but

If

two bullets

travel at the

same

one weighs twice

much
If

as the other, the heavier will have twice

the energy of the other.
the velocity of one be doubled, however, the
will

energy

be

much more than doubled

;

for as a
V"^.
is

factor in the formula, the energy varies as

The formula for finding

the energy of a bullet

£=
E=
V=
G=
If

;

m

which

the energy in foot-pounds,
of shot in

IV = weight

pounds,

velocity of shot in foot-seconds,

acceleration of gravity, 32.16.

a one-pound shot be projected directly upof

ward with a muzzle velocity
will

1000

ft.-sec, it

have a muzzle energy of
I

X 1000 X 1000
2 2x32.16

=

15-547 ^ ^^'

f^ „ ft.-lb.

230
If

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
shot in a vacuum, this shot would rise to a
feet.
If
it

height of 15,547

was

fired in air, the

same amount
it

of force

would be required
it

to bring

to a state of rest, but

would not

rise to

any-

thing like this height, owing to the resistance of
the
air,

which causes such a diminution

in the

velocity,

and consequently energy.
Example
I

Given, a

.50-cal. bullet of

342

gr.,

having a muzzle velocity

of 1946 ft.-sec.

Find the muzzle energy and the energy at 200
introduced to reduce grains to pounds.)
the velocity at

yd. from the gun.

(The 7000

is

Then

finding

200 yd. to be (taking the

nearest whole number) 1257 ft.-sec,
T7 Energy *'•'

at

.

J 200 yd. '

=

342 X 1257 X 1257 ^-^ — 7000 X 2 X 32.16
is

^=

.

,,

i20Qft.-lb. ^
lost, in

We

see that half the total energy

already

the

short range of 200 yd., because the energy varies as V^, and

how important
have a low
be sustained.

it is

that a hunting

and military bullet should
its

ballistic coefficient in

order that

energy should

Working backward from the
ft.-lbs.

last

example,

it

is

required

that a 342-gr. bullet of .50 cal. have a muzzle energy of 2876

What
?

is

the required muzzle velocity to

fulfil

this

condition

We

have
1/

first to find

V^.

T^2_ 2876 X 7000 X2 X 32.16 — —

=

3,786,228;

,^n^,,o.

The Theory of
and extracting the square root of
ft.-sec.

Rifle-shooting
this

231

number, we get 1945 +

as the muzzle velocity required.
velocity necessary to produce a given energy can be

The

found at any range, in the same manner.

Example

II

Given, a muzzle velocity of 1946 ft.-sec, and a muzzle

energy of 2876

ft.-Ibs.

;

required, the weight of bullet to

fulfil

these conditions.

Here
2
'-

„. — 7000 X W = 2876 X1946 X X1946 32.16 = 341.9 s ot
'—z

-r^

y

gr.

Penetration

At

first

sight

it

would seem that penetration
velocity,

was synonymous with
however,

and that the higher
This,

the velocity, the deeper the penetration.
is

not necessarily the case.

The
or

greatest effect, in the sense of energy, or
is

stored-up work,

of course
is

near the gun muzzle
;

when

the velocity

highest

but

it

sometimes

happens that high velocity militates against the
penetration of soft lead bullets and those that are
easily deformed.

The tendency
is

of soft lead

and

hollow-pointed bullets

to

deform or mushroom

almost immediately upon impact.
the velocity, the greater
increases the diameter
is

The higher
which

this deformation,

of,

and consequently the

232

Guns, Ammiinitiofi, and Tackle
its

resistance to, the bullet, so that

penetration
first

greatly lessened.

years ago

When
rise

this

was
the

noted

is

it

gave

to

absurd notion

that a bullet

must gain

in speed after leaving the

gun-barrel, otherwise
that

how account

for the fact

sometimes the penetration was greater at a

distance from the

gun than at the muzzle? It was, however, shown that light, hollow-pointed

express bullets often deformed so

much

at

high

velocities that they did not penetrate

so far as

when

the velocity was lower.
tin,

If

the projectiles

are hardened with

so that they fairly retain

their shape, velocity will increase their penetration.

Some
found

further remarks on this matter will be

in "

The Hunting

Rifle."

Drift
" Drift " is

the term applied to any deviation from

the original direction of a projectile, except that

caused by the force of gravity.
is caused by the unequal pressure of the upon the surface of a more or less imperfect projectile, and from it arise all the inaccuracies and irregularities of flight of a projectile.

Drift

air

I

shall treat this subject

somewhat
it still

at length, as

many

fanciful notions

about

exist.

The Theory of

Rifle-shooting

233

We
bullet,

will first

take up the case of the spherical
of rota-

showing why an accidental motion
acquired
in

tion

is

a smooth-bore barrel, and

why
in

a rotating bullet must drift in the direction
its

which

front or anterior hemisphere

is

ro-

tating.

The The

centre of form of a spherical projectile

is

the exact centre of the sphere.
centre of weight or gravity coincides with

the centre of form, only,
perfectly
is

when

the projectile

is

homogeneous and

true in

form

;

and

this

never the case in practice, the centre of gravity
less apart

always lying more or
form.

from the centre

of

We know that
is

a

number

of equal parallel forces

equivalent to a single force, representing the
re-

aggregate of the several forces, and called the
sultant.

The

resultant acts through the centre

of gravity of the body.

By

the term

"

motion

of translation " is

meant

the forward motion given the bullet by the pow-

der gases.
If

we suppose
in

the case of a perfect spherical
of gravity

projectile,

which the centres

and

form coincide, shot from a perfectly true cylindrical barrel, the axis of the bore passing

through

2

34

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle

the centres of form and gravity of the ball, and,
finally,
all its

the bullet meeting with equal resistance on
parts

which are
it,

in contact

with the barrel

when passing down
of rotation acquired.

there would be no motion

The powder
ber of

gases are represented as a num-

equal parallel forces acting on the pos-terior

hemisphere
the

;

the
is

sum

of

these separate forces
lent
to

equiva-

resultant

acting

along the line gP, through the
^°" ^'

centres

of

form and gravity

and along the axis
these

of the bore.

There

is,

under
bullet

assumptions, no

reason

why

the

should acquire a motion

of rotation.

But supis situ-

pose that we consider

it

as in actual practice.

Let us suppose that the centre of gravity

ated below the centre of form, both being in the

same vertical plane as the Here we no longer have
a single force acting along
the axis of the bore and

axis of the bore.

'

through

the

centres
of

of

form and gravity
ball.

the

Fig, 4.

The

resultant acts along the axis of the

bore and the line

cP through

the centre of form,

The Theory of

Rifle-shooting

235

but in producing a motion of translation to the
projectile

same force P acting through the centre of gravity and along the line gjF. A couple is thus formed whose force The effect of this length of arm gc. is P and
it is

equivalent to the

couple

is

to

produce a motion

of rotation of the

projectile
g, the

about a horizontal axis passing through

powder gases acting on a larger surface above the centre of gravity than below it, and
the lighter side rotating toward the heavier side.

In this case the projectile

rotates

from above

downward.
Should the centre of gravity be
to the right, or to the
left of

situated, above,

the centre of form,

the motion

of

rotation will be

upward, to the
be.

right, or to the left, as the case

may

These acquired motions
dental,

of

rotation are accirela-

inasmuch

as

one does not know the

r)
when
the ball
is

oFig.


"

n
friction,

s.

tive positions of the centres of
in the

form and gravity

gun.
fit

Should the
there will be
"

bullet not

the barrel perfectly,

gas cutting

and unequal

236

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
barrel.

from contact with only one side of the
It
is

little

wonder that

round

bullets

from

smooth-bore barrels give wild shooting except at
very short ranges.

The

accuracy
fits

may be sometiglit.
is

what improved

if

the bullet

very
it

Now,

in practice

and theory,

found that

the ball will

always deviate in the direction in

which the anterior hemisphere
reason for this
is

as follows:

is

rotating.

The

Now

suppose that Figure

6,

the

ball,

has a mo-

tion of translation in the direction of the arrow

AB, and

a motion of ro-

tation in the direction of

the curved arrow
It
Fig. 6.

CBD,
the
is

is

evident

that

resistance of the air

not equal on
the
ball,

all

parts of

and that the

ball will

move

in the direc-

tion of least resistance.

The hemisphere

ACB
BDA^

has more resistance than the hemisphere

because

the. velocity

with which the hemisphere
air is the velocity of
ro-

ACB

moves through the

translation of the sphere
tation of the hemisphere
in the direction of the

plus the velocity of

ACB,

which

is

rotating

motion of translation of

the

sphere; while the motion with

which the

The Theory of
hemisphere

Rifle- shooting

237

BDA

moves through the
of

air is the

velocity of translation of the sphere

minus the

velocity

of

rotation

the

hemisphere

BDA,

which

is

rotating in the opposite direction to the
of the sphere.

motion of translation

That
moves

is,

the resistance of the air to the side

C

is

greater than to the side D, and the projectile
off

toward the side of

least
;

resistance
for while

along the line gF.

The

drift is

a curve

the velocity of translation becomes rapidly less

from the
dies
If
left,

air resistance, the velocity of rotation

away very
the drift
is

slowly.

the anterior hemisphere rotates from right to
to the
left,

and

vice versa.

If

the anterior hemisphere rotates from above,
drift is

downward, the

downward, and
is

vice versa.

In this latter case the range
increased, as the case

diminished or

may

be.

Now,

in order to

do away with these accidental
spiral
rifled barrel so that

drifts for

which no allowance can be made,
in the

grooves are cut in a
let will

the bul-

always rotate

same

direction,

and and

on an

axis parallel to the axis of the barrel

tangential to the trajectory.

The
grooves

effect of rotation given the bullet
is,

by the

that the equalities are

made

to revolve,

238
as
it

Guns, Ammiinitmi, and Tackle
were, about a
lateral drift,

common
is

axis.

There

will still

be a

always in the direction in which
rotating (for the
;

the top of the sphere

same
drift

reason as was explained before)
is

but as this

now reduced

to a practically constant quantity,

allowance can be
the sights.

made

for

it

by adjustments of

The Drift
The

of Elongated Projectiles

foregoing explanation will not account for
is

the drift of elongated projectiles, which

alto-

gether a different and more complicated matter.
It
is

often

stated

that

an elongated projectile
in falling

drifts laterally,

because
is

through the

air

the resistance

greater on the under than on the

upper surface.
time
that the

This slight difference
little drift
is

in pressure

could account for but
bullet

during the short

in flight;
drift,

and while

it

takes account of lateral
or)^

we know from

the-

and experiment that an elongated projectile drifts in every direction, as viewed from the gun.
This "spiral"
drift
is

illustrated

by the gyrowith great

scope, and a few years ago Mr. E. A. Leopold

measured a number

of these

spirals

accuracy by shooting through screens.

We

will first

consider an elongated projectile,

The Theory of

Rifle-shooting

239
its

with a more or less pointed head, and having

centre of gravity situated behind the centre of form, as
is

general with projectiles in use to-day.
7) that

Let us suppose (Fig.

the projectile
it

is

shot

from a smooth-bore gun, and that
tion
of

has no moat

rotation

;

also that

it

is

fired

some

angle of elevation with the horizontal plane

AB.
is

We may suppose
is

that the centre of gravity, G,

a pivot; and since the resistance of the air

Fig.

7.

strongest on the under side of the head, as indi-

cated by the arrows, the head will be elevated

more and more; and
is

since the centre of gravity

behind the centre

of figure, the lighter forepart

of the projectile will be forced
until the projectile travels

completely over
its

with

heaviest end

or base foremost.

240
If

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

now we

consider this same bullet fired from
it

a rifled barrel, so that
of rotation
it

will

have a rapid motion

about

its

longer

axis,

we

shall see that
:

is

acted upon by two conflicting forces
its

the
it

motion of rotation about
in its original direction
air,

longer
to

axis,

given

by the grooves, which tends
;

keep the

projectile
of the

and the resistance

which tends

to turn the projectile over,

about

a shorter axis passing through the centre of gravity,

because the longer axis does not remain tanit

gent to the trajectory,

being constantly deflected

from

it

by

gravity, so that the resultant of the air's

resistance

does not pass through the centre of

inertia of the projectile, but

the case

may

be,

above or below

it,

as

in this instance
is

above

it,

since

the centre of gravity
It is

behind the centre of form.
in this

known

that a

body acted upon
first

manre-

ner will not yield fully to either force.
sistance of the air will
this

The
all

elevate the point,

and

upward

drift

is

the beginning of

drift;

then the point will
or
left,

move slowly
in

off to the right
is

in the direction

which the bullet
I

ro-

tating.

In further explanation of this drift

shall

use Mr. Bashforth's figures for illustration.

Suppose we view the flight of the projectile from behind the gun, and that the projectile is

The Theory of
rotating to the right;

Rifle-shooting

241

now the

resistance of the air
2),

will at first elevate the

apex (position
will

and from

what has preceded the point
(position
3),

move

to the right

and

will

continue
it

to

move

to the right until
4,
is

reaches position
point
the
drift

at

which

entirely

horizontal and to the right.
It is

evident that up to this
the
projectile

point

has
to

drifted both

upward and

the right; for as soon as the
axis of

move

the shot begins to ^^JJt^ to the right, the left

side of the projectile receives

the greatest resistance, and

the projectile
right.

is

forced to the

Now,

in

Figure

9,

^::^
5-<r

the axis of the shot ad does not remain parallel to

AH,
Fig. 8.

but

is

constantly

dipping

away from it. At low angles of elevation the axis ad dips more rapidly than the tangent to the trajectory ot, and the projectile will assume the several positions, 5, 6, 7, etc., of Figure 8, and go on rotating throughout its flight. That it may make several

242

Guns, Ammiuiitwn, and Tackle
drift in all direc-

complete revolutions and have a
tions,

even over a comparatively short range, has

been proven.
than to the
ance,

There seems,
is

at first sight, to be

no reason why there
left,

a greater drift to the right
resistfirst,

except for the fact that the
deflection,
is

and hence the

greatest at

Fig. 9.

when
right,

the point of the projectile

is

moving

to the

and that the resistance
;

is

greater on the un-

der side of the projectile out that

but Mr. Bashforth points
is

when

the point of the shot

to the right

of the plane passing

through the tangent, the tanbut

gent to the trajectory and the axis of the projectile
are both dipping
of the shot
is

downward

;

when

the point

to the left of the vertical plane passis

ing through the tangent, the tangent

dipping

downward
the shot
is

as

it

constantly does, but the axis of

rising upward.

Therefore the

drift is

in operation a
left.

longer time to the right than to the
or vertical
drift

The upward

exceeds the

The Theory of

Rifle-shooting

243

downward

drift,

and the
left
;

drift to the right greatly

exceeds that to the

so that the resultant drift

observed in practice seems to be wholly to the
right.

With

a

left-handed

rotation

all

this

is

reversed.

Any factors which
drift lead to

cause an increase in vertical
fire
;

inaccuracy of

for instance, in

the light, hollow-pointed express bullet the centre
of

gravity
is

is

situated very far back

;

and as
in

this

bullet

fired at

high velocity,
erratic,

its

drift

becomes
firing

excessive,

and often

so

that

through screens at 200 yd. the
that the loo-yd. height
150-yd. height, having

spiral is so

wide
the

may seem lower than
to pass
its

happened

through
spiral

the screens at that particular part of
flight.

We

have seen a bullet show a
in.,

spiral as

wide as 10
in

but this
"

is

very exceptional; and

an accurate

steady

"

bullet the width of spiral

may
may
or
its
if

be only a fraction of an inch, or

may

be conDrift

tained within the diameter of the bullet.

be very

the bullet
it is

much exaggerated and the flight of made erratic, if the bullet be mutilated,

not properly centred in the bore so that

axis coincides with the axis of the bore.

In the case of an elongated projectile having
centre of gravity in front of the centre of form,

its
it

244
will

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle
generally travel point foremost; and
if

the

angle of elevation and velocity of translation are
low, the projectile

may
It

be accurate enough for
is

sporting purposes.

found that a 12-bore
with

bullet of this kind, having its centre of gravity

very far forward, and

fitted

mechanical
it

grooves in the cartridge case which gives to
very low motion of rotation,
to, say,
is

a

fairly

accurate up

80 yd. or so

;

but
of fire

if

the velocity of trans-

lation
is

and the angle

be high, the projectile

not steady or accurate unless given a very high
its

velocity of rotation about

longer

axis.

The

resultant of the resistance of the air will

act behind the centre,

and the base

will

be forced

up and the apex depressed. The base will be forced above the horizontal and then forced down
again, the result being a very
of the base

"wabbly" motion
drift in

during

its flight.

The only
drical shot.

projectile

which does not
is

the

direction of the rotation

the flat-headed cylin-

In Figure 10 the lines represent the resistance of
the
air,

whose

resultant acts along the line

BA.
5

The
is

effect of the resultant acting

between a and

to depress the head of the shot

and give

it

a mo-

tion of rotation about a shorter axis; the projectile

The Theory of

Rifle-shooting

245

assuming the position indicated by the dotted Hne,

— now with amotion rotation the height about — the face be depressed by the longer
of

to

its

axis,

will

resistance of the
this,

air,

the rotary motion will resist

and the head
to the
left,

will

move

off slowly

downward
side

and

leaving the face

and right

exposed obliquely to the
projectile will be

air's resistance,

so that the

pushed bodily

to the

left,

and the

Fig. 10.

resultant of the drift will be to the

left.

If

the
left-

velocity and angle of elevation are high, this

hand

drift is

much more

noticeable.

The wind
in-

also has a great effect

upon the

drift of a bullet.

A

head wind reduces the speed, a rear wind
it,

creases

and a side wind
which
it

drifts a bullet in the

direction in

blows.

Other things being

equal, the larger the surface the

wind acts

on, the

greater the deviation

:

light bullets are affected

much more than heavy
bullets

ones,
;

and hollow-pointed
short, light, hollowIt

more than

solid ones

pointed bullets are especially affected.

seems

246

Gtms, Amfmmition, and Tackle
"

that they actually

run down wind," as

it

when one considers how
its

easily a bullet

— having

were; but

the centre of gravity far to the rear
course,
is

is

turned from

we

see

how

the light, hollow-pointed

bullet

affected.

From what has gone
is

before,

it is

evident that an

elongated bullet requires the rotary motion which

imparted to

it

by the grooves

to steady its flight.

Long

bullets will require
rifle

more rotary motion, or a
grooves, than short ones,

quicker twist to the

for the resistance of the air has

more surface upon
If

which

to act

and overturn them.

the twist be

insufHcient, the bullet

may wabble
;

badly, or even

turn over or keyhole
long, the bullet

or again,

if

the range be

may

fly

steadily for a distance

and

then gradually become more and more unsteady

and inaccurate.
the grooves and

So long
is

as the bullet can take

not forced out across the lands,

— which
found
to

is

called "stripping,"
If

— a quick
it

twist

is

be desirable.

two bullets be

of the

same
cause
bullet

length but different calibers, the larger will
steady, be-

require less rotary motion to keep
its

radius of gyration
of iron
;

is

larger.

A

light

made

requires a

more rapid
being

twist

than does one of lead
loses
its

for the former,

lighter,

rotary motion

more

rapidly.

And a

bullet

The Theory of
having a hollow through
solid bullet of the
it

Rifle-shooting

247

requires less twist than a

the hollow

is

to

same dimensions, for the effect of distribute the mass farther from the
require quick twists, as

centre, thereby lengthening the radius of gyration.

High muzzle
air.

velocities

the high velocity increases the resistance of the

The

twist necessary for
trial,

any particular bullet

is

generally found by

but Professor Greenhill has
results.

deduced a formula which gives very good
In tabular form
it

is

used as follows, for bullets
i

made

of 16 parts lead to

of tin

:

Length of
Projectile in Calibers.

248

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
have always been
in the habit of

We

speaking

of the length of a bullet

and the turn
to

of the twist

in inches, but

it

is

more correct

reckon them

in calibers.

To

reduce the length of a bullet from inches to

calibers,

simply divide

its

length by
i

its

caliber in
is

inches.

Thus

a .50-cal. bullet
i

in length.

A.25-cal. bullet

J in. long in. long is 4

3 cal.

cal., etc.
:

As an example
pose
it

in the use of the table

Suptwist

is

required to find the

minimum

necessary for a

.45-ca]. bullet 1.35 in. long.
.45,

Diis

viding 1.35 by
3 cal.
table,

we

find that the projectile
3,

long,

and opposite the number

in

the

we

find 50.74, or the bullet requires a turn

in 50.74 cal.

To

reduce this to inches, multiply

the twist in calibers by the diameter of the bullet
in inches (50.74 x .45),

which gives about 22
("

in.

When

Mr. Harwood

Iron

Ramrod

")

designed

the .22 Hornet cartridge, he found that the usual
twist of one turn in 14 in.
.63-gr. bullet,

was too slow
.63-gr.

for the

but that in a twist of one turn in

12

in. it

shot steadily.

The

bullet

was
find

.66 in.

and measured
long.
is,

.23 in. in diameter, or
2.9 in the table

almost

2.9+
52.72

cal.
;

Opposite
52.72 x .23

we

that

=

12.

i

in.

Now, the

velocity with which the bullet will

The Theory of
rotate

Rifle-shooting
is
;

249

on leaving the
of

barrel

not dependent
is

upon any form

grooving

it

immaterial
it

whether the twist be uniform, or whether
creases in pitch from breech to muzzle.

in-

The

number

of

revolutions

made by

the bullet per

second depends upon the muzzle velocity and the
twist at the muzzle of the gun.

To

find the

number

of revolutions per second,

divide the muzzle velocity by the product of the
bullet's

diameter by the turn of the
of revolutions per sec.

twist, or

number

=

-ttt^. in

which

V = muzzle velocity in foot-seconds.

N = turn

of the twist in calibers.

D = the diameter of the projectile in inches.
Since the muzzle velocity and the diameter of
the projectile must be expressed in the same unit,
either feet or inches,
it

is

easier to multiply the
it

velocity

by 12 and reduce

to inches than to
feet.

reduce the diameter of the bullet to
Example
Given, a
.25-cal. rifle

having one turn

in 15 in.

Find the
muzzle

number

of revolutions per second of a bullet that has

velocity of 1500 ft.-sec.
First reduce the twist in inches to calibers

by dividing 15

250
by
.25,

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
which gives 60
cal.
;

then substituting values in the

formula,

we

get
sec.

number of revolutions per

=

-^^

25

X 60

— = 1200.

A

simpler

way

is to

divide the muzzle velocity in inches by
:

the twist in inches, as follows


,

1500 X 12

-^

= 1200
trial

.

revolutions per second.

,

1500

After years of
cial

there appears to be no espe-

advantage in any one of the different forms
All shoot well
if

of grooving.

accurately bored.

The grooves

are usually from two to five thou-

sandths of an inch deep.

For patched

bullets the

grooves are shallower than for naked

bullets.

Recoil in Guns

Upon

the ignition and

"

explosion " of the pow-

der charge, a large quantity of highly elastic gases
are liberated.
direction.
let,

These exert

their pressure in every

The

pressures on the base of the bul-

chamber or cartridge case are proportionately equal, and when sufficient pressure is exerted the bullet is moved from its seat or is set in motion but these same pressures which act upon the bullet and move it react upon
the walls, and base of the
;

the gun, which, being

much

heavier, does

not

yield so soon to their influence.

Some minute

The Theory of
interval of time
solidity or lost

Rifle-shooting

251

may

also be lost,

owing
;

to the non-

motion

of the parts

but usually
of its

the

gun has moved backward over a portion

path of recoil before the bullet has quitted the
muzzle, and the recoil goes on accumulating and reaches
barrel.
its It

maximum
is

after the bullet has left the

an established principle that whatacts,

ever the force be that

there must be a corit

responding and equal reaction; and were

not for

the great proportionate difference in the weights
of the bullet

and the gun, we could not stand up under the recoil at all. The force which moves the bullet and the column of air in front of it,
reacts directly

upon the gun.
to act

The

force

which continues
it

on the base

of

the bullet, and causes

to

overcome the

friction

of the grooves, also reacts

upon the gun.

And
air,

after the bullet has left the barrel the

imprisoned

gases and the residues rush out against the

and these also react upon the gun

;

and

the

gases will continue to issue forth until the pressure of the confined gases equals the pressure of
the outside
air.
it

Formerly
out
left

was thought that the gases rushing
in the barrel,

a

vacuum
filling

and that the

air

suddenly

up

this

vacuum caused

the recoil.

252

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
of the sixteenth-century authors states that

One
tion

in discharging a large piece of

ordnance the sucin

was so great as
the

to to

draw

an unfortunate

dog which happened
If

be standing near.

gun

is left

free to

move backward,
and
if

it

will

travel over a certain path;
at

stopped suddenly

any point of

this path, the resistance
will

must be
nor

high and sudden and the result
blow.
It is

be a severe
loosely,

not well to hold the

gun

too tightly, against

the shoulder, but in such a
is

manner
push.

that the effect of the recoil

a steady

There are various gauges
coil of

to determine the re-

guns

;

they are

more

or less accurate, but

the formulae for the determination of recoil are

somewhat complicated and not very trustworthy,
so they are omitted.

Various devices are used
principle

on guns shooting
reduce
its

large charges, their

being to lengthen the path of recoil and thereby
severity.

Soft

rubber pads are the
recoil is often

most
by

satisfactory,

and the

reduced

one-fifth or one-fourth of its total

amount by

their use, as

may be
;

easily proved.

The
ity

heavier the bullet or charge of powder, the
likewise, the higher the veloc-

greater the recoil

and the

lighter the gun, the greater the recoil.

The Theory of Rifle-Shooting

253

The
recoil
recoil.

unpleasant effects

we

experience

from
of the
is

depends mostly upon the velocity

With

a high velocity of recoil the blow

sudden and sharp, as with a light gun, or when
using fine-grain or quick-burning powder, which
generates a high pressure in a very short time

compared

to the coarser,

slower-burning grains.

The
due

difference in the feeling of the recoil from
is

black and nitro powders
to the weights of the

quite marked, and

is

powders and

their resi-

dues,

and the manner

in

which the pressures are

distributed.

The
is

difference in the total energy

of their recoils

not so great, however, as one

might expect.
Besides the direct recoil of the gun, there are
the

phenomena known The effect of jump

as
is

"jump" and

"flip."
is

that the muzzle

ro-

tated upward, often causing the bullet to leave

the muzzle at a higher angle of elevation than

it

otherwise would.

The

line of application of the force of recoil is

directly

back through the axis

of the bore

and the
resist-

centre of the breech-block.

The
it,

point of

ance to
of

this force is

below

through the butt
is

the gun, so that the whole piece

thrown

upward.

254

Guns, /Ammunition, and Tackle

In the use of ordnance the angle of

jump
added

is

always

known and allowed

for,

and

it is

to

the angle of elevation, otherwise the range would

be greater than the angle of elevation

calls for,

and the trajectory would appear much too low.

Jump

is

most noticeable
is

in the revolver,

where the

point of resistance

situated low down,
full

owing

to

the shape of the butt, and with
front sight
is

charges the

often so high that the axis of the

bore actually makes an angle of depression with
the
horizontal plane, in order to allow for the

effect of

jump.

In the .45-cal. Colt's revolver, using

the

full

army

charge, instead of angles of elevation,

there are angles of depression to counteract the

jump up to over 250 yd. The angle of jump varies with the charge of powder and weight of bullet, and a gun that is shot from rest will generally show more jump than
effects of

one shot off-hand.

Now,
zle,

it

happens that

if

the barrel

is

thin

and
be
is

tapering, or the grip thin

and weak, the gun muzfirst

instead of rotating upward, will at

depressed.

This depression

of

the

muzzle

termed

" flip."

The

barrel,

if

thin, actually bends,
all

and

it

has

been found that nearly

long barrels exhibit

The Theory of Rifle-Shooting
flip to

255
it

a greater or less extent;
left

and

begins

before the bullet has

the barrel, so that the

bullet leaves the barrel at a lower angle of elevation than the sights

record.
is

Flip generally in-

creases as the charge

increased, thus producing

the anomaly

of the bullet's falling
;

lower on the
it

target as the velocity increases

and

the

more

rigidly a

gun
that

is

held,

seems that
This
to

in a vise, for inis.

stance,

— the
rifle

more

irregular flip
it

is

the a

principal

reason

is

difficult
if

make

double

shoot accurately; and

regulated for
well.

one charge, they seldom shoot another so
If

a single barrel
it

be intended for
;

fine

target

shooting,

should be heavy

for a slight differ-

ence

in the friction,

amount
flip.

of fouling, or

muzzle

velocity will affect the shooting of a light barrel

that

is

sensitive to

careful to

For these reasons be place the barrel always on the same
rest.
I

spot

when shooting from
rifle

once owned a
Firing
as

32-40
at

with a light barrel, which was extremely

sensitive to every

change

of condition.

a spot 50 yd. distant at the

same height

the axis of the bore and having the sights parallel

with the axis of the bore, using 40 gr. of powder

and a

165-gr. bullet, giving a
ft. -sec,

muzzle velocity

of

about 1470

I

found that the drop

of the

256
bullet

Guns, AmmiLnition, and Tackle
averaged about 9
in.

below the axis

of

the bore produced, while from the muzzle velocity

we should expect

a drop of about 2.2 in.; so that

gun muzzle must have been depressed about -^ of an inch when the Then reducing the powder bullet left the barrel.
to account for the difference the

charge

little

by

little,

the bullets struck higher

and higher,

until after a certain limit they again
;

began

to

drop lower and lower

and when 28
9
in.

gr.

were used, the bullet again
axis of the bore, having the

fell

below the

same apparent drop

as the 40-gr. charge.

Now,

it is

evident that the bullets shot with the

greatest charge of

powder had the highest
;

velocity

and the lowest trajectory curve
in the
line.

but the variation

amount
It is

of flip

gave to each a different base

therefore not always safe

when making

screen trajectories to consider the horizontal line

from centre
for the

of bore to target as the true base line,

muzzle may be slightly and irregularly

Lack of care in these small details no doubt causes some of the puzzling trajectory curves which are from time to time
depressed at each shot.
published as the result of screen
tests.

THE PISTOL AND REVOLVER
By a.
L. a.

Himmelwright

THE PISTOL AND REVOLVER
Pistol-shooting as a pastime has been practised
since
It is

the time of the

discovery of gunpowder.
it

only recently, however, that

has been rec-

ognized as a legitimate sport.

The

useful

and practical

qualities of the pistol

and revolver have been developed almost wholly
during the
last half-century.

Before this period

the small arms designed to be fired with one hand

were crude and inaccurate, and were intended to
be used only at short range as weapons of defence.

The

single-barrelled muzzle-loading

pistol

has,

nevertheless, been
ofificer's

part

of

the

army and navy
smooth-bored,

equipment since the sixteenth century.
were
of large caliber,

These
bullet

pistols

heavy, and unwieldy.

The

load was a spherical
of

and a large charge
which was

powder.

Enough
at

accuracy was obtained to hit a

man

15

to

20

paces,

deemed

sufficient.

The
them

usefulness of these arms in action was limited to

the firing of a single shot, and then using
259

26o

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

as missiles or clubs.

The

pistol in early

considered

a

gentleman's

arm

—a

days was
It

luxury.

was the arm generally selected for duelling when
that code

was

in vogue, the contestants standing

lo to 20 paces apart and firing at the word of

command.

The development
the
rifle.

of the pistol

has been con-

temporaneous and closely

identified with that of

With

the grooving or rifling of the

barrel, the

accuracy was greatly improved and

arm adapted to conical bullets. Although numerous attempts were made to devise a multishot arm with flint, wheel, and match locks, it was
the

not until the percussion cap was invented that a
practicable

arm
"

of

this character

was produced.

This was a

revolver " invented by Colonel Colt

of Hartford, Conn.,

and consisted of a single barrel
that the

with a revolving cylinder at the breech containing
the charges, the

mechanism being such

cocking of the piece after each discharge revolved
the cylinder sufficiently to bring a loaded
in line with the barrel.

chamber

The

greatest advance in

the development of firearms
of the

system
in the

of

was the introduction breech-loading, employing amof cartridges.

munition

form

This principle

rendered the operation of loading

much

simpler

The

Pistol

and Revolver

261
efficiency

and quicker, and vastly improved the and general
utility of the arms.^

The

present

popularity
is

of

pistol

and

re-

volver shooting

due, no doubt, to recent im-

provements

arms and ammunition. The arms are now marvels of fine workmanship, easy to manipulate, durable, and extremely accurate.
in the

With

the introduction of smokeless powders, the

smoke, fouling, and noise have been reduced to
a minimum.

The

effect of these

improvements
the
efificiency

has been,

not

only

to

increase

of the arms, but also the pleasure

of shooting

them.

As a mend it.

sport, pistol
It is

shooting has

much

to

com-

a healthful exercise, being practised
air.

out-of-doors in the open

There are no unplay.

desirable concomitants, such as gambling, coarseness,

and rough and dangerous

In order to

excel, regular

and temperate habits
It

of life

must be
and in

formed and maintained.

renders the senses

more
1

alert

and

trains

them

to act in unison

reader

For a detailed history of the evolution of the pistol and revolver, the is referred to "Text-book for Officers at Schools of Musketry,"
Co.,

London; "Kriegstechnische Zeitschrift," Heft I and II, Sohn, Berlin; "The Modern American Pistol and Revolver," Bradlee Whidden, Boston. Many interesting specimens of ancient and modern pistols and revolvers are owned and exhibited by the United
1901, Mittler

Longman &

&

States Cartridge

Company

of Lowell, Mass.

262

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
But, above
all,

harmony.

skill

in shooting is a

useful accomplishment.

Any

one possessing ordinary health and good

become a good pistol shot. Persons who are richly endowed by nature with those physical qualities which specially fit them
sight may,

by

practice,

for expert shooting, will, of course, master the art

sooner than those
conclusively

less favored

;

but

it

has been

shown
of

that

excellence

is

more a

question of training
gift.

and practice than

of natural

Some

the most brilliant

shooting has

been done by persons possessing a decidedly
nervous temperament; but those of phlegmatic

temperament
and
It

will generally

make more uniform
shoot well with the
rifle.

reliable
is

marksmen.
difficult to

much more

pistol or revolver

than with the

The

latter,

having a stock to

rest against the

shoulder and

steady one end of the piece, has a decided advantage
in

quick aiming and in pulling the trigger.

The

former, without a stock and being held in one

hand with the arm extended so
the body,
ever,
is

as to be free from

without any anchor or support whatfree to

and

is

move
jar,

in all directions.

Con-

sequently the least

jerk in pulling the trigger,

puff of wind, or unsteadiness of the hand greatly

The
disturbs the aim.
ever,

Pistol

and Revolver

263

Intelligent practice will,
difficulties

howpistol

overcome these

and disadvantages

to such a degree that

an expert shot with a

or revolver under favorable conditions can equal a fair shot with a
rifle

at the target

up

to

200 yd.

When

the novice essays to shoot the pistol or

revolver, the results are generally disappointing

and discouraging; but rapid progress invariably
rewards the efforts of those

who

persevere,

and
that

when once thoroughly
shooting, there

interested in this style of
for
it

comes a fascination

frequently endures throughout a lifetime.

Arms
The term
volver.
" pistol " is

frequently applied indis-

criminately to the single-shot pistol and the re-

A

marked

distinction

between these arms

has gradually been developed.

The
to

pistol is

now

recognized as a single-shot arm, adapted for a
light

charge,
Its

and designed
use
is

secure

extreme

accuracy.
to target

limited almost exclusively

and exhibition shooting.
revolver
is

The modern
which are
before
it

an arm with a

re-

volving cylinder holding five or six cartridges,
at the instant
is

command

of the shooter
It
is

necessary to reload.

designed

264
for

Gtins,

Ammunition, and Tackle
is

heavy charges, and

a practical

and

for-

midable weapon.
riety,

Revolvers are made in great vafor various purposes,

and adapted

such as

military service, target shooting, pocket weapons,
etc.

The

best

grades of pistols and revolvers

may

be had at a reasonable price.
is

The cheap
at
all

grades with which the market
flooded should be avoided.
of

times

They

are incapable

doing good work, and frequently are positively

dangerous, on account of being
materials.

made

of inferior

Military Arms.

— The revolver and the magaTo
ful-

zine pistol are used for military service.
fil

must be strong, very durable, and withstand a great amount of
the requirements these arms

hard

usage without

becoming

disabled.
is

The
prime

effectiveness,

or "stopping power,"

of

importance.

The

caliber should be large,

and

the charge sufficiently powerful to give a penetration of at least 6
in.

in pine.

There has been
has resulted in

a tendency in recent years to reduce the caliber
of military revolvers.

While

tliis

increased velocity and penetration, and reduced
the weight of the ammunition,
it

has not im-

proved the stopping power of the arms.

The

sights

must

in all cases

be very substan-

The
tial,

Pistol

and Revolver
frame or
barrel.

265

and

solidly fixed to the

The

trigger pull varies

from 4 to 7J
to

in. in

length,

from 4 to 8 lb., the barrel and the weight from 2

2J

lb.
is

powder
service.

Ammunition loaded with smokeless now invariably used for military

The
States

service revolvers as issued to the United

army and navy
both .38
cal.,

are the

Smith
the

&

Wesson

and

Colt,

and taking the same amprescribed

munition.

They have passed

series of tests as established

by the United States

government,^ and represent, without doubt, the
highest development of the military revolver.

The arms shown

in

Figs,

i

and

2

have solid

frames, and the actions are almost identical, the

cylinder swinging out to the

left,

on a hinge,

when

released by a catch.

The

shells

may

then

be extracted simultaneously by pushing back the
extractor rod.

The Smith

& Wesson

has an ad-

ditional locking device in front of the cylinder.

The

principal difference

between these arms
revolvers are

is

in

the shape of the handles.

Other

excellent

military

the

Smith
^

& Wesson
tests, etc.

Russian Model and the Colt
for

See Ordnance Reports, Department of War, Washington, D. C,

complete details of

266

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
Service, both

New
these

44

cal.

The ammunition
loaded with

for

arms
but

was

formerly

black

powder;
velocity

smokeless cartridges

have

been

adapted to them, which give slightly increased

and approximately the same accuracy.

The Smith
hinge
"

& Wesson
action
is

Russian Model has a
operated by raising a
It is

tip-up " action, with an automatic eject-

ing device.

The

catch in front of the hammer.
nipulate, and,

easy to ma-

on account
This arm

of the accessibility of

the breech, the barrel can be readily inspected

and cleaned.

is

single action.

The

action of the Colt

New

Service

is

similar
Fig.
2,

to that of the .38-cal. revolver,

shown

in

with a solid frame.

It is

double action.

The

foregoing arms, with good ammunition,

are capable of
3-in. circle at

making groups
is

of ten shots

on a

50 yd.

The

Colt Frontier Model

one
It

of the

most

popular arms for hard service.

has a solid
is

frame and

is

double action.

The arm

operated

by opening a gate on the right-hand
the cylinder.

side,

back

of

The

cartridges are inserted in the

cylinder through the gate, the cylinder being re-

volved by hand

until

the

respective chambers

come

opposite the gate.

In the

same manner,

Fig.

I.

— Smith & Wesson New Military Revolver.
6^-inch barrel; weight,
I

Six shots;

lb.,

15 oz.

;

.38 cal.

Fig.

2.

— Colt New Army Revolver.
.38 cal.

Six shuts;

6-inch barrel; weight, 2 lb.;

Fig.

3.

— Smith & Wesson Russian Model

Revolver.
cal.

Six shots;

6|-inch barrel; weight, 39I oz.; .44

Fig. 4.

— Colt New Service Revolver.
lb.,

Six shots;

5|-inch barrel; weight, 2

8 oz.; .45

cal.

Fig.
Six shots;

5.

— Cult Frontier Model

Revolver.
5 oz.
;

5^-inch barrel; weight, 2

lb.,

.45 cai.

Fig. 6.

— Webley " W. G." Army Model Revolver.
6-inch barrel; weight, 2
lb.,

Six shots;

8 oz.; .455

cal.

The

Pistol

and Revolver

267

the shells are ejected by pushing the extractor

rod back into each of the chambers.

This revolver
vice

weapon

of

was formerly the serthe United States army, and is
in .45 cal.

very powerful and durable.

The Smith & Wesson The ammunition
itary service,

Schofield Model, .45

cal.,

was also formerly a United States service weapon.
for this arm, while less powerful

than the .45 Colt, was admirably adapted for mil-

and had much
"

less recoil.
"

The Webley,
volver
calibre
is is

W. G."

or

Army
much

Model,"
merit.

re-

an English arm of
.455.
It

The

has a hinge "tip-up" action,

with an automatic extractor very similar to the

Smith

&

Wesson.

weapon adopted by the Joint War Ofifice and Admiralty Committee for the British army and navy is the "Webley Mark IV," or "Service Model," revolver. This model is almost

The

service

identical with the

Army

Model, except that the
is

barrel

is

4

in.

long and the weight

2 lb. 3 oz.

On

account of the short barrel, the accuracy of this

weapon does not equal that of the Army Model. " Another English arm is the " Webley-Fosbury
automatic revolver.

The

recoil

revolving the
it

cylinder and cocking the hammer,

can be

fired

268

Gtms, Ammtmition, and Tackle
It is

as rapidly as the automatic pistols.

cham-

bered for the 455 service cartridge loaded with 6J gr. of cordite. This arm has been introduced
since 1900.

The magazine
operated by the
firearm.
It

or automatic pistol, which
the latest type of

is

recoil, is

hand

has been perfected and introduced

since 1899,

and has almost double the velocity
of

and range

the

revolver.

The

Colt,

Luger,
the

Mauser, Mannlicher, and

Mors

are

among

leading makes of this style of pistol.

All of these

arms have been tested by the United States government.^

A

limited

number

of

the

first

two

named

are

now

(1903) being tried in the United

States army.

In both the Colt and the Luger pistols the cartridges

are

inserted in

clips

and fed into the

breech through the handle.

In the

Mauser

pistol

the cartridges are supplied in clips from the top

and forced into a magazine located
trigger.
.

in front of the

The magazine
about

pistols

can be

fired at the rate

of

five shots

per second.

These arms equal

the best military revolvers in accuracy.
^

See Ordnance Reports, Department of War, Washington, D.C.,
tests, etc.

for

complete details of

Pig.

7.

— Webley-Fosbury Automatic Revolver.
6-inch barrel; weight, 2
lb.,

Six shots;

81 oz.; .455

cal.

Fig.

8.

— Colt

Automatic

Pistol.
lb., 5 oz.;

Seven shots; 6-inch barrel; weight, 2

.38 cal.

Fig. g.

— The Parabellum or " Luger " Automatic
I

Pistol.

Eight shots; 4|-inch barrel; weight,

lb., 1

3.4 oz.;

.30 cal.

The

Pistol

and Revolver

269

Many
will

persons believe that the magazine pistol

soon supersede the revolver for general use.
this

While

may be

the case eventually,

it

is

not

likely to occur within the next

few years.

The

more complicated, and consequently more difficult to learn to shoot with and
magazine
care
pistol is
for,

than the revolver.

On

account of the

special

problems to be solved

in the

mechanism,
trigger pull

many
is

of

them balance poorly and the

almost invariably long and creeping.

The

novice will also have difficulty to avoid flinching
in shooting these arms,

on account

of the recoil
line of sight
if

mechanism, louder

report, etc.

The

being considerably higher than the grip,
are not held perfectly plumb, or in the
tion at each shot, the shooting
lar.
is

they
posi-

same

liable to

be irregu-

The

cost

is

about double that of a good

revolver.

Until these undesirable features and

disadvantages can be remedied or eliminated, the
revolver will probably remain a popular arm.

Target Arms.

— For target purposes the
is

greatthis,

est possible accuracy

desirable.

To

obtain

many

features essential in a military

arm

are sac-

rificed.

Delicate adjustable sights are employed,
is

the trigger pull

reduced, the length of the bar-

rel is increased, the

charge reduced,

etc.

;

270

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
available at the present

The most accurate arms
Smith
Stevens

time are the single-shot pistols manufactured by

&

Wesson, Springfield, Mass.; The

J.

Arms & Tool Co., Chicopee Falls, Mass. The Remington Arms Co., Ilion, N.Y. and
;

William Wurfflein, Philadelphia, Pa.
tols are

These

pis-

furnished in calibers from .22 rim-fire to

.38 central-fire.

The

barrels are generally 10 in.
pull
2
lb.

in

length

and the trigger

In

the

latest

approved form these

pistols are of .22 cal.,

specially bored

and chambered
This
is

for the

rim-fire,

long

rifle

cartridge.

a light, clean, pleas-

ant shooting charge, and

may

be fired

many

times

with

very

little

fatigue.

Pistol

shooting with

arms

of this caliber should, therefore,

become a

popular pastime for ladies as well as gentlemen.

The Smith

&

Wesson

pistol

has a tip-up action
It
is

and an automatic
fitting

extractor.

made

of the

best materials and with the greatest care.

The
is

and workmanship are superior
pistol.

to that of

any other machine-made

The

action

similar to that of the Russian

Model
"

revolver.

The Stevens

pistols are furnished in

two other
"

models for target-shooting.
weight

The
The
"

Lord

Model

has a large frame and handle and a heavy barrel.

Its

is

2^

lb.

Conlin

"

Model

Fig. io.

— Mauser

Automatic

Pistol.

Ten

shots;

5|-inch barrel; weiglit, 2

lb.,

7^ oz.; .30

cal.

Fig. II.

— Smith & Wesson
weight,
i

Pistol.
;

lO-inch barrel;

lb.,

8| oz.

.22 cal.

Fig. 12.

^Stevens

Pistol,
i

Gould Model.
12 oz.;
.22 cal.

lO-inch barrel; weight,

lb.,

J^

FlQ.

13.

— WurfTiein
weight, 2

Pistol,

lo-inch barrel;

lb., 2 o/.;

.22 cal.

Fig. 14.

— Remington
weight, 2
lb.,

Pistol,

lo-inch barrel;

8 oz.

;

.44 cal.

Fig. 15.

— Gastinne-Renette
lb.,

Pistol.

lOy'g-inch barrel; weight, 2

6 oz.;

.44 cal.

The
same spur added
is

Pistol
"

and Revolver
Gould
"

271

the

as the
to

Model, but has a

the trigger guard.

The Gould
these

Model

is

the most popular.

All

models

have a tip-up action and an automatic extractor.

knob on the left side is pressed the barrel and operate the action.
small

A

to release

The

Wurfflein
It

pistol, like
is

the Stevens, has a

tip-up action.

well

made and has
is

a handle

very similar in shape to that of the duelling pistol
of

former days.

The

action

operated by releas-

ing the catch on the handle, back of the hammer.

Remington pistol has an exceedingly strong action, and is the only pistol that can be had chambered for the .44 Russian cartridge. It The achas a large handle and a heavy barrel. tion is operated when the hammer is at half-cock
by throwing back the
breech-block

The

with

the

thumb, simultaneously ejecting the empty

shell.

With good ammunition
at

all

these

pistols

are

capable of placing ten shots within a

2-in. circle

50 yd.

A
of

very accurate pistol for gallery and shortis

range shooting

made by M. Gastinne-Renette
his

Paris and used in

gallery in

that city.

These are muzzle-loading and very tedious and inconvenient to manipulate. For this reason

272

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle

they have not become popular.

A

few

of these

arms have been made up
bered for the

as breech-loaders, with

a tip-up action similar to the Stevens, and cham-

44 Russian
is

cartridge.

In this form

the pistol has given very good results.

The
pistol,

revolver

not quite as accurate as the
of the necessity of
If

on account

having the
the pin on

cylinder detached from the barrel.

which the cylinder revolves

is

not exactly parallel

with the bore of the barrel, there will be more
space between the cylinder and the breech end of
the barrel in
in others.

some

positions of the cylinder than

The

result will

be varying amounts
of

of gas escaping

from the different chambers
the
revolver depends

the cylinder, and consequently irregular shooting.

The accuracy

of

largely

upon the degree of perfection in which all the chambers of the cylinder align with the bore of
the barrel at the instant of discharge.

When
of

the

chambers do not align
the

perfectly, the bullet enters

barrel eccentrically
off.

and a portion

it

is

shaved

This

is

fatal to accuracy, especially

when smokeless powder is used. ment of chamber and barrel is

Imperfect alignalso the

most

fre-

quent cause of the "leading" of the barrel.

Some

very ingenious mechanical expedients are used in

The

Pistol

and Revolver

273
the

the best revolvers to reduce to a

minimum

wear

of those parts

which operate and hold the

cylinder in position.

The

revolvers generally used for target shoot-

ing are the military

arms already described, chamfitted

bered for special cartridges,
sights, special handles,

with target

and other modifications to
individuals.

suit the

whims and

tastes of

The
arms
be

best and most experienced shots are,
careful to

however,

keep the modifications

of all their

within the rules and regulations of the various
national organizations,^ in order that they

may

used in the annual competitions and other important events.

These organizations control
Freak
"

pistol

and revolver shooting, and conduct annual competitions.
"

arms which do not comply
and have
little

with the rules are not allowed in the competitions, are

seldom

practical,

or no

value other than for experimental purposes.

Tar-

get arms are generally used for trick and exhibition shooting.^
^

The United

States Revolver Association,

The National

Rifle Associa-

tion of Great Britain,

and the United Shooting Societies of France.

For

programmes and
tions.
^

details,

address the secretaries of the respective organizaillustrations of this style of shooting, see "

For descriptions and

The

Art of Revolver Shooting," G. P. Putnam's Sons,
This elaborate work contains also

New York

and London.

much

detailed information, valuable sug-

T

2 74

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

Pocket Arms.

— The most extensive use
weapon
is

of the

revolver as a pocket

for police service.

Special arms are manufactured to meet the require-

ments.
the

These weapons

are generally similar to

military revolvers,

but adapted for lighter
less.
etc.,

charges, and consequently weigh
jections,

All pro-

such as sights, hammer,

must be

eliminated or minimized so as not to catch in

drawing the arm from the pocket or
barrels are

holster.

The
.38.

from

3 to 5 in. in length, the trigger

pull 4

lb.,

and the

caliber
.'^Z

usually

.32

or

Of these two

calibers,

is

much

preferable for

the general pui-poses of an arm of this character.

The

difference in weight

is

slight,

while the power
is

and effectiveness

of the larger caliber

almost

double that of the smaller.

The pocket arms shown
practically miniatures of
in

and 17 are the military arms shown
in Figs. 16

Figs.

I

and

2.

They have

solid frames

and

actions identical with those of the military arms.

They
action.

are

made only

in .32 cal.,

and are double
the

One
Smith
gestions,

of the

most recent pocket revolvers
Safety Hammerless.

is

& Wesson

This arm

and many interesting personal experiences in relation to revolver

shooting.

Fig.

1

6.

— Colt New Police
Revoher.
weight,
.32 cal.

Fig. 17.

— Smith & Wesson Pocket
Revolver.

Six shots;

4-inch harrel;

Six shots;

4^-inch barrel; weight,
cal.

18 oz.;

i8| oz.; .32

Fig. 18.

— Smith & Wesson Safety Hammerless Revolver.
i

Five shots; 4-inch barrel; weight,

lb.,

I5 oz.;

.;iS cal.

Fig. 19.

— Stevens Diamonrl

Model

Pistol.

6-inch barrel; weight, 8| oz.; .22 cal.

The

Pistol

and Revolver

275

has a safety clutch in the back of the handle, so

designed that unless the piece
is

is

properly held

it

impossible to operate
to

it.

It

has

many
it

valuable

and desirable features
pocket weapon.
4
in.

commend

as a practical
is

The standard
is

length of barrel

This arm

also furnished in .32 cal.

With

4-in. barrels,

the foregoing pocket weapons

are capable of shooting regularly within a 2-in.
circle at 12 yd.

A

heavier and correspondingly more powerful
is

pocket revolver
revolver.

the
is

Colt

"

Double Action
for the Colt
It

This arm

chambered

.41 cal. short

and long

cartridges.

has a solid

frame, and
tier
ble,

is

operated exactly like the Colt Fron5).

Model
"

(Fig.

It is

compact, strong, dura-

and accurate.
Single Action

The

Army "

is

another Colt

revolver that has been extensively used as a belt

or holster weapon.

The mechanism and
is

action

are similar to that of the preceding arm, except
that
it is

heavier and larger, and
little

single action.

A

very handy

arm

to carry in the pocket
is

on hunting and fishing

trips

the Stevens Dia-

mond Model

single-shot pistol.

This

pistol

is

very accurate, and can be depended on to
grouse, ducks, rabbits, and other small game.

kill

The

276
.22-cal.,

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
short,

hollow-pointed

bullet

should

be

used, or the regular .22 short cartridge, with the
front of the bullet cut off square, so as to leave a
flat point.

This

will increase the killing effect of

the bullet considerably.

Ammunition

The degree
in the

of perfection that has

been attained
is

manufacture of

ammunition

remarkable.

Generally speaking, the smaller the charge the

more

difficult
this,

it is

to

make

it

accurate.

Notwith-

standing

we have

in the .22-cal.

ammunition
falls
little

a tiny cartridge the accuracy of which
short of the marvellous.

Until very recently, black

powder ammunition was used almost exclusively In calibers for pistol and revolver shooting. larger than .22, smokeless powders are now extensively used, especially in military shooting, where
the regulation
cal. pistols,

full

charge

is

required.

In the .22is

the fouling of the black powders
it is

not
to

a very serious matter, and

not

uncommon

shoot

fifty

or a hundred rounds without the necesIn the larger calibers, however,
it

sity of cleaning.

the fouling

is

frequently so excessive that

affects

the accuracy after the tenth shot.

The

incessant

cleaning that

is

necessary in order to get good

The
results

Pistol

and Revolver

277

powder ammunition was a great drawback, and detracted much from the
with black
pleasure of revolver shooting.
objection
is

Fortunately this

now

entirely eliminated

by the use

of

smokeless powders.

To

give good results, the proportions of any

given charge must be adapted to the caliber,
length of barrel, and weight of the
it is

arm

in

which
of the

to be used.

These proportions are generally

determined by experiment.
cartridge

The accuracy

depends largely upon the uniformity
In factory-loaded

exercised in the loading.

ammu-

nition for military service, the shells are generally

crimped on the
position.

bullets, to

hold them rigidly in
"

This does not improve the accuracy,

but

is

a practical necessity.

Reduced or

"

gallery

ammunition, designed to be used indoors and
short range,
cal bullet
is

at

is

made

in great variety.

A

spheri-

generally used, and gives fairly good

results

up

to 25 yd.

Rim-fire

Cartridges.

— These

contain
the

fulmi-

nate of mercury for priming around

outer

edge of the rim, or base

of the shell,

and are gen-

erally loaded with black powder.

The

".22-cal.

long rifle" cartridge

is

more

extensively

used for pistol shooting

than any

278
other.
tridges,

Guns, Amfmuiition, and Tackle
It is

the most accurate of the .22-cal. car-

being well proportioned, the bullet well

lubricated,

and the

shell

uncrimped.

In addition to
sive
is,

this,

the

ammunition

is

inexpenIt

and has very clean shooting

qualities.

therefore, particularly well

adapted for pistol

Fig. 20.

— Powder,
exact

5 gr.;

bullet,

Fig. 21.

— Powder, 3
exact

gr.; bullet,

40

gr.;

cal.,

0.223.

30

gr-;

cal.,

0.223.

shooting.
rel,

This cartridge,

fired

from a

lo-in. bar-

will
yd.,

shoot regularly inside of a

2-in. circle, at

50

and inside a

5-in. circle, at

100 yd.

Another excellent cartridge
the ".22 short."
tridge fouls very
little

in this caliber is this

Like the preceding,

carac-

and gives almost equal

curacy up to 50 yd.
report
it is

On

account of

its

lighter

preferred by

many
is

for gallery shooting.

In both

of these cartridges only the surface of the

bullet outside of the shell

lubricated.

Exposed
off,

in this way, the lubricant is easily

rubbed

or

melted

if

allowed to stand in the sunlight on a

warm

day.

Great care should be taken to prevent

this, as,

without lubrication, the bullets will lead

the barrel and cause inaccurate shooting.

The

Pistol

and Revolver
is

279

The
long
results

22-cal.

Winchester
It is

a cartridge with in.22

side lubrication.
rifle,

and
the

gives
pistol.

more powerful than the good

in

The
making
shootfig.

bullet has a flat point,
it

22.— Powder,
exact

7gr.;
cai.,

suitable

for

game o

^""''' ^5 gr.;
0.223.

ing,

and the lubrication being
shell,

within the

these cartridges

may be

carried

loose in the pocket.

All the .22-cal. cartridges can be had with hol-

low-pointed bullets, which are to be preferred for

game-shooting.

They

are also furnished loaded

with smokeless powder.
first

When

this

powder was

used in

.22-cal.

ammunition, the results were

far

from satisfactory, but as now manufactured the

smokeless ammunition approximates very closely
in uniformity

and accuracy to that loaded with

black powder.

The Winchester Repeating Arms
recently produced an alloy " grease-

Company has

less " bullet in this caliber

which,

it

is

claimed,

does not require lubrication.

Should

this

claim

be substantiated by actual experience, these bullets will

probably supersede those of pure lead in

these calibers.

The

.25-cal.

Stevens

is

a

much more

powerful

cartridge than any of the preceding, and gives

28o

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
It is

excellent results in the pistol.

selected

by

those

who wish
is

a

more powerful
cal.

rim-fire cartridge

than

furnished in .22

Rim-fire cartridges in larger caliber than .25
are

used for derringers (large-bore,
pocket-pistols

single-shot

now seldom
These
car-

used) and inferior grades
FiG. 23.
let,

—^ Powder,
,

,

,

of revolvers.

ii gr.;

bul-

67 gr.; exact cal, 0.257.

tridges

sometimes

lack

uniformity in caliber

when

made by
defective,

different manufacturers, are frequently

and discharge occasionally

in closing

the action of the

arm

in

which they are loaded.

They consequently
fire

lack the safety, reliability, and

accuracy of the corresponding calibers in central-

ammunition.

Rim-fire cartridges cannot be

reloaded.
Central-fire Cartridges,

— This type

of cartridge

has a brass or copper primer charged with a small
quantity of fulminate of mercury, and containing
a skeleton anvil of brass.

The primer

fits

water-

tight in a socket in the centre of the base of the
shell.

After being discharged, the primer can
In
all

be renewed and the shell reloaded.

the

central-fire cartridges the lubrication of the bullet
is

inside of the shell,

rendering this

ammuni-

The
tion

Pistol

and Revolver

281

much more
.32-cal. S.

serviceable and less liable to be

damaged.

The
Smith

& W.

cartridge

is

adapted to the

&

Wesson,

Colt, or other

pocket revolvers.

Fig. 24.

— Powder,

10 gr.

;

bullet,

FlG. 25.

— Powder,

13 gr.; bullet,
cal.,

88 gr.; exact

cal.,

0.313.

loogr.j exact

0.313.

Occasionally single-shot pistols are chambered for
this cartridge.
It is

fairly

accurate at ranges up
is

to

50 yd.
"

A
"

gallery charge

furnished in this
spherical

shell consisting of 4 gr. of

powder and a
gr.
is

or

round

bullet
S.

weighing 47

The

.32-cal.

& W. Long

more accurate
cartridge.
It

and powerful than the preceding
volver.

gives excellent results in both the pistol and

re-

The
.32-cal.

gallery charge

is

the same as that

of the .32 S.

& W.
Colt

The
Colt

New

Police

is

also

an accu-

rate cartridge,

and was designed

specially for the
is

New

Police revolver.

A

gallery charge

furnished in this shell consisting of a

powder charge
7
gr.

reduced to

and the
Fig. 26.
let,

— Powder,

1

3 gr. ; bul0.313.

regular bullet.

loo gr.; exact

cal.,

282

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
S.

The .32-44

designed for the S.

& W. is a special target cartridge & W. Russian Model revolver.
is

The

bullet

is

seated inside of the shell, which

straight

and uncrimped.
either

The
of

revolver

may

be

chambered
shown.
F.G. 27.
let,

to take shells of

the

two

lengths

The
•'

17-gr. shell is

-Powder,
gr.;

II

gr.;bui-gj.^ll
0.323.
*-*

preferred,
*

as

the

83

exact

cal.,

11-83 charge
loaded in
it
if

may

also be

desired.

A

gallery charge, consisting of
Powder, 17
gr.;

bullet,

98

gr.

4

gr. of

powdcr and a round

bullet

weighing 50 gr., may also be used in both shells.
This affords a wide range
charges in one o
^

50

of
gr.

shell.

A
the
the

special feature

of this car-

tridge

is

that

the

same sights used
12
yd.

for

gallery

charge at

are

suitable

for

11-83 charge at 50 yd.
in the

The

full

charge (17-98)
all

long shell

is

the most accurate of

the

black powder revolver cartridges.
nition,

This ammuis

shot from a 6^-in. barrel,

capable of

making ten-shot groups
and a
5-in. circle at

in a 2-in. circle at

50

yd.,

100 yd.

The 11-83

charge,
2-in.

under the same conditions,

will also

shoot in a

The
circle at
I

Pistol

and Revolver
will

283
shoot in a

50 yd.

The 4-50 charge

-in.

circle at 20 yd.

This cartridge also gives
adapted to the Smith

good

results in single-shot pistols.
.38 S.

The

& W.

is

&

Wesson,
.32

Colt,

and other pocket revolvers.
conse-

It is

much more
S.

powerful than the
is

&
,

W., and
,

quently
,

more

practical
,

and
,

Fig, 28.

— Powder, 15
exact

gr.;
cai.,

better adapted for a pocket

buUet,
°-358-

146 gr.;

revolver charge.

When

shot

from a

4-in. barrel,

groups of ten shots can be
20
yd.,

made

in a 2-in. circle at

and

in a 6-in.
is

circle at

50 yd.

The

galleiy charge

6 gr. of

powder and a round
and
S.

bullet

weighing 71

gr.

These two cartridges are adapted

to the Colt
first is

& W.

Military revolvers.

The

the

Fig. 29.

Powder, i8

gr.; bullet, 150 gr.

Powder, 2\\
exact

gr,;
cal.,

bullet, 158 gr.;

0.358,

regulation service charge, and the second
special

is

a

target cartridge.

Both are exceedingly

accurate.

From

a 6-in. barrel six shots

may be

placed within a

6-in. circle at

lOO yd.

Smokeless

284

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
in this
;

ammunition
and uniform

caliber gives equally
fifty

good

results

to

one hundred shots

may be

fired

without cleaning and without sensi-

bly affecting the accuracy.

The .38-44

S.

signed for the S.

& W. & W.

is

another cartridge de-

Russian Model revolver.

Fig. 30.

— Powder, 20
gr.;

gr.;

bullet,

146 gr.

Iiogr.

100 gr.

72

gr.

146

exact

cal.,

0.360.

It

is

more powerful than the
manufactured, the accuracy

.32-.44, but

on

account of the excessive fouling of this charge as

now

is

impaired after
cleanerex-

the seventh shot.

With an improved
it

shooting charge

would be accurate and
and

tremely popular for target-shooting.
tridge

This car-

was

originally designed

made

for

Chevalier Ira Paine, the noted pistol shot.
the .32-44, the shell
is

Like

straight
it

and uncrimped,
is

and the bullet
flush with
its

is

seated in

so that the point

mouth.

Several reduced charges
shell.

have been developed for this

The

Ideal

Manufacturing Company can furnish moulds for
a conical bullet with a square base weighing

no

The
gr.,

Pistol

and Revolver

285

or with a concave base weighing 100 gr.
is

The

powder charge for either bullet charge works well up to 50 yd.
is

A

This 9 gr. smaller load

the regulation gallery charge of 6 gr. of
gr.

powder

and a round bullet weighing 72

The
ing.

.44-cal.

Russian^

is

unquestionably the

most popular revolver cartridge for target-shoot-

While

it

has sufficient power to

make

it

an

effective

charge for miliit

tary service,
at the

possesses,

same
Air
-D

time, remark-

able

accuracy.

In
A/r

the
Fig.

c b.

& W.
i?

Russian

J 1 Model,

3i.-Powder, 23
246
gr.;

gr.; bullet,

exact

cal.,

0.429.

or the Colt

New

Service
is

revolver, the recoil
ant,

not so great as to be unpleas-

and the fouling

smaller charges. load

much less than that of many The fouling of the full charge
is

with black powder begins to

"cake" or
shot, and,

harden in the barrel after the twentieth
to

get

the

best

results,

the

barrel

should be
all

cleaned after every ten shots.
records
in

Nearly

the great

revolver

shooting have

been made
great deal of

with this ammunition, and most of the important

matches have been won with
^

it.

A

So named

after its

adoption as the service ammunition of the Russian

cavalry.

286

Guns, Ammuniticm, and Tackle

experimental work has been done with this cartridge,

and many reduced charges have

been

evolved.

The

Ideal Manufacturing

Company can
:

furnish moulds for the following bullets

liogr. 23
gr-

7gr-

Ht|i|UMl
121 gr.

205

gr.

7 &•
Fig. 32.

15 gf-

Fig. 33.

— Powder, 40
gr.;

gr.

;

bullet,

250

exact

cal.,

0.454.

Fig. 34.

The weight
powder charge,

of each, with the corresponding
is

adapt this shell to

These various loads almost any conceivable requiregiven.

The
ments

Pistol

and Revolver

287
of the
is

in revolver shooting.

The accuracy

various
follows
:

charges fired from a 6j-in. barrel

as

288

Guns, /Ammunition, and Tackle
is

-115
gives

the most accurate of these cartridges, and

the best results in the pistol or revolver.

All these cartridges having flat-pointed bullets
are well adapted for

game
is

shooting.

There are
all

no gallery loads

for these cartridges.

The

.45 Colt

Army

the most powerful of
It

the revolver cartridges.

was formerly the

United States army service ammunition.

The

charge was so heavy, and the recoil so excessive,
that
it

was almost impossible

to shoot

it

without

flinching.

The

service

charge was

afterward
it

modified to 28

gr. of

powder, which made
serviceable.
is

much

more desirable and

With

the latter

charge this cartridge

very similar to the 45-30

-250 Scofield Model
of these

S.

& W.

cartridge.

Both

are

sufficiently powerful, accurate,

and
7 gr.

clean-shooting to render them suitable for military
service.

The

gallery load for the .45 Colt
bullet

is

of

powder and a round

The

39 gr. caliber of the service ammunition for the
1

weighing

revolver of the British

army

is

.455.

This

is

a

very accurate cartridge, but not as powerful as the

corresponding military cartridges as used in this
country.

A

special cylindrical bullet with a deep
is

convex hollow point

furnished in the same shell

and

is

known

as the

"

man

stopper."

The
This form
cal.

Pistol

and Revolver
is

289

of bullet

used in the

450 and .38
is

cartridges also.

The 450-13-225
is

another
to

English cartridge that
shoot.
It is

accurate,

and pleasant

used largely

at Bisley in the

annual

revolver competitions of the National Rifle Association of Great Britain.

In order to

avoid

excessive fouling,

a

self-

lubricating bullet has been invented and intro-

duced by Smith

& Wesson, which can be furnished

Jb'iG.

35.

— Self-lubricating

Section showing details of
construction.

cartridge.

in all calibers

above

.32.

The
is

bullet has a hollow
is

core open
the

in

the rear.

Lubricant
it

filled into

core, after

which

closed

with a lead

plunger.

Four small ducts communicate from the
ahead
of its bearing

forward end of the core to the exterior of the
bullet just

on the

barrel.
is

At

the

moment

of discharge the

plunger

driven

forward, forcing the lubricant through the ducts
into the barrel

ahead

of the bullet.
results.

This bullet has given excellent
it

With
with

a hundred or

more shots may be

fired

290

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
suffi-

black powder ammunition without causing
cient fouling to impair the accuracy.

Nearly
to

all

the cartridges that have been referred

were originally designed for black powder.

The various manufacturers can now furnish most of
these loaded with smokeless

powder at a very slight

advance

in price.

The

cartridges are loaded so

as to give

approximately the same velocity as

black powder.

The accuracy and
first

uniformity with
equal to that of

smokeless powder was not at
the black
;

but with a better knowledge of the

action and behavior of smokeless powders this
difficulty

has been overcome, and the smokeless

equivalent in this ammunition
substantially the

now gives,

not only

same

results as that loaded with

black powder, but also causes

much

less fouling

and smoke, and has a lighter
advantages
will,

report.

These
generally

no

doubt, soon

be
will

recognized, and smokeless

powder

supersede
it

black for general sporting purposes just as
for military service.

has

Most

of the smokeless charges that

have been
still

adapted for the black powder cartridges are
in the experimental stage.

For

this reason the

manufacturers

who have developed

satisfactory

smokeless charges are unwilling to

make them

The

Pistol

and Revolver

291

public at the present time, preferring to wait until

they have been thoroughly tested and

tried.

The

following factory-loaded smokeless cartridges have

been found equally as accurate as the corresponding black powder ammunition
:

Cartridge

292

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

The

Pistol

and Revolver
is

293

mechanism. This ammunition
with nose
full

furnished loaded

mantled and

" soft

" bullets,

the latter for
Powder, 8
let,

hunting purposes.

When
nition
is

fired

from

the

gr.

(smokeless)
cal.,

;

bul-

105 gr.; exact

0.358.

regulation arms, this

ammu-

capable of placing
inside
yd.,

ten

shots

a 3-inch
Powder, S^gr. (smokeless); bullet,

circle at

50

and inside
loo yd.
ex-

93 gr.; exact

cal.,

.3016.

a

7-in.

circle

at

These cartridges are
ceedingly
Several

clean-shooting.

"MHtW
Powder, 7|gr. (smokeless) bul;

hundred
fired

rounds

let,

85 gr.; exact
Fig. 36.

cal.,

.3008.

may be

without causis

ing more fouling than

apparent after the first shot.

Muzzle Velocities and Penetration

294

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle
Sights

The purpose of sights is The national organizations
sights in pistol

to assist in aiming.

allow only

"open"
"

and revolver shooting.

Peep

"

or

"

aperture

"

sights are barred.

The

rear sight

usually consists of a notch shaped like a
U, the

V

or a

notch being as wide on top as at any part.

k
Side view.

k
Side view.

End

view.

End

view.

Front Sights.

Rear

sight.

Appearance when aiming.
Military Sights.

Fig. 37.

The

front sight

is

a piece of thin metal set on
latter

edge.

Sometimes the

has a special shape

or section
at
it

resembling a pinhead when looking
Military

from the breech, as in aiming.

sights usually consist of a plain notch in the top
of the

frame for the rear sight and a tapering

front sight fixed to the barrel near the muzzle.

The

Pistol

and Revolver

295

Target sights are made
suit individual ideas.

in endless variety to

The

sights
"

most generally
Paine
" sights,

used for target-shooting are the

named

after

Chevalier Ira Paine,

who invented

1
Rear
sight.

Side view.
" Paine " Sights.

End

view.

Appearance

Front sight.

when

aiming.

Fig. 38.

and was the
is

first

to use them.

The
is,

rear sight

a

flat

bar with a semicircular notch, and the
is

front sight

a " bead " sight

;

that

a sight that

resembles a pinhead

Another sight
using
is

when aiming. that many of the
" sight,

best shots are

the " Patridge

developed by Mr.

Side view.

End
sight.

view.

Appearance

Rear

sight.

Front

when

aiming.

Patridge Sights.
Fig. 39.

E. E. Patridge of Boston, Mass.

The

rear sight
is

has a wide rectangular notch

;

the front sight

plain with a square top, as shown.

296

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
in the order
is

in

These sights have been referred to which they are most used. It

generally

necessary for individuals to try various sights
before they are able to select intelligently.
target
in

In

arms different-shaped sights may be used the same base or fitting, so that it is a comto try

paratively easy matter
sights on the

any or

all

of these

same arm.
of

The notch
bevelled
will

the

rear

sight should
front.

have a
This
light.
is

edge concave toward the
sharpness
of

secure

outline

in

any
the

The

front sight should also be distinct

and

found to

be

most
is

satisfactory

when

side

toward the eye
line of sight.

a surface at right angles to the

Position

The
a

position in pistol and revolver shooting

is

very important.

In firing a long series of shots,

man with an easy, natural position will suffer much less fatigue, and will have a decided advantage over another whose position
is

straining and

uncomfortable.

Formerly the approved position
toward the target.

was

to stand with the right side

This required the head to be turned ninety degrees from
its

natural

position,

and was very

The
uncomfortable.
relic

Pistol

and Revolver
this

297
is

Undoubtedly

position

a

of duelling days,

argued that a smaller
antagonist.

when it might have been mark was offered to the

The
left

positions adopted by the leading shots vary

considerably.
of

Most
target,

of

them

face a trifle to the
right
foot 6

the

with the
left,

or 8

inches ahead of the

and pointing directly
of the

toward the

target, the

weight

body sup-

ported equally by both legs and perfectly balanced.

some with one or both eyes open, and with the arm
Others shoot with the
feet close together;

partly or fully extended.
tion

The

question of posi-

depends largely upon the physique and coman exceedingly strong

fort of the individual.

Mr. Winans' position
one.

is

His poise
the

is

very good, and he stands

firmly on both feet.

The

left

arm

falls

straight

down along
to the figure.

left

side of
desired,

the body.

This

affords rigidity

when
has
a

and imparts action
natural
position.

Mr. Axtell

stanch,

Like Mr. Winans, he shoots with the right arm
fully extended,

and he holds the weapon

in the

correct and most approved manner.

The

position of Mr.

Anderton

is

excellent.

He

298

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

enjoys perfect health, and has his large muscular

development well under control.
strong, natural, and comfortable.

His position

is

Another good

position

is

that of Mr.

Richmond.

He

is

not as
is

well poised as Mr. Anderton, but his position

graceful and businesslike.

The

positions of Mr. Patridge

and Sergeant

Petty are characteristic and typical of persons of
entirely different physique.

Mr. Gorman and Dr. Sayre are
similar physique.

men

of very

Their positions, which resemble
firm, easy,

each other closely, are

and natural.

Target-shooting
In the development of firearms and
tion, target-shooting

ammuni-

has always occupied an imregularly and systematically
in order to
of the

portant place.
practised in the
tain

It is

army and navy,

mainas

and improve the proficiency
Target-shooting, with
firearms,
of

men

marksmen.
styles

many

different

under prescribed rules and

regulations, has also

become extremely popular
or object of suitable form
fired
at.

with civilians.

A

target

is

a

mark

and color designed

to be

It

usually

consists of a frame covered with canvas or paper,

The

Pistol

and Revolver

299

presenting a white surface with a prominent spot
or
bull's-eye
in

the centre.

Concentric circles

around the centre divide the target into zones

which are assigned values, decreasing from the
centre outward.

On

a regularly equipped range

the targets are movable frames, so arranged that

they

may be

raised to the firing position
pit,

and then
safely

lowered into a

where the marker can

examine the

target,

mark the shot

accurately,

and
of

cover the shot-hole with a paster.

The sum

the values of a limited series of consecutive shots,
as
5, 7,

10, 20, 50, etc.,

constitutes a score.
in

Target-shooting was indulged
with the
rifle

extensively

many

years before

it

became popular
shorter barrel,
skill

with the pistol and revolver.

The

and the greater

difficulty in

acquiring

with

the latter weapons, were doubtless responsible for
the mistaken idea long prevalent that these arms

were extremely inaccurate.

When, however,
skill to

a

few individuals developed sufficient
fine shooting, their

obtain

performances were considered
the
first

phenomenal.
order of
skill

Among

to obtain a high

with the muzzle-loading pistol in

the United States Missouri.

was Captain John Travers
well

of

He was

known

as

an

expert

pistol shot as early as

i860.

In that year Cap-

300

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

tain Travers shot an interesting individual
in St.

match

Louis at a distance of loo
Captain Travers broke
9.

feet.

Fifteen

china plates, nine inches in diameter, were used
as targets.
15,
1 1

out of the

while his opponent broke but

In 1865 Colonel William F.

Cody

(Buffalo Bill)
St.

and Captain William

P.

Schaaf

of

Louis
latter

became prominent
years' tour of the

as pistol shots.

The

subsequently joined Captain Travers in a three

United States, giving exhibitions

in nearly all the large cities.

About 1880
Massachusetts,

Ira

Anson

Paine,

a

native
his

of

attracted

attention

by

fine

marksmanship with the
abroad, and for a

pistol.

In 1881 he went

number

of years he travelled

over the principal countries of Europe, giving
public exhibitions of his skill with the pistol and
revolver.

While

in

Portugal
in the

in

1882 he was

knighted by the king
assemblage, and
military order.

presence of a notable

made

a chevalier of an ancient

In his exhibitions Chevalier Paine

used a Stevens Lord Model pistol and a Smith

&

Wesson

revolver.

His

skill

with these arms was

so far in advance of his contemporaries that he

was popularly supposed
his feats

to accomplish

many

of

by

trickery.

The

Pistol

and Revolver

301

Target-shooting with the pistol and revolver,
as a sport,

may be

said to have originated at the

annual meeting
at

of the National Rifle Association

Creedmoor in 1886. During that meeting a revolver match was scheduled to be shot at 25 yd. on the 200-yd. Standard American Rifle
Target.
It

was a reentry match, with the three
In this match three scores of 48 out

best scores of five shots each of any contestant
to count.
of 50

were made, the highest individual aggregate
being 143 out of a possible 150.
of

of three scores

The same
at

year a similar match was announced
the

the

fall

meeting

Massachusetts Rifle
Chevalier Paine

Association at Walnut

Hill.

was a competitor
49

in this

match, and made 50-49-

=

148 in six entries.

The

next best three

scores equalled 142.

These matches proved so interesting and
cessful

suc-

that target-shooting with the pistol

and

became instantly popular all over the It was soon found that the arms poscountry.
revolver

sessed remarkable accuracy, and as the

skill

of

the shooters improved the distance was increased
to 50 yd., retaining the

same

target.
of

Mr. A. C. Gould, editor

The
first

Rifle,

now

Shooting and Fishing, was the

to recognize

302

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle

the possibilities of the pistol and revolver,

and

became greatly interested
with these arms.
the
shooters,

in

the performances

He

assisted

and encouraged

witnessed their work, and
of all the

made

careful

and elaborate records

important

scores that were

made
It

in the

United States from
the

1886 to 1900/

was

at his suggestion that
fire
first

Chevalier Paine essayed to

loo-shot

score at 50 yd. on the Standard

American Target,
Russian

scoring 791 points.

This shooting was done with

a finely sighted .44 cal.

Smith

& Wesson

Model Revolver, regulation
tion,

full

charge ammuni-

and a 2J

lb.

trigger pull.

A

keen

rivalry for

the lOO-shot record soon sprang up, resulting as
follows
Oct.
:

15, 1886,
7,

March
Nov. Nov.
Dec.

Chevalier Ira Paine at 1887, Chevalier Ira Paine "

Walnut

Hill

791 841

4, 1887, F.

E. Bennett E. Bennett

"

857

14, 1887, F.
5,

"
"

1887, F. E. Bennett

877 886
888

Dec.

17, 1887,

Chevalier Ira Paine "

Dec. 22, 1887, Chevalier Ira Paine " " Dec. 23, 1887, W. W. Bennett

904 914

This rivalry led to a long newspaper controversy,

and

culminated

in

the

famous

Paine-

Bennett revolver match.
1

The
and

conditions were

See 77te Modern American Pistol

Revolver, by A. C. Gould.

Bradlee Whidden, Publisher, Boston, Mass,

The

Pistol

and Revolver

303

as follows: Stakes, ^1000.00; 100 shots per day
for six consecutive days;

Smith
;

& Wesson
lb.
;

Rusfull

sian

Model Revolvers,
;

.44 cal.

factory-loaded

charge ammunition

trigger pull, 3

Standard
;

American Target with
50 yd.

8-in. bull's-eye

distance,

On

the

fifth

day

of the

match, and while

9 points in the lead. Chevalier Paine entered a
protest and withdrew.

Mr. F. E. Bennett con-

tinued shooting, as stipulated in the match, scor-

ing 5093 points for the total of the six days. The protest was referred to the National Rifle Association,

which decided

in favor of

Mr. Bennett,

awarding him the match and the championship
of

America.
In practising for this

match Mr.
until

F. E. Bennett,
of 915.
i,

under the same conditions, made a score
This record was not excelled

June

1901,

when

C.

S.

Richmond

of

Savannah, Georgia,

scored 918 points under substantially the same
conditions.

During the summer
Carlin, assisted

of

1890 Mr. William E.

by Mr. Hubert Reynolds, made a
of

very elaborate series of tests with the revolver

and various kinds
bag

ammunition.
sight,

The shooting

was done with a telescopic
rest.

and from a sandwere remarkable.

The

results obtained

:

304

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
to the definite information

and added materially

then available as to the capabilities of the revolver,
the relative accuracy of different charges, etc.

A

very interesting revolver match for a trophy

offered by Mr. Walter

Wi nans

took place in 1892.
shot,

Mr. Winans
in

is

a noted

American revolver
in

England, and the trophy — an Ameriresiding can cowboy executed admirably bronze — was

modelled by him.
Forest

The match was conducted by and Stream. The trophy was won, after
Under
trophy
suc-

a spirited competition, by Dr. Louis Bell.

the conditions of the match, the winner was to

defend his

title

two years before

the

became

his property.

The trophy was won

cessively

by George E. Jantzer and Sergeant
for

W.
it

E. Petty.
successfully

Sergeant Petty defended the trophy

two

years,

and now holds

permanently.

The

"

best on record " performances with the
pistol,

single-shot

on the

Standard American

Target, at 50 yd., are as follows:
100 shots
Sept. 22, 1888, F. E. Bennett,


" «

Walnut
"

Hill,

Mass.

.

906 934 936 939 942 942

Nov.

10, 1888, F.

E. Bennett,

"

.

Sept. 10, 1890, F. E. Bennett,

"

"

.

Feb. 25, 1900, May 26, 1 90 1,

J.
J.

E. Gorman, San Francisco, Cal. " " E. Gorman, "

.

.

March

i,

1902, E. E. Patridge,

Walnut

Hill,

Mass.

.

The
50 shots

Pistol

and Revolver

305

Nov.
Feb.

10, 1888, F.
II, 1900, J.

E. Bennett, Walnut Hill, Mass. E. Gorman, San Francisco, Cal. " " E. Gorman, "

470
471

May
Dec.
April

20,
7, 4,

1

90 1,

J.

1901, T. Anderton, 1903, T. Anderton,

Walnut
"

Hill,

Mass.
"

«

474 476 480

A
fired

record, or "best

on record,"

is

the highest

recognized score of any given number of shots

under certain standard conditions, and with
rules.

an arm complying with certain estabhshed

The
piled

records of pistol and revolver shooting in the

United States were carefully established and com-

by Shooting and Fishing

until

the year
to the

1900,

when

the records were

intrusted

United States Revolver Association.
ciation, with the

This assoall

support and cooperation of

the leading shots of the country, formulated rules

and regulations
ship matches.

to

govern

pistol

and revolver
in

shooting, and inaugurated the annual champion-

These are shot simultaneously

different parts of the

United States, thus giving

everybody an opportunity to enter the competitions.

This association also negotiated and
first

conducted the

international revolver

match

between France and the United States, which
took place in June, 1900.

This match attracted

world-wide attention, and was

won by

the United

3o6
States.

Guns, /Ammunition, and Tackle

follows

The conditions of the match were as Ten men on a side the Americans to shoot at Greenville, NJ., and the Frenchmen
:

;

in

Paris.

Results to be cabled.

Each

side to

appoint an umpire to witness the shooting of the

opposing

side.

Each man

to shoot 30 shots

on

the French target at 16 metres and 30 shots on

the Standard American target at 50 yd.
6000.

Possible,
;

Total scores

:

Americans, 4889
the
association

French,

4828.

The
It

influence

of

on

pistol

and revolver shooting has been very

beneficial.
etc.,

has established uniformity in arms, rules,

and has encouraged and conducted many friendly
matches between clubs, thus bringing the shots in
different parts of the country in closer touch with

each other.
In order to

become

familiar with the

arms and

develop
practice
iently

skill in
is

shooting, careful and systematic

necessary.

This can be most convenis "

and

intelligently obtained in target-shooting.

At

a properly equipped range, each shot

spot-

ted "^ as fired, so that the

shooter can

tell

instantly

where each shot
1

strikes.

This

is

a great aid and

The

position of a shot accurately indicated by a marker from a pit or

safe place near the target.

The
advantage, as
effect of
it

Pistol

and Revolver

307

enables the shooter to note the
in light, wind, slight displaceetc.,

changes

ments

in

the sights,

and modify
is

his

accordingly.

The

usual distance
at

50 yd.
yd.,

work Very
rarely

good shooting has been done
at

100

and even
is

200

yd.,

but such long-range shooting

attempted except by the very best shots.

The

whole target being so small at that distance, a
shot need not be very wild to miss the target.

Such an occurrence
moreover,

is

very unsatisfactory and

disconcerting to a fairly skilful shot.

There

is,

nothing to be gained by extremely

long-range work.

The

pistol
is

and revolver are not

designed for

it,

and there

much more

pleasure

and

satisfaction in shooting at the shorter ranges.

It is

customary and desirable to practise at the

target under the conditions governing the annual

championship matches.
those conditions, and
is

This accustoms one to
a decided advantage
if

one

expects to enter the competitions.
cellent training for record

It is also ex-

shooting.

In target

practice with military arms, regulation full-charge

ammunition should be used

in all cases, especially

when

practising rapid-fire shooting.

With

target

weapons, reduced charges are frequently used, and
the shooting
is

generally slow and deliberate.

3o8

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
target used
is

The
target.

by the United States army
the regulation silhouette

for

revolver practice

man

This consists of the figure

of a

man

standing,

and

is

used for both mounted and dismounted

practice.

For the mounted practice the target
held in position by

consists of a steel skeleton frame, covered with
cloth

and black paper, and

is

supporting rods and braces.
as
"

This

is

designated

Target D."

Five of these targets are set up

at a distance of lo yd.

and 20

yd. apart,
trot,

and the
and
gal-

troopers ride by
lop, firing

them on the walk,
at

one shot
is

each target as they pass.

This practice

modified by changing the position

of the targets so the position will

be

25, 20, 15, 10,

and
left,

5 yd. respectively,

and shooting

to the right,

and

rear.

Ten
"

shots per

man

are also fired

at "

Target

K

— the silhouette
total

figure of a

mounted

soldier.

The

alry troops for
is

ammunition allowance to cavmounted and dismounted practice

150 rounds per

man

annually.
practice,

For the dismounted
figure of a

the

silhouette

man
high,

and 6
dle.

ft.

mounted on a frame 4 ft. wide and is known as " Target A-d."
is

This target has a horizontal

line

through the mid-

Hits in the black figure above the line count

The
5,

Pistol
line, 4.

and Revolver

309

and below the

Shots on the rest of the
3,

target above the line count
2.

and below the

line,

Five shots constitute a score.

All revolver

target practice consists of

two

classes, "prelimi-

nary" and "record,"
the
latter

4'0^

being

incorporated in the
official reports.

The

artillery

and

infan-

try officers' practice

consists of one pre-

liminary score and

two record scores
at

each of the
10,

dis30,

tances,
40,

20,

and 50 yd.

For

cavalry troops the

prescribed practice

on

this target con-

Fig. 48.

— Target A-d, U.S.A.
at

sists of

one preliminary score

each of the

dis-

tances, 10, 20,
at

and 50
States

yd.,

and one record score
also provide

each of the distances, 20 and 50 yd.

The United

army regulations

for annual competitions in each department,

and
In

in

each even-numbered year a competition between
representatives
of all the

departments.

the

3IO

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

competitions, the scores shot on the

A-d

target

must be completed within
Hmits.

certain specified time

After the competitor has taken his posi-

FiG. 49.

— Standard American Target.
Diameter of Circles

10 circle

.

The

Pistol

and Revolver
and begins
" Fire."

311
to fire

pistol into the firing position,

immediately after the

command

The

must be completed within 1 1 sec, and the scores at 40 and 50 yd. within 12 sec. Gold, silver, and bronze medals are awarded to those making the highest scores.

scores shot at 20 and 30 yd.

The

official

target of the United States Revolver
is

Association, which

used in the annual chamis
is

pionship matches and for record shooting,

the
also

Standard American Target.
used by nearly
izations in the
all

This target

the shooting clubs and organ-

United States.
is

For 50-yd. shooting
well suited for

the bull's-eye
8, 9,

8

in. in

diameter and contains the
is

and 10

rings.

This target

target practice at this range.

It

has been used

extensively since 1886.

Ten

shots, with

one hunreduced

dred for the possible, usually constitute a score.

For gallery shooting at 20 yd.
so
that the bull's-eye
for
is
i

this target
in.

is

2^^
in.

in

diameter,

and

lo-yd. shooting

in

diameter.

In

indoor shooting smokeless powder and reduced

charges are always to be preferred.
ficial

Where

arti-

ventilation

is

provided,

some shooting may

be done with black powder ammunition, but the
range soon
indistinct
fills

with smoke, rendering the targets
Gal-

and the atmosphere unpleasant.

312

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
is

lery practice

very valuable, as

it

enables one to
in

preserve good
localities

form
it is

in

the

winter months,

where

too cold to shoot with com-

fort

and pleasure out-of-doors.

An arm

of large

caliber has a decided advantage over one of small

caliber in short-range shooting,

on account

of the

larger hole

made by the bullet,
less

and, for this reason,

the large calibers are preferred for gallery shooting.
five

For distances

than 25 yd. not more than

shots should be fired on a paper or card-

board target.

In case a close group

is

made, the

scoring will be

much

easier

and more accurate
those

than

when

ten shots are fired at a single target.
all

The
"

best grades of target arms, including

illustrated in this chapter, are capable of

making

possibles "

or perfect scores

American

target,

on the standard using regulation ammunition.
is

To make

high scores

therefore simply a ques-

tion of skill

on the part
have

of the shooter.

A
for

great

many other

targets designed principally

rifle-shooting

been

recommended
scientific

at

different times

by well-known and
in

marksmerit

men.

Some

of these targets possess

much

and have become popular
It
is

certain localities.

unquestionably a mistake to introduce new
this

targets in

manner

as

long as satisfactory

The

Pistol

and Revolver
and on which
all

313
the

targets are in general use,

important matches and records have been shot.

The

merit of a score on a

new

target cannot be
it,

judged by those unfamiliar with
a highly
meritorious score
it

and frequently
to receive

fails

the

recognition

deserves on account of having been

shot on a comparatively

unknown

target.

In England and France the targets generally

have smaller
shooting
is

bull's-eyes

than here.

At

Bisley, the

principally at a distance of 20 yards
in diameter. in diameter.

on a

bull's-eye 2 in.
is

the bull's-eye
targets

4

in.

At 50 yards The English
the

have

no

circles

of

count within

bull's-eye.

The

regulation targets of the United
bull's-eyes 5

Shooting Societies of France have

and 6 centimetres

in

diameter for the pistol and

revolver respectively, at 20 metres, and 20 centi-

metres in diameter for 50-metre shooting.
these targets have two or

All

more

circles of

count

within the bull's-eye.

ANNUAL CHAMPIONSHIP MATCHES OF THE UNITED STATES REVOLVER ASSOCIATION
Regular or Outdoor Events
Match A, Revolver Championship. Open to everybody; distance, 50 yd.; 50 shots on the Standard American target, 8-in. bull's-eye, 10 ring 3.36 in. Arm, any revolver. Ammunition, any. The score must be completed in one hour or less from the time of firing the
fee,
first

shot.

Entrance

^5 ; no reentries.

314
Prizes:

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle
first,

the championship silver cup, to be held until the next
;

annual competition, and a gold medal bronze medal.

second, a silver medal

;

third, a

A

bronze medal will also be awarded to any competitor,

not a prize winner, making a score of 425 or better.
yd.;

Pistol Championship. Open to everybody distance, 50 50 shots on same target as match A. Arm, any pistol. Ammunition, any. The score must be completed in one hour or less from the time of

Match B,


;

;

firing

the

first
:

shot.

Entrance

fee,

^5

no

reentries.

Prizes

first,

the championship cup, to be held until the next annual

competition, and a gold medal; second, a silver medal; third, a bronze

medal.

A

bronze medal

will also

be awarded

to

any competitor, not a

prize winner,

making a score

of 435 or better.

Match C, Military Championship. Open to everybody; distance, 25, and 75 yd.; five consecutive strings of five shots at each range on the same target as match A. Each string at each range must be shot within
50,

the time limit of 15 sec, taking time from the
fires

command

"Fire."

Misfiring

and shots
will

lost

on account of the arm becoming disabled while
If a shot
is

any string

be scored zero.

fired after the

time limit has

elapsed, the shot of highest count will be deducted from the score.

No

Arm, any military revolver, or any military magazine pistol. Ammunition, the full-charge service cartridge. The score must be begun at the shortest range, and must be completed on the same day. No
cleaning allowed.
sighting shots will be allowed after beginning the score.

Entrance

fee,

^5

;

no

reentries.
:

Prizes

first,

the championship trophy, to be held until the next annual
;

competition, and a gold medal

second, a silver medal

;

third, a

bronze

medal.

A

bronze medal

will also

be awarded to any competitor, not a prize

winner, making a score of 535 or better. Match D, Military Record Match.
yd.;
five

— Open

consecutive strings of

five shots,

to everybody; distance, 50 under the same conditions as

match C.
Prizes
:

Entrance
first,

fee,

^i

;

entries unlimited.

a gold trophy, to be held until the next annual competition,
it

the trophy to

become the property of the competitor winning
;

three

times

;

second, a silver medal

third, a

bronze medal.

A

bronze medal

will also

be awarded to any competitor, not a prize winner, making a score

of 190 or better.

Indoor or Gallery Events^
Indoor Revolver Championship.
yd.;

— Open

to

everybody

;

distance, 20

50 shots on the Standard American target reduced so that the 8
1

These are conducted during the winter months.

The
ring
is

Pistol

and Revolver
revolver.

315
suit-

2| inches in diameter.

Arm, any

Ammunition, any

able smokeless gallery charge approved by the executive committee.

The
first

score must be completed in one hour or less from the time of firing the
shot.

Entrance
:

fee,

^5

;

no

reentries.

Prizes

first,

a silver cup, to be held until the next annual competition,
it

the cup to

become the property of the competitor winning
;

three times
will also

second, a silver medal

third, a

bronze medal.

A

bronze medal

be awarded to any competitor, not a prize winner, making a score of 425
or better.

Indoor Pistol Championship.

— Open

to everybody;

distance, 20 yd,

50 shots on the Standard American target reduced so the 8 ring is 2| in. in diameter. Arm, any pistol. Ammunition, any suitable smokeless
gallery charge

approved by the executive committee.

The

score must be

completed
Entrance
Prizes

in

one hour or
^5
;

less

from the time of

firing the first shot.

fee,
:

no

reentries.

first,

a silver cup, to be held until the next annual competition,
it

the cup to

become the property of the competitor winning
;

three times
will also

second, a silver medal

third, a

bronze medal.

A

bronze medal

be awarded to any competitor, not a prize winner, making a score of 435
or better.

RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE CHAMPIONSHIP MATCHES OF THE U. S. R. A.
1.

General Conditions.

— Competitors must make themselves acquainted
The
rulings

with the rules and regulations of the Association, as the plea of ignorance
will receive

no consideration.
final in all

and decisions of the executive

committee are
with them.
2,

cases.

These

rules are for general application,

but will not apply in cases where the special conditions of any match conflict

Classification

of Arms.
Sights

— (a)

Any

revolver.

A

revolver of any
in.

caliber.

Maximum

length of barrel, including cylinder, 10

Minimum
strictly

trigger pull, z\ lb.

may be
any

adjustable, but they
in. apart,

must be

open

in front of the

hammer, and not over 10

{b)

Any

pistol.

A

pistol of

caliber.

10 inches.

Minimum

trigger pull, 2 lb.

Sights

Maximum length of barrel, may be adjustable, but

they must be strictly open in front of the hammer, and not over 10 inches
apart.
(<)

Military revolver or pistol.

A

revolver, or a

magazine

pistol, that
its

has been adopted by any civilized government for the armament of
or navy.

army

Maximum

weight, 2|

lb.

Maximum

length of barrel,

']\

inches.

3i6

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
J'ixed

pistols

Minimum trigger pull, 4 lb. may be adjustable for
(a')

open

sights.

Rear sights of magazine
weight of 2
lb.

elevation only.

Pocket revolver.

A

revolver with a
in.

maximum

Maximum

length of barrel, 4

Minimum

trigger pull,

4

lb.

Sights

and model must be such
from the pocket of
3.

as not to hinder quick

drawing of the weapon
all

holster.

Loading, Firing, Timijtg,

and Cleaning.
The

— In

revolver and pistol

matches, the weapon must not be loaded until the competitor has taken
his position at the firing point.

barrel must always be kept vertical

or pointed toward the target.

In case of an accidental discharge or of
it

defective ammunition,

if

the bullet comes out of the barrel,

will

be scored

a shot.

The timing

in

Matches C and

D will be as follows

:

The

competitor,

standing at the firing point with the arm loaded, not cocked, and the barrel
pointing

downward

in a direction not less

will signify to the scorer

when he

is

than 45 degrees from the target, ready to begin each string. The scorer,

stop watch in hand, will then give the

command

" Fire,"

and exactly

fifteen

seconds later announce "Time."

Misfires will not be scored except in

Matches C and D.

Competitors

but no time allowance will be

may clean weapons in Matches made for time spent in this way.
the time

A

and B,

All com-

petitors will be required to finish their scores within the time limits specified,

except in cases of accident,

when

may be extended

at the

option
it,

of the executive committee.
will

Blowing through the

barrel, to

moisten

be considered cleaning.
In revolver matches, the arm cannot be used as a single loader or loaded

number of chambers in the cylinder. The cylinder must be charged with the full number of rounds for which it is chambered, and these must be shot consecutively. If scores are shot in ten-shot
so as to use a limited
strings, the cylinder shall

be charged

first

with
five

six

rounds and then with four In Matches

rounds.
strings

If the

cyHnder only contains
five

chambers, then the ten-shot

may be

shot in two strings of

each.

C and D, and

in the indoor or gallery events, the
five

arm

shall in all cases

be charged with

rounds,
4.

Position.

— The

position shall be standing, free from any support,

the pistol or revolver held in one hand, with arm extended, so as to be free

from the body,
5.

Arms.
will

— Any

revolver or any pistol which in the opinion of the

executive committee complies with the conditions specified in Matches

A

and B

be allowed to compete in those events.

Revolvers or magazine

pistols that

have been adopted by any government for the armament of its army or navy, or such as in the opinion of the executive committee are

The
matches

Pistol

and Revolver
in those events.

317
specified

suitable for military service,
in

and which comply with the conditions

Among the arms which may be used in this match are the .38-cal. Smith & Wesson and Colt Military; .44 Smith & Wesson, Russian Model; .44 Colt New Service; and the following magazine or .45 Colt .45 Smith & Wesson Scofield
C and D,
will

be allowed

;

;

automatic pistols: Colt, Mannlicher, Mauser, Luger, Mors.
6.

Sights.

— In open

sights, the

notch of the rear sight must be as wide
will not

on top

as at any part.

Aperture or peep sights or any covered or shaded

sights will not be allowed.

permitted.

Sights
if

The use of a notch for the front sight may be smoked or blackened if desired.

be

Sights on

military arms,

modified to suit individuals, must remain

strictly

open,

strong and substantial, and suitable for military use,
7.

Trigger Pull.

— The

trigger pull as specified in the various events

shall

be determined by a

test

weight equal to the minimum pull applied

at

a point three-eighths of an inch from the end of the trigger.
8.
is

Ammunition.
it

— In matches C and D, where full-charge ammunition
the product of any reputable manufacturer.
It

required,
all

may be

must
label

in

cases be brought to the firing point in

unbroken boxes, with the
rifle

of the manufacturer intact.
9.

Targets.

— The 200-yd. Standard American
is

target

No.

i

(con-

taining the 4 ring) with an 8-in. bull's-eye shall be used in all matches The same target reduced at 50 yd., and at 25 yd. and 75 yd. in match C.

so that the bull's-eye or 8 ring

2|

in. in

diameter, shall be used for

all

matches
10.

at

20 yards.

Marking and Scoring.
at

furnished for each competitor.

any target

50

yd.,

all matches new paper targets shall be Not more than ten shots are to be fired on and not more than five shots per target in matches

— In

C and D, and

for all shooting at

20 yd.

;

the shot holes in

all

cases to

remain uncovered and

left as shot.

Bullets touching or within a line
line.

on

the target are to be scored the count of that

The eye alone

shall

determine whether a bullet touches a line or not.
11.

Ties.

— Ties
;

shall

be decided as follows: (i) by the score
;

at the

longest distance

(2) by the score at the next longest distance

(3) by

the fewest

number of

shots of lowest count

;

(4) by firing five shots each
to ties,

under the same conditions as the match and these rules in regard
until decided.
12.

Records.

— The

shooting for records

shall,

when

practicable, be

done on the grounds or in a gallery of a regularly organized shooting association or club, and in the presence of at least two witnesses, one of whom The foregoing rules and regulations, and shall be an officer of the club.

;

3i8

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
in all cases
first
;

the conditions governing the championship matches of the U. S. R. A.,

must

be observed and followed.

The record

score shall begin

with the

shot after the shooter has announced his intention to shoot
;

for record
first

the only the first ten shots will apply to the ten-shot record twenty shots to the twenty-shot record; and so on to fifty or one hundred

shots, as the shooter
shall

may desire.

After finishing the record score, the targets

be identified and signed by the witnesses as above designated. The witnesses shall also prepare and sign a certificate of prescribed form, which, with all targets, shall be forwarded to the U. S. R. A., addressed to the
secretary-treasurer.
If all the conditions, rules,
if

and regulations have been
is

complied with, the scoring correct, and
to any previously

the score

higher than or equal
it

made under

the same conditions,

will

be declared a

new

record.

The

score will then be entered as such in the record

book

of the association, and the shooter formally notified to that effect.
13.

Protests.

— Any
may

person

who

believes that an injustice has been

done, or

who

dissents from the decision of any authorized executive officer

of the association,

enter a protest on depositing $1 with the cashier

or acting treasurer of the club or organization under

matches are held.

Such protest must be

be made within twenty-four hours after one copy to be handed to the executive

whose auspices the and must the incident on which it is based
in writing, in duplicate,
officer

of the club or organization

conducting the matches, and the other copy to be mailed to the secretaryAll protests will be investigated and passed treasurer of the U. S. R. A.

upon by the executive committee
returned, otherwise
it

;

and,

if

sustained, the protest fee will

be

will

be forfeited.

The

following records,

made on
:

recognized by the U. S. R. A.

the Standard American target, are

Pistol, 50

Yards
.

100 shots.
50 shots.

Gorman, May 26, 1901 J. E. E. Patridge, March I, 1902
E.

Thomas Anderton,
E. E. Patridge, E. C.

April 4, 1903

30 shots. 20 shots.
10 shots.

March 21, 1903 E. Patridge, March 21, 1903 H. Taylor, November 8, 1898

Thos. Anderton,

May

13,

1899

Revolver, 50 Yards
600
shots.

F. E. Bennett, June 4-9, 1888

100 shots.
10 shots.

C. S.

Richmond, June

i,

1901

W.

C. Johnston, July

7,

1888

5093 918 lOO

The

Pistol

and Revolver

319

Revolver, 20 Yards
100 shots.

W.

E. Petty,

March

15,

1901
11,

50 shots. 10 shots.

William H. Luckett, June G. W. Waterhouse, March

1903

22, 1901

.... ....
is

908 464 98

Hints to Beginners
Selection

of Arms.
It
is

— There

no single arm
all

that can be used advantageously for

classes of
first
is

shooting.

therefore necessary in the

place to decide for what purpose the

arm

to

be used.
"

A

careful perusal
"

of
will

the text under

Arms " and

Ammunition,"

be of assistance
is

in

reaching a decision.

The

next step

the se-

lection of the arm.
unreliable,

As

already stated, the cheap,
to be carefully

and unsafe arms are
It
is

avoided.

preferable to

buy a second-hand
if

arm

of a reputable manufacturer,

in

good conSecond-

dition,

than a

new one

of inferior

make.

hand arms frequently have
detected by

defects that cannot be
if

the novice, and,
it is

obliged to buy a

second-hand arm,

advisable to ask

some

ex-

pert shot to assist in

making the

selection.

The

price of the best grades of pistols
is,

and revolvers

fortunately, within the reach of almost every
if

one, and,

at all possible,

new arms should be
or a second-hand

purchased.
In any case, whether a

new

320

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
is

arm

to be chosen,
all

it

is

well to

examine and

handle

the different models of the best makers.
feel of the

The

fit

and

arm

are very important.

Select an

arm

that feels comfortable,
held,
fits

and which,
first

when properly

the hand so that the

joint of the trigger finger just touches the trigger

when

that part of the finger

is

bent at right angles

to the barrel.

The

correct
is

manner

of holding

the pistol or

revolver

here shown, and illustrates
fit

how

the

hand should
position
of

the arm.

Note particularly the

the trigger finger and the thumb.

The

trigger finger in this position acts directly
in pressing the trigger,

backward
piece
will

and the thumb
If

assists materially in
is

steadying the piece.

the

too large for the hand, the trigger finger
will pull side-

be more or less extended, and

wise to a greater or less degree, and thus increase
the
is

difificulty of fine

shooting.

The

fit

of the

arm

much more

important, and has a vastly greater
results than fine distinctions beof the different arms.

effect

upon the

tween the merits
those

Any

of

named are excellent and are capable ing much more accurately than they can
be held by the most expert shots.
large

of shoot-

possibly

A

man

with a

hand

will

probably find the Remington pistol

The
or the Colt

Pistol

and Revolver

321

New

Service revolver best suited for

him

;

another with a hand of

medium

size will

find the S.

& W.

pistol or the S.
;

& W.

Russian
still,

Model revolver most desirable
with a small hand,

while another

may

prefer the Stevens pistol

or the .38-cal. military revolver, either the S.
or the Colt.
If

& W.

an arm

is

wanted

for steady use, select the

plain blued finish, and

wood handles

;

elaborate
fin-

engraving and gold,
ished arms are
used,

silver,

copper, or nickel

handsome and pleasing, but, if become burnt and discolored where the powder gases escape, and soon become un-

much

sightly.

A

blued finish
in

is

also to be preferred

when shooting
offered

the sunlight.

Most arms

as

on the market have hard rubber handles.

These become smooth and slippery when the hand perspires, and are not as desirable as wood handles.

A

few expert shots prefer pearl handles.

The
sible

trigger pull should have the smallest pos-

travel

and be smooth and

positive.

The
If

smaller the travel of the hammer, the quicker will

be the discharge after pulling the trigger.
trigger does not pull

the

smooth and
it

"

sweet," or be-

comes
by a

"

creepy

"

from wear,

should be corrected
rules allow a

skilled gunsmith.

While the

322
trigger
for

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
pull of 2 lb. for the
pistol

and 2J

lb.

the

target

revolver,
their

many
pull

expert

shots

prefer to have

arm

more.

The

rules

also

allow

from ^ to i lb. 7^ and 8 in. barthe experienced

rels for the revolver.

Most

of

shots prefer to have their revolvers balance near

the trigger, and are of the opinion that the extra

length

of

barrel

above 6J

in.

does not offset
In the pistol,
invariably

the disadvantage of poorer balance.

however, the length of barrel
in.

is

10

Accuracy For

is

lost

very rapidly as the length
5
in.

of the barrel

is

reduced below

target-shooting,

the .22-cal.

pistols

will

be found admirably suited for beginners. charge
" flinch,"

The
to

being

light,

there

is

less

liability

a fault easily and almost invariably acthe novice begins shooting with a

quired

when

heavy charge.
ing and a
the

The

practice in aiming
is

and

pull-

ing the trigger with these arms
first-rate

excellent trainto

and valuable preliminary and
practical

more

difficult

work with the
is

revolver.

The
very

double-action feature in a revolver
practical value.

of

little

Owing

to the varying

amount

of resistance to the trigger in operating
is

the mechanism, the aim

disturbed more than

if

The
the

Pistol

and Revolver

323

hammer

is

cocked with the thumb.

Even

in

rapid-fire

shooting better results are obtained with

a double-action
It is also

arm

if

used as a single action.

more difficult to make the trigger pull smooth and short in double-action mechanisms. Manipulation. Most of the accidents with firearms are caused by carelessness and ignorance

in

manipulating them.

The

revolver and pistol,
to han-

being

much
pistol

smaller, are
rifle

more dangerous

dle than the

or the shotgun.

An

experi-

enced

shot can easily be singled out by

the extreme care and unostentation with which

he handles his arms.

On

picking up an arm, or

if

one
even

is

handed
sure
it it

to
is

you, open the action at once and

make
if

not loaded.

Always do

this,

is

your

own arm and you are quite sure it was not loaded when you last put it away; some one, without any idea of the danger, may have loaded it in
your absence.
of

Cultivate and practise the habit

always holding the arm, whether loaded or unit

loaded, so that

points in a direction where
if

it

would do no harm
edly.

it

were to go

off unexpect-

By observing

these simple rules, serious

accidents will be impossible.

No

one should be

allowed to handle firearms in a shooting club or

324

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
any
of the public

participate in
rules

matches

until these

have been thoroughly mastered.

Position

and Aiming.

If

you know of a club

or shooting organization to which one or
first-rate

more
it

pistol
it, if

and revolver shots belong,
possible.

is

well to join
ress

Much more

rapid prog-

can be made by observation and by followif

ing the suggestions of experienced shots than

one

is

obliged to solve the various problems withIn order to familit is

out such assistance or advice.
iarize yourself

with your arm,

well to practise

aiming and pulling the trigger before any actual
shooting
is

attempted.

By

inserting an

empty

shell for the

hammer
"

to strike

upon, the piece

may
The

be aimed and

snapped
is

"

without injury.

position you adopt

very important.

Stand
bal-

firmly on both feet, with the

body perfectly
is

anced and turned
comfortable
target in aiming.

at

such an angle as
is

most

when the arm

extended toward the
left

Let the

arm assume any

position

that

may be

comfortable and natural.

Select a small black spot with an extensive white

background

to sight at.

A

small black paster on
is is

a window-pane, with the sky for a background,
excellent for this purpose.
correct,

When
sights

the aiming
are

that

is,

when

the

properly

o;

The

Pistol

and Revolver

325

aligned, their position with reference to the spot

or bull's-eye should be as

shown

in Fig. 51.

The

top of the front sight should just

make

contact

with the lower edge of the bull's-eye corresponding
to the position of

VI
it

o'clock.
is

It

has been found
to

by experience that
to raise

much
up

less fatiguing

lower the arm, holding the piece, to the target than
it,

fully extended,

to the target.

With

the pistol or revolver in the right hand,

cock the hammer with the thumb, making sure
that the trigger finger
is

free

from the trigger
of

and resting against the forward inner surface
the trigger guard.
barrel pointing upward.

In cocking the piece, have the

upward and forward, so
your
firing position

Then extend the arm that when you assume
bull's-eye.

the piece will point about

twenty degrees above the

With your

eyes fixed on the bull's-eye at

VI

o'clock, inhale

enough air fully but comfortably to fill the lungs, and lower the piece gradually until the line of the sights comes a short distance below the bull'seye. Now, holding your breath and steadying the piece as well as you possibly can, bring the line of the sights into the position shown in Fig. At the same time gradually increase the 51.
pressure on the trigger directly backward, so that

326

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
the sights are pointing at the bull's-eye the
will fall.

when

hammer

Be

careful not to pull the trigit

ger with a

jerk,

but ease

off

with a gentle

squeeze, so as not to disturb the aim.
yourself not to close the eye
falls,

Accustom
the

when

hammer
ham-

but note carefully where the line of the

sights actually points at the instant that the

mer

falls.

You

will,

no doubt,

find

it

almost im-

possible to pull

the trigger at the

sights are just right.

the line of the sights

moment the The hammer will fall when may point a little too high
this,

or too low, or to one side or the other of the
bull's-eye;

but patient practice will correct

and

in time

you

will

be able to

let off

the

arm

at

the right

moment.
the trigger
is

The
to

pulling of
;

a very delicate
detail

operation

it is,

in fact, the

master

— the
If

most important
pistol

secret

of
is

and revolver
the sights apis

shooting.

the trigger

pulled suddenly, in

the usual way, at the instant

when

pear to be properly aligned, the aim

so seri-

ously disturbed that a wild shot will result.

To
must

avoid

this,

the

pressure

on

the

trigger

always be steadily applied, and while the sights
are in line with the bull's-eye.
It is, of

course, im-

possible to hold the

arm absolutely

still,

and aim

The
steadily at

Pistol

and Revolver
is

327
being

one point while the pressure
but,
in

applied to the trigger;
steadiness of

aiming, the un-

the shooter will cause the line of

the sights to point above the bull's-eye, then below
it,

to

one side of

it,

and then to the
it,

other,

back

and forth and around
lines in Fig. 52.

as

shown by the dotted
that the line of the

Each time

sights passes over the bull's-eye the smallest possible

increment of additional pressure
to the

is

succesis

sively applied
finally

trigger until the piece

discharged at one of the

sights are in correct

moments that the alignment. Long and regunecessary train-

lar practice alone will secure the

ing of the senses and muscles to act in sufficient harmony to enable one to pull the trigger in this way at the right moment for a long series of shots. A " fine sympathy " must be established

between the hand, the

eye,

and the

brain, render-

ing them capable of instant cooperation.

The

consciousness of the voluntary concurrence of
the
the

mind and real charm

the muscular system constitutes
of pistol

and revolver shooting.
idea of

After obtaining a

fair

aiming,
falls,

etc.,

watch carefully when the hammer
if

and note
If

it

jars the piece

and disturbs the aim.
If

not,
is

you are holding the arm properly.

the aim

328

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
you must grip the arm tighter or more

disturbed,
loosely, or

move your hand up
"

or

down on

the

handle, or otherwise change your

method

of hold-

ing the piece until your

hold

" is

such that you

can snap the
turbed.

hammer and
drill

the aim remain undisis

This aiming

largely practised by

expert shots indoors,

when they do not have
If

the

opportunity to practise regularly out of doors.

Target Practice.
is

your

first
it

actual shooting
is

done

at the range of a club,

best to ask

one

of the

members

to

coach you until you get

accustomed

to the rules, etc.

A

target will be as-

signed to you, and you will repair to the firing
point and load your arm.
It is

well to let your
if

coach
piece

fire
is

the

first

shot or two, to see
If

your

sighted approximately right.
If

so,

you

are ready to begin shooting.
to be as in Fig. 5
1

the sights appear
of discharge,

at the

moment

then the bullet should
eye.
If,

hit the centre of the bull's-

after

several shots,

you are convinced

that the bullet does not strike

where

it

should,

the

arm

is

not properly sighted for you.
it
:

In ad-

justing the sights, you will find
to

an advantage
correct the

remember a very simple

rule

To

rear sight,

move

it

in the

same

direction as

you

would the shots on the target to correct them; or

The

Pistol

and Revolver

329

move

the front sight in the opposite direction.

Most target arms have the front sight non-adjustable, and the rear sight adjustable for both windage and elevation. A few arms have interchangeable
or adjustable front
sights for elevation.

Move

the sights a

little

at a time,

according to the fore-

going

rules, until

they are properly aligned.

A
for

few ten-shot
record.

scores

should

then

be

fired

As you become accustomed
rules,
etc.,

to

the
ease.

range,

you

will

feel

more

at

This
will

will

inspire confidence,

and your shooting

improve correspondingly.
too
fine.

Do

not have your

sights

Fine sights are

much more
rear sights,

straining on the eyes, and

have no advantage

over moderately coarse sights.

The

as generally furnished, are purposely

made with

very small notches, so as to enable individuals to

make them any
the

desired size.

It

is

well to have

the trigger pull at least

J

of a

pound greater than
rules.
If

minimum
is

allowed by the

much
and
if

used, the pull

sometimes wears

lighter;

there

little

or no margin, you run the risk of

having your arm disqualified when you wish to
enter an important match.

Never use other ammunition
that for

in

your arm than

which

it

is

chambered.

A

number

of

330

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

accidents and

much

difficulty

have resulted from

using wrong ammunition.
the
actual

In the

same
even

caliber

diameter of

the

bullets
shots,

frequently
if

varies considerably,

and a few

they

should not prove dangerous,

may

lead the barrel,

and

thus

cause
is "

much
leaded

delay and
"

annoyance.
it

When

a barrel

from any cause

will

become

inaccurate.

In such cases, particles of

lead usually adhere to the inside of the barrel at

or near the breech.
able size to
fit

A

brass wire brush, of suitit.

the barrel, will generally remove

When

this fails, the safest

treatment

is
fill

to cork
it

up the opposite end
until the lead

of the barrel

and

with

mercury, letting the latter remain in the barrel
is

removed.
is

Occasionally the powder
in

accidentally omitted

loading a cartridge.

When
it.

the primer ex-

plodes, the bullet

may be

driven partly through

the barrel and remain in

When
any

this

happens,

whether from
careful to
firing

this cause or

other, always be

push the

bullet out of the barrel before
If

another shot.

the bullet

is

not removed,

and another shot and ruined.
charge.

is fired,

the barrel will be bulged
light gallery

This may occur with a
long

When

shooting the

.22-cal.

rifle

cartridge,

The
there will

Pistol

and Revolver
In

331
with-

be an occasional misfire.

drawing the cartridge the bullet
barrel

will stick in the

and

the
this,

powder

spill

into

the

action.

To

prevent

hold the barrel vertically, with

the muzzle up, and withdraw the shell carefully.

Then remove

the

bullet in

the

barrel

with a

cleaning rod; or extract the bullet from a
cartridge, inserting the shell filled with

new
it

powder
fire

into the

chamber back
you value.

of the bullet

and

in

the usual manner.
pistol that

Do

not use

BB

caps in any

They

are loaded with fullubri-

minate of mercury and the bullets have no
cation.

These caps
time.

will ruin a barrel in a

very

short

The

.22-cal.

conical ball caps con-

tain powder,
this a

and the

bullets are lubricated,
;

making
best to

much
is

better cartridge

but

it

is

adhere to the regular .22 ammunition for which
the

arm

chambered.
is

In practising rapid-fire shooting, great care

necessary in order to prevent accidents, especially
in the case of the automatic pistols,

which remain
each

cocked and ready
shot.

to pull the trigger after

In shooting within a time limit, practise to

use the entire period allowed and endeavor to do
the best possible work, getting in the last shot
just before the

end

of the period.

332

Gims, Ammunition, and Tackle
necessary to exercise extreme care in

It is also

practising with the pocket revolver.

Some

per-

sons delight in practising quick drawing from the

pocket and firing one or more shots.

This

is

dangerous work for the novice to attempt.
of the

Most
If

pocket weapons are double action.
trigger guard

the

finger gets into the

and the arm
a premature

catches in the pocket

when drawing,
which

discharge

is

likely to result,

is

always unPractice in

pleasant and sometimes disastrous.

drawing the revolver from the pocket or holster
should always be begun with the arm unloaded.

Only

after a fair degree of skill

is

acquired should

actual shooting be attempted.

For quick drawing

from the pocket the only double-action revolvers
that are fairly safe to handle are the S.

& W.
to

Safety Hammerless, and the Colt
tion,"

"

Double Ac-

which has a

safety notch for the

hammer
easier

rest on.

Drawing a revolver from a

holster

is
it

and

much

less

dangerous than drawing

from the

pocket.

Larger and more practical arms are gen-

erally carried in holsters,

and such arms should be
In practising with a

single action in

all

cases.

holster weapon, fasten the holster on the belt,

and
be

anchor the

belt so that the holster will always

The
at the

Pistol

and Revolver

333

same

relative position.

The

holster should

be cut out so that the forefinger can be placed
the trigger in drawing.

on

Always carry a loaded arm with the hammer resting on an empty chamIn the woods, or ber or between two cartridges. in localities where such shooting would not be likely to do any harm, it is good practice to shoot at a block of wood drifting down in the current of a swift-flowing stream, at a block of wood or a
tin
at

can swinging like a pendulum, from horseback
stationary and

moving

objects,

and from a
practice
is

moving boat

at similar objects.

Such

largely indulged in

by cowboys, ranchmen, and
wonderful shootexaggerations.

others in the western part of the United States.

Many

of the published reports of
this

ing of

character are gross
is

Such shooting
heavy charges
it is

at

work with extremely short range, and while
generally rapid-fire
as

to be

commended

being extremely practifa-

cal,

the actual performances do not compare

vorably with similar work done by
shots.

many amateur

In shooting a long series of shots with black

powder ammunition, when the rules allow it, the barrel should be cleaned and examined every six
or ten shots, depending

upon the clean-shooting

334

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

qualities of the

examine the

shells, also,

ammunition used. and note
in

It
if

is

well to

the primers
If

have been struck

the centre.
is

not,

then

some

of the

mechanism

out of

line,

and the

parts likely to have caused the trouble

must be
stick
to

cleaned.

After securing good,

reliable

arms,
is

them.

Much
If,

time and progress

frequently lost

by buying and trying different arms, ammunition,
etc.

in

any

of

your shooting, you should get

results that are peculiar
it

and unsatisfactory, make
diffi-

your business to find out the cause of the

culty,

and remedy
"

it

as soon as possible.

"

Blazing

away a large quantity of ammunition and recklessly is absolutely valueless
tice,

carelessly
as

prac-

and

is

a waste of time.

Give your whole
your very best to
It
all

attention to your work,

and

try

place every shot in the centre of the bull's-eye.
is

important to keep a

full,

detailed record of
etc.

your shooting, for comparison, study,
able

A

suit-

book should be provided
not
fall

for this purpose.

Do
few

into the habit of preserving only a
;

of the best scores

but

make

it

a rule to keep

a record of every shot, and figure out the average
of each day's work.

The more painstaking and

systematic you are, the more rapid will be your

The
progress.
sible to

Pistol

and Revolver

335

By careful, intelligent work, it is posbecome a fair shot in three or four months,
shot in a year.

and a
oped

first-rate

After a number of good shots have been develin

any
skill

club, there

is

generally a desire to
of another club.

measure

with the

members

This leads

to friendly matches,

which are usually
Shooting
strain
in

very enjoyable and

instructive.

a

match places a man under a certain
affects individuals quite differently
;

which

some become
is

nervous and shoot poorly when the best work
the occasion and shoot brilliantly.

expected of them, while others are braced up by

Cleaning and Care of Anns. the highest efficiency in an arm,
to

— To
it

maintain
necessary
parts

is

keep

it

in perfect order.

The working
oiled,

must be kept clean and
residue of

and the barrel

should receive special attention and care.

The

some powders is less injurious than that of others, but the arm should in all cases be cleaned and oiled immediately after it has been
used.

The Heavy new
It

cleaning should be very thorough.
cotton flannel
is

excellent for this

purpose.

should be perfectly dry.

Much

of
if

the fouling will rub off without moisture, but

moisture

is

necessary to soften

the

fouling in

33^

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle
oil.

places, use a thin

Never use

water, kerosene,
of

benzine, or similar fluids.

For certain kinds

smokeless powders, cleaning fluids have beeh prepared that give good
the special fluid that
results.
is

Be

careful to use

adapted to the particular
fluid

powder used, as the wrong For cleaning the inside of a
is

may do harm.
wooden rod

barrel a

best.

It

should have a knob on the end of

such

size that

one or two thicknesses
it

of the cotton

flannel

around

will

fit

the bore snug and tight.

Square patches
in quantities

of suitable size

may

then be cut

and used as required.

Clean from

the breech end of the barrel whenever possible.

The

slightest burr or injury at the

muzzle

will

spoil the accuracy of

an otherwise good

barrel.
if

Particular care should be exercised, especially
steel rod with a slot is used, to

a

prevent the wad

from

"

jamming

" in

the barrel.
the
barrel

Continue cleanuntil
tight-fitting

ing the inside
patches,

of

when withdrawn, show no discoloration, and the barrel is warm from the friction of the cleaning. Then saturate a fresh patch with good
oil

and pass

it

through the barrel several times,
After the

making sure

that the entire surface of the grooves
oil.

has been thoroughly coated with

cylinder and other parts are cleaned, they should

The
also be oiled.

Pistol

and Revolver

337

A

venting rust
oil.

is "

good oil for cleaning and preThree in One," or refined sperm
should be kept on the circle of

Plenty of

oil

teeth in which the
cylinder.
If

hand engages

in revolving the
is

smokeless ammunition

used, the oil

should be removed from the interior of the barrel

and the chambers
In

of the cylinder, a

day or two

after the first cleaning,

and fresh

oil applied.
is

warm

weather,

when
If

the air

humid, arms
air-

rust very quickly.

they are not kept in an

tight compartment, they should be inspected, and,
if

necessary, oiled every few days.

Under

ordi-

nary conditions, a thorough cleaning and oiling
will

preserve the
If it is

arm

in

good condition

for a

month.
tect

desired to store the arms, or pro-

them

for long periods of time, the interior
all

surfaces of the frame, and

the

mechanism,

should be carefully cleaned and

oiled,

and then

the entire space within the frame filled solid with
a non-liquid
grease."
grease, like

the Winchester

"gun

After cleaning the barrel

and

cylinder,

the bore and chambers in the

cylinder should

also be filled solid with the grease.

This

treat-

ment excludes the
oxidation.

air,

and absolutely prevents and then
grease."

The

exterior should be oiled,

coated heavily with

"gun

Place the arm

338
in a
it

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
dry woollen cloth, or flannel cover, and wrap
in a

up

double thickness of new manila paper
of

of the
this,

weight

ordinary writing paper.

Repeat
in a dry

wrapping twice more, each wrapping indeof the other.

pendent
place,

Then

lay the
will

arm

where the temperature

always be uni-

form, and not so

warm
this

as to melt the grease.

An
good

arm protected

in

way

will

remain

in

condition for a period of two years.

Reloading Ammunition

The

factory-loaded ammunition for pistols and
is

revolvers

so excellent that
It is

little is

to be gained

by hand loading.

sometimes desirable, how-

ever, to use special loads that are not furnished

by the
to

factories,

and such ammunition must be
Then,
too,

loaded by hand.
reload

many

persons prefer
reasons.

ammunition
skill

for

economical

In order to do this successfully, considerable ex-

perience and

are necessary.

The first attempts
and
dis-

at reloading are invariably unsatisfactory

appointing,

and sometimes

result

disastrously.

Extreme care and
ders are used.
It

close attention to details are
if

absolutely essential, especially
is

smokeless powbest

much

the safest and

plan for those

who

are unfamiliar with reloading

The
to observe

Pistol

and Revolver

339
skilled

and study the methods used by
if

persons, and,

possible,

have their

first

work

supervised by an expert.

Primers.

— The

primers are made of copper
for either black
for pistol

and brass and are adapted
smokeless powders.
revolver cartridges are
for rifle cartridges.

or

The primers made more
by mistake,

and

sensitive than
rifle-cartridge

If,

primers are used, there are likely to be
fires.

many
in

mis-

The

original pasteboard boxes

which

the cartridges or shells are purchased invariably

have labels designating the kind of primer that
should be used in reloading them.
of the primers affects the results to a

The much

quality

greater

degree than most persons imagine, especially in

reduced or gallery charges.
transportation the fulminate
is

In handling or in

sometimes loosened,
primers and leaving

dropping out of some

of the

them considerably weaker than the rest. On opening a new box, empty it carefully, and if any
appreciable quantity of loose fulminate
is

found,

the primers should not be used for ammunition

intended for fine shooting.
Shells.

— The

shells are generally

made

of brass

with a solid head containing a pocket for a primer.

There

is

considerable variation in the thickness

340

Gtms, Ammtmition, and Tackle
from which
shells are

of the metal

made by

the

various manufacturers.
sions
it

Since the outside dimenin order to
fit

must be the same

the chamber,

follows that the inside diameter of the shells will

vary.

When

the shell
is

is

to

be crimped a slight

difference in the size
target

unimportant, but for fine
it is

work and

in

reduced charges

preferable

not to crimp the

shell.

In the latter case the bullet
it

must

fit

sufhciently tight so that

will

not be
size of

dislodged by the recoil of the arm.
the bore,
varies a

The

when adapted

to the

same

cartridge,

trifle, also,

with different manufacturers.

With
it is

the slight difference in the size of the shells

therefore generally possible to select a

make

of shell the size of

which

will

be just right to hold

snugly in position by friction a bullet that exactly
fits

the bore of the arm.
fit

These refinements
shell

in

the

of

the

bullet

and

are

important
In
re-

in securing
pistol

good

results with reduced loads.
shells

and revolver shooting, the

may

be

loaded

many

times with smokeless powders.

The

small charge and the consequent reduced pressure

do not seem
suitable
shells of

to render the shells brittle
is

and un-

for reloading, as

the

case

with the

many

Bullets.

— In

of the high-pressure rifle cartridges.

the

large

ammunition

factories

The
the bullets are

Pistol

and Revolver

341

made by the swaging process with heavy machinery. They are, in consequence, very
uniform in density and
size.

For

this

reason,

when

the ammunition

is

intended for fine shooting,

factory bullets should be used.
in boxes of twenty-five

They

are packed

and

fifty

and are lubricated

ready for use.

mould

bullets

While very few persons are able to as good as those factory-made,

when

bullets of a particular shape, weight, or tem-

per are desired, they must be moulded.
Ideal Manufacturing

The
best

Company's dipper and melt-

ing pot^ are useful for this purpose.
quality of lead in bars or pigs
If

The

should be used.
tin,"

the bullets

are to be hardened, "block
at

which may be had
loyed with the lead.
of

any hardware

store, is al-

Weigh

the proper quantity

each metal to give the desired proportions.
fire

Melt the lead in the pot over a steady
then add the
tin.

and

After both are melted immerse
it

the dipper and allow
of the

to acquire the temperature

melted lead.

Then

fill

the dipper and,
it

with the nozzle horizontal, raise

two or three

inches above the surface of the lead in the pot.
^

The

Ideal Manufacturing
full

Company

of

New

Haven, Conn., publishes a

handbook containing
loading
shooting.

information in regard to moulding bullets, reother
useful

ammunition, tables, and

information relating to

342

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
the

With

mould

in the other hand, turn

it

side-

wise and bring the pouring hole of the mould to
the nozzle of the dipper.

Then, with the mould
or turn both in this

and dipper

in contact,

tilt

position until the dipper

is

over the mould and the

nozzle vertical as shown.

The weight
dipper
is

or

pressure of the

lead

in

the

thus utilized to force the lead into and

Fig. 53.

— Moulding

Bullets.

completely

fill

the corners of the mould.
fifty

It will

be

necessary to mould forty or

bullets before the

mould acquires the proper temperature and
first-class bullets.

casts

All imperfect bullets should be

thrown back into the melting-pot.
the lead and

Experience

has shown that the best results are obtained

when
solidi-

mould

are such a temperature that

two or three seconds elapse before the lead

The
fies in

Pistol

and Revolver

343

the pouring hole after the nozzle has been
it.

removed from
red-hot, as
it

Do

not allow the lead to get

oxidizes very rapidly

and more dross

forms on

its

surface at that temperature.

The
to

dross should be

skimmed

off

and not allowed

collect in the dipper.

A

new mould

will not cast

perfect bullets until the surfaces in contact with

the lead are free from
dized,

oil

and have become
color.

oxi-

assuming a deep blue
fall

Provide a soft
after releasing

surface for the bullets to

upon

them from the mould,
while hot.

as they are easily deformed

The

sliding top or " cut-off " should

be operated by pressing

down
is

the lever end on a

board or

table, or striking the lever

with a small

wooden

mallet.

The mould
If

then opened, and

the bullet drops out.

the bullet sticks in the

mould, strike the empty half of the mould on the
outside, directing

the

blow toward the

bullet.

This

will jar the bullet

out of the mould without

difficulty.

Never

strike the

mould with a hammer

or any hard substance, and never attempt to pry a
bullet out of the

mould or touch the interior surface with anything that will mar it. The least indentation of the sharp edges of the mould will cause the bullets to stick and make them imperAfter using, oil the interior and exterior fect.

344

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
joints while

surfaces and
cloth,
rust.

warm, wrap
where
it

in a
will

dry
not

and keep

in a dry place

The

safest

mould
cooled.

solid

way is to fill the with " gun grease "
the
bullets
is

inside of the
after
it

has

The
Nearly

fit

of

very

important.

all

the bullets for revolver cartridges have
to

been designed

be

used with black powder.

Many

of

them

are slightly under size

and have
on the
to
fill

concave bases which upset
ignition of the regulation

sufficiently,

powder charge,

the grooves of the barrel.

Reduced charges

of

black powder, and smokeless powders, even in

full

charges, seldom upset the bases of these bullets,

and the powder gas escapes around the
the bullet,

sides of

which

is

known

as

"gas cutting."
at the base

This

is fatal

to accuracy.

For smokeless powders
to reduce the

and reduced loads the concave cavity
of the bullet

must be large enough
the
it

thickness

of

outer rim

of

the

bullet

and

weaken powder
to

it

so

will

be expanded sufficiently by the
;

to

fill

the grooves of the barrel

or the

diameter of the bullet should be increased so as

produce the same
fit

effect.

A
is

simple test to
to force
it

determine the

of the bullet

into

a clean barrel, and then hold the barrel in the

The
direction of a

Pistol

and Revolver
light.
If

345
light

window or bright

can be seen in any of the grooves around the
bullet,
it is

too small for smokeless powder.
to

The

remedy

is

have the bullet mould reamed out
bullets will be the proper size.

and enlarged so the

To

determine the actual diameter of the bore of
oil

a pistol or revolver,
liberally

the inside of the barrel
bullet into
it

and then force a

a couple

of

inches.

With

a short

hold the bullet in that
against
it

wooden cleaning rod, position while you drive
fill

with another rod from the opposite

direction,

swaging

it

so as to

the barrel.

This
then

must be done gently and
strain or injure the barrel.

carefully so as not to

The

bullet

is

driven out and carefully measured with a micrometer gauge.

Many who mould
mould
;

their

own

bullets

prefer to order the

to cast the bullets the

exact size to

fit

the barrel

while others prefer to

have the mould cast the bullet one or two thousandths of an inch too large, and then pass them

through

a

sizing

tool,

reducing

them

to

the

correct size.

The

latter

method insures absolute
bullets

uniformity.

For smokeless powders the
little

are generally cast a

harder than for black
i,

powder, the proportions being from 20 to
to
I,

to 12

of lead

and

tin

respectively.

To

secure

346

Gtms, Ammimition, and Tackle
results,

good
than

the bullets should not vary

more

2W

^^ weight.

The
is

next operation after moulding the bullets

to lubricate them.

A

good lubricant may be
lb.
lb.

prepared by melting together i^
wax,
I

of

Japan

lb.

of

mutton

tallow,

and

i

of vaseline.

The
The
until

bullets should be set in a shallow pan, bases

down, and with a small space separating them.
lubricant can then be poured around
it

them

rises

high enough to

fill

the top cannelure.

After cooling, the bullets are cut out of the
lubricant by forcing

them

into the

mouth

of a

specially prepared shell with the top or
off.

head cut

Each

bullet

is

picked up in this way and
stick.

then pushed out with a round

Any

lubri-

cant on the base of the bullet should be removed

with

a

cloth

before

loading.
is

An

excellent

machine
Ideal
sizes

for lubricating bullets

Manufacturing Company.

made by the The machine
one operation.
perfectly.

and lubricates the bullet
clean,

at

It is rapid,

and performs the work

Powders.

— American
that

powder manufacturers

have no uniform practice in regard to designating
the different grades of powder, sizes of grains,
etc.

The powders

give

the

best

results
classi-

under certain conditions must therefore be

The
fied.

Pistol

and Revolver

347

The

following black powders are best suited

for

ammunition

twenty grains:

in

which the charge

is

ten to

American Powder Mills Rifle Cartridge No. 4. Hazard Powder Company's " Kentucky Rifle

F F
E.

G."
I.

Dupont de Nemours

&

Company's "Du"

pont Rifle
Laflin

F F

G."

& Rand
F F
Powder

Powder Company's
Company's
less
"

Orange

Rifle Extra

G."

King

Semi-smokeless

F F

G." the charge
is

When

than ten grains in

weight, one size finer grain of the above powders

should be

used

;

and

for charges heavier

than

twenty grains, one
best results.

size coarser grain will give the

For reduced or gallery charges, the high-grade quick-burning shotgun powders are sometimes
used,

such as

"

Hazard's

Electric,"

"

Dupont's

Diamond
be used in

Grain," etc.
full

These powders should not
if

charges, and

compressed

in the

shell will give

very irregular shooting.
differs

Smokeless powder
attend combustion.

from black not only

in composition, but also in the

phenomena

that

Special conditions are there-

348

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
which have an important bearing on Smokeless powders are divided into
classes,

fore created

the results.

two general

designated as

"

bulk

"

and

"dense," the former having approximately the

same strength as an equal bulk of black powder, while the same quantity by bulk of the latter may
have from
five

to

ten

times

the strength

of

black powder.

The bulk powders may be used

very

much

the same as black powder, except that

they should never be compressed.
is

No

air

space

powder and the bullet. Dupont's Smokeless Rifle Powder No. 2 and Hazard's Smokeless Rifle Powder No. 2 are good
required between the
of the

examples

bulk powders.
as

The dense powders, such

Laflin

& Rand

Smokeless, Walsrode, Ballastite, and others, on

account of their concentrated form, must be manipulated with great care and precision.

The same
Special

quantity by bulk as black powder of any of these

would

in

many

cases

cause disaster.

shells with

an annular crease, which only admits

the bullet a certain distance into the
the
shell,

mouth

of

and providing an

air space,

must

in all

cases be used with these powders.
ties of

Some

varie-

smokeless powders, like Walsrode, require

a certain

amount

of

confinement in order to secure

The

Pistol

and Revolver

349

complete combustion, and do not give good results
unless the shell
is

crimped securely to the
is

bullet.

A
all

table giving the proper charges

supplied by

the manufacturers of smokeless powders, suitfor

able

revolver

and

pistol

shooting.

These
If it is

charges should in no case be increased.

desired to adapt a smokeless charge to a special
bullet,

which gives good

results with black

pow-

der, the

approximate equivalent in smokeless can

easily

be calculated from the powder company's
If

table of charges.

the calculated charge does

not give good results, compare the penetration of
the

smokeless

charge with the

black
it

powder
latter.

charge, and modify the former until

gives ap-

proximately the same penetration as the
If this

does not correct the

difficulty, the

fit

of the
it

bullet should be investigated,

and possibly

may

have to be increased

in size slightly

and hardened
higher

before the best results will be obtained.

No

attempt should be

made

to secure

velocities or greater penetration with the ordinary

lead bullet than

is

obtained with black powder.

Such
in

results

can only be produced with hard
bullets, special rifling, etc.,

alloy or jacketed

and

arms designed

to withstand the severe condi-

tions incident to such

augmented

effects.

Exces-

350
sive

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
charges in regulation arms, besides being

extremely dangerous, are likely to cause the bullet
to strip the rifling

Reloading.

— Suitable

and lead the

barrel.

tools for reloading are

furnished by the Ideal Manufacturing Company,

Smith

&

Wesson, and the Winchester Repeating
usually consist of one or
tools,

Arms Company. These
more combination
rapidity

with which the various

operations of reloading

may

be performed with

and precision.

In reloading ammunition

the one thing to be borne in

mind above
excellent

all

else

is

uniformity.

No matter how
how

may be

the
if

quality of the powder, or

perfect the bullets,

there

is

any variation

in quantity, size, etc., the

results will surely be irregular

and disappointing.

The

bullets should be of the

same diameter and
uniform
all

weight, the

mouth

of the shells of

size,

the

powder accurately measured, and
in the operation of loading

the details

each shell should be

as nearly identical as
,

it

is

possible to

make them.
firing.

The

primers

should

be extracted from the
after

shells as shells

soon as practicable

The

should

then be immersed in

hot soap-

suds and stirred around briskly until thoroughly

washed.

If it is

desired to brighten them, or to

remove

corrosion,

add one tablespoon

of sulphuric

The

Pistol

and Revolver

35
in

acid to each quart of suds.

Rinse the shells

two

clean, boiling waters,

by agitating them

as

before,

and then dry them by exposure and ruin them.
stiff

to sunlight

or mild heat.
of

Intense heat will draw the temper

the shells

When
bristle

the shells

are perfectly dry, insert a

brush in

each and loosen any foreign matter that
adhere to them.
shell

may

and tapping
easier

Remove this by it. The sooner

inverting the
the shells are

cleaned after

firing,
it

the less will be the corrosion

and the

will

be to remove the residue of
of the shells will also be

the powder.

The

life
if

greatly prolonged
for.
If

properly and promptly cared

the shells were originally crimped, they

will

have to be opened with the tool so as to
its

admit the bullet without abrading

surface.

The
this,

primers

may now

be replaced.

In doing

be sure to seat them firmly on the bottom of

the socket and below the surface of the head of
the shell.

This

will

prevent misfires and prema-

ture explosions.

The measuring
most important

of

the powder charge

is

the

detail in

reloading ammunition.
to

There are several devices

measure black powaccurate.

der that are convenient and

Those

furnished by the Ideal Manufacturing

Company

352

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
best.

method " is to measure the powder with a " charge cup that is suppHed with the reloading tools. A quantity of powder should be poured from the can into a small box, and the charge cup dipped into it and filled. With a lead-pencil, tap the cup lightly two or three times on the side to settle the powder uniformly. If the powder settles below
usual

and H. M. Pope are the

The

the top of the cup, dip

it

into the
tilt

powder again
the cup so as
it.

and

fill

it,

being careful not to

to disturb the

powder already

in

Strike off

the surplus powder, level with the top of the cup,

and pour

it

into the shell.

By measuring
it

the

powder

in this

way, and verifying

by weighing
Ordinary

each charge in a delicate balance, a high degree
of skill is acquired in a short

time.

revolver charges should not vary

a grain in weight.
ferred in
varieties,

more than J of The charge cup method is pre-

measuring smokeless powders, as some
being coarse-grained and light in weight,

are liable to form large voids.

Such voids
is

are in-

variably corrected

when

the charge cup

tapped

and the powder

settles.

After the desired quantity of shells has been

primed and charged with powder, the

bullets,

properly lubricated, are started into the shells by

The
hand, and

Pistol

and Revolver

353

then

one by one the cartridges are

placed in the reloading tool, which seats the bullet

and crimps the

shell.

In reduced charges,

when

the bullet

is

seated

below the mouth

of the shell, the tool should

be

adjusted so as not to crimp the shell.

powder gallery loads
rate

as

The black given under Ammuni"

tion " are entirely satisfactory,

and are

fairly accu-

up

to distances of 20 yd.

Fired from a

6^

in. barrel,

they will generally shoot within a

i-|-in.

circle at that distance.

In loading cartridges in

which the
it

shells are not

crimped on the

bullets,

is

very important that both the shells and bul-

lets

should be absolutely uniform in
fit

size,

so that

the

of the bullet in the shells will

be the same
the
shells

in all cases.

By

reloading

some

of

oftener than others, or with different charges, the

expansion of the shells
will
fit

will vary,

and the

bullets

more or

less tightly.

Such ammunition,
It is well

when

fired, will

vary in elevation.
shells,

to

begin with

using the same load in them the same number of them and reloading times. Even with the same charge and under
apparently identical conditions, a few of the shells
will

new

expand
2A

differently.

This variation

will,

how-

ever, be readily discovered in seating the bullets

354

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
tool.

with the

Cartridges in which the bullets

seat with greater or less effort than the average,

should be carefully separated from the rest and
not

used in important
is

matches or when

fine

shooting

required.
bullets,

In reloading ammunition with round

the neck of the bullet should be down, facing the

powder.

The
that

bullets should be about
in

an inch larger
barrel, so

ywqq ^^ diameter than the grooves of the
seated in the shells
circle of contact.

when

they

deform slightly on the

This

produces a narrow cylindrical surface around the
bullet,

affording a better

bearing on the barrel
It

and greatly increasing the accuracy.
from being displaced by the
fit

also

insures the tight fitting of the bullet, preventing
it

recoil.

If
if

round
there
it

bullets
is

loosely in the shell or barrel, or

the slightest imperfection in the bullet where
in contact with

comes

the shell, "gas cutting"
is

will result,

and hot lubricant

liable to pass

by

the bullet into the

powder charge.

In either case

the accuracy

is

destroyed.
is

When

round bullets are used, the lubrication

applied after they have been seated in the shell.

This can best be done with a small brush.
brush
is

The

dipped into melted lubricant and then

The

Pistol

and Revolver
it

355
in contact
is

passed around the bullet where

is

with the
able.

shell.

Too much

lubricant

undesir-

At

least two-thirds of

the surface of the

bullet should project

above the lubricant.

By

keeping the lubricant
the

at a constant temperature,

quantity adhering to the brush will be the

same, and the result uniform.

THE ARTIFICIAL FLY
FOR TROUT, SALMON. AND BASS
ITS THEORY, MAKING,

AND USE

By John Harrington Keene

THE ARTIFICIAL FLY
The Theory
of the

Trout Fly
palpably the
"

The
terfeit

artificial fly is

per

se

counfly.
is

presentment

" of

the natural insect or

Conceding that the most perfect
tion arises,

" artificial "

only an attempt at an exact imitation, the ques-

How
of

far

has the attempt succeeded

?

In reply to this question
the
position

we must
of

first

consider

the

schools

the

fly-makers.

These formerly consisted
years ago,

— so

late as twenty-five

when Stewart and Pennell
of
(2)

led

them
the

in
(i),

England —

two prime followings, namely
the colorists.

the formalists, and

At

same

time there existed a third compromise party of

mugwumps, which combined
rience

the two schools and

eliminated the errors of each by the test of expe;

and being then

in the minority, they

have

now reached
"

the majority, according to the inevi-

table laws of party history.

But whether the

colorist-formalist " school of fly-tying has quite
359

"

360

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
in its theoretic professions will

succeeded or not

appear in the course of this chapter.
face of
it

On

the

the truth would appear to be that the
of the

greater

number
"

many
"

patterns

now
"

extant

and

in use as

Standard,"

Fancy," and

Exact

Imitation," et hoc genus, are, as a whole, of

more
fly-

aesthetic than practical use to the outdoor

fisherman.

The

position of the "formalists" has been thus
flies

defined by Mr. Pennell: Trout take artificial

only because they in some sort resemble the natural
flies.

If this

be

so,

and

if

color

is

the only
colorist

point of importance,
fish

why does

not the

"

with a bunch of feathers tied on the hook
}

promiscuously
natural fly at

Why

adhere to the

form
it

of the

all }

Evidently because

is

found

as a matter of fact that such a
will

not

kill

bunch
If

of feathers

in other words, the fish

do not take
this

the artificial for the natural insect.
it

be

so,

follows that the

more minutely the
fiy,

artificial

imitates the natural

the better

it

will kill, and,

by a legitimate deduction, that the imitation
the
fly

of

on the water
fish will

at

any given time

is

that

which the
This
it is

take best.

is

briefly the " formalist " declaration,
is

and
fly-

the creed which

held by most trout

The
fishermen
over.

Artijicial Fly

361

who

are

angler-naturalists, the world

But the
this

" colorists "

make

reply in

somewhat

way: Your theory supposes that the trout

are better entomologists than the angler, or even

the most skilled naturalists, and that they can dis-

criminate between the hundreds of species of

flies

which frequent every river and brook during the
season; and then you draw and work your
flies

up and against the stream
the fish truly can do,
is

in

a

way no
by
its

insect

ever followed, and the only thing, therefore, that
to tell the fly

color.

We

therefore regard

form

as of comparative infirst

significance,

and color as the

essential

in

every

fly.

Now, both these
met many
of the

theories are held to-day
I

by

thinking trout-anglers of experience, and

have

most successful

of

them who

stoutly maintained, out of their

own

practice, either

one or the other

lines of

thought and method.
lies

The
both

truth,
"

however,
"

in a

combination

of

the

formalist

and

" colorist "

theories.

There are certain axioms all must admit. Amongst the most important are the following
:

(i)

The

trout certainly take the artificial for
fly.

the natural

364

Guns, AmmimiHon, and Tackle
and bass
flies
;

of 292 different trout, salmon,
of this

and

number

(issued as an authoritative

list of

standard patterns) there are just one hundred
in

flies

which

scarlet (ibis feathers,

dyed swan, or

silk)

forms an illuminating part in the make-up.
seventeen, bright
inates,

In

blue feathers or silk predom-

and
is

in

thirty-eight

yellow

in

wing or

hackle

This leaves 137 patterns of mixed and dull-toned flies, and includes
the prevailing note.
the fifteen exact imitations of the insect
life

of the

EnMish

river Itchen,

which have no simulacra
also twelve standard

in

America.

There are

salmon
flies

flies in this series,

and these and the Itchen

should be subtracted as being out of the category
of

American standards.
only
of

Our

calculation, there-

fore, gives

no

out of 292 patterns which by

any stretch
flies of

the imagination could represent

the natural color.

It is

evident to the most careless observer of
there are
practically

nature that

no

scarlet,

or

bright blue, and only a few light yellow

flies to

be found

in a state of nature.

fly is distinctly
it is

the only yellow

The yellow mayfly I know of; and

quite likely that there are a hundred species

of the actual insects

on the ordinary stream which

could be represented by the various, tints of black,

The

Artificial Fly

365

white, brown, dun, yellow, gray,
arising from shadings of the
colors.

and combinations

The
the

glaring riant
actual
insect

are

in

warmer and duller reds, blues, and yellows conspicuous by their

absence.
It is

not denied that these gorgeous creations

of silk, tinsel,

and feather have caught
;

fish,

nor that
is

they will do so again

but the contention

that

they are founded on no plan and are the production of " fancy " or imagination,

— hence the terms

"Marston's Fancy," "Flight's ham's Fancy,"
could not
fishing
etc.
If in

Fancy," "Wick-

their place a full sup-

ply of close imitations were used, a surer result
fail

to be attained,
in this

and the

art of fly-

would

country attain in due course
of the dry

to the refinement

and certainty

and wet

fly-angling of the English

chalk and mountain

streams.
It is difificult to

determine to what actual extent

the old English patterns and those which have

been copied from actual American insects are
used in preference to
"

Fancy
I

" flies

;

but for the

purposes of this chapter
records of one
fly-tier,

have had access to the
with his wife and no

who

other help has, during the winter months of the
last

ten years, tied

some seventy-two thousand,

366
or
five

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
hundred gross,
of
trout, bass,
flies.

and

sal-

mon

flies,

— mostly
body,
It

trout

two-thirds have been patterns of

Of these quite flies of the more
with close
of

subdued colors and small
tations in
setae,
is

sizes,

imi-

wings, and legs
this

the
that,

actual

fly.

evident from

fact

in certain quarters at least, a

healthy opinion as

to the right
in question

kind

of lure

has obtained.

The

flies

were distributed by a firm

of well-

known

western dealers in sporting goods.
of artificial flies of the
(i)

There are two kinds
fly

"color and form" theory of fly-making:

the

constructed

for "

wet

"

or

"

live" fly-fishing,

and
or

(2)

that specially
" fly-fishing.

made

for

the

"

floating "

"dry
(i)

The

fly for

the wet fishing

is

that almost
It
is

exclusively in use in this country.

made
or

on the
legs,

ordinary
in

plan,

with

— the

and

some

cases —

much

hackle

as with the palmers

legs are

wound up
is

the entire body.

This

abundance

of fibre

for the
life

purpose of securing

a vivid appearance of

as the fly sinks slightly

below the surface

of the water

and the currents

bend and agitate the hackle aided by the tremulous motion imparted

by the angler through the
life

rod and

line.

This movement gives

to the

The
bait,

Artificial Fly

367
to this

and hence the term usually applied
of fishing.

form

All rapid rivers or streams are
;

best fished with this fly

and

as

most
it

of

our Amer-

ican rivers
this

have their rapids,

is

obvious

why

has been the accepted method from time im-

memorial.

The

(2)

floating or live fly

is

usually

made with

proportionately large wings of single

feathers turned the concave side out, or of two

pairs of quill-feather

slips,

both of which devices
in

add buoyancy

to the fly

and aid

keeping

it

on

the surface of the water.

The

legs or hackle are
fly,

reduced to a few

fibres, as in
is

the natural

and

the body of the fly

either of quill or of

some

material having the greatest natural resemblance
to the translucent

body

of the real

gnat or dun.

This

fly is

used

in slow-flowing currents or pools,
re-

and

is

always cast upstream and allowed to
floating

main motionless and slowly

on the water.
of the
finest.

Of course the "leader" must be

When

a fresh cast

is

made, the rod

is

waved twice
fly.

or thrice in air before delivering the

This

motion dries any moisture that may adhere to the
tiny lure,
float

and

it

falls

as softly as thistledown to
fish,

over the waiting
fly.

— a perfect resemblance
this
is

to the actual

Hence
"

often wrongly

said to be

"

dead

fly-fishing,

but as the actual

368
fly

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
of the

stream
floats

rises

from the pupae

to

the

imago and
water,

without

its

natural element,

a

struggle
this
is

on

the

much more
mass
of

closely an imitation than the struggling
fibres

on the wet

fly

;

for flies

do not struggle
house
the
"

on the water unless they be
in

like "

flies

the
in

milk pitcher.
dry fly-fishing
streams
;

This

fact in in
is

is

potent

one
the

and

England, where

chalk

abound
water

two

and three
and

pounders,

and the

slow-flowing

without a ripple to obscure the keen vision of
the experienced trout, no other form of fly-fishing
is

productive.

I

know whereof
I

I

speak, for in

my

"salad days"

had charge

of

the

Itchen

Abbas water
brook,
region.
jf. JJ^

for several seasons for Earl North-

and that

fishery

was the
J£^

finest

of

its

JJ.

Jit,

J^

The
making
course

true theory, then, of the trout
of
it

fly

is

the

in as nearly exact an imitation as

the resources of the fly-tier will permit, and of

much depends on

the

fly-tier, for

he must

be an angler and a naturalist, as well as a good

workman,

— which

is

a rare combination.

PLATE

2

LAKE TROUT AND BASS FLIES
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

MATADOR CHENEY MOOSE CASSARD
SPLIT
IBIS

7.

KINGFISHER

8.
9.

10. 11. 12.

LAKE EDWARD

BLACK PRINCE HOLBERTON KOTOODLE BUG MOISIC GRUB ALEXANDRA

J.

Harrington Keene

fecit

The

Artificial

Fly

369

Making the Trout Fly There
is

no royal road

to

fly-making,

expert becomes expert through practice,

— the — and
as

each successive
that he has
still

fly

passes from

his

hands he finds

something
I

to learn,

no matter how
this chapter

great his

skill.

intend to

make

severely practical, and shall waste no words in

describing the various processes of this delightful art.

The first
hooks are

requisite, of course,
fly
is

is

the proper

on which the
of

to

be constructed.
each has
its

hook These

many kinds, and

followers.

The
flies,

Sproat, O'Shaughnessy, Pennell, and for small

the

Sneck or Kirbed hook, are
I

all

good.

Personally

prefer the O'Shaughnessy, both

on
it

account of

its

strength and

its

shape, though

would seem that a new bend, termed the "Perfect,"
brought out by Allcock,
prize for grace
reliable
of Redditch, takes the

and hooking power.

All of the
all

makers send out a good hook, and
is

the fly-tier has to do

to see that the

temper

and penetration

of

the

hook are

perfect before

he affords his time

in tying the fly.

The

tools necessary for fly-tying are not

many
a

or complicated.

Some

fly-makers never use

370
vise,

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
but
smaller
flies

many of the salmon flies demand
The
if

and most

of the

a cleaner and more precise

handling than can be given by the unaided fingers.
learner also will find his task far less difficult
vise.

he use the

This usually consists

of a so-

called jeweller's pin vise, to

which a clamp

for

attachment to the bench
this is but trifling,

is affixed.
I

and

always

The cost of make my own.

A

sharp pair of shears or oculist's scissors are also

indispensable; they should be finely pointed.
pair of spring pliers,

A
very

by which a

fine thread or
is

tiny hackle
useful.

is

held secure on occasions,

A little turned hook made from a darningis

needle (the point softened in a gas flame)

also

handy when the tying
too short for handling.

silk accidentally

becomes

A

wax

for the silk thread

used in whipping the

flies is,

of course, necessary.
is

Shoemaker's wax

is

not colorless, and
1

very sticky in a

warm room.
purposes:

prefer

the following recipe for
;

all

2

ounces of the best yellow resin
;

i

drachm white

beeswax, sliced

dissolve

drachms
nish

fresh, unsalted lard
;

by heat and add 2J stir for ten minutes
;

and pour into water
is

pull

till

cold.

A

good

var-

that of the white shellac.

A

few

strips of

gelatine

should be placed in the bottle.

This

The

Artificial Fly

371

absorbs any moisture which the alcohol of the
varnish

may
fiies

take up from the

air,

and renders
need
of the

the varnish clear and hard

when

dry.
It

Most

are tied

on silkworm gut.
is

hardly be said that this

the

unspun gut

Bo77ibyx mori silkworm, and that the

worm

is

taken
in

when ready

to

make

its

cocoon and immersed

vinegar and the gut drawn out between pins, being allowed to dry and harden
;

after

which

it is
it,

boiled

and the scale or outer skin drawn from
through the teeth
gut
is

usually

of the

Murcian operator.

Good
of

transparent and round, and through the

magnifying glass should show no inequalities
surface.

The

practised eye at once detects faults,

but the amateur fly-maker must largely trust to his
dealer until his experience be sufficiently advanced
to support his

judgment.
or size of gut
is,

The gauge

of course,

chosen

with reference to the hook to be used, and the gut

should be soaked in lukewarm soft water
tilled
if

possible

dis-

for twelve hours

before the
tied at each

loops are tied in the snell.

A loop
is

is

end

of the strand,

and the gut
pins.

then strained
it

slightly

between two brass

This gives

a

set of fibre,

and the snell dries straight and even,
curl,
if

and without twist or

the gut be good.

2il^

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
loop
is

One

of course

snipped off at the length of
the fly-hook, and the snell
is

the gut

demanded by
fly.

now ready
of

to attach to the

hook

in the first stage

making the

The

loop

may

be of any kind
in vogue,
"

which

ties firmly.
"

There are several
round and through
if

but the ordinary

loop will
tight.

do as well as the most elaborate,

drawn

A

good plan

in tying loops is to catch the loop

over a hook screwed in the bench and with the
tweezers take the loose end, and with the right

hand take the long end and draw both
This makes a knot that
the coils.
will not slip or

tight.

break in

Of
end and

course,

when

the eyed

hook
This

is

used, the other

of the

gut must be slipped through the eye
is

tied with a slip knot.
till

not attached,
of the

however,

the fly

is

finished

and out

hands

of the fly-tier.
of
:

The method
briefly as follows

tying a simple hackle

fly

is

Attach the

silk thread

by wind-

ing

it,

well waxed,
tip;

around the shank

of the

hook
it

from bend to

then take the gut and lay

under the shank and whip closely down to a point
opposite the barb of the hook.
feather

— say from the neck
to prepare
it

Now

take a hackle
rooster

of a

game

and proceed

for

attachment

in this

The
wise
the
:

Artificial Fly

373

Take

the point end of the hackle between

left

finger

and thumb and draw the hackle
to

through the right finger and thumb, so as
spread out the fibres
shift the left forefinger

from the midrib.

Then

and thumb

to the butt of

the hackle, and take the tip of the hackle between
the
first

finger

and thumb

of the right hand, with

the reverse side of the hackle underneath.

You

have now the two ends

of

the hackle held be-

tween the two hands.
finger of the right

securely

— and pass the

hand —

Now
nail

reach out the middle

still

holding the hackle

from you toward the

butt of the feather on each side of the midrib,
alternately, so as to reverse the set of the fibres in

a

downward
"

slanting direction.

This process

is

termed

turning the hackle," so that
the
its

when

it

is

wound round
and
"

hook each

fibre stands separate

free

of

neighbor, which cannot be ac-

complished by the old-fashioned method.
turned
"

The

hackle

is

now ready

to
:

go on the hook,
Place the hook
;

and that process
tip of the

is

as follows

in the vise, with the snell to the right

attach the

hackle by two turns of silk to the shank
;

opposite the barb
in loose coils

pass the silk out of the
snell
;

way

round the

take the butt of the

hackle between the right forefinger and

thumb

;

374

Guns, Ammtmition, and Tackle
it

and wind
then

in

loose
until

coils

— three

or four

around the shank
of it;
tie

you reach almost the end
of the left
fly is

the hackle, smoothing the fibres

back with the finger and thumb
tie

hand

with two half hitches, and your

made.
buzz or

This

fly

is,

of course, only the typical

palmer, and represents one of the larvae of water
flies

without wings.

By some

it

is

termed a

spi-

der,

and

it

may

be said closely to resemble one.

The shank
the body.

of the

hook and the whipping forms

Different shades of silk and other materials,

such as mohair, worsted, wool,
or not, also, as the case
of the

quill strips, ribbed

may

be,

form the bodies
so-called,

palmers

;

and the hackles,

are

usually

made by
coils.

attaching the hackle feather at
it

the shoulder or end of shank and winding
closely in

All

anglers are

familiar with

these simple forms, and they are mentioned merely
to introduce the " turning
is
"

of the hackle,

which
at

one

of the

most important processes
need
to

the

basis of fly-making.

The

bodies of

all

flies
all

be as

soft

and
re-

pliable as possible in

cases, that they

may

semble the body
bodies are

of the actual insect.

Detached
such

made

of various plastic materials,

The

Artificial Fly

375

as soft rubber, cork, and twisted feathers.

When

they are formed of

bristle, hair,

or

quill,

and stand

out from the shank of the
able
if

fly, it is

quite question-

they are more successful than the closefly,

bodied

owing
is

to the fact that the texture of

the material
sitive

not fly-like
of the
fish.

when

tested

by the

sen-

mouth

Every angler knows

how

quickly a trout ejects a strange or foreign
it

object from the mouth, though

may have been

deceived through the sense of sight.

The wings
ers,

of trout flies are principally of feathis

and almost every feather

likely to

be found

First, of course, come by the fly-tier. those birds whose texture of feather most closely

useful

resembles the gauze-winged ephemeridce, and in
Britain the starling furnishes the majority for the

various duns.

So

also for the may-flies, the frec-

kled under-wing feathers of the American wood-

drake are indispensable
tridges, grouse,

;

and the pheasants, parIn

and

all

the wild fowl native to the

^British Islands are pressed into use.

America

the variety of fly-tying
trout
to the

is

even greater, and for

almost every gorgeous feather has gone

making

of a lure for the

"salmon

of the

fountains."

Among

the feathers most sought after are the

376

Guns, AmmtmUion, and Tackle
all

breast and wing, as well as coverts, of
fowl.

the wild

These furnish most

of

the wings of the

ephemeridiE.

The

wild and tame turkey, espe-

cially the former, the

peacock, the peahen, the

ibis,

the swan, brant, and a host of others are useful,

and the angler
black,

will

do well never

to forget

how

useful the hackle feathers of white, brown, gray,

and

in fact all roosters, are, in the fly-tier's

accumulation of material.

make
fibres.

the best wings are of

Those feathers which well hooked or matted

Some

feathers,

such as those of the blue

heron, though valuable for strips, do not hold to-

gether well and soon lose their cohesion in the
water.

A

winged

fly

in

this

country

is

held to

be

stronger and
versed."
seen.

more durable when the wing
is

is " re-

In England the reversed wing
little

seldom
In-

This term needs a

explanation.

stead of the wing being tied on at the head of the
fly

after the hackle (or legs)

is

attached, they are

tied

on with the

tips

pointing away from the bend
;

of the

hook and

in the direction of the snell

and
tip

after the hackle is secured these

wings are turned

back side by side and strongly tied with the
points in the

The

right

way way

indicated by the natural

fly.

to select the feathers for such

The

Artificial Fly
is

2>n
to take a

wings as are not single feathers only,
suitable strip

from the right and
strips

left

feathers of

the bird.

No two

can be taken from one

feather and put satisfactorily side by side for a

They must be of opposite sides to fit each other, but may be placed concavely or convexly together, as seems best. The only way in which one piece of feather can be made a passpair of wings. able
It is

wing

is

by folding or rolling

it

in three folds.
this,

seldom that even the expert does
it is

how-

ever, for the obvious reason that

not the best

way, — unless one
of course
it

is

very short of feathers,

— and

may

then arise that the tailor must

cut his clothes according to the

amount

of cloth

he has to work with.

The wings
feathers,

of floating flies are usually single

such as those of the mallard's breast,

and

to cause

them

to float the fly to

which they

are attached, they are tied back to back, or with

the concave sides outward.

This renders the

fly

very buoyant, and can be applied to
fly.

almost any
in

Another method
country,
is

fast

becoming prevalent
the

this

the doubling of

ordinary

wings and the placing therefore of two pairs of wings on the
that
fly

instead of one pair.

This needs
it

when the

fly is lifted

from the water

should

378

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
air

be waved in the

and some
is

of its

moisture

dried out before the return cast

made.

Some-

times a Httle vaseline on the wing will help to
float
it.

In

some

trout

flies,

such as the Parmachene
always so with

Belle, the fly has
in

more than one colored feather
this is
is

the wing.
flies,

Of course
but

salmon

the exception in the construc-

tion of those designed for trout.

placed on separately,

The wings

are

as a rule,

— the

red ibis

over the white swan in the

fly in

question, and

both are tied down without reversion.
as

Such
flies,

flies

the

Silver

Doctor,

Jock

Scott,

and others
have

which, from being exclusively salmon

been taken over

for

trout,

have very complex

wings and bodies, and must be treated separately
under "The Making
of the

Salmon

Fly."

Using the Trout Fly

The
skilled,

literature of the use of the artificial fly is

overwhelmingly voluminous, and no one, however
can hope
"gentle
is

to

add anything new to the story

of this

craft."

The most

the present

writer can do

to

gather a few of the practical

lessons he has learned in nearly forty years with

The
the fly-rod

Artificial Flj^

379
a bouquet of
"

and

tie

wild flowers for the

them together as young angler.
is

Nothing

is

new
by
"

but that which
;

forgotten

"

on

this ancient

earth

and assuredly the saying

of the philosopher
fly,

this

time applies to the use of the

which

dates at least from the time of the Macedonian

hippurus

"

described by Aelian as having been

used on the River Aestreus.
in

Perhaps Adam,
Euphrates.

medio ligni Paradisi, whipped the rivers of

Eden,

— Gihon, Pison, Hiddekel, and
it

Who
Be
needs

knows?
that as
skill

may, the modern use of the

fly

and patience and the twentieth-cenof
art
I

tury consummation

for

its

best results.
to

The

fly itself

must

be, as

have tried

show,

of close imitation of the actual insect

and conAsfirst

structed of the softest and finest material.

suming

that the angler
its

is

thus provided, the
fish.

question concerns

presentation to the

As

I

have before intimated, there are two genflies.

and most used is that which is cast on the water and is intended to represent the live fly partly sunk beneath the This fly is worked with enticing motion surface.
eral styles of

The

usual

through the water, and, being well hackled,
closely imitative of the living insect.

is

Without

;

380

Guns, Ammimition, and Tackle
is

doubt the trout
Hfe.

attracted
cast

by

this

semblance

of

The

fly

may be

up or down, across or
plenty and not

obliquely, as the exigencies of the stream dictate,

and
too

in waters

where the
it is

fish are

much

fished

the most successful method,
it

without doubt.

In any case

utilizes the thou-

sand and one patterns of
fisher,

flies

known

to the flybuilt.

and

it is

for this
of

purpose they are
fly,

The

other

make

as has been intimated

earlier, is

the "exact imitation,"
its

—a

floating fly

which depends most on
actual
insect
flies

identities

with the
efliciency.

for

its

consummate
is

These
of

have their origin in the chalk streams
of crystal clarity
six feet deep, with a soft-flowing

England, where the water

and seldom over
there are

current of about two miles an hour.
riffles

Here and and shallows, and here and there

are hovers and hiding-places for the large trout

but the coverts for the angler are not many,

and he
he

is

obliged to creep and crawl, and take

every possible advantage of uneven ground, that

may

escape the

unequalled vision of

this

brown

trout,

which feeds on the minutest
diaphanous

flies of

the world,

— the

and most

micro-

scopical of ephemera.

The

floating flies are tied

on the eyed hook or

The
not,

Artificial Fly

381

according to the taste of the user, from the
16,

No. 6 to the No.
cacy of such
seen; and
it

or even No. 18 hook; for
latter.

I

have tied and used them on the
flies
is

The

deh-

surpasses

belief,

unless they are

my

personal experience that the

very small

flies

are the

most

attractive,

and

that,

properly presented, they hook
large
flies
is

more

fish

than the

so

much

in use
fly for

on our own waters.

A

No. 10
there
is

a small

American
fly.

anglers, but
first
is

reason in a minute

In the

place

most

of the fly food of trout of all kinds

of very

small insects, and the small

hook usually only
and
of the

pierces the tough skin on the jaws of the fish

cannot sink through the jaw, as in the case
larger hooks.

At

first

glance this would appear

a reason

why

the very small hook should not be
is

used
the

;

but the fact

that the small
in

toughest

membrane
ejected

nature,

hook engages and cannot
fish,

tear out

or be

by the struggling

whilst the large hook, which
perforation,
it

makes a complete

is

often ejected through the orifice

has made.

My

experience in two continents
is

teaches
fifty

me

that success in trout-fishing

at least

per cent greater with small than with meflies,

dium and large more with the

and twenty-five per cent
than the
live

floating

or sub-

382

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
fly

merged

of the ordinary pattern,
of course.
is


"

all

things

being equal,

The
off."

floating fly

always fished
is

fine

and

The gut

leader

of the

finest "

undrawn

far "

gut,

and only one

fly is

used

;

two trout

at a time,

as often happens to the live fly-fisherman,

would

be embarrassing to the floating fly-angler, to say
the
least.

The
first.

angler

always casts up-stream,
fly

and the cast must be so made that the
on the water

drops

This needs the most delicate
in
its

and precise manipulation, and

accomplish-

ment

I

need scarcely say that practice alone makes

the perfect cast.
to within a

The

fly is

allowed to float

down

few yards

of the fisherman's feet with-

out the least agitation, the rod being gently raised
so that no

undue loose
fly;

line
is

may

lie

on the water.

The

eye of the angler

keenly fixed on the

descending

and when the psychologic moment
he strikes with a
it.

comes

for the rise of the fish,

sharp impulse of the wrist and, habei ! he has

Then comes
of the angler

the

"

tug of war," and the generalship
its

needs

greatest extension.
it

The
must

point of the rod must bear the strain;

ever be at a less angle than forty-five degrees to
the surface of the water;

employed

to restrain

must be the struggling and gallant
its

resilience

The

Artificial Fly

383

quarry, and every rush restrained with judgment,
till,

exhausted and

resigned,
lies in

the

incarnadined

beauty of the water

the landing-net, sub-

dued but not conquered.

The

great secret of successful fishing with the
is

floating fly

the stalking of the fish

from

beits

hind as

it

lies

with
as
it

its

head up-stream, and

marking down
time to time.

takes the natural fly from
fly-angler drops the fly
rise,

The dry

within the last circle of the

and no snowflake

ever kissed the water as softly as this tiny quill

gnat or dun midge touches the curling eddy, cast
there by the expert dry fly-fisherman.

The
and

graceful and true casting of the trout fly
of the rod

depends largely on the proper selection
line.

The

indispensable features of a good
:

rod are briefly as follows
elasticity

Lightness, strength, an
to tip evenly,

which springs from handle

and a

careful adaptation of the length

and weight
will

to the strength of the user.

The

reel is not of

prime consequence, and any good make
well enough.

do

The
prefer

line

should be of

medium

thickness.
line,

I

quite a heavy braided silk
in boiled linseed oil

which has been dressed

under an air-pump for some ten days, and then
stretched moderately tight between supports in a

384

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
air is fresh
oil

dry place where the
degrees.

and about
as three or

sixty
off

The

superfluous
leather as
first
till

should be wiped

with chamois

many
so,

four

times during the
to dry naturally,
tion.

week or
it is

and then allowed
weeks
to harden,

quite free from evapora-

This

will require several

but must in no case be hurried in the process.

The

actual operation of fly-casting cannot be

taught in writing, but certain directions
given which will be of use to the

may be novice. The
motion
of

most
sists,

common
as
its

is

the overhand cast, and this conimplies, of a principal

name
is

the rod which
line,

overhand.

To

begin, the leader,
of the

and

flies

are

drawn out by the action
tip of

stream until some twenty-five or thirty feet of line
has elapsed between the
the rod and the a smart upward
is

end

of the fly or dropper.

With

and backward movement
ward
rod
to its full length.
is

of the rod this line

recovered from the water and urged directly back-

When

this is reached, the

impelled sharply forward, and the result
lie

should be that the leader and dropper
out in the water.
a knack in
at

straight

This sounds exceedingly simple,
it

but there

is

which depends on the

sense of balance

the psychological

moment
caster.

when

the fly

is

fully

extended behind the

HOOKED

I

The

Artificial Fly

385

Some
this,

there are

who never

fully learn to perceive

and these pop

off their flies as a

teamster

snaps his whip-lash.
teach this lesson
to utter the
is

The
to

best practical plan to

have a sharp-eyed friend
just

word "go"
say
"

before the crucial

moment.
the
fly lies

I

before," to allow for the trans-

mission of thought, and so inform the caster

when

momentarily straight

in the air

behind

him.

Casting on a smooth lawn has been recomI

mended for practice, but being more informing of
that arise.

prefer the water as

the various exigencies

The same method
it

obtains in dry fly-fishing, with
fly is

the exception that the

sustained in air to dry

during several

false casts,

and with the intent
It is

to

aim exactly where one
if

desires.

obvious

that

the line be returned before falling on the
is

water, there
cast,

the possibility of another and better

supposing the preceding one to be inade;

quate

and

this

without alarming the
of casting are in

fish.

Other forms

vogue amongst

the experts in trout-fishing, but they are only used

when
when
thus
:

the old-fashioned cast
"

is

not possible.
It is
is

Of
used

these the

wind
line,

"

cast

is

very useful.

the wind

is

dead against one, and
full

made

The

with the

strength of the arm,

"

386
is

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
then the rod
is
till

propelled up overhead, and

brought right down

in the teeth of the

wind

the tip almost touches the water, without pause.

The

full

strength of the rod
is

is

exercised,

and a
the

heavy

line
"

most successful
"

in this cast.

The
left.
is

underhand

cast

is

made by drawing

rod close to the water, either to the right or the

The

rod does most of the work, and the cast
It
is

an easy one.

intended to be used under
"

overhanging boughs, where the
is

overhand cast

impracticable.

The

" flip "

cast

is

used to reach the obscure

hovers which will not permit of the other castings.

The
few

rod

is

taken firmly in the right hand, and a

coils of the line held loosely
first

between the

reel

and the
securely,

guide

;

the

fly is

taken carefully, but

between the

tips of the left finger
will not penetrate,

and

thumb, so that the barb
rod
is

and the

then bent in spring shape, so that when the
released
it

fly is

is

propelled to the desired spot.

Sometimes

this is a
"

most useful
is

cast.

The
the

"

switch

cast

the great cast with which
his son

late

Harry Pritchard and
to the "

used to

achieve such long-distance casting.

It is

somebut

what similar
has
its

wind

"

and

"

Spey

" casts,

own

indescribable peculiarities.

A

sudden

The
rolling

Artificial Fly

387

motion

is

given the tip of the rod, and both
use, the left

hands are brought into

hand steady-

ing the butt of the rod as a fulcrum.
is

The
first.

result
in

a rolling motion of the

line,

which unfolds

spirals,
"

dropping the
"

fiy last

instead of

The
fisherits

Spey

cast

is

mostly used by the salmon

men

of the

Spey, and will be described in

place.

There
precise

is

an

art in striking a rising fish,
is

and the

movement and moment
better

hard to define.

The
ing,

quicker the hand answers to the eye in fencthe

the

fencer; and,

similarly,

the

quicker the strike
surer

when

the fish has risen, the
fish.

the hooking of the
is is

A

quick wrist

motion
stiff

generally the best, and a moderately
the kind
I

rod

prefer for precision

and

penetration.

On
is

hooking a trout the
is

first

mental quality to
All flurry

be brought into action

coolness.

inimical to the proper playing of

especially of the trout.

any fish, and Having evidently hooked

the trout,

it

is

necessary to keep the point of the

rod well up, that the strain
the line as on the rod.

may be
to let

not so

much on
his

Do
Seek

not indulge the strug-

gling fish too much.
master, that he

him know

may

not unduly disturb the water

388

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
fish also.

and other

Do

not
is

let

out too

much
;

line,

but observe that slack line

a fatal evil

for

if

the

hook be only

fixed loosely, the fish relaxes the hold
If

and shakes out the point and barb.
tate

a fish enter
irri-

a patch of grass or weed, boldly endeavor to

him to extricate himself a rule, draw him out violently.
;

for

you cannot, as

fish

should also be deliberate.
it

The landing of a It is much better
it

to play

a longer time than endeavor to get

into the landing-net until fairly exhausted.

The Theory of the Salmon Fly
There has never been any doubt
bass feed in fresh water on insect
therefore, not

that trout
;

and
has,

life

and

it

been hard
fly,

to

account for these fishes
it

taking the

artificial

whether

be an exact

imitation or what Charles

Dudley Warner termed
until

a

"

conventionalized creation."
has,

It

however, been gravely doubted

recent years that the

Salmo salar ever took food
till

from the time

it

entered fresh water, in the yearly
the time
it,

migration for family puiposes,

in the

ordinary course of nature, dropped back again
into the ocean for recuperation
If,

and growth.
experienced

as has been asserted by

many

The

Artificial Fly

389
the

anglers and pisciculturists, the stomach of

salmon
readily
of

in fresh

water never disclosed the remains
fish
is

of food,

then the fact that this

caught
support
could
to

on the

artificial

fly

lacks

the

any plausible theory.

That the
"

fish

be taken with other bait than the

fly

seems

have been believed as early as the
Albans," wherein the good

Boke

of St.

Dame
. .
.

Berners says,
gete

"Ye
theym.

shall

angle wyth these

baytes

when ye maye
and
also

Fyrste wyth a red

worm

wyth a lob
,

[the lob or garden

worm]

that bredyth in a dunghill

.

.

and ye
as ye

shall also take

hym wyth

a dubbe [fly] in like

mannere

doo take a troughte or a graylynge."

Barker (1655), in "Barker's Delight," thus versifies his chapter on the Salmo salar:
old

And

"Close to the bottom
I

in the

midst of the water,
I

fished for a salmon,

and there

caught her.

My
Nor

plummet twelve inches from
lob- worms

the large hook,

Two
And

hanged equal which she never forsook

yet the great

hook with the six-winged

flye,

she makes at a gudgeon most furiouslie. strong
line, just

My
I

twenty-six yards long,
I

gave him a time, though
rouled up

found him strong.

I

my

tackle to guide

him

to shore,

The landing-hook helped much

— the cookery more

"
!

Although not much

reliance can be placed

on

390

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
it

these quaint old authors,

is

abundantly certain

that salmon are frequently caught on natural bait.

The worm
rivers,

is

used to

and the

some British shrimp and prawn are deemed very
this

day

in

killing in

the estuaries of
will

many Scotch
take
the

rivers.

Moreover, the salmon

"phantom

minnow," which
represent the

is

made

of fine silk, painted to

young salmon
of

or parr or small trout.
It
is

There can be no doubt
this

of this.
is

done

to

day,

though,
I

course,

not considered
ten-

sportsman-like.

once caught a fresh-run

pound salmon below Tewkesbury on the Severn with a natural minnow impaled on a flight of hooks, and used in the manner known in England as
"

spinning."

And what
of

say the authorities about the feeding
in fresh water
?

Salmo salar

I

do not

refer to

the Pacific salmon, of course.
lock, in "
"

Mr. Charles Hal:

American Game

Fishes," says
in
all

A

great deal of bosh has

been written

the books of

the salmon for four centuries past, about salmon not eating

when ascending

to their

spawning grounds, but that theory

is

now

wholly exploded.

They not only
fresh

eat,

but eat promis-

cuously and voraciously of a great variety of food, including

young salmonidcB and other
shrimps,
floating

and salt-water

fish

fry,

prawns,

sandworms, crustaceans,

cephalopods, and
is,

invertebrata.

Another impression

or was,

that

The

Artificial Fly
fly
;

391

salmon could only be taken with the

whereas they readily
spoons, and a

take natural minnows, prawns, worms,

artificial

dozen other kinds of
proven.

bait, as

has abundantly been tested and
this

...

It is

remarkable that

question should have

remained open
books have

for so

many

centuries

and

that

none of the

set the

matter right."

Thus Mr.
authority.

Hallock,

the

dean

of

American

sportsmen, declares, and

we must heed such an

He

goes on to explain exactly

why
I

the idea obtained that salmon do not eat, and
refer

my

readers to his impregnable explanation,
it

having no space for

in this chapter.

So
water.

also

Brown-Goode,

in "

American

Fishes,"

concedes that they feed in brackish and fresh

Mr. George

M. Kelson, the champion
of

English salmon fly-caster and salmon angler, says
" I

have had evidence

an abundance

of food
fish of

being actually found in the stomach of a

nine pounds in weight, caught high in the Scotch

Tweed.
flies,"

The

food consisted principally of stone
letter of a friend
:

and he quotes from the
of

who had opened thousands
"
'

salmon

I

have seen salmon feeding in both river and lake.

I

am

simply astonished that any person could maintain that they do
not.'

The same

authority goes on to say
in the sea,

:

'

Salmon are no

doubt heavy feeders while

and

also while in the

"

39^
estuary.

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
I

have taken no fewer than eleven herrings out of a
grilse,

ten-pound

caught at the mouth of the Ayr.
taken out of a salmon.

I

saw

at

Dalmeny
at

five sprats

A

salmon caught

Kincardine had

in its

stomach seven

sparling, besides other

small shrimps; another, caught high up the Forth, at Polnaise,

contained a smolt and eighteen shrimps
north Cruives, twenty-seven young eels
;

;

one taken

at Craig-

others having swallowed
flies,

a trout
beetles,

fully half

a pound and every imaginable insect,
spiders.

worms, and

So

salmon,

when

in fresh water, live

nonsense to say that upon love.' "
it

is all

And
"
I

yet one other piece of evidence
letter I

:


There are

quote from a

have of

*

Nahanik,' a celebrated
says
:

Irish fisherman of

twenty years ago.

He

" * The

fish in different fisheries

feed differently.

the three fisheries on Galway Bay, Galway, Screebe and Ballynahinch.

In Galway the
;

fish will

take the shrimp better than

anything else
water of neap

even above the tideway, or rather above high
they will also take the
fly
;

tides,

but, if I

rememfish

ber rightly, not in the regular tideway.

In Screebe the

out in the regular tideway and in Lough Athalie (brackish
water) take the
fly

better than anything else

;

but in Ballyna-

hinch

I

have known

men
fish,

trying every turn in the tideway with-

out ever catching a
fly
;

although they were rising at the natural
will take

but up in the fresh water at Derry, Clare, Butt, they
I

the shrimp.

have watched a salmon pool
fly,

for

hours

;

at times

the fish rise and try to drown the

but at other times they

come up

gently and suck

it

into their mouths.'

The above evidence seemed
settle

necessary to forever

and

fix

the fact that salmon feed in the rivers

The

Artificial Fly

393
In order

they penetrate for spawning purposes.
to arrive at

any

rational explanation of the theory

of the artificial
this truth

salmon

fly it

was imperative that
of this

should be insisted on; otherwise no

intelligible reasons for the

making

poem

of color

and form could be given,

unless, indeed,

we adopt

the sounding theorem of one eloquent
:

writer, to wit

" As the harmonies of sound depend on the certain natural
*

intervals

'

furnished

by the harmonic chord, so
flies]

in

forming

harmonies of color [in salmon

the natural or prismatic

arrangement as displayed by the solar spectrum of the optician

must

in every case

be taken as a basis."

From
I

a theoretical point of view there
in this,

may

be something
think.

but not

much

in practice,

Blacker, the Court fly-tier in the early part of

the nineteenth century, of Soho, London, was the
first
its

one

to place the

making
art.

of the

salmon

fly

on

proper basis as an

His beautiful handlittle

painted illustrations in the
his

name

are rare

book which bears and authoritative, and no one
Later, the long
list

has excelled his creations.

of

Mr. Francis Francis,
settles

Book on Angling," the orthodox patterns, and most of them
in his "
killers to this day,

remain

over the water.

394

Gtms, Ammunition, and Tackle
fifteen years

Some
fly-tying

ago a renaissance of salmon
in

was attempted
(the

the pages of

Land

and Water

original organ of

Frank Buck-

memory) by G. M. Kelson, before quoted, a well-known and supremely skilful angler, fly-tier, fly-caster, and writer, whose creations
land, of sacred
in

salmon

flies,

and expositions, appeared
I

in

numbers
patterns,

of that journal.

have before
sixteen

many me the
and

colored illustrations of the whole set of standard
in

some cases

in

colors,

exactly, beautifully,

and chastely executed. There
perfect,

are

no reproductions extant that are so
flies

and they represent

tied

by Kelson

for the

purpose of establishing the recognized standards

and

illustrating his theories,
flies

on which many of
built.

the most killing
It is
flies,

were

not necessary here to give a list of these
it

but

includes the well-known patterns and
ones, largely derived from

many new
this

Major TreaccomIn
brief

herne's collection.

What
of

I

wish to refer to at

time

is

some

the

points which
series.

panied

the publication of this
:

they were as follows
(i)

A

bright

fly in

bright or clear waters should

be used, leaving the sombre patterns of deeper dye
for discolored

and shaded

districts.

The
(2)

Artificial Fly

395

There
In

is

a predisposition of certain rivers

to particular classes, colors,
(3)
still,

and

sizes of flies.
fly

deep pools, a small

should be

used.
for

The
small

fish
fly,

come from
except
in

a greater distance

a

very

cold,

rough

weather.
(4)

In

rivers

clear
flies
;

as

crystal,

use

the

most

showy
in

feathers in

dressed small, to attract the
fly

attention of the fish

then follow with a
its

dressed

the

same

pattern, but with
fibres.

feathers less

marked, or in
(5)

Salmon can be taught to take the fly instance the English Avon and Test. In all cases
;

Kelson believes that the salmon has been educated
to take the
(6)
fly.

Adepts

in the science of

fly-making draw

their conclusions

from

local

surroundings in sumeffect,

mer time with almost miraculous
rule foliage
is

and as a
the

one of the chief guides
leaves looking

in experi-

menting.

Autumn
It is

down on

water shed their influence without a motion or
sound.
the angler's duty to reason from them.

new theories of condensation and exaggeration" may be briefly The meanings of these terms simply are noticed. that when the salmon will not rise to the ordinary
In addition to these axioms the
"
"

"

39^
fly of

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
the water,

—a

fly like

Jock Scot or the

Silver Doctor,

and known
fly

to be a killer,

— the
"

angler resorts to a
exaggerates the

which either condenses or
pattern.
"

known
"

Condensation

means the use
feathers,

of fibres of feathers instead of

whole
of

and

exaggeration

"

means the use

larger

and more striking

strips

and whole feathers
school of

in the place of the

modest and symmetrical dress

of the ordinary pattern.

The modern
head
of

salmon fishermen,

at the

which are Mr.
this
is

Kelson and Major Traherne, swears by
of rousing sluggish fish
;

method

and the idea
in practice.

certainly

worth consideration, especially
glers are

as both these an-

most successful

But whatat,

ever conclusions

may

be

ultimately arrived

every sign points to the theory that salmon, like
trout, rise to the fly,

mistaking
it

insect

life,

and take

for food,

some form of and not for a mere
it

for

mirage or phantasm.

Making the Salmon Fly
The salmon
calls for a
fly

demands more
fly.

skill

in

the
It

making than any other
knowledge
too
full

This

is

a truism.
is

of materials that
artistic

never
the

and complete, an

sense in

The
selection of colors

Artificial Fly

397

and

their blendings

and con-

trasts that is ever striving for greater results,

and

a skill in the

sary to

In

fact,

making which surpasses that necesthe most exquisite work of the jeweller. some of the creations of the salmon flysilk,

maker

are veritable jewels in feather,

and

others of nature's most gorgeous fabrics, which are

not outshone by the greatest

gems

of other arts.

To

plunge in medias res
fly,

of the practical

makfirst

ing of the salmon

a few remarks are

necessary in regard to the hook.
best

What

is

the

hook

.?

This

is

the

common

question put to
is

experts by the learner; and the answer
to give, but not impossible.

hard

There

is

no

doubt

that

the
test

old

famed
and

O'Shaughnessy has stood the
is
still

royally,

thought to be the best by the majority of
fly-tiers.

salmon fishermen and
"irons," as they are

The hand-forged

sometimes technically termed,

hardened and tempered by the most expert workmen, and separately tested, seldom prove false;

and though the penetration
fessedly not faultless,
it

of the

hook
is

is

con-

is

equal to any hook in
the fish
it

holding power,

when once

hooked.

The Sproat no doubt

excels

in penetration;

but every angler of experience knows that the

39^

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
its

Sproat has the miserable habit of enlarging

embrace and widening
its

its

bend, and so relaxing
fish

hold.

Many
this

a

noble

has

been

lost

through

fault,

apparently unavoidable be-

cause structural.

These two shapes
nell invented his
(or

of

hooks were practically the

favored two until, about thirty years ago, Mr. Pen-

combined Sproat and Limerick
There
is

O'Shaughnessy) hook.
it

no doubt

that

is

a great improvement on either hook in
;

several

ways

but

it

is

not a great deal better, in
penetration,

my

opinion, than
it

the Limerick, in

though
power.

greatly excels the Sproat in holding

At all events, it is a thoroughly wellmade and well-tested hook, and has met with
great favor.

This hook
for

is

also
like

made
that

in the

Sproat bend,
its

those

who

hook, and
it

greater

strength in the wire
its

makes

a better hook than

prototype.

All the Pennell hooks, besides tapered
shanks, are also eyed

being

made with

with eyes either of up or

war between the

down inclination. The armies of "up" and "downers"
I

no longer wages, but

doubt

if

the fight

is

yet
I

over amongst our cousins beyond the seas.

have always preferred the Limerick

— O'Shaugh-

The
nessy,

Artificial Fly
is

399
of

— because
;

it

an old and tried love

mine, but the Pennell hooks are undeniably fine

weapons
poet,

and
"

I

can say very truthfully with the
happy
I

How
Were

could be with either,

t'other dear

charmer away."

One
hooks
fly

of the
is,

conveniences of the Pennell eyed

of course, the readiness with

which the
of the

can be tied on the leader.
is

The end
the

leader

softened, slipped through,
tied
to

and a simple
shank, pulled
the tapered

round knot
tight,

include
is

and the

trick

done.

To

shank and hook (minus the metal eye) one must

wind

tightly a loop of twisted gut.

Some
and
I

say

this acts better
it

than the metal eye

does.

This

is

why

:

;

think

There are two

distinct

makes

of eyes

:

one that

has the shank folded back at the side on a loop,

and pressed closely
round eyelet

to the side of the

main shank,
is

like the loop of the letter /;

and the other

a

of wire at the

extreme end of the

shank, and standing out, looking up or down, ac-

cording to the fancy of the buyer.
fly, its

On

tying the

head must be placed some distance from

the end of the shank and the eye, to allow of the

necessary knot

;

and

I

have repeatedly found that

!

;

400
this

Gtms, Ammimition, and Tackle
knot
is

likely to

form an excrescence which
fly,

slightly interferes with the perfect level of the

so that

it

is

sometimes
fished.

liable to skirt or

wabble

when being
So much
of the

never occurs.

With That's why

the loop of gut this

for the
fly

salmon hook.

The anatomy

salmon

needs to be briefly detailed, that
the various parts and their

the tyro
positions.

may know

Taking a comparatively simple examSilver Doctor,

— the sected —
ple,
:

it

may be

thus dis-

(i)

The

tag

is

of several turns of silver twist

or fine wire

wound

opposite to the point of the

hook on the shank, followed by two or three turns of dark yellow silk floss, and secured by a turn of
the tying
(2)
silk.

The

tail is a

golden pheasant crest feather,

tied in next the tag with a small blue feather of

the kingfisher.
(3)

The

butt

is

a couple of turns of dark scarlet
tail

wool yarn next the

on the hook, and secured
white floss silk tied in next
flat

by two turns
(4)

of the tying silk, as before.
is, first,

The
;

body

the butt

then

tie in

a strip of

silver tinsel

then a length of oval silver
secure,

tinsel.

Make

these

and

first

wind the

floss silk

smoothly over

The

Artificial Fly

401

the shank of the hook to within an eighth of an

inch of the extreme end, securing

it;

second, wind

on the
it

flat

tinsel to the

end

of the silk, covering
it
;

up smoothly and securing
This
last

third,

wind the
rids of

oval tinsel in a coil about six turns

up the body,
(5)

and secure
the
fly.^

it.

forms the

(6)

The

throat of the

fly is at

the upper part of

the body, of course.

A

blue hackle (stained) and

a hackle from the guinea fowl are superimposed
in the order indicated,
(7)

The wings

of the Silver

Doctor are con-

nected strips from the tippet of the golden pheasant,

from the barred feather of the wood duck,
the

pintail, tail of

golden pheasant, swan dyed

light yellow,
feather,

brown mallard side and Siberian bustard. Over this comand
light blue
its

bination a crest feather of the golden pheasant

droops with
(8)
tail

golden rays.
are two separate fibres of the

The

Jiorns

feathers of the blue

macaw, and are placed
fly.

in

each side of the head of the
(9)

The head

is

of dark scarlet

wool yarn, two

1

The under body

of white silk should be perfectly smooth, so that

the silver body appears like a polished silver tube of equal diameter

throughout.

402
turns,

Guns, Ammtutition, and Tackle
and secured by two
silk.

final half

hitches of the

tying

The

fly is

now

finished.
fly

Thus, in the ordinary salmon

there are nine

separate parts, which must be adjusted with skill

and nicety and with a proper sense
to be

of proportion,
fly.

handsome and

effective as a finished
all

In the Silver Doctor there are,

told,

some
In

forty pieces of material, including the hook.

the Jock Scott there are at least ten more, and in

some 1 50 feathers of the Blue Chatterer on the body alone. Of course much simpler flies are made and much used, and
the
"

Chatterer

"

there are

for

my own part I am of opinion
tie

that

it is

a needless

waste of material to

such a

fly as

the Chatterer.

The
Scott,

rich dressings of the Silver

Doctor, Jock

and others

of that ilk are apparently neces-

sary; and the capture of a lordly fish of a score

or
of

more pounds' weight amply repays the labor making the fly, in the sense which results of
There
is

rich artistic triumph.

nothing recondite

in the

making

of

any part

of the

salmon

fly

which the trout

fly-tier

does not readily apprehend.

The

tag body and

hackles are arranged in the same way, and the

wings are

laid

on and not reversed.

The

expres-

sion "connected strips," used in describing the

The
wings
(7),

Artificial Fly

403

means

that the strands of each feather are

connected or married to their fellows by means of
the hooked appendages of the fibres of the feathers.

Thus,

in

making wings we have
tied,

several composite

wings paired and
beautiful

forming a harmonious and
color

variety

of

and

texture

in

one

assemblage of feathers.
of

In tying on each set

wings

it

is

necessary to use the greatest care

that they be set precisely upright at their bases

and
or
latter

of

course,

where
for

there

are

jungle
horns,

cock
the

other
are

feathers

cheeks

and

placed

on the hook

after tying the

main wings.
Natural feathers are always used

when

possible,

but the red, yellow, and blue strips of the swan

easily

must be dyed when required. This can be done by means of the aniline dyes though where
;

the dyer the
flies

is

a professional, he will do better with
the aniline.

wood dyes than with

In small

the red ibis furnishes the scarlet strips, and

should be always used
the

when long enough
All

to

fill

purpose properly.
;

wings

must be

of

matched feathers
left

that

is,

strips

from the right and
salmon-

feathers of the birds, and the pairs are always

placed inside to inside.
fly

To

this rule in

making there

is

no exception.

404

Gmis, Ammunition, and Tackle

Using the Salmon Fly

The consummate
largely

use of the salmon

fly

depends

on the

fitness

and adaptation
which
it is

of the several

parts of the tackle, of

the apex and the

point d'appui.
ing the salmon

It is

necessary, therefore, in apply-

fly to its

proper purpose, to consider

the various parts of the salmon angler's outfit in
their proper relationship.

This

I

propose to do

with the utmost brevity, endeavoring to be plain,
precise,

and

practical.
is

The rod

most important, and must be proIf

portionate to the strength and size of the user.
the water to be fished be wide, a long rod
is

better

than a short one.
Connell, of

The

rod

I

prefer

is

the Castle

some

sixteen feet in length, with enit

larged butt, and tapered, so that

bends equally

from

tip to butt.
is

It is

astonishing

how
is
I

easy such
is

a rod

to wield

and how powerful

fighting a fish where the stream

when Of strong.
it

course the rod

is

of spliced joints.

do not find
the very

the cane-jointed rod so reliable, and for the Castle

Connell, old, well-seasoned greenheart
best wood.
I

is

have one made by
is

Dalzell, of St.

John, N.B., which
the

sixteen feet six inches,

and

wood came out

of the greenheart timbers of

The

Artificial Fly
lain
in the

405

an old wreck which had

Bay

of

St

Andrews

for

many
I

a decade.
is
it

This rod has done

wonderful service, and
as on the day

yet as stanch and elastic

received

from the maker. WashI

aba has been recommended, but

have no experirod should be

ence

of

it.

The guides on

the

upright and not the ordinary rings, so that the
lin^

may run as freely as possible on all occasions. The line may be of any good make of braided
but must be
dressed with
it.

silk,

an

eflEicient

oil

dressing to waterproof
the

The

recipe given in
Its
feet,

preceding section

will

do admirably. was a

length ought to be at least three hundred

and

I

have always

felt

that there
of

loss of
in
all

strength

and

little

advantage

any kind

having a tapered

line.

After being used, on

occasions the line should be carefully unreeled,

and dried
room.

in loose coils
is

on a chair

in

a

warm

This
reel
is

very important.

The

a matter of considerable importance
It

as to principle.

needs to be large enough to

hold the line
to reel

easily,

and large enough
lest the

in the barrel

up

easily.

The check
point,

or click must not be

too
fish

stiff in its

working,

suddenly plunging
line.
is

find a

dead

and snap the

The
a com-

best material for reels, in

my experience,

4o6

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

bination of ebonite and

German

silver,

the latter

protecting the former, so that in the event of a
fall

on the rocks the metal takes the blow.
appliances
of the

The above
manent part
such,

may

be termed the per-

salmon

fisher's tackle, and, as

demand care and experience in the selection. Care of a more solicitous and continually changing kind is demanded by those parts which require
constant renewal
line
;

namely, the leader or casting

and the

fly.

The

casting line
it

is,

of course, of

the best salmon gut, and

should be round, trans-

parent, of even gauge, free

from flaws

of all kinds.

A

powerful magnifying glass should be passed

over each strand as a test of the preliminary selection,

and

all

strands should be rejected that are in
or faulty.

the least

flat

The chosen

strands are

soaked
still,

in distilled or filtered rain-water, or, better

in fresh

milk and water, which seems to take

from the silvery gloss which occasionally mars an otherwise
fine

strand.

The

casting line

is

made

of three twisted or plaited strands to the
;

extent of four feet

then about four feet of double

gut, twisted; then follows a length of the best single

gut for some four
this

feet.

A

tapered cast
cast,

made

in

way

is

most agreeable to
fly

and aids the

angler to lay out the

with precision and light-

The
ness of delivery.

Artificial Fly

407

No

leader should be

more than

fourteen feet long, for several reasons, the chief of

which
tip

is

that

it

must never be drawn through the

guide, there being danger of breaking

when

a

fish is

on the hook

;

and

if

the leader be longer

than the rod, this
selection of the

may

advertently be done.
fly

The
rule,
is

salmon

depends, as a

largely

on the traditions

of the fishery.

This

more

so in much-fished rivers than in those of

comparative freedom from the rod.

Many anglers
standard
"

would only use the
terns,

so-called

"

pat-

and would not think
important.

of trying experiments.
little,

Others think that pattern counts very
that size
is

and
the

all

In

my

opinion, howis

ever, the chief point to

be aimed at

to

make

salmon
in

see the fly.

If

he be feeding, and the

fly

be

harmony with the surroundings and

of the right

colors to attract attention with reference to atmos-

phere, foliage, clouds, and light, the fish will take

almost any lure within these
the whole question
is

limits.

At

the best,

one

of individual

judgment,

when

that

judgment has been
;

qualified

by experi-

ence and observation

and

until then the learner

had better "follow the
never forget that he

leader."

And

let

him

who

catches the greatest

number

of fish

is

the one

who keeps

his line in

the water the most!


4o8

;

Guns, Ammwiition, and Tackle
of casting the fly in salmon-fish-

The methods

ing are fundamentally the same as in trout-fishing, only with more force and less delicacy.

One
cast

method
anglers

of casting,

much
is

in

vogue with British
"

when wading,
it

termed the

Spey "

and as
one
of

is

sui generis, a short description from
greatest professors.

its

Major Traherne,
in

may

be quoted here.
:

Writing

June, 1886,

he says

"To make

a long Spey cast, the salmon fisher requires a
will,

rapid stream to work in, which
cast, carry his fly

before making every fresh

down-stream

to the full extent of his line

straight

and

taut, the point of his

rod being held as low as posraising the

sible for that

purpose
is

;

then,

by suddenly

rod very

high, the line

lifted

out of the water to the very end, and
is

without a moment's pause the rod
right or left (as the case

carried up-stream to the

may

be) by a rapid motion, but not so

rapid as to send the
object being to
is

fly

too far up-stream past the angler, the
the water just above where he
is

let

the

fly strike

standing, at which

moment
of him.

the whole of the line

on the

reverse or upper side
to
this

Then, with a sweep peculiar
is

particular cast, the line

propelled over (and

not

along) the surface of the water, after the fashion in ordinary
casting."

It

is

not likely, however, that this cast will be

found generally suitable to the salmon rivers of

Canada and Maine, the

"

switch

"

and

" over-

The
hand
"

Artificial Fly

409
in use accord-

methods being those most

ing to

my

observation and information.

On

reaching a salmon water at the head of a
first

pool or catch, the
fly suitable to the
is,

thing to do

is

to select a

conditions of the water.

This

of course, a

matter of tradition, histoiy, or im-

mediate experience, and must be determined from

one or the other.
be observed.
It

One

thing,

about the

fly

must
to

must be tested and found
and not
skirt

be

perfectly true-floating,

the water.
fly

Nothing scares a salmon so much as a

that

makes a

ripple.

A
Go

pool
it

which has a good
head
of the pool
all

stream running

through

should be fished somewhat as follows

to the

and throw well and
This,

down-stream, covering
of course,

the hkely water.

means

a long

cast,

but

it is

better than

casting straight across, because the

fly lies

long

over a possible

fish,

and the current

will

keep the
also be

line tighter, so that the chances of the fish hook-

ing

itself

are greater.
fly,

More motion can

imparted to the
ness of the line.

by reason
pool

of the greater taut-

To

fish a slack

is

much more

difiBcult.

A

long line here

is

difficult

or impossible.

A

short one

must be

cast,

and the rod pointed up,

4IO
and the
to

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
line

kept

tight.

One must
fly,

strike hard

hook a
If

fish

on a

line like this.

a fish strike and miss the

finish fishing

the pool and

come back again

in half

an hour.

He

will

probably be ready then.

A

jerking motion should always be imparted
fly.

to the

This

is

produced by raising the

tip of
let-

the rod a foot or two every few seconds and
ting
it fall

again.

The movement
fly,

of the fly un-

doubtedly has a tendency to attract the attention
of

the

fish,

which the
do.
is

without spasmodic

movement, would not

When
dealt with

the

salmon

hooked, he should be

somewhat

as follows:

Hold the

tip of

the rod

up so as to bring the
line is free,
;

fish to

bear on the

spring of the rod.

This must not be forgotten.

See that the
line the fish

and not looped round
be ready to give what

the reel or butt of the rod

needs to prevent breakage, but be
all

very sparing, and put

the pressure you can on

him.

If

he springs out of the water, lower the

tip of the rod.

Should he go
he
will

to the

bottom and

sulk, get

below him and endeavor
If If this

to

draw him

down-stream.
stones.

not move, pelt him with

will

not

move him,
slit
it,

take a newsit

paper or old

letter

and

placing

on the

The
line,

Artificial Fly

411

and causing the water

to force the obstruc-

tion

down

to the
start
it.

fish.

I

have known a news-

paper to

a large fish

when nothing
it
;

else

would do

When
be,
if

the

fish is

thoroughly tired out,

should

possible,

brought into shallow water

and

if it

a moderate

fish of

say eight or ten pounds,

should be landed by means of the landing-net.

The
the

net should never be thrust at the head of

fish,

but should be drawn up clear of the
tail,

fish

from the

and so enclose

it

entirely.

If

the
it,

gaff be used, the fish should be floated over

and the gaff should never be thrust at the

fish.

The

gaffing process

is

always a
I

difficult one,

and
it

though an arduous
myself,
if

task,

always prefer doing

possible.

the excited

More fish are lost through and awkward movements of the at-

tendant with the net or gaff than from any other
cause.

There
its

is

probably no

feeding than this
is

more capricious in majestic fish. That is a
fish

truth which

seen equally from every point of

view, and probably largely accounts for the
of
its

charm

capture.

It

has been noted by the experi-

enced, however, that there are certain times
the salmon feed

when

more generally than

at others.

;

412

Gims, Ammtmition, and Tackle
days of
fitful
;

On

sunshine and
also,
if

many

clouds of

the cumulus kind

the wind, from being

cold and easterly, turns to the west or south, and

becomes warmer;
and
close

also,

on windy days,
there

after
after

still

weather,

on rough days
is

fine

weather, and often

when

a strong wind
fly

blowing, the Salmo salar takes the
to his

according

humor.

The Theory
The making

of the Bass Fly

of the bass fly rests

on a very slim

foundation of theory.

Most

of the patterns
in

which
are

have been found successful

bass-fishing

without prototype in the natural insect.

The

gaudiest combinations are often used with effect

but

I

am bound

from

my own

experience to con-

clude that the nearer the size and color approach
those of the large family of the dragon-flies [Libelullidce),

the more productive will be the lure.

The small-mouthed
as the
ficial flies

black bass

is

as capricious

salmon or trout
he
will rise to.
fly,

in his choice of the artiI

have never seen the
it

fish take

any natural

save the dragon-fly, as
the imago

rises

from the pseudo-imago to

state.

At such

times the imitation of the creature will

The
kill plentifully.

Artificial Fly

413
"

— or with
seems
in

A

brown hackle dressed

buzz

"

the hackle

wound round

the body
tie,


In

to be the nearest imitation

one can

and

my

experience

it

has been most successful.

early

summer
"

bass will also take most of the so" flies
;

called
is

standard

and there

is

no

fly

which

a passable imitation of a
insect

brown

or yellowish
to this

brown
I

which does not seem caviare

fish at times.

do

" not, therefore, reject " fancy " or " standard

flies,

bass has

knowing as I do that the impetuous black whims of his own which no one can acIt

count for or understand.
the wet-fly system
is

may

be added that

that usually in

vogue with

the bass fly-fisher, but a floating cork- or straw-

bodied

fly of

the right color and size often does

wonderful execution.

In early summer,
rise in

when

the
air,

brownish dragon-flies
it

myriads into the
if

is

impossible to do

wrong

one

imitates,

how-

soever roughly, the
larvae.

size,

shape, and color of the
it

Speaking comprehensively,
that

may

be

as-

sumed
salmon

the

theories

underlying trout and
in the

fly-fishing are

merged

theory which

explains the ready capture of the black bass on

the gorgeous and

sometimes composite

flies

in

use, which, while not professing to be counterparts

414

Gtms, Ammunition, and

Taclile

of the living or natural insect, are equally not like

the

exquisite

compositions of

silk

and

feather,

which so variously are employed to
salmon.

lure

the

The
fly.

black

bass

fly

in

ordinary use
the trout and

seems salmon

to strike the

mean between

The most successful bass flies are those that are made with a view to arousing the attention of
the voracious fish by
as well as

means of attractive those which resemble the tints

colors, of the

natural food of the fish.
positively given
;

No

rule can, however,
all,

be

and

it is,

after

probable that
fly is

the most successful angler for bass with the

he who keeps his lure moving and as
possible from himself, and who,
particular
fly
is

far off as

when he

finds

one

not

productive,

industriously

changes

it

until

he finds the right one,

— always
diffi-

with a view to the contrast between each succeeding
fly.

The

observant trout-angler will have no

culty in applying his

knowledge

of the finer arts

necessary for trout to the more strenuous methods
of luring the robust black bass.
I

have never had
small-mouthed

any doubt
bass
is

that, size for size, the

the equal in fighting power to any of
fish
;

our

game

but his frank and fierce bravery

The
is

Artificial Fly

415

of a different

kind to that from the Salmonidce,
in refinement

and lacks somewhat
of bearing.

and delicacy
as that for

Fundamentally, however, the theory
is

of fly-tying for these fish

the

same

trout, with the slight exceptions already noted.

The Making

of the Bass Fly
I

In choosing the hooks for bass fly-tying

al-

ways prefer the Limerick O'Shaughnessy, and
find that
it

saves the most

fish,

from the
its
I

fact of its quali-

thickness and strength of wire, and
ties of

good

bend.

For the eyed hook,
it

choose the

Pennell down-eyed, and find

satisfactory, its

only
the

fault,

if

fault

it

be,

being that the point of

hook

is

bent round too near the shank for
of

infallible

engagement with the jaw

the bass.

All numbers in the Limerick hook, from No. 6 to

No.

I,

are useful as occasion calls for them.

They

cannot be improved upon for the purpose under
consideration.
It
is

hard to make a selection

of

bass

flies

when

so

many

are proved to be

killers

according

to the caprice of the fish.
ever, has led

My

experience, how-

me

to the choice,

on the whole,

of

the following

flies;

and with these

of sizes vary-

;

4i6

Gnus, Ammiuiition, and Tackle
i,

ing from No. 6 to No.
of smaller sizes,

— the

majority being
failure

I

do not fear

on any

waters where the bass will take a

fly.

And

where

they will do
salmon, they
for
I

this, let

it

here be affirmed that, like

may

be taught or educated to do so

have done this on several occasions.
:

Here is my list 1. Brown hackle. Body, peacock brown rooster; tag, gold tinsel.
2.

herl; hackle,

Deer-hair hackle.

Body, yellow

silk

;

hackle,

gray-brown hair from deer, tied very securely
in plenty at the head.
3.

and

Scarlet
;

ibis.

Body, scarlet
;

silk,

ribbed gold

tinsel

tail, ibis

and white swan

hackle, red ibis

scapular feather.
4.

Toodle bug.

Body, yellow, tagged at the

lower end with blue, and the body

wound with

a
;

brown hackle halfway up to the throat of fly wings, from dark brown turkey. Body, light brown wool or Grasshopper. 5. worsted tail, barred wood-duck and yellow dyed
;

swan

;

hackle, dark crimson

;

wings, jungle cock
ibis

hackle feather, with strips of

and white swan
peacock
herl,

over top of wings

;

head, green

two
6.

turns.

Fiery brown.

Body, a

fiery

brown wool or

PLATE
BROOK TROUT
1.

3

FLIES
7.

BLACK GNAT

PROFESSOR
GRIZZLY KING SILVER SEDGE MAY FLY
FLIGHT'S FANCY

2.
3.

COACHMAN
WICKHAM'S FANCY ROYAL COACHMAN ALDER

8. 9.

4.
5.
6.

10.
11. 12.

GRANNOM

SAETOUN

J.

Harrington Keene

fecit

irf'

11

The
mohair
;

Artificial Fly

417

hackle,

brown
;

;

wings, red

brown from
hackle,

feather of peacock
7.

tail, ibis.

Coachman.
;

Body, peacock herl
;

;

brown
8.

wings, white swan

tag,

gold
;

tinsel.

Alder.
;

Body, peacock herl

wings,

brown

mallard
9.

hackle, dark brown.

Kingfisher.
;

Body, scarlet

silk,
;

ribbed gold
tippet of

tinsel

hackle,

Plymouth rooster
;

tail,

golden

pheasant

wings,

dark barred mallard,

from breast.
10.

Lord Baltimore.
thread
;

Body, orange

silk,

ribbed

black

tail,

fibres

crow

;

hackle,

black

wings, black (crow) with jungle-cock sides.
1 1.

Gray drake.
;

Body, white
;

silk,
;

ribbed black
wings, dark

thread

hackle, white

black setae

barred feather of pintail breast.
12.

White
these

miller.

Body, hackle, and

wings,

white; gold tinsel at tag.

With
shank,

flies

tied

on good gut, doubled or
the

reenforced for about two inches above the hook

and fished with

skill,

angler need

never fear lack of sport.

Other

files will
list is

probably
the one

creep into his collection; but this

which has gradually, through many
be, for

years,

come

to

me, the inevitable

"

survival of the

fittest."

Of course the

trout fiy-tier will find no practical

4i8

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle

difficulty in
narily,

making bass
flies.

flies

;

they are ordi-

and for the most

part, simpler

than the

majority of trout

But one useful alternative
for the last fifteen years

has been in

my

method
flies,
I

when
large

it

has been found
of

undesirable

to

take a

number

and may be explained as
believe in having at least
as are given above for
If

follows: Imprimis,
half a gross of

such

flies

any fishing

trip

where bass are the quarry.
to

the angler desires

economize, he
only, but

may

take
ar-

twelve complete

flies

by a simple

rangement
one dozen

of interchangeability
flies,

he may, out of his

make 144
is

different flies at will.

This

may seem

like a statement of legerdemain,

but the explanation
I
I

very simple

;

to wit

:

have above given, — but
off the

make

a dozen

flies of different

kinds,

— such

as
I

in the bodies of

each

tie a thin silver tube (such as jewellers use in their

work) and fasten

body with the end

of the

tube slightly protruding at the end and on the top
of the shank, the

gut snell being below on the

under side
wings are

of the shank.

securely tied
tied

and varnished.
on a stout

The whipping must be The hackle and

common

pin.

I

use

one

of the blue steel

kind with a bead head.
fits

careful that the pin

closely in the tube,

Be and

The

Artificial Fly

.419

that the whippings are well

waxed and varnished.
the

This

is

the process, and

"interchangeable

fly " is

made

thus easily.
fly

To

render the

complete, one has only to
it

in-

sert the pin in the tube, thrusting
to the head.

tightly

home

The

hackles are then smoothed out,

and the
fly.

fly

appears at once exactly like any other
of the arrangeflies,

But observe the advantage
!

ment

You have

twelve separate
if

which may
;

be used to their correct pattern

you choose and

you can vary these patterns twelve times each
pattern, after

you have tested the original twelve

standards.

Of course the same fly-making applies
flies.

to other large

Even

six standards,

with their
dis-

six standards, give three
tinct

dozen separate and
of

variations

;

and the labor
is

making

this

interchangeable device
incurred in

little

greater than that

making the ordinary one-piece bass fly. One other variation in the making of the bass I refly is very efflcient in some circumstances.
shank
of the hook,
fly

fer to the enclosure, next the

of a piece of lead wire or foil, to

render the
often

a
to

sinking lure.
rise to

The

black bass

objects

the surface for his food, and this device

carries the fly to mid-water, or thereabouts,

where

the fish does not hesitate to seize with avidity.

420

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
the other

On

hand the

floating
;

fly,

as has been

noted,

must not be despised

for the fanciful bass

never gives warning precisely when or
prefers his meal at a given time.

how he

Using the Bass Fly
Micropterus Dolomiei, being no
ardent creatures,
fool,

and
is

like all

human and

otherwise,

variable
Flyof his

and hard
fishing
is,
;

to

understand, as

we have

seen.

of course, the

supreme method

capture

and
fly

brief but practical directions for the

use of the

may

here be ventured.

How
fisher
is

to cast the fly.

— Assuming
;

that the bass-

equipped as has been indicated, and that

he

is

fishing running water, he advances toward

the edge of the stream

and with the right or
is

left

foot forward, according to the side he

on,

he

stands
in the

facing

downward and

drops

his

flies

running water.
in the right

Holding the rod firmly

grasped

hand, with the thumb upper-

most, he draws a few feet of line from the reel

with the

left

hand.
;

A
and
till

smart jerk of the rod draws
this
is

out the loose line

repeated with line

drawn from the

reel

ing in the water.

some twenty feet are trailNow let him raise the point of

The

Artificial Fly
it

421

the rod until the angle

assumes

is

about seventy

degrees

;

then, with a swift and evenly increasing
of the rod,
left

movement
his

he urges the

line

back over
the length

head or

or right shoulder, according to the
of the position,
till

wind and necessity
of the line
is

expended behind him.

This must

be done with no jerk of the rod, but swiftly and
forcefully,

and with evenly increasing speed,

till

the
is

psychological

moment

of

extreme expenditure

reached, which will be

felt

on experiment
is

after a

few
as

trials.

When

the line

thus extended, and,
fall

it

were, poised and about to

to the earth

behind

at that psychological

moment

the for-

ward impulse must be made, and the rod brought
forward
before, to

swiftly

and

as

evenly accelerating as
of

an angle of the rod and the water

forty degrees, or thereabouts.

The

result will be

a clean cast, with the fly falling one imperceptible

moment

before the leader and the line.

If,

how-

ever, the aforesaid psychological

moment

be an-

ticipated ever so

little,

the caster will hear a sharp
off

snapping sound, and find that he has whipped
his
fiy.

If it

be missed, and the forward movethe
cast
will

ment delayed,
good plan

be a slovenly and
It is

ungraceful one, and quite unsatisfactory.

a

to take a friend of sharp vision (and

422

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
critical

some

acumen)

to tell

you when the

fly is

extended behind.
tension and
say, "

He should watch

for its full exit.

Now
;

"
!

on seeing

The arm
find
it

should not be waved, or allowed to extend from
the side of the
to place

body

and some anglers

well

an object, such as a small book, between

the elbow and the body to prevent this ungainly

spreading of the arm.

This

is

termed the

" over-

hand

cast,"

and
all

is,

of course, the basal cast of all

others.

In

practice the tyro should observe

Never be in a hurry, never snatch or jerk the rod, and never forget that the rod and wrist are one mechanism for
three cardinal principles; to wit:

the time being, with the wrist as the propelling

power which the rod magnifies and completes.

A
it

good rod should be
turns and does
its

pliant
is

down

to its

extreme

butt end, and the wrist

then the pivot on which

perfect work, in

which

is

the

very poetry of resilient strength.

There are other methods
briefly

of casting the fly

which

are useful for fishing in difficult waters.
:

the "

wind"

cast,

These are, the " underhand " cast, the
"

" flip " cast,

and the famous

switch

"

or Spey cast.

The
sary,

latter is especially useful,

and indeed necesan overhanging
I

when an
is

obstruction, such as

rock,

at the

back of the angler.

have seen

The

Artificial Fly

423

a seventy-foot cast of the Spey kind

made with

a

rock wall of a hundred
of the angler

feet rising within six feet

and right
is

at his back.

The move-

ment

of the rod

one which cannot be exploited
is

except at the water-side, and

one which cannot
cast
is

be taught on paper.

The wind

is

a modified

Spey drawn and
cast,

and the underhand
side-cast line.

simply a side-

by taking the fly ware of the hook point
bow, holding a few
the right
of the fly
is

The flip cast is made between thumb and finger (be!),

bending the rod as a
the fingers of

coils of line in

hand which grasp the
suddenly

rod,

and

letting

go

in the direction required.

This

especially useful

when

fishing under the over-

hanging boughs

of side growth,

by which some
however, a thor-

streams are fringed.

For the majority
oughly practised
sufficient for bass,

of purposes,

ability with the
it

overhand cast
all

is

being the parent of
it

other

methods, and proficiency with
provisation
of other

rendering im-

casts

an easy task as the

necessity arises.

The
is

learner should always re-

member

that

it

not the lon^ cast which takes

the prize,

— though
;

sometimes
it

it

is

necessary to

cast a long line
rately laid
fly,

but

is

the softly and accu-

which alights gently as thistledown

4^4

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
the

just before

eyes of the waiting bass, that
;

always does the trick

and

it

is

the

keeps his lure longest in the water
the most bass.

man who who catches

One
above:
is

important remark must be added to the

As

the bass

is

not a top-water feeder,
let
;

it

sometimes well

to

the fly sink a foot or

so beneath the surface

and

it

should be slowly
not be injured
In
fly-fishing

recovered, so that the tackle

may

by too precipitate a movement.
for trout

one must not be slow, the trout being
developed to

a

top-water feeder and superbly

that end.

The leader for bass fly-fishiiig is composed of silkworm gut, of thickness and strength appropriate to the probable size of the fish in view.

Where

the bass run up to two pounds and over, a
is

salmon gut

necessary

;

and each strand should pounds dead weight.

be tested up to
It

at least five

should be at least six feet in length, and be
at

looped

both ends, with one or two other loops

at a distance of

twenty inches apart along
attachment

it.

The
and

upper loop

is

for

to the reel line,
flies

the lower ones are for the two or three

which

may be

chosen.

Before using,

impatient the angler

may

be,

— no matter how — he should soak

DETERMINED TO GET SOMETHING.

The

Artificial Fly

425

the leader for at least fifteen minutes in water.

This softens the gut
fracture

at the knots,

and prevents

from the sudden

strain of a fish.

The

experienced angler well knows that he has lost

many

fish at the first cast

because this precaution

has been

omitted.

I

do not recommend the

tapered leader for bass

— no

chain

is

stronger

than

its

weakest

link.

The

reel for

bass fly-fishing should be of reliable
if

make, and need not be multiplying
be of large diameter.
It

the barrel

should be of the check

or click pattern, so that, in casting, the line should

not over-run.

Its

capacity should not be less

than 150 feet of line of moderate gauge.

The

line for bassfishing should

be of the finest

grade, braided, and

may

vary according to the

methods

of the angler

from a threadlike fineness

to half the thickness of a straw.

need stronger tackle than others,
of

Some
it is

anglers

a matter

temperament.

For

y?j/-fishing the line

should

be enamelled, but for bait-fishing the expensive

enamel
of oil

is

not so necessary, and the old dressings
will serve.

and varnish

Lines are
it

now
is

so

beautifully

and cheaply prepared that

little

profit to dress

them

at

home.

The

rod for bass
feet

fly-fishing should not be

more than ten

long

426

Guns, Ammunition, and Tackle
of proportionate weight, to suit the strength
of the angler.

and
of a
in a
is

and endurance

No

rod should be

weight which unduly fatigues the angler, for

good
fish.

day's bass-fishing his natural strength

likely to be tested to the limit

by

this bold,

strong

A

sectioned

bamboo
of

rod,

hand-made,
at

of course,

and weighing about seven ounces
as

most,

is

recommended

reasonable weight

and

resiliency for the

man

of average physical

powers.

INDEX
THE SHOT-GUN AND
Accidents in shooting, avoidance
of,

ITS

HANDLING,
Smokeless

1-114

Ammunition

[continued']

9-". 55-59America, game-shooters of, 3, 4. As a game-producing country, 3-5. Shooting in, contrasted with shooting in England, 29-32.

(nitro) powders, largely

affected by wadding, 49.

Affected by moisture and grease,
50. SI-

Requirements of primer
Pressure
of, in

for, 51.

American and English shooters, the
great difference between, 72.

Now made
powders,
Effect
of,

gun, 58, 59. stronger than for-

American-English trap-shooting match
(1901), 71, 72. Ammunition, defects, 47-52.

merly, 58, 59.

Not more dangerous than black
58, 59, 107, 108.

Constant changes, 52.
Effect of trap-shooting
ture, 68, 69.

on

clay-target shoot-

on manufac-

ing. 73-

Use and abuse

of,

107-114.

Powders, pressure on, in loading
shells, 48.

-^

"

Dense " and
58. 59-

"

bulk " compared,

Balling of shot, 45-47. Barrel of gun, best length, 53. Disadvantages in having too short,
61.

Black and smokeless compared,
109-112.

""^

Best results secured by regular manufacturers, 112, 113. Shells, for quail shooting, 9.

For all-round shooting, 61, 62. For use on small, cover-loving game, 62. For use on wild fowl, 63.

Proper length, 48.

Bend of gun, 59-62.
in load-

Compression of powder
ing, 48.

The crimp
ing, 50.

of,

as affects shoot-

Affected by moisture and heat, 51. Proper loading of, 109.

For all-round shooting, 61, 62. For use on small, cover-loving game, 62, 63. For use on wild fowl, 63. See also under Gun.
Betting, in live-bird trap-shooting, 76,
83, 85.

Poor results and danger from improper loading, 113, 114.
Shot, quality
of,

Black

powders, see under
tion.

Ammuni-

as affecting shoot-

ing, 51,52.

Chilled, give best patterns, 52. Soft, give poor patterns, 52.

Blue-rock pigeons, 83-84. Bores of gun, present demands, 53. Maximum bore allowed in trapshooting, 63-65.

For

live pigeon shooting, 93. Difference in numbering in Eng-

land and America, 93.

Further discussion of, 66. Bursting of guns, see under Gun.

427

428
Caliber of gun, see Bores of gun.

Index
Game
[continued'\


and America,

Camping, 5-7. Canvas shooting-clothes, 15. Cartridges, see under Ammunition.
" Cast-off," the matter of, 40.

Stalking, 14, 15. Flight of, in England
31. 32.

Chronograph, use

of,

in solving shoot-

Shooting, benefit of practice in trapshooting, 80.

ing problems, 55. Clay-bird shooting, see Trap-shooting
(clay-bird).

Greener,

W. W.,

on cause of bad pat-

terns, 47.

Clay-target shooting, see Trap-shooting
(clay-target).

Grip of gun-stock, 41. Grouse, shooting, in Great Britain, open
season, 17.

Conduct

in the field, 3-16.

Habitat of grouse,

18.

Crimp
Crow,

of

the shell

as affecting the

Moors

for,

18-22.

shooting, 50.
rate of flight, loi.

See also Ruffed grouse.

Gun, position, when carrying, 9-10. For quail shooting, 9.
of
term,
107,

Detonate, explanation
108, III, 112.

Method
Faults

of handling, 10, 11,

of,

apt to prevent

good shoot-

Dog, as a companion, 7. Use of, in English shooting, 24-25.
Dress suitable
30-

ing, 36.

for hunting, 15-16, 29-

Chamber, length of shell for, 48. Injured by poor wadding, 49.
Manufacture, constant changes
52in,

Duck

shooting in England and America, with decoys, as a test of
skill, 32.

Best for all-round shooting, 53.

Bore

of,

now

in

demand,

53.

England, shooting in, 17. Contrasted with shooting
ica, 17-32.

Barrel, best length, 54. Single trigger action on, 54.
in

Amer-

Hammerless, usually quicker than
others in lock action, 55.

English and American shooters, the great difference between,
72.

Safer than guns with
55. 56-

hammers,

Breech-loading, safer than muzzleloading, 55.
Position,

English-American trap-shooting match
(1901), 71, 72. Eyesight, in hunting, 16.

when

closing, 56.

Loaded, danger and precautions,
56, 57.

In target-shooting, 74.

Bursting, not

more frequent with

Fads of shooters
Flight of

in

live-bird

trap-

shooting, 95-97.

game

in

England and Amerloose

smokeless powders, 58, 59. Strong breech required for smokeless powders, 58, 59.

ica, 31, 32.

Bends

of,

discussed, 59-62.

Flinching,

commonly caused by
grip. 38.

Of more than one bend, necessary
for best results, 59, 60,

Fulminate of mercury as a detonating
explosive, 108.

Game,

finding

of,

12-13.
13,

Wild, method of approaching,
14.

For trap-shooting, straighter than for game, 60. Weights of, discussed, 60-66. Formerly used and now used in America, compared as to
weight, 60.

Index
Gun
[continued'\

429
see


fit

Pigeon shooting;
only for " market

Trap-shooting

Very heavy,
For
See

(live-bird).

all-round
also

shooting, 60. shooting,

proper
Barrel,

Position in shooting, 34-36. Preserves, English, 18-19.

equipment
different

of,

62-66.

parts.

Primer, effect of moisture on, 50, 51. Pull-off of trigger, 38-39.
Quail, shooting
of, 8.
9, 62, 63,

Stock, etc.

Gunpowder,

see

under Ammunition,

Gun

suitable for,
of, 13.

Hammers,

as cause of accidents, 56.
rules for, 9, 10, 11.

Flight

Handling of gun,

Difficulty of shooting, 31-32.

Hares, as incidental game, 17, 20. Hat, wide-brimmed for hunting, 16. Hints as to shooting, 105-106. Hunting, see Shooting.
Live-bird shooting; see Trap-shooting
(live-bird).

Retrieving in trap-shooting, 88. Rib, matter of, discussed, 41-42. Riverton Club of Philadelphia, 102-104.

Ruffed grouse, shooting Habits of, 13.
Difficult to kill, 31.

of,

7-8.

Loaded gun Loads used

;

see

in

under Gun. pigeon and clay-target

Safety bolts, liability to
Shells, see

fail,

Ammunition

57, (shells).

Shoes for hunting, 15. shooting, 65, 74, 75. Locks of gun, American-made and Shooting, gun for quail, 9. Accidents in, 9, 10, 11. English-made compared, 54.
Dress
Misses in shooting, reasons for discussed, 32-69.
for, 15, 16.

In England {see also Grouse, Partridge, and Pheasant), 17-29,

Moors,

British,

shooting on, 18-22.

English and American compared,
17-32.

see AmNitro powders (smokeless) munition (smokeless pow;

Preserves, English, 18.

ders).

Constant changes, 52. Author's wide experience, 53.

Allowance
Partridge shooting in England, 22-24. Patterns, imperfect, due to poor boring, W. W. Greener, quoted, 47.

in

aiming

at

moving

objects, 55. Shots, order of, in hunting, 11-12,

Single gun, best kind for all-round use,
61, 62.

Affected by length of shell, 48. Affected by kind of wadding used,
49. SO.

Single

trigger action,

author's
see

expe-

rience with, 54.
to

Uneven, owing
shell, 50.

undue crimp

of

Smokeless

(nitro)

powders

;

Ampow-

munition (smokeless
ders).

Poor, due to too strong fulminate or primers, 51. Affected by quality of shot, 51, 52.

Snipe, English, shooting of, 32. Society for Prevention of Cruelty to

Pheasant shooting
tion
of,

in

England, descripEngland, 26-

Animals, in
tude

25-29.
of, in

England and on European Continent, attitoward
live

Pheasants, rearing
28.

pigeon

shooting, 82.
flight, 102.

Poaching

of, 29.

Pigeon, rate of

Objections largely met by present method of retrieving, 88.

430
Stalking game, 14, 15.

Index
Trap-shooting [continued'\ Necessity of constant practice,
75-

Stock, bend of, 39-40. Stockings suitable for hunting, 15. "Stops," 27.
Stringing, Griffith's experiments

con-

Advice of an expert, 75. Harmony of hand, eye,
brain necessary, 75. Compared with live-bird shooting, 76.

and
trap-

cerning, 43-44.

Talking, warning against
ing, 14-15.

when

hunt-

Many changes
duction, 76.
70.
in,

in,

since intro-

Targets, improvements in making and

throwing
Clay,

of,

Usual plan now adopted at clubs,
since intro-

many changes

76-78.
Effort toward establishing

duction, 76. see Target-shooting,
(clay-target).

hand-

Trap-shooting

icap

in,

79, 80.

Achievements of best
shots, 80.

shots, 80.

Teasdale-Buckell, Mr., on use of only one gun, 59. Traps, many changes in manufacture,
76.

Great benefit to game and pigeon
Live-bird, 80-105.
to dead Loads used, 65.

Rule as
of,

birds, 64.

Arrangement and adjustment
76.

American-English match (1901)
of,

,

New

form

78, 79.

72.

Trap-shooting, value of, 34, 69, 70. Straighter guns required for, than
for

As

to cruelty, 75, 76, 81, 82, 87.
82, 83.

In America and other countries,
Betting on, 83, 85. Handling of birds in England

game,
of,

60.

Teachings
61.

as to weights of guns,

Maximum

weight and caliber of

and America compared, 8587.

gun, 63-65.

Varying conditions, 65, 66. Differences between live-bird and
target-shooting, 66, 88, 89.

Chief difference between use of live pigeons and clay-targets,
88.

How it helps

to

make a good

shot,

67-69. Clay-bird, effect on manufacture of

Quick action necessary, 89. Use of second barrel, 89, 90. Difficulty of ground shots, 90,
Acquisition of skill, 91, 92. Points to be observed, 93, 97. Best size of shot, 93.

91.

guns and ammunition, 6869.

Clay-target, best load, 65, 74, 75. Requirements for excellence, 69.

Requisite qualities for success,
94.

True purposes of, 70. Wonderful growth in, 70, 71. Match (1901) between American and English teams, 71, 72.
Effect of advent of smokeless

Fads of shooters, 95-97.
Position at the traps discussed,

97-99Preparation of shooter for match,
99, 100.

powders, 73.

As

a unique sport, 73, 78. How to become expert, 74-80. Eyesight, 74.

Importance of killing with centre

Allowance for
102.

of charge, 100, loi. flight of bird, loi,

Need

for

quick action, 74.

Index
Trap-shooting \continued'\
102.

431

Gauging moment of shooting,
York-Philadelphia team match (1893-1894), 102-104. Avoidance of bad habits, 104,
105.

Weight of guns [coniinued] Advantages of lighter guns,

60, 61.

New

Teachings of trap-shooting, 61. For use on small, cover-loving game, 62. For use on wild fowl, 63. In pigeon and in clay-target shooting, 65.

Trigger, importance of quick action
54. 55*5^' 3-'so Pull-off

of,

of

Whistle for dog, use
14-15, 106.

of, in

hunting,
17.

trigger
action.

and Single

trigger

Wild Wild
fit

fowl, shooting of, in

England,

Proper gun

for use on, 63.

Wadding, discussion of, 49, 50. Weight of guns, very heavy gun
»

turkey, proper
61, 62.

gun

for use on,

only for
ing, 60.

"

market " shoot-

Woodcock, habits of, 13. Proper gun for use on,

61, 62, 63.

THE HUNTING
Accuracy
of, 1 19-128.

RIFLE, 115-187
Ammunition
[confinueci]

Meaning of term discussed, 119, 120. Dependent mostly on the barrel,
120-123.

Cartridges, ballistic qualities of principal

makes, 136-139, 141,

Influence of breech
123.

mechanism

on,

144-145. Used interchangeably with different

makes

Ammunition
126.

the chief factor in, 123-

Energy

of

of rifles, 137. various cartridges,

of tled bullets, 126-128. Adjustment of the rifle, 161-165. For alignment, 163.
fit

As affected by shape and

man-

137- 138, 139- 142. 144-145. Killing powers of certain kinds,

142.

Importance of buying proper
kinds, 142-T43.

For elevations, 163, 164. For zero, 165-168. Ammunition, the chief factor
racy, 123, 124.

Weight of
in

rifle for different

en-

ergies of, 151, 152.

accu-

Smokeless powders, pressure
rifle barrel, 122.

of, in

General principles governing selection of, 125-128.
Bullets, full-mantled,

As

reliable

as

black powder,

126.

importance of proper shape and fit, 126128.
of,

See Reloading Ammunition. Animals, wild, vitality of, 140, 141.
Fair play for, 148, 149. Protective resemblances See Game.
of,

Trajectories

128-131.
of,

185.

Penetrating power and effect
132, 133, 135-142. " Soft points " discussed,
134, 139, 140.

Automatic
133,

rifles,

certain objections to,

148, 149.

Testing

of,

135.

Barrel,

on what
of, 121,

Penetration, energy,

and

caliber

shooting qualities mostly depend on, 120-123.

discussed, 139.

Jump

432
Barrel [^continued']
Flip
of,

Index

Hudson, Dr.

W.

G. [continued]


and

121.
122.

As

authority on proper loading

Whip
Lack

of,

of uniform boring, 127, 128.
181, 182.

Thickness no guarantee of strength,
Cleaning of, 183, 184. Bolt, or breech-block

As As

handling of rifles, 177. designer of bullets, 177. discoverer of alloy for bullets,
178.

Recommends
see

special

nitro-cleaner

;

Breech
" Ideal

for gun-barrels, 183, 184.

Mechanism.
Brayton
sight, tubeless

telescope, see

Handbook,"
for

full

instructions

under Sights. Breech mechanism, general principles
relating to, 124-125.

Ivory

reloading ammunition contained in, 177. bead, as a sight, see under
Sights.

Bullet moulds, 177.
Bullets,
jtf^

Ammunition

(bullets).

Jump
Calibers, large

of barrel, 121. bear, formidable character
141.

and small, relative ing power of, 136-138.
effect of, 177, 178.

kill-

Kadiak
"

of,

Different in rifles supposedly alike,

Keyhole," 126.

Calling shots, 151. Care of the rifle, 183-184.

Killing power, discussed, 131-143.

Of a
Killing

bullet,

on what

it

depends,

Simple tools
Cartridges,
see

for, 184.

131, 132, 136, 137.

Cartridge feed, see Breech Mechanism.

zone, defined
165, 166.

and discussed,
in,

Ammunition

(car-

tridges).

Krag

rifle,

use of reduced loads
super-caliber
bullets

" Corkscrew," 126.

121, 122.

Drawing a bead,

Use
153.

of

in,

128.

Energies of leading

makes of
138,

car142,

.30 cal., killing

power

of,

132.

tridges, 137,

139,

144-145. Essential qualities of, 117, 118.
Flinching, fatal to accuracy, 151, good corrective of, 164.

Line of aim and

line of fire, 166.

Lyman
Marlin

sight, see

under Sights.
of
different

rifles,

cartridges

A

makes used
Military

for,

137.

Flip of barrel, 121.

Mechanical development of rifle, 147. rifle, modern, range of, 120.
Barrels, 121, 122.

Game, aiming

at,

185.

Following wounded, 185, 186. Glitter about rifle, disadvantages
161.

Trigger-pull, 159.
of,

Open
under Sights.
of,

sights, see

under

Sights.

Globe

sights, see

Grizzly bear, formidable character
141.

Peep-sight, see

Penetration,
G., quoted,

see

under Sights. under Bullets and
sight,

Killing Power.

Hudson, Dr.

W.

on ner172,

Pope

telescope
Sights.
see

see

under

vousness
173-

in shooting,

Powders,

under Ammunition,

Index
Rapidity of
fire,

433

discussion
rifles

of,

146-150.

Sights {^continued ]


rifles,

Various kinds of
to,

compared as

On American
of,

shortcomings

148.
151.

152,

153.

Recoil of

rifle,

For cartridges of
151. 152-

different energies,

Open, objections to, 153. An ivory bead as front
154-

sight, 153,

A

factor

in

good shooting,

151,

Globe, with hoods, 154.
Front,

152,

combination

(Beach

and

Reloading ammunition, 175-183.
Early failures, 175, 176.

Lyman
Savage

patterns), 154. peep-sight, 154.
effective, 154, 155.

Subsequent success,
Full
instructions

176.
in

Lyman,
" Ideal

for,

Handbook," 177. Bullet moulds, 177. New bullets designed, 177. Shells for, 179.
Proper precautions in, 179. Smokeless powder, quick-burning

Peep, proper position of, 155. Telescope, discussed, 155-158.

Alignment

of, 163.

Marking

for elevations, 167.

Single-shot rifle, superior in certain points to repeating rifle,
146.

147.

and slow-burning, 179-181.
Cast-lead bullets, 182.

Sling for
"

rifle

desirable, 161.

Remington-Lee
for,

rifle, reliability of,

122.

Cartridges of several makes used
137.

Small-bore " defined, 135, 136. Stevens rifles, cartridges of several makes used for, 137.
Stock, 160-161.

Repeating

rifle,

compared with
rifle,

single-

shot

146, 147, 148.

Target practice, discussed, 168-175.

Proper use

of, 150.

Rifle in the field, the, 184-187.

Second only to field practice, With a rest, 168, 169.
Off-hand, 169, 170.
bolt-

168.

Rifle ranges, 162.
Rifles,

lever-action
action,

magazine,

Aiming,

170.

and automatic, comfire,

Command

of trigger, 171, 172.
factor, 172, 173.

pared as to rapidity of
148.

Nervousness as a
Natural aptitude

for, 173.

Rust, preventive

of,

184.

Savage

rifles,

cartridges
for,

of

several

At unknown distances, 173, 174. Ammunition, 173, 174, 175. Approximating field conditions
174.

in,

makes used
Sight, see

137. for target-

under Sights.

Schuetzen

rifle,

good only
see

shooting, 118.
Shell-extractor,

Breech

Mechanal-

ism.

Shooting,

near-by marks, lowance made in, 168. Downhill and uphill, 186. At running game, 186, 187. See also Target Practice.
at small,

Precautions in, 175. Target shooters, general ignorance of, concerning practical marksmanship, 129, 130. Telescope sight, see under Sights. Trajectories of ammunition, test of,
128-131.

Ignorance

of,

among

short-range

target shooters, 129, 130.

Sights, discussed, 152-158.

Absurd theories concerning, 130. Affected by atmospheric conditions,
of,

Importance of precise alignment
152.

131, 167, 168.

For

different distances, 166,

2F

.

.

434
Of automatic
rifles, 149, 150.

Index
Van Dyke,
quoted, as to hollow-point
bullets, 134, 135.

Trigger-pull, creeping, 125, 159, 160.

Importance of Easing of, 159.

perfect, 158, 159.

Of military
Triggers,

Weight, discussed, 150-152. Winchester rifle, accuracy of, 122.
Cartridges of different
for,

rifles,

159.

Standard, 159.
set, for

makes used

single-shot rifles only,

137,
rifle

160.

"Zero" of a

defined,

165.

Pressure on, 171.

See also Adjustment of the Rifle.

THE THEORY OF RIFLE-SHOOTING,
Ballistic coefficient

189-256

used

in

connection

Gas

with bullets, 203.
Bullets, see Projectiles (bullets)

Grooving of

cutting in gun-barrels, 235, 236. barrels, 237, 238, 250.

"Jump"
Centre of form of spherical
Centre
of
gravity of
jectiles,

discussed, 253-254.

projectiles,

see Projectiles (spherical).

spherical

pro-

Motion of rotation
jectiles,

in

spherical pro233,

see

Projectiles

(spherical)

Motion of

233-236. translation defined,
of bullets, 231, 232.

235-

Density of

air, on what dependent, 205. Examples and problems, 206-219.

Mushrooming

Drift, 232-250.

Penetration differentiated from velocity,

Definition of term, 232.

231-232.
of,

Cause, 232.

Powder
projectiles, 233-238.

gases, action

on spherical
above
line

Of spherical

projectiles, 236-237.

Accidental, origin

of, 235. Effect on, of rifling barrel, 237, 238.

Projectiles, bullets, height of

of

fire,

199.
of,

Lateral, allowance for, 238.

Relative drop

in

vacuo and in
of,

Of elongated

projectiles, 238-250. at length, 239-246.

air, 201, 202.

Cases discussed

Resistance
203.

and

velocities

202, ten231,

Spiral, variations in, 243.

Of

projectile, effect of

wind on,

245,

Soft lead

246.

dency
232. see

and hollow-pointed, to mushroom,

Elongated

projectiles,

Projectiles

Elongated, lateral and spiral
of,

drift

(elongated).

238.
of,

Energy, discussed, with formula and examples, 229-231.
" Flip " discussed, 254-256.

Cylindrical, flat-headed, drift
244.

Twist

of,

discussed, 246-249.

Length and calibers compared,
248.

Force of gravity,

effects of, discussed,

194-200. Forces acting upon bullet on leaving

Velocity of rotation, 249.
Spherical, time
of,

and

velocity, table

gun, 193.

220-227.

Index
Projectiles [confinued]

435

Centre of form and of weight
explained, 233. Resultant of forces acting on,
233-

Resistance of the air, 200-228. Extent of, illustrated, 200, 201. Varies greatly with velocity
bullet, 203.

of

To

projectiles, 204, 205.

No

motion of rotation when per235,

Examples and cases discussed, 206219.

fect, 233, 234. Effect of gas cutting on,

Tables

of

time

and

velocity

of

236.

projectiles, 220-228.
of,

Deviation

discussed, 236-237,

Rifling of barrel, see Grooving.
Scientific theory, value of, 191-193.
"

Recoil in guns, 250-256. Cause and effect discussed, 250-252.

Stripping," 246,

Gauges, 252. Reducing severity of, 252. Unpleasant effects dependent on
velocity, 253.

Trajectory of bullet, 196, 198. Ordinates of, defined, 198.

and nitro powders, Weight of bullets, relation of, to energy, compared, 253. 229. Resistance encountered by a projectile, Wind, effect of, on drift of projectiles, on what dependent, 202. 245, 246.
black

From

THE PISTOL AND REVOLVER,
Accidents, in rapid-fire shooting, avoid-

257-355

Ammunition

[continued]

ance

of,

331.
pistols,

Ammunition, 276-293. For military revolvers and
265.

Requirements for good results, 277. Accuracy of various charges, 287. For British Army, caliber of, 288. Importance of using proper kind,
329. 330-

Central fire, various kinds discussed, 280-293. Special smokeless, 292-293. Accidental omission of powder from, 330. Reloading, 338-355.

Experience and
338, 339-

skill

necessary,

Primers, 339, 350, 351.
Shells, 339, 340, 350, 351. Bullets, 340-346, 352-354. 355-

Black powders, for cartridges, compared with smokeless powders, 276, 277.

Suitable tools, 350.

Cleaning arms Giving the best

after

use

of,

333.

Uniformity

results, 346, 347.

Powder

in, 350. charges, 351, 352.

Bullets, self-lubricating, 289, 290.

Smokeless powders, advantages

of,

Alloy for gallery charges, 292. Removal from barrel after misfire,

in cartridges, 261, 290-293.

Compared
Difference

with black powders,

331.

276, 277.

Fit in barrel, 344-346.

between

"

dense

Lubrication, 346. For high velocity or great penetration, 349, 350. Cartridges, invention of, 260.

"

bulk," 348. Dense," suggestions as to use
of,

and

"

348, 349.

Anderton, Thomas, 297, 318.

436
Arms, 263-276.
Military, discussed, 264-273.

Index
Gorman,
J. E., 298, 318.

Gould, C. A., Editor of Shooting and
Fishing, 301, 302.

Pocket, 274-276. Important suggestions, 319-320. Selection of, 319-323. Correct manner of holding, 320. Finish of, 321.

Hints for shooting, 334, 335. Hints to beginners, 319-338.
Ideal Manufacturing

Double

action-feature, 322, 323.

Cleaning and care of, 335-338. See Revolver and Pistol.
Barrel, fouling of, 276, 277, 289.

Company's handbook on moulding bullets,
reloading ammunition,
etc.,

341International revolver

Length
Bulging

of,
of,

322.
330.

match between France and United States,

305. 306.

of cleaning, 336, 337. Bell, Dr. Louis, 304.
Bennett, F. E., 302, 303, 318. Bennett, W. W., 302.

Method

Janfzer,

George

E., 304.

Johnston,
"

W. C,

318.

Black powder, see Ammunition (black powders). Breech-loading system, introduction of,
260, 261.

Leading

" the barrel, 330, 350.

Luckett, William H., 319.

Luger magazine
Magazine

pistol, 268.

"Buffalo Bill," see William F. Cody. Bullet moulds, 286.
Bullets, see

pistols,
of,

important

features

268, 269.

Ammunition

(bullets).
tests, 303, 304.

Compared

with

the revolver, 269.
in,

Manipulation, precautions

323, 324.

Carlin-Reynolds revolver
Cartridges,
see

Ammunition
see

(cart-

Mannlicher magazine pistol, 268. Matches, shooting, see under Shooting.

ridges).

Cleaning and care of arms,

under

Mauser magazine

pistol, 268.

Arms.
Cody, Colonel William F., 300. Colt magazine pistol, 268.
Colt revolvers, as military arms
cal.), 265, 321.

Arms. Mors magazine pistol, 268. Moulding bullets, 341-344.
Military arms, see under
(.38

National

Rifle

Association,
at

annual

New

service, 265, 266, 321.

meeting

Creedmoor

Frontier Model, 266, 267.
" Single

(1886), 301.

Action Army," 275.

Double action, 275, 332. Colt's invention of the revolver, 260.
Duelling with pistols, 260.
Flinching, 322. Fouling of barrel, see under Barrel.
" i''reak "

Paine-Bennett revolver match, 302, 303. Paine, Chevalier Ira Anson, 300, 301,
302. 303-

Paine

sights, 295.

Patridge, E. E., 318. Patridge sight, 295. Percussion cap, invention
Petty,

of,

260.

arms, 273.

Sergeant

W.

E., 298, 304, 319.

Pistol, evolution of, 259, 260.

Gas

cutting, 344, 354.

Gastinne-Renette single-shot pistol, 271,
272.

Distinguished from revolver, 263. Present use of, 263. See Arms.

Index
Pistol shooting, see Shooting.

437
& Wesson
arms
revolvers, as military
(.38 cal.), 265, 321.

Smith

Pocket-arms, 274-276. See under Arms. Position in pistol and revolver shooting, 296-298, 324-328.

Russian Model, 265, 266, 321.
Schofield Model, 267. Safety hammerless revolver,
27s. 332274,

Primers, see

Ammunition

(reloading).

Reloading ammunition, see
nition (reloading).

Ammu-

Smokeless powders,

see

Ammunition

(smokeless powders).

Remington

pistol, 270, 271, 320.
of, 259, 260.

Standard American Target, 310, 311.
Stevens pistols, 270, 271, 321.

Revolver, evolution

Invention

of,

260.

Diamond Model,

275, 276.

Modern,

briefly described, 264.

Service, requirements in brief, 264, 265.

Target arms, 269-273.
Principal requirements, 269.

Of U.

S.

Army and
pistol

And magazine
269.

Navy, 265. compared,

Single-shot pistols, 270-272. Revolver, accuracy of, 272, 273.

The
and

In target-shooting, 272, 273. Suggestions as to drawing
carrying, 332, 333. Valuable practice with, 333.

Target-practice,

revolvers generally used, 273. suggestions to as
sights, 328, 329.
of,

Targets, description

298, 299.

Of U.

S.

Army

for revolver practice,

Shooting, see Shooting. See also under Arms. Richmond, C. S., 298, 303, 318. Rim-fire cartridges, various makes discussed, 277-280.
Schaaf, Captain William P., 300.
Shells, see

308, 309.

Other kinds used, 312, 313. Used in England and France, 313.
Target-shooting, 298-319.

Importance of, 298. In United States, brief history
299-306.

of,

under Ammunition.
262.

With

pistol

and revolver as a

sport,

Shooting, as a sport and exercise, 261,
Skill

origin of, 301.

dependent mainly on training

Leading records in, 302. "Best on record" performances
with single-shot pistol, 304,
305-

and
Pistol

practice, 262.

or revolver and rifle compared, 262, 263. Position in, 296-298. Position and aiming, 324-328. Rapid-fire, suggestions as to practising, 331.

Usual conditions in, 306-307. Under U. S. Army regulations,
311-

.'Sog-

Gallery practice, 312.
.22 caliber pistols for beginners. 322.

Practice of cowboys

and ranchmen,

See also Targets.

333Useful hints for, 334, 335. In matches, 335.

Target

sights, see Sights.

See also Target Shooting. Sights considered, 294-296.

Taylor, C. H., 318. Travers, Captain John, 299, 300. Trigger-pull, 321, 322.

Of
of,

target arms, 329.

Testing

of,

296.

For
Smith

target

arms,

adjustment

United

States

Revolver Association,
of,

328, 329.

influence

on

pistol

and

& Wesson

pistols, 270, 321,

revolver shooting, 305, 306.

438
United States
Revolver

Index

[continuedl First international revolver match

Association

Waterhouse, G. W., 319. Webley-Fosbury automatic
267, 268.

revolver,

between France and United States, conducted by, 305,
306.

Webley Winans

revolvers, 267,

trophy
304-

revolver

matches,

Annual

Target adopted by, 310, 311. champion matches,
events,
rules,

Winans, Walter,
Wurfflein
271.

297, 304. single-shot pistol,

270,

and

regula-

tions, 313-319.

THE ARTIFICIAL
" Barker's

FLY, 357-426
380.

Delight," quoted Saltno salar, 389.
fly in,

as

to

Chalk streams of England, 365, 368,
Charr, see Salmo /ontinalis. Chatterer fly, number of parts of the,
402. Colorist-formalist school of fly-makers,

Bass-fishing, 420-426.

Casting the

420-424.

Tackle for, 424-426. Bass fly, theory of the, 412-415. Most effective combinations
412, 413, 414. Making of the, 415-420.

for,

Best hooks for 415. Kinds selected, 415-417. Abundant supply necessary, 418. Interchangeable, 418.

see Fly-makers. school of fly-makers, see Fly-makers. "Condensation" theory of fly-fishing,

Colorist

395. 396.

"

Dead"
Dry

fly-fishing, see Fly-fishing.

Sinking lure

for,

419.

Dragon-flies, as food for bass, 412.
" " fly-fishing, see Fly-fishing.

Using
Bass
Berners,

the,

420-426.

fly-fishing, tackle for, 424, 425. Dame, see " Boke of St.

Albans." Black bass, small-mouthed, capriciousness
of,

"

Exaggeration

"

theory of fly-fishing,

395. 396.

in

rising

to

flies,

412, 413.

Flies,

Fighting power of, 414, 415. Blacker, of Soho, London, as an early
"

For
For

"fancy," 365. " wet " (" live ") fly-fishing, 366,
367"

salmon fly-maker, 393. Boke of St. Albans," quoted as
bait for salmon, 389.

dry

" (" floating ")

fly-fishing,

to Flies

366, 368.

used

in British Isles,

Browne-Goode,

G.,

on feeding habits

tations

mostly imiof natural insects,

of salmon, 391.
Cast,
flip,

362.

How far
Spey
386, 422, 423. (switch), 386, 387, 408, 409,

useful in

American

waters,

363Standard patterns
366.

discussed, 363-

422, 423.

Underhand, 386, 422. Overhand, 422, 423. Wind, 385, 386, 422, 423. Importance of accuracy in, 423, 424,

Flip cast, the, see Cast. " Floating " fly-fishing, see Fly-fishing.
Fly-casting,
for trout,

directions

for,

384. 385-

Index
Fly-casting [continued'^

439
flies,


or

Natural

predominating colors

of,

For salmon, 408, 409, 410. For bass, 420-424.
Fly-fishing,

364. 365-

"dry"
dead

("floating,"

Overhand
Palmer

cast, see Cast.

"

"), 366, 367, 368, 385,

413. 424-

("live"),384, 385, 413. Fly-makers, schools of, 359-361.
Formalists, 359, 360, 361. Colorists, 359, 361,
Colorists-formalists, 359, 360, 361362.

"Wet"

374. Belle, trout fly, 378. Pennell, as a leading fly-maker, 359. Inventor of O'Shaughnessy hook,

fly,

Parmachene

Hooks
Pritchard,

398. discussed, 398-400.

Of America, the early, 362, 363. Fly-tiers, see Fly-makers. Francis, Francis, as a salmon fly- maker,
393Gaff, use of,

Harry, and the "switch" (Spey) cast, 386, 387.

Reel, see Tackle.

Rod,

see Tackle. Ronalds, on the shape of the

fly,

362.

on salmon, 411.
as to feeding
salar, 390,

Salmo fontinalis, 363. Salmon, methods of fishing pools
409.

for,

Hallock, Charles, quoted
habits of
391for trout

Salmo

Use of landing-net for, Use of gaff for, 411,
Salmon

411.

flies, 369, 380-382, Hooks, For salmon flies, 397-400. For bass flies, 415.

Capriciousness in feeding, 411, 412. fly, theory of the, 388-396. General principles concerning, 394396.

Itchen, English trout stream, 364, 368.

Jock

Scott, as a trout

fly,

378,

Making the, 396-403. Hooks for, discussed, 397-400. Anatomy of, 400-402.
Feathers
for,

As a salmon fly, 396. Number of parts of, 402.
Kelson, George M., on feeding habits of salmon, 391, 392. Attempt at renaissance of salmon
fly-tying, 394.

403.

Using the, 404-412. Importance of tackle, 404-407.
Selection
of, 407,

409.

Methods of casting, 408. Salmon fly-making, Kelson's attempted
Salmo
renaissance of, 394. salar, feeding habits of, 388-393,
see also

On " condensation " and " exaggeration," 396.

Salmon.
fly,

Silver Doctor, as a trout

378.

Landing-net, use

of,

on salmon, 411.

LibelullidcB, see Dragon-flies.

As a salmon fly, 400-402. Anatomy of, 400-402.
Spey
cast, see Cast. Stalking trout, 383. Stewart, as a leading fly-maker, 359. " Switch " (Spey) cast, see Cast.

Line, see Tackle. " Live " fly-fishing, see Fly-fishing.

Micropterus Dolomiei, small-mouthed black bass, 420.
" Nahanik," quoted as to feeding habits

Tackle, for trout-fishing, 383-384. For salmon-fishing, 404-407.

of salmon, 392,

For

bass-fishing, 422, 424-426,

440

Index
Trout
fly

Traherne, Major, collection of flies belonging to, 394. On " condensation " and " exaggeration," 396.

[condnued]
for, 369.


378, 379.

Hooks
Using

the, 378-388.

An
compared

ancient

art,

the Spey cast, 408. Trout, brown, of Europe,

On

Design and material of, 379. For " live " and for " dry " fly-fishJng. 379-380, 381, 382, 383.

with Salmo fontinalis, 363. Proper playing of, 387, 388. Trout fly, theory of the, 359-368.

Sizes

and kinds discussed,
of,

381, 382.

Casting

383, 384.

Making

the, 369-378.
for,

Tools

369-370.
for,

Underhand

cast, see Cast.

Materials

370-378, 379.

Hackle, 372, 374.
Bodies, 374, 375.

Warner, Charles Dudley, on the
ficial fly,

arti-

388.

Wings,

375, 376, 377, 378.

Process described, 372-374.

Wet fly-fishing, see Fly-fishing. Wind cast, see Cast.

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